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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(3), 245-250 ARTICLE September 2014 Comparative population densities of three species of doves (Columbidae) in disturbed landscapes in Northern Paraná State, Brazil 1,3 2 Priscila Montes Fontoura and Mário Luis Orsi Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina - UEL, CP 10011, CEP 86057-970, Londrina, PR, Brazil. Departamento de Biologia Animal e Vegetal, Universidade Estadual de Londrina - UEL, CP 10011, CEP 86057-970, Londrina, PR, Brazil. Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org Received on 11 September 2013. Accepted on 29 June 2014. ABSTRACT: Assessments of population density and contact number of individuals of the Eared Dove Zenaida auriculata were conducted in areas of the city of Londrina and were compared with those of two other species of the family Columbidae (Columbina talpacoti and C. picui). Data were collected from distance sampling in linear transects of 2,000 m. Analyses of density were calculated using the program DISTANCE. The results show that C. talpacoti and C. picui were recorded in all months in urban areas, and less frequently in rural and pasture areas. Zenaida auriculata was the most frequently recorded species in all areas, showing high rates of population density with seasonal variations; density peaks were observed during September and January in the urban area (coinciding with the arrival of warmer days in the region), while in rural areas, density peaks were also recorded during November/ December, March and April/May — periods in which planting of soybean and maize, and the soybean harvest, and wheat planting in the region, occurred, respectively. The density of Z. auriculata during these months showed a value that was 93 times greater in November/December and 75 times greater in April/May, compared to the density in the other months of the year. Although Z. auriculata was considered uncommon a few decades ago, we suggest that the removal of the original forest and the expansion of agriculture in the region have provided a large amount of seeds in the environment, which might favor the increased density of Z. auriculata in the region. The high rate of population density achieved by the Eared Dove suggests that the species has found a favorable environment in the region. This includes the ease of obtaining resources, suitable sites for nesting, reproductive success and possible adaptive factors, such as the opportunist movement in search of distant food sources. KEYWORDS: Columbina picui, Columbina talpacoti, distance sampling, urbanization, Zenaida auriculata. INTRODUCTION These three species have similar ecological characteristics, such as diet composed primarily of seeds Most Brazilian species of doves (Columbidae) inhabit (Baptista et al. 1997) and the type of habitat they occupy. However, large quantities of seeds available in the the countryside and beneﬁt from deforestation and the expansion of agricultural crops. This is true for the environment have favored the population growth of Z. Ruddy Ground Dove, Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, auriculata in regions of Argentina, Colombia, Uruguay, 1811) and the Picui Ground Dove, C. picui (Temminck, Bolivia and Brazil (Bucher & Ranvaud 2006). In the 1813) (Sick 1997). Columbina talpacoti is also adapted to Brazilian states of São Paulo and Paraná, this species is considered a serious pest of germinating soybeans habitats altered by man and is generally found in all places where land is cultivated, roads, ﬁelds, parks and backyards (Brannstrom 2003). (Carvalho 1957). Columbina picui inhabits natural open Columbina talpacoti, C. picui, and Z. auriculata are areas, and also occurs in rural areas and its distribution well adapted to anthropogenic environments and were might be expanding, due to the alteration of natural areas considered common all year round in studies performed in the city of Londrina (Paraná State) by Westcott et and the creation of pastures (Andrade 1997, Sick 1997, Blamires 2002). Another species that is favored by the al. (2002) and Lopes & Anjos (2006). Although it was expansion of crops is the Eared Dove, Zenaida auriculata uncommon for several decades, Z. auriculata is currently (Des Murs, 1847), which inhabits ﬁelds, cultured areas, considered as possibly the most abundant species in pasture, and urban areas, with a naturally wide distribution rural and urban areas of Londrina (Lopes & Anjos 2006). Agricultural areas, combined with the mosaic in Brazil (Sick 1997, Souza et al. 2007). Comparative population densities of three species of doves (Columbidae) in disturbed landscapes in Northern Paraná State, Brazil Priscila Montes Fontoura and Mário Luis Orsi formed in the fragmented landscape, provide a favorable as one of the largest producers of these grains in Brazil environment for Z. auriculata individuals, including (IBGE 2010). suitable sites for foraging, shelter and nesting. Zenaida Londrina has a mean annual temperature of 21ºC auriculata has found possible sites of refuge and nesting and mean rainfall of about 1,600 mm per year. December in the urban area of Londrina (Lopes 2006). is considered the rainiest month, with a mean rainfall Estimates of the number of