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Bird records in the northwestern and central portions of the Amazon Basin highlight the needs for inventories and long-term monitoring in the region

Bird records in the northwestern and central portions of the Amazon Basin highlight the needs for... Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 206–220. ARTICLE September 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central portions of the Amazon Basin highlight the needs for inventories and long-term monitoring in the region 1,4 2 3 1 Sérgio Henrique Borges , Andrew Whittaker , Ricardo Afonso Almeida , Cintia Cornélius , 3 3 Marcelo Augusto dos Santos-Jr. & Marcelo Moreira Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Departamento de Biologia, Av. General Rodrigo O. Jordão Ramos 3000, Manaus, AM, 69077-000, Brazil. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi - MPEG, CP 399, 66040-170, Belém, PA, Brazil. Fundação Vitória Amazônica - FVA, Rua Estrela D'Alva 146, Loteamento Parque Morada do Sol, Aleixo, 69060-093, Manaus, AM, Brazil. Corresponding author: shborges9@gmail.com Received on 08 May 2017. Accepted on 01 October 2017. ABSTRACT: Field records are critical to understand the bird species distribution in ecological and evolutionary contexts, especially in regions with high species diversity such as the Amazon Basin. Here we describe notable bird species records in areas with difficult access, sites monitored from long-term and human-impacted regions in the central and northwestern portions of the Amazon Basin. We present information for 35 selected species, including birds rarely observed in nature (e.g. Crypturelus duidae, Ammonastes pelzelni, Cyanocorax heilprini), species common in other biomes but rare in the Amazon (e.g. Vanellus chilensis, Elaenia flavogaster), and species apparently reported for the first time for the Amazonas state, Brazil (e.g. Hydropsalis roraimae, Myrmeciza longipes). Our records suggest recent colonization of central Amazon by some species, likely favored by the increasing environmental degradation in the region. In addition, records of species previously not reported for Amazonas state reinforce the relevance of inventories in poorly sampled regions. These bir d records illustrates how biological inventories and long-term monitoring are complementary strategies for a better understand of distribution and dynamics of the Amazon avifauna. KEY-WORDS: Amazonas state, biological inventories, colonization, dispersal. INTRODUCTION can be complemented by other forms of documentation, including voice recording, videos, and photographs (Lees The understanding of biota distribution in ecological and et al. 2014). Integrating different methods to generate distributional data is especially relevant in regions with evolutionary contexts has been considerably improved with ecological niche modeling, macroecological analysis high bird diversity such as the Amazon Basin (Lees et al. and bioregionalization proposals (Keith et al. 2012, 2014). Peterson & Soberón 2012, Holt et al. 2013). These Natural history and distributional data are available advances were only possible because an accumulation of for a meaningful number of Amazonian birds thanks to the cumulative efforts of ornithologists and citizens distributional data organized in large public databases (e.g. Species Link, Global Biodiversity Facility) and specialized interested in birds. Range extensions and new ecological literature (e.g. Ridgely & Tudor 2009). information concerning birds are continuously reported, Species distributional data is available mainly from even for sites monitored for decades (Johnson et al. specimens collected and deposited in public natural 2010, Lees et al. 2013, Rutt et al. 2017). Despite these remarkable advances, the geographical distribution of history museums and documented field o bservations. The methods applied to inventory bir d species have Amazonian birds found in regions with limited access both advantages and limitations in terms of providing remains poorly documented. Moreover, birds are well distributional data. It is widely accepted that specimen known for expanding their ranges and colonizing new collection is the high-quality way to document species regions. Therefore, species reports for sites under long- term monitoring are also strategically to understanding presence at a site. However, documentation by voucher specimens of all species present in an area rarely occurs the temporal and spatial dynamics of bird distributions in due to logistic constraints such as time available to different parts of the Amazon Basin (Cohn-Haft et al. 1997, sampling avifauna. Consequently, distributional data Johnson et al. 2010, Lees et al. 2013, Rutt et al. 2017). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central Amazon Borges et al. Over recent years, we have had the opportunities to landscapes in these regions are very distinct and are carry out bird inventories in poorly-investigated regions described in more detailed below. of the Amazonas state, such as the Rio Negro-Rio Branco Negro-Branco Rivers interfluve: We studied the interfluve in northwestern Brazilian Amazon (Borges et avifauna of the Aracá region during a series of short al. 2014), and areas whose avifauna have been monitored fieldwork visits between 2007 and 2010, and t he results of for long-term, such as Jaú National Park (Borges et al. the field expeditions were used to generate a preliminary 2001, Borges & Almeida 2011). Also, we have made field checklist of 400 bird species (Borges et al. 2014). Sites observations in human-impacted landscapes in the