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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(1): 1–9. ARTICLE March 2019 Breeding biology of the Helmeted Manakin Antilophia galeata in an ecotone between the Atlantic Forest and the Cerrado 1 2,3 Bráulio de Freitas Marçal & Leonardo Esteves Lopes Pós-graduação em Manejo e Conservação de Ecossistemas Naturais e Agrários, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Campus Florestal, Florestal, MG, Brazil. Laboratório de Biologia Animal, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Campus Florestal, Florestal, MG, Brazil. Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org Received on 22 August 2018. Accepted on 26 March 2019. ABSTRACT: Manakins (Pipridae) are well-known by their promiscuous mating system. Nonetheless, scarce evidence suggests that the Helmeted Manakin Antilophia galeata, the only dichromatic manakin widely distributed in the South American Cerrado, is monogamic. We studied the breeding biology of the Helmeted Manakin in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. We found 17 nests, which are built in the forest undergrowth (usually below 3 m height). Nests are a cup attached by its top lip usually in the angle of a forked branch. Th e nest attachment zone is made mostly of spider silk. Th e structural zone is constructed with dry broad leaves, leaf petioles and horsehair fungus, which were bind together by a considerable amount of spider silk. The outer (decorative) zone is made with some hanging dry broad leaves, frequently forming a tail. Clutch size is always two (n = 12), and eggs are long oval, with a ground color in diff erent shades of beige, marked with irregular spot, blotches and, sometimes, streaks ranging from light to dark brown. Mean eggs measurements were 23.9 × 16.3 mm (n = 14), weighting 3.3 g (n = 10). Eggs are laid once each day and hatching is synchronous. Females are the sole responsible for nest building (which usually took 10 days), incubation (18.5 days), and nestling care (18.3 days). Th e simple percentage of successful nests (n = 11) was 27% and predation was the main cause of nest failure. Th e breeding season extends from the second half of August to the fi rst half of January. Renesting after loss of a fi rst clutch is a common strategy and we recorded up to three nesting attempts for a single female. We present evidence that the Helmeted Manakin is promiscuous, as usual for a dichromatic manakin. KEY-WORDS: Cerrado, Neotropics, nest, Pipridae, reproduction. INTRODUCTION for which less than a dozen nests have been reported in the literature, most of them superfi cially described There are huge knowledge gaps about the breeding biology and none properly monitored. Consequently, basic life of birds, especially of those species living in tropical history parameters for the species, such as incubation forests (Heming et al. 2013, Xiao et al. 2017). It has been and nestling periods, or even sex roles in parental care, recently demonstrated that most Neotropical bird species are unknown (Marini 1992, Marini et al. 1997, Snow have their breeding biology poorly-known (42.9%) or 2004). Th e range of the Helmeted Manakin is mostly only partly-known (37.9%), what represents a major restricted to the Cerrado, one of the largest and most impediment to further development of life history theory biodiverse biogeographic provinces in the Neotropics, (Xiao et al. 2017). In addition to the lack of information mostly covered by savannas (Silva & Bates 2002), a kind for some species, the scarce information derived from of habitat not suitable for manakins, which are, as a rule, isolated and superfi cial observations are frequently biased forest species (Kirwan & Green 2011). The Helmeted or even wrong. This is worrying, because the naturalists Manakin is fairly common in the gallery forests and are dying off (Noss 1996), especially those interested in patches of semideciduous forests in the Cerrado (Marini descriptive natural history, probably because this kind of & Cavalcanti 1996, Kirwan & Green 2011). study is often published in low-impact journals (Beehler Th e genus Antilophia a includes two species, the 2010, Tewksbury y et al. 2014). Helmeted Manakin and the recently described Araripe A good example of a poorly known tropical forest Manakin A. bokermanni (Kirwan & Green 2011). The bird is the