individuals of Z. of 233 mm and August is the driest month with 52 auriculata in the Londrina region are important to mm (Soares-Silva & Barroso 1992). For this study, we determine its abundance in diﬀerent areas of the city. This selected three distinct areas (Figure 1) located within could indicate the types of landscape where the species is the municipality of Londrina. Area 1 is an urban area more frequent in the region. Therefore, we assessed the located in the southern part of the city (periphery), population density of this species in three distinct areas containing houses, empty lots, paved roads, aﬀorestation located in Londrina, and compared it with that of the and gardens; area 2 is characterized as a rural area formed two other sympatric dove species with similar habits: C. by plantations, the edge of secondary forest, and built- talpacoti and C. picui. Additionally, we tried to document up areas; and ﬁnally, area 3 is a pasture area with grasses, temporal changes in the number of contacts of these three regenerating forest, secondary forest edge, and built areas dove species. (Figure 1). Field procedures MATERIALS AND METHODS Censuses were conducted between August 2011 and Study area July 2012. We established a transect of 2,000 m at each sampling area and adopted the method of transect census The region of Londrina is located in the northern state of proposed by Bibby et al. (1992), in which the observer Paraná and currently is covered by only 7% of its original walks the transect with low and constant speed to record vegetation (Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica & INPE all visual and aural contacts with species. When a species 2009), consisting of several Atlantic Forest fragments was detected, its perpendicular distance to the transect relatively isolated from each other. The main causes of was estimated. Marks were established in these areas to deforestation in the region have been the commercial facilitate distance calculations. exploitation of wood and the implementation of Samplings started at sun-rise and each transect was agriculture (Santos-Filho 1980), particularly grain walked twice-monthly to obtain a replicate sample each production. The cultivation of maize, wheat, and soybean month. Each sampling area was censused 24 times over during the year contributes to the ranking of Paraná state the 12-months long study. FIGURE 1. Map of the city of Londrina with the location and satellite images of transects in the three study areas. A1 – urban area (23º20’51.44’’S and 51º10’01.63’’W; 23°20’41.10’S and 51°09’12.90’’W); A2 – rural area (23º25’40.25’’S and 51º14’52.49’’W; 23°25’20.15’’S and 51°13’56.31’’W); and A3 – pasture area (23°28’59.38’’S and 51°14’38.03’’W; 23°29’12.53’’S and 51°14’00.10’’W). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(3), 2014 Comparative population densities of three species of doves (Columbidae) in disturbed landscapes in Northern Paraná State, Brazil Priscila Montes Fontoura and Mário Luis Orsi Data Analysis contacts in all three areas (Figure 4). In the urban area (F =13.97; P < 0.001) and rural area (F = 13.87; 2.69 2.69 Distance samplings were analyzed with the software P < 0.001), signiﬁcant diﬀerences were observed in the DISTANCE version 6.0 (Thomas et al. 2009), based on number of contacts obtained throughout the year. In the detection function g(x) for obtaining density values these areas, the two Columbina species had a similar (D). The analyses used a detection model that allowed number of contacts, but Z. auriculata had a signiﬁcantly the extrapolation of the collected data for the region of higher number of contacts than the other two species study (Thomas et al. 2010). To ensure the validity of (Tukey’s pairwise comparisons, P < 0.001). All three these analyses, three premises were assumed, following species studied showed no signiﬁcant diﬀerences in the Buckland et al. (1993): 1) all individuals present along the number of contacts throughout the year in the pasture transects were detected; 2) detections were made before area (F =1.027; P=0.459). 2.69 evasive movements of individuals; and 3) the distances Columbina talpacoti and Z. auriculata showed were estimated accurately. The data were modeled by signiﬁcant diﬀerences in the number of contacts “key function half-normal” followed by the “cosine” throughout the whole study period in the diﬀerent areas adjustments. The model that best represented the data (F = 1.989; P = 0.03 and F = 13.25; P < 0.01, 2.69 2.69 analyzed was selected by the program from the minimum respectively). Columbina talpacoti had a signiﬁcantly higher value of AIC (Akaike’s Information Criterion). At least 5% number of contacts in the urban area (Tukey’s pairwise of the data was truncated to eliminate “outliers”, because comparisons, P < 0.001), while Zenaida auriculata had these provide little information for estimating densities signiﬁcantly fewer contacts in the pasture area (Tukey’s (Buckland et al. 1993). DISTANCE estimates used only pairwise comparisons, P < 0.001). Columbina picui had contacts from transects where at least 40 contacts with a a statistically similar number of contacts in all three areas given species were obtained in each transect (Burnham (F = 0.725; P = 0.785). 