Rio visited by the authors in the Aracá River valley and the Negro-Rio Solimões interfluve, which is crossed b y roads Serra do Aracá regions varied in altitude from 50 to 1200 and connected to Manaus via a recently constructed m a.s.l. (Fig. 1). We sampled birds in all major habitats bridge. Here, we present the results of these fieldworks, in the region, but gave special attention to extensive which include birds rarely observed in nature, species natural areas of open vegetation growing over sandy soils common in other biomes but rare in the Amazon, and (white-sand campinas) and forests and high-altitude species apparently reported for the first time for the grasslands (tepuis). Serra do Aracá is a low mountain with Amazonas state avifauna. maximum altitude of 1200 m a.s.l covered by vegetation typical of Venezuelan tepuis, with numerous endemic plant species (Prance & Johnson 1992). Our sampling METHODS effort on the Serra do Aracá was low compared to white- sand campinas in lowlands due difficulties of staying in Study regions and methods the field for extended periods. Here we present a species- by-species analysis of selected records as a complement We studied avifauna in contrasting landscapes to the general faunistic analysis available in Borges et al. from disturbed side-road habitats to pristine forests and (2014), which details methods, sampling effort, habitat fields. Bir d species were recorded in three main regions: i) description and sites visited. Negro-Branco interfluve in the northwestern Amazonia, Negro and Jaú Rivers confluence : the avifauna of ii) lower course of the Rio Negro near the confluence Jaú National Park (JNP) on the lower Negro River has with the Jaú River, and iii) Negro-Solimões interfluve in been monitored since 1993 (Borges et al. 2001, Borges central Amazonia (Fig. 1). The natural and anthropogenic & Almeida 2011). In recent years, field efforts have Figure 1. Landsat images of the studied regions in northwestern and central Amazon showing the major landscape and habitats where bird inventories were undertaken. Green tones represent different types of forests, mainly terra firme forest and flooded forests. See text for more detailed description of the landscapes. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central Amazon Borges et al. focused on characterizing the avifauna of Negro River RESULTS fluvial islands and of the patches of white-sand campinas located at the confluence of Jaú and Negro Rivers (Fig. 1). Below we detail the records of 35 selected bird species, Fluvial islands vary from small sand bars of a few hectares most of them new records for Amazonas state or range covered with sparse vegetation, to large forested islands of extensions. To make the data easily available to other thousands hectares in extent (Fig. 1). In contrast to the applications (e.g. reviews of species distribution maps), fluvial is lands, white-sand campinas were located far from the individual records data were presented as a list in the large rivers and have a very dense vegetation structure Appendix I. (Borges et al. 2016a). The general methodology used for Gray-legged Tinamou - Crypturellus duidae Zimmer, sampling birds on islands and in white-sand campina 1938: this little tinamou is endemic to northwestern patches included captures with mist-nets and qualitative Amazonia with extensions of its range to northern Peru censuses using tape recorders, photographs and sporadic and central Amazonia in Jaú National Park (Novaes specimen collections to document regional species 1978, Alonso & Whitney 2003, Borges & Almeida presence. A quantitative analysis of bird assemblages on 2011). Andrew Whittaker (A.W.) recorded the calls of the Negro River islands is in preparation and will be at least four individuals in forests growing on sandy soil presented elsewhere. in the Aracá region. On that occasion A.W. had a good Negro-Solimões River interfluve: between 2009 and view of one individual and observed all the field marks 2012 we sampled birds along the AM 070 and AM 352 typical of the species, notably its gray tarsus. S.H.B. also state highways as well the secondary roads that cross the tape recorded an individual in a small patch of white-sand campina near the foot of Serra do Aracá (wikiaves - WA Negro/Solimões interfluve (Fig. 1). A recently inaugurated bridge provided a terrestrial connection between Manaus 2422641), and another in a secondary forest near the (the state capital) and the right margin of Negro River. mouth of Demini River. Unfortunately, in both occasions It is likely that the sudden increase in accessibility to this S.H.B. was not able to observe the vocalizing individuals. part of the Negro River is causally linked to the increase In the Aracá region, Gray-legged Tinamou was recorded in forests growing over sandy soils similar to those in Peru in deforestation rates in the region (Fig. 1). The landscape along the AM 070 highway includes seasonally flooded and Jaú National Park (Alonso & Whitney 2003, Borges grassland and forests, large fragments of secondary & Almeida 2011). Apparently, Gray-legged Tinamou is replaced by its congeneric C. erythropus (Red-legged forests, active and abandoned pastures and agricultural fields. In contrast, the landscapes bordering the AM Tinamou) in the eastern margin of Branco River where it uses habitats similar to that found in the Aracá region 352 highway are composed primarily of large tracts of lowland tropical rainforest with varying degrees of local (Naka et al. 2006, Laranjeiras et al. 2014). disturbance, ranging from small-scale agricultural fields Comb Duck - Sarkidiornis sylvicola