Helmeted Manakin Antilophia galeata, a species genus is sister to Chiroxiphia a (Ohlson et al. 2013), maybe Breeding biology of the Antilophia galeata Marçal & Lopes October to March and a well-marked dry season from congeneric with it (Silva et al. 2018), and there are several April to September (Lopes & Marçal 2016). reports of hybridization between them (Rezende et al. 2013, Alves et al. 2016). The Helmeted Manakin is a highly dimorphic species, with males predominantly black Capturing, banding, and sexing with a distinctive red crest, nape, and mantle; females, as Birds were mist-netted (nets measuring 12 × 3 m, netting well as young males, are mostly olive green (Ridgely & effort of ~250.000 h.m ) from March to September 2016 Tudor 2009). Antilophia a is considered the only genus of and received a numbered metallic band from the Brazilian dichromatic manakins with a non-promiscuous mating system (Marini 1992, Marini & Cavalcanti 1992, Kirwan National Center for Bird Conservation and Research & Green 2011). This is a noteworthy and odd behavior (CEMAVE) and a unique combination of three color bands. Given that young males and females are hardly for a genus included in an essentially promiscuous told apart by plumage, we collected a blood sample from family in which males exhibit extraordinary courtship greenish birds after puncturing the brachial vein and send displays in arenas (Snow 2004, Kirwan & Green 2011). Nevertheless, our field observations revealed that the it to a private laboratory for molecular sexing (http:// purported monogamy of the species does not hold true, www.unigen.com.br). being a result of scarce and hard to interpret information Nest searching and monitoring about the breeding biology of the species. Here we describe in detail the breeding biology of the Helmeted Manakin, also presenting a compilation of previous We followed banded birds with the aid of 8 × 42 binoculars studies and unpublished data obtained from citizen from March to December 2016, while studying the territorial (data not show) and breeding behavior of the science networks. With this study we aim to contribute species. Opportunistic observations by colleagues were to the understanding of the evolution of life history traits obtained from September to December 2017. During within the Pipridae. fieldwork, we searched for evidence of breedin g activity, such as the transportation of nesting material or food METHODS for nestlings that could reveal nest location (Martin & Geupel 1993). Once found, we briefl y monitored nests at two days interval, taking notes on its content (e.g., Study area number of eggs and/or nestlings, stage of development). We conducted this study in the Universidade Federal We spent at least 20 h observing nest construction (n = 7 nests) and 10 h observing nestling care (n = 4). de Viçosa - Campus Florestal, municipality of Florestal, We classifi ed the nest type following the proposal state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Florestal lies in of Simon & Pacheco (2005) and described it after the the transition zone between two important Neotropical biogeographic provinces, the Atlantic Forest and the proposal of Hansell (2000) for standardizing nest Cerrado (IBGE 2004), both considered global hotspots description, taking the following measurements (mm) with a caliper: nest depth, nest diameter, cup depth, of biodiversity (Myers et al. 2000). cup diameter, and support diameter; the height of the We conducted most of the fi eldwork in a ~180 ha o o nest in relation to the ground (cm) was measured with forest fragment (centered at 19 52'02''S; 44 25'51''W, 800 m a.s.l.) in the very margins of a ~13 ha artificial pond a measuring tape. We measured (mm) and weighed (g) (“Represa do Pivô”). Th ere is not perennial creek inside the eggs, respectively, with a caliper and a spring scale, and described their shape after Birkhead (2016). Once the forest fragments. The forest is semideciduous and found, we examined the eggs in the fi eld to determine secondary, in an intermediate stage of ecological succession their approximate incubation stage using the fl ashlight of (Vieira 2016), with an age of ~40 years according to old employees of the university. Mean canopy height is ~10–12 a smartphone as a candler (Lokemoen & Koford 1996). m height, with some trees reaching 15 m or more. We also