2.69 et al. 1980). A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (P < 0.05) was used to test for diﬀerences in the number of contacts obtained with each species among areas and months sampled. RESULTS Columbina talpacoti showed a density of 76.9 ind/km in the urban area during the 12 months of study (Coeﬃcient of variation, CV = 0.06); C. picui had a density of 28.0 ind/km (CV = 0.10); and Z. auriculata a density of 1,501 ind/km (CV = 0.03) for the same areas and period. Due to the minimum number of contacts established FIGURE 2. Density of Zenaida auriculata during the months of for the analysis in DISTANCE, it was not possible to August 2011 to July 2012 in the urban area of Londrina, Southern calculate the density for C. talpacoti and C. picui in rural Brazil. and pasture areas, because the total number of contacts in each area for these species was fewer than 40. For Z. auriculata, the density value was 25.6 ind/km in the pasture area (CV = 0.08) and 1,178 ind/km in the rural area (CV = 0.03). Monthly density estimates were only possible for Z. auriculata in the urban area (Table 1); the variation observed ranged from 626 ind/km in July to 2,645 ind/ km in January (Figure 2). In the rural area, we obtained the following data for Z. auriculata: density of 3,161 ind/km (CV = 0.04) for the months of November and December combined, 323 ind/km (CV = 0.12) for March, 2,564 ind/km (CV = 0.03) for the months of 2 FIGURE 3. Density of ind/km (D) and number of individuals (N) April and May combined, and 34 ind/km (CV = 0.11) of Zenaida auriculata in the rural area in Londrina, Southern Brazil for the other seven months (August, September, October, for November and December, March, April and May and the other January, February, June and July) combined (Figure 3). months combined. Coeﬃcient of variation (CV): Nov/Dec = 0.04; Zenaida auriculata had the highest number of March = 0.03; Apr/May = 0.03; other months = 0.11. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(3), 2014 Comparative population densities of three species of doves (Columbidae) in disturbed landscapes in Northern Paraná State, Brazil Priscila Montes Fontoura and Mário Luis Orsi FIGURE 4. Mean number of contacts obtained for each of the three species of Columbidae in the urban area (A1), rural area (A2) and pasture area (A3) in Londrina, Southern Brazil, in the period of August 2011 to July 2012. urban area (Figure 2) can be related to the appearance of Months N CV warmer temperatures in the region and as a result of their (ind/km ) reproductive success. August 803 321 0.07 During the sampling, the collection of material September 2634 1053 0.07 for nesting by individuals of Z. auriculata was observed October 1437 575 0.1 throughout the whole year, but more intensely in November 840 336 0.09 November. This observation suggests an increased reproductive activity of the species in this season, which December 1415 566 0.05 coincides with the increased density rate of the species in January 2645 1058 0.06 January, a month in which many immature individuals February 2375 950 0.05 were observed. According to Murton et al. (1974), Z. March 1660 664 0.06 auriculata reproduces between October and April, which April 1842 737 0.06 coincides with the rainy season and an abundance of seeds in Córdoba, Argentina. However, Bucher & Orueta May 867 347 0.08 (1977) reported active nests for the species during all June 864 346 0.1 months of the year in the same region. In southeastern July 626 251 0.09 Brazil, breeding peaks were observed in February to TABLE 1. Density (D), number of individuals (N) and coeﬃcient May, and August to November, and the breeding season of variation (CV) of Zenaida auriculata during the months of August of Z. auriculata might be inﬂuenced by the availability 2011 to July 2012 in the urban area in Londrina, Southern Brazil. of grains cultivated in the environment (Menezes et al. 1998, Ranvaud et al. 2001). In Córdoba, Argentina, the DISCUSSION availability of food, especially grain sorghum, appears to be the main factor that controls the reproduction of Z. Although they share some similarities, Z. auriculata auriculata in the region (Bucher & Orueta 1977). excelled compared to the other two Columbina species The three dove species sampled had similar numbers sampled, due to its high population density recorded in of contacts over the sampling period in the pasture area. all months of the year in the urban area and for a few This area is characterized by an open area dominated by months in the rural area. The population peaks of the exotic grasses (e.g., Brachiaria sp. and Panicum maximum), species in the rural area can be characterized by their the presence of some trees in the landscape, and isolated opportunistic displacement during a period of large seed fragments in the surroundings. The pasture area is availability in the region. probably the most similar area to the natural environment The density of Z. auriculata was relatively high in selected by these species compared to the other areas all months in the urban area. The species had a high studied. Nonetheless, the number of contacts of the number of contacts even in months with a lower density. three species was higher in the urban area. Therefore, the The low population density of Z. auriculata occurred habitat selected