Literature and citizen science review included in this paper data from opportunistic observations obtained by colleagues in a nearby ~65 ha forest fragment We complemented our fi eld observations with data with similar age and structure (“Mata dos Equídeos”, o o centered at 19 53'22''S; 44 24'34''W, 800 m a.s.l.). gathered from the literature and from two of the Local climate is subtropical with a mild dry winter most important citizen science projects that deal with Neotropical birds, the Internet Bird Collection (http:// and a wet hot summer (Cwa a according to the Köppen www.hbw.com/ibc) and the Wikiaves (http://www. classification system), with a mean annual tem perature wikiaves.com). All online searches were conducted in of 19.9 C (Lopes & Marçal 2016). Mean annual precipitation is 1447 mm, with a wet season from April 2018. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(1): 2019 Breeding biology of the Antilophia galeata Marçal & Lopes RESULTS were at least 25 m away from water. The six nests found during the 2017 breeding season were at least 150 m from the nearby water body, which was isolated from the We captured and banded 38 birds (nine females, 24 definitive plumaged males and five greenish birds that forest fragment by a stretch of artificial pasture . could not be sexed). We found 17 nests (six of them Females are the sole responsible for nest construction opportunistically found during the 2017 breeding (Fig. 1), an activity that usually took nine days, ranging from eight to ten days (n = 8). We observed nest building season), 12 of which were monitored. Th ese nests belonged to at least seven distinct females. Eight of the 12 nests monitored were found during its construction and four after the first egg was laid. Five nests were found already built, but they were probably already inactive, because they were abandoned, depredated, or their nestlings fled ged before we found them. We identified these nests as belonging to the Helmeted Manakin, which build characteristic nests, based on their similar shape, measurements, and construction material (see below). During the 2016 breeding season, we found the first nest under construction on 27 September, and the last active nest was observed on 23 December, when its single nestling successfully fl edged. During the 2017 breeding season, when observations were opportunistic, we found the first active nest with two e ggs on 25 August, and the last active nest was observed on 03 November, when it contained two dead nestlings being eaten by ants. Given the low number of nests found, we can only estimate the length of the breeding season by indirect evidence. A juvenile observed being reared by its mother out of the nest on 06 October 2016 (the entire nesting cycle, from the onset of its construction to fled ging, is ~45–50 days) indicates that the breeding season starts as early as mid-August. A copulation observed on 28 November indicates that the breeding season extends through mid- January. Therefore, the breeding season of the Helmeted Manakin in the study area extends for about fi ve months, from the second half of August to the first half of January, Figure 1. Nest of the Helmeted Manakin Antilophia galeata coinciding with the end of the dry season and the fi rst on the first day of construction, evidencin g the large amount half of the wet season. of spider silk used to attach the nest to the support plant All nests found were in the undergrowth of the ( ( (A A A). Note that the first dry broad leaves have already been forest fragments and were attached to branches of trees deposited and that some green broad leaves, still attached to or shrubs, ranging from 1.15–5.64 m (n = 17) above the the branch, were being incorporated into the nest. Another nest ground (Table 1). Only one nest was close to a water body of the Helmeted Manakin, almost completely built (B). Photo (15 m from the margin of the pond), whilst all other nests author: B.F. Marçal. Table 1. Measurements of some nests of the Helmeted Manakin Antilophia galeata a found in the municipality of Florestal, Minas Gerais, Brazil. All measurements follow Hansell (2000). Variable Mean Standard deviation Minimum Maximum n Height above ground (m) 2.3 1.18 1.15 5.64 15 Support diameter (mm) 5.5 1.6 3.5 7.8 7 Nest depth (mm) 41.5 9.1 27.7 55.0 9 Cup depth (mm) 28.5 4.8 19.7 35.3 9 Nest diameter (mm) 66.1 7.7 53.4 75.2 9 Cup diameter (mm) 49.8 4.7 44.1 57.9 9 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(1): 2019 Breeding biology of the Antilophia galeata Marçal & Lopes throughout the day, but this activity was seldom recorded are bind together by a considerable amount of spider during the first hours after dawn, when birds spent most silk (scored as two in a three-point scale, as suggested of the time foraging. by Hansell 2000). Sometimes, green broad leaves, still The nest, accordin g to the standard classification attached to the branch, are also incorporated into the of Simon & Pacheco (2005), is a low cup/fork. The nest structural zone (Fig. 1). The inner layer of the structural is best described as a cup attached by its top lip in the zone, i.e., that which is in contact with the eggs, is built angle of a forked branch (Fig. 2), according to the Hansell with thin leaf petioles and unidentified vegetable fibers. (2000) standard system. Two nests were built between two The decorative (outer) zone is made of some few hangin g parallel branches that were functionally equivalent to a dry broad leaves, frequently forming a tail (Fig. 2). forked branch (Fig. 1). Nest measurements are presented Spider silk was collected within a radius of ~100 in Table 1. Plants used as support were: Calyptranthes s sp. m from the construction site, as suggested by the several (Myrtaceae, n = 3), Syzygium sp. (Myrtaceae, n = 2), observations of females collecting material for nest Amaioua sp. (Rubiaceae, n = 2), and Rubiaceae sp. (n = construction. At each visit in which she brings material, 4). It was not possible to identify the support plant of the the female sits in the unfinished nest and, with the wings other six nests. held close to the body, she makes circular movements Nests (Figs. 2 & 3) show three well-delimited in the nest, shaping it with her legs while compressing zones: attachment, structural, and decorative. The nest the nest material with her breast and flanks. The female was attached to the fork mostly with spider silk. Th e then perches on the edge of the nest and arranges the structural zone is constructed with dry broad leaves, leaves and petioles with its beak, sits again in the nest leaf petioles, and horsehair fungus (Marasmius s), which and compresses and shapes the newly added material Figure 2. Female Helmeted Manakin Antilophia galeata Figure 3. Th e nest of the Helmeted Manakin Antilophia galeata incubating its eggs ( ( (A A A). Note that the crest, nape and back of with an egg and a freshly hatched nestling. Nests of this species this bird is slightly washed with red, what suggests that it is an are a cup attached by its top lip in the angle of a forked branch old female, as previously reported for the species (Marini 1989) ( ( (A A A). Nest constructed between two nearby parallel branches, and members of Chiroxiphia (Kirwan & Green 2011). Side evidencing the presence of leaf petioles and some unidentified view of another nest, showing a long tail made of dry leaves, vegetable fibers in the inner layer of the structural zone (B). leaf petioles, and horsehair fungus hanging on its outer walls Photo author: D.F. Ferreira ( ( (A A A) & B.F. Marçal (B). and lower part (B). Photo author: B.F. Marçal. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(1): 2019 Breeding biology of the Antilophia galeata Marçal & Lopes against the walls of the nest. During this process some days of September 2016, with eggs hatching on 23 dry broad leaves and horsehair fungus fall apart from the October. We waited four days after hatching to band nest, hanging from the lower part of the nest. Th ese leaves the nestlings, but, unexpectedly, the female held them are not removed, but fixed loosely with additional s pider by the tarsus with its beak and removed them from the silk, thus forming the nest tail. nest, one by one, carrying them to a distant place, where Clutch size was always two eggs (n = 12), which they were abandoned and died (video at http://hbw.com/ are long oval, with ground color in different shades o f ibc/1384202). After this event we decided not to handle beige, and marked with a highly variable patterning of the nestlings anymore. Two days after the occurrence, the spots, blotches and, frequently, streaks ranging from female began issuing short calls with one or two notes light to dark brown (Figs. 3 & 4). Egg patterning can be (http://www.wikiaves.com/2574665 and http://www. concentrated around the larger pole or homogeneously wikiaves.com/2574636), which caused the appearance of distributed throughout the egg surface. Eggs measured four males, probably seeking a mate, but no copulation 23.9 ± 0.6 mm (23.2–25.4 mm, n = 14) × 16.3 ± 0.3 mm was observed. We found on 09 November the second nest (15.8–16.9 mm, n = 14) and weighted 3.3 ± 0.2 g (3.0– of the same female, already with two eggs, only 13 days 3.6 g, n = 10). The first egg is laid on the first or second after the previous clutch become inactive. This nest was day after nest building is complete, with the second egg depredated 16 days after we found it, on 25 November. laid on the following day (n = 9). Incubation is performed This female was only sighted again on 28 November, by the female alone, during a mean incubation period again accompanied by four males, while issuing the of 18.5 days (18–19, n = 7). The onset of incubation is same short calls described earlier. On the same day this delayed until all eggs are laid, resulting in synchronous female copulated with a defi nitive plumaged male that hatching. was engaged in the chasing displays discussed below, what Only the female brood and feed the nestlings. Th e indicates a third attempt of reproduction, even thought nest is constantly kept clean, with females ingesting the we did not find this third nest. This was the only co pula regurgitated seeds and fecal sacs (video at http://hbw. we observed, com/ibc/1365115), which are usually regurgitated far Of the 11 nests monitored (excluding the one away from the nest. Nestlings older than 10 days usually lost due to observer interference), one was abandoned regurgitate seeds straight on the ground, what results in during construction stage, fi ve were depredated during the accumulation of a large amount of seeds just below incubation, two were depredated with nestlings, and only the nest (Fig. 5). Juvenile fled ge after 18.3 ± 1.15 days three were successful (27% apparent success). One of the (17–19, n = 3), but the female still feed them out of the successful nests produced two juveniles, while the other nest for at least 10 days. two nests produced only one juvenile, because one egg in Renesting after loss of a fi rst clutch is common, each disappeared during incubation stage. Th ree of the and at least three breeding attempts in a single breeding five nests that we found already built probably harbored season have been recorded, as indicated by indirect nestlings in an advanced stage of development, as attested evidence. One of the banded females monitored was by the large number of regurgitated seeds below them. seen carrying material to construct its nest at the last Our bibliographic review revealed 10 nests of the species previously reported in the literature, two of them Figure 5. Regurgitated seeds accumulated under a nest of the Figure 4. Two eggs of the Helmeted Manakin Antilophia galeata Helmeted Manakin Antilophia galeata. Some of the more than belonging to the same clutch. Note the marked chromatic 100 seeds found were highlighted by a white circle. Photo differences between them. Photo author: L.J. Ferreira. author: B.F. Marçal. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(1): 2019 Breeding biology of the Antilophia galeata Marçal & Lopes consisting only of a color photograph, unaccompanied by along its wide geographical distribution, what is probably any additional information. We also found 11 breeding related to the relative similarity of climate throughout the records of the species in the citizen science networks Cerrado, especially in relation to the timing of the wet consulted (Table 2). season (Nimer 1989, Alvares et al. 2013). The breeding season of members of Antilophia a and Chiroxiphia a begin at the end of the dry season and extends DISCUSSION through the fi rst half of the wet season, irrespective of the region and habitat occupied. The breeding season The breeding season of the Helmeted Manakin in the of the Blue Manakin Chiroxiphia caudata a in a primary study area extends from mid-August to mid-January, submontane rain forest in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest coinciding with the period observed or inferred from lasted about five months, extending from October to indirect evidences