by these species is highly inﬂuenced by in the same period as winter in the region (from June the presence of anthropogenic environments (Fontoura to August), characterized by low temperatures and low & Orsi 2013). precipitation (Bianchini et al. 2006). The density peaks Columbina picui was the species most commonly (months of September and January) of this species in the found in soybean ﬁelds in the region of Entre Rios in Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(3), 2014 Comparative population densities of three species of doves (Columbidae) in disturbed landscapes in Northern Paraná State, Brazil Priscila Montes Fontoura and Mário Luis Orsi Argentina, with a 40% frequency of occurrence (Goijman rural area coinciding with the planting of soybean, wheat & Zaccagnini 2008). A diﬀerent pattern was observed and maize, and the harvest of soybean, indicate that the in this study, in which few C. picui and C. talpacoti species has found a favorable environment in the region. individuals were recorded in rural areas. This agrees with This includes the ease of obtaining resources, suitable sites data of Cintra et al. (1990), where an analysis of the for nesting, high reproductive success, possible adaptive composition of the diet of C. talpacoti found only 8.2% factors, and its opportunistic displacement in search of of cultivated grain, while 74% were seeds of other species. distant food sources. This suggests that this species is possibly not related to The replacement of forests by agricultural land and cultivated ﬁelds. the consequent abundance of grain in the environment A considerable increase in the density of Z. auriculata might contribute to the increased density of Z. auriculata was observed in the rural area during the period of the in the region. We showed that the Eared Dove is the soybean harvest (March), which was about 10-fold higher species most favored by deforestation and the expansion than the density in other months of the year. However, of agriculture in the region studied, although there is a this increase does not compare to the population peaks lack of information that quantitatively compares all bird of Z. auriculata observed for the months of November/ species in the Londrina region. Restriction measures on the December (approximately 93-fold higher than in other food sources, to minimize the loss of grain in agricultural months, coinciding with the planting of soybean and practices and during grain transport, the recovery of the maize) and April/May (75-fold higher than in other forests and consequently the reestablishment of those months, during the planting of wheat). In the other elements of biodiversity that were part of the original periods of the year, we found the permanent residence landscape in the region, might result in interactions of a few individuals of Z. auriculata in the rural area. between competition and predation involving Z. However, during the periods where cultivated seeds were auriculata. These could represent the most promising available in the region, it was possible to observe the arrival strategies to assist in controlling the population of the of many individuals in the early morning. This suggests species. that individuals of the Eared Dove arrived in rural areas in search of grain wasted by agricultural practices and that they did not sleep in the area. Individuals of Z. auriculata ACKNOWLEDGMENTS also visit crop ﬁelds during diﬀerent periods over the year in southeastern Brazil and widely explore diﬀerent We thank Luiz dos Anjos for advice and several food sources according to the seasonal availability of contributions during this research. Edson Lopes helped resources (Ranvaud et al.2001). Nomadism in search of to improve a version of the manuscript. We are grateful seeds was also recorded for this species in the Chaco of to Leonardo, Lídia and the technicians of the Museum of Zoology at UEL Aparecido and Edson for contributing both Argentina and Paraguay (Murton et al. 1974), and in Córdoba, Argentina (Bucher & Ranvaud 2006). In to the sampling. We thank local families Mrs. Luiza, Sir northeastern Brazil, periodic migrations of Z. auriculata Otacílio, Mrs. Maria Helena, Sir Guilon and the graduate in search of food were recorded, in which the species program in Biology at UEL for academic and ﬁnancial moved great distances, following the rains that favor the support. fruiting seed of Croton sp. (Antas 1987). The population explosion of Z. auriculata generates REFERENCES some concerns because it is unknown whether the maintenance of its current population density can Andrade, M. A. 1997. Aves silvestres – Minas Gerais. Belo Horizonte: threaten other species and even the local biodiversity as a Conselho internacional para a conservação das aves. whole. Broad control programs using toxic baits and other Antas, P. T. Z. 1987. A nidiﬁcação da avoante, Zenaida auriculata, no methods were not successful in Argentina (Bucher 1974, Nordeste do Brasil, relacionada com o substrato fornecido pela vegetação. 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Ornithology Research – Springer Journals
Published: Sep 1, 2014
Keywords: Columbina picui; Columbina talpacoti; distance sampling; urbanization; Zenaida auriculata
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