throughout its range (Table 2). Th is February (Zima a et al. 2017). Similarly, the breeding suggests that the time of breeding in the species varies little season of the Long-tailed Manakin Chiroxiphia linearis s in Table 2. A compilation of breeding records of the Helmeted Manakin Antilophia galeata a obtained from the literature* or from the following citizen science websites Wikiaves (WA) and Internet Bird Collection (IBC). Except when indicated, all records are from Brazil. Date Place of record Type of record Source - Brasília, Distrito Federal Abandoned nest. Sick (1958) - Minas Gerais Nest with eggs. Snow (2004) - “central Brazil” Nest with two eggs. Buzzetti & Silva (2005) 04 Sep Vargem Grande do Sul, São Paulo Nest with incubating female. WA 1073140 07 Sep Uberlândia, Minas Gerais Nest with two eggs. Marini et al. (1997) 26 Sep Serranía de Huanchaca, Santa Cruz, Bolivia Female with egg in oviduct. Bates et al. (1992) 26 Sep Uberlândia, Minas Gerais Nest with two nestlings. Marini et al. (1997) Oct São Paulo Nest with two eggs. von Ihering (1900) Oct Brasília, Distrito Federal Female with egg in oviduct. Marini (1992) Oct Brasília, Distrito Federal Nest with two eggs. Marini (1992) 13 Oct Brasília, Distrito Federal Nest with two eggs. Marini (1992) 09 Oct Brasília, Distrito Federal Nest with two nestlings. Marini (1992) 10 Oct Brasília, Distrito Federal Nest with two eggs. WA 1224919 11 Oct Florestal, Minas Gerais Nest with two eggs. WA 2887907 13 Oct Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso Nest with two eggs. Allen et al. (1893)** Nov Brasília, Distrito Federal Female with egg in oviduct. Marini (1992) 02 Nov Carmópolis de Minas, Minas Gerais Female carrying nest material. WA 2767569 12 Nov Uberlândia, Minas Gerais Nest with two eggs. Marini et al. (1997) 14 Nov Brotas, São Paulo Nest with incubating female. WA 508697 19 Nov Paracatu, Minas Gerais Nest with incubating female. WA 1524895 03 Dec Brasília, Distrito Federal Nest with incubating female. WA 513118 08 Dec Pará de Minas, Minas Gerais Nest with two fl edglings. WA 646945 10 Dec São Roque de Minas, Minas Gerais Nest with incubating female. WA 2428180 12 Dec Batatais, São Paulo Nest with two eggs. von Ihering (1902)*** 21 Dec Chapada Diamantina, Bahia Nest with one nestling. IBC 1196099 25 Dec Alto Paraíso de Goiás, Goiás Nest with incubating female. WA 1588195 *Marini (1992) reports that females collected and/or mist-netted in Brasília by him exhibited brood patch from September to December; males with enlarged testes were collected from July to December. ** The eggs of this clutch are deposited at the American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA (AMNH 14439, M. Â.M., pers. comm.). *** This nest is deposited at Museu de Zoolo gia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (MZUSP 900) and one of the eggs is probably an egg deposited at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany (ZMB 1433, M.Â.M., pers. comm.). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 27(1): 2019 Breeding biology of the Antilophia galeata Marçal & Lopes a riparian woodland within a disturbed tropical dry forest Data summarized here indicates that the Helmeted in Costa Rica also lasted for about five months, extendin g Manakin is not a monogamic species as previously from March to July (Foster 1976). Therefore, the length suggested (Marini 1992, Marini & Cavalcanti 1992, of the breeding season is remarkably similar for the Kirwan & Green 2011), but a promiscuous one, with Helmeted Manakin and the two species of Chiroxiphia males potentially copulating with any receptive female, that occupy quite distinct habitats. but without providing any paternal care. Doubts about the true mating system of the Helmeted Manakin were Nest placement and its morphology, as well as life history parameters, are quite uniform between members expressed by Marini & Cavalcanti (1992), who stated that of Antilophia and Chiroxiphia. The Helmeted Manakin the species was “possibly monogamous”, but that “several possible problems with this interpretation” existed. nests in the undergrowth, usually below 3 m, using both shrub and trees as support, even though some nests The hypothesis of promiscuity presented here can only be unequivocally confi rmed with an investigation can be built as high as 10 m (Marini 1992). Linhares of genetic paternity of nestling associated with closer et alll. (2010) found similar result for the 28 nests of the Araripe Manakin A. bokermanni, with 93% of them observations of copulations in the field. The study of DuVal & Kempenaers (2008), for example, demonstrated that in constructed below 2 m. The Blue Manakin and the Long - the Long-tailed Manakin nestlings were overwhelmingly tailed Manakin also construct their nests in the forest sired by alpha males. undergrowth, usually below 3 m, although they also The fact that most of the nests found in our stud y area show substantial variation in nesting height (Foster 1976, Zima a et al. 2017). Nests of all species in these two genera were far from water shows that breeding in the Helmeted Manakin is not restricted to the riparian forests of the are a cup attached by its top lip in the angle of a forked Cerrado, and that it can reproduce in areas with no water branch, often including a tail of loose dry broad leaves body at all. Several studies found the species inhabiting (Kirwan & Green 2011). Other similarities in breeding small forest fragments in degraded environments, revealing parameters between Antilophia a and Chiroxiphia a are: the plasticity and versatility of the species in relation to its clutch size of two eggs, incubation performed exclusively habitat use (Andrade & Marini 2002, Ferreira & Cavalcanti by females during a period of ~18 days, nests kept clean, 2005, Manica a et al. 2010). Th e data summarized here, and nestlings brooded and feed exclusively by females for although obtained during a short-term study, provided a period of ~16 days (Foster 1976, Coelho & Silva 1998, evidence of a promiscuous breeding system and a high Silva 2004, Linhares et al. 2010, Zima et al. 2017). capacity of adaptation to diff erent habitats by the Helmeted Low reproductive success such as that recorded for Manakin, which is threatened by climate changes (Anciães the Helmeted Manakin (27%) was also recorded for other & Peterson 2006, Marini et al. 2009). passerine birds in our study area. For example, the simple percentage of successful nests for the syntopic Pale-bellied Tyrant-manakin Neopelma pallescens (Pipridae) was as ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS low as 15.4% (n = 13; Ferreira & Lopes 2018). Slightly higher percentage of successful nests was recorded for the B.M.F. received a scholarship from CAPES and L.E.L. forest edge Gray-headed Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum received a research fellowship from CNPq (305401/2014- poliocephalum (Rhynchocyclidae) (30.8%, n = 13; Ferreira 9). Banding and collecting permits were provided, et alll. 2019) and for the open area Lined Seedeater respectively, by CEMAVE (4090/2) and ICMBio Sporophila lineola (Thrau pidae) (36.5%, n = 74; Ferreira (23439-2). Th is study complies with all ethical standards & Lopes 2017). for research (CEUA-UFV 50/2016). CAF-UFV allowed Members of Antilophia and Chiroxiphia, although us to conduct this study in the area under their care. closely related, present quite distinct courtship displays. Gustavo Martins, Manoella Morais, Luana Ferreira, Males of Chiroxiphia a usually congregate in fixed arenas and Dalila Ferreira helped during fi eldwork. Elias Roma where they exhibit complex courtship displays to impress helped with botanical identification. Mi guel Ângelo females (Kirwan & Green 2011). Th e Helmeted Manakin Marini, Guilherme Freitas and Lílian Costa presented has no fixed territory durin g the breeding season, but useful comments on an earlier version of this paper. rather, range widely along its home range, seeking sexually receptive females. Multiple males them congregate near a receptive female and exhibit an unspectacular chasing REFERENCES courtship display (Marçal 2017). These chasin g displays have already been described by previous authors for the Allen J.A., Smith H.H. & Smith W.C. 1893. On a collection of birds Helmeted Manakin (Sick 1967, 1997, Marini & Cavalcanti from Chapada, Matto Grosso, Brazil, made by Mr. H.H. Smith: 1992) and the Araripe Manakin (Silva & Rêgo 2004), but part 3, Pipridae to Rheidae. 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Ornithology Research – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 1, 2019
Keywords: Cerrado; Neotropics; nest; Pipridae; reproduction
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