Ihering & Ihering, 1907: A.W. observed a female of this species to forest subject to illegal logging (Fig. 1). Small patches of active and abandoned pasture are also present along on a sand bank along the Aracá River in 14 December 2014. Unfortunately this observation could not be this highway. In addition to these main study regions, we also include selected bird records from Uatumã River and documented through photographs or tape records. There Viruá National Park. are few records of this species in the Amazon Basin. The INPA Bird Collection has a male Comb Duck (INPA Bird species records were documented through voice recording, photographs or voucher specimens deposited 699), collected in August 1985 on Janauacá Lake, central Amazon. Until recently, this species was considered a race in the Bird Collection of National Institute of Amazonian of Sarkidiornis melanotos, but now is recognized as a full Research (INPA), Manaus, Amazonas. In most cases, the photographs and bird voices records have been made species (del Hoyo & Collar 2014). Southern Lapwing - Vanellus chilensis (Molina, available at the wikiaves website (http://www.wikiaves. com.br). We searched both old and recent literature to 1782): Southern Lapwing was frequently observed in pairs or small groups of four to six individuals in the confirm the presence of bird species in Amazonas state grassy open fields along the Aracá River where several (Phelps & Phelps-Jr. 1947, Friedmann 1948, Phelps-Jr. 1972, Cohn-Haft et al. 1997, Mestre et al. 2010). We also photographs and tape records were obtained. Near Manaus, Southern Lapwing is irregularly observed made a systematic search of species at the wikiaves and along rivers at small farms with active pastures (e.g. xenocanto sites (http://www.wikiaves.com.br/, http:// WA2422295). S.H.B. observed this species in several www.xeno-canto.org/), since these public databases has pastures and small farms in Iranduba and Manacapuru been proven to be important sources of scientific data (Lees & Martin 2015). Species taxonomic arrangement municipalities (WA2422303 and WA2422305). These central Amazon records for Southern Lapwing are follows the Brazilian Ornithological Records Committee suggestive of recent range expansion and colonization. (Piacentini et al. 2015). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central Amazon Borges et al. Indeed, numerous photographs documented the presence area north of Manaus (Cohn-Haft et al. 1997). S.H.B. of this bird in municipalities such as Manaus, Iranduba, photographed a juvenile in the Manacapuru municipality Careiro da Várzea and Manacapuru (www.wikiaves.com. in an active pasture (WA 1828172 and WA 1828173). br, accessed on 24 August 2016). Visual records of individuals overflying the AM 356 near Novo Airão and Manaus could be also referred to this Laughing Gull - Leucophaeus atricilla (Linnaeus, 1758): A.W. observed and tape recorded an individual in species. The abundance of White-Tailed Hawk also could a river beach in the Aracá River in December 2004. This be increasing in the central Amazon due to progressive migratory bird is rarely recorded in inland parts of the forest degradation in the region, as suggested by records Amazon Basin, with most occurrences reported along the of this species in Manaus and Presidente Figueiredo (www.wikiaves.com.br, accessed on 24 August 2016). coastal regions of Pará and Maranhão states (Valente et al. 2011). Mestre et al. (2010) reported a banded individual Peregrine Falcon - Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771: in of Laughing Gull recovered at an unspecified location at the central Amazon, Peregrine Falcon is most frequently Amazonas state. There are several p hotographic records of recorded in the white-water environments or várzea Laughing Gull in the coastal regions of Amapá, and Pará forests of the Solimões River (Stotz et al. 1992, Petermann 1997). S.H.B. photographed a juvenile Peregrine Falcon states, at the mouth of Amazon River, but no previous ones from the central portion of the Amazon Basin (www. (WA 1826674 and WA 1825456) perched on the border wikiaves.com.br, accessed in 24 August 2016). of a fluvial island on 2 November 2014, within the Band-Tailed Pigeon - Patagioenas fasciata (Say, boundaries of JNP. This was the first recor d of this species 1823): Ricardo Almeida (R.A.) observed a pigeon under for JNP, an area whose avifauna have been monitored for decades (Borges & Almeida 2011). There are few good lighting condition perched in a tree in border of a forest fragment at the summit of Serra do Aracá at 1200 records of Peregrine Falcon in várzea forest along the Rio m a.s.l. Although this record was not documented, the Branco (Naka et al. 2006) but no record is available for main field marks of Band-Tailed Pigeon (general gray Anavilhanas Archipelago on the lower reaches of Negro color and white neck collar) were observed. This pigeon River (Cintra et al. 2007). Band-Winged Nightjar - Hydropsalis roraimae species is typical of Venezuelan tepuis, with few records from Brazilian Amazon, most from Roraima state (Phelps (Chapman, 1929): R.A. photographed this nightjar at a & Phelps-Jr. 1947, Phelps-Jr. 1972, Sick 1997, Naka rock outcrop on the Serra do Aracá around 1100 m a.s.l. et al. 2006). Band-Tailed Pigeon was collected on the The images clearly show t he drop-like marks in the neck Venezuelan side of Cierro de la Neblina (Willard et al. typical for this species (photograph available in Borges et al. 2014). This nightjar species was considered restricted 1991), but apparently was not recorded for Amazonas state, Brazil. to the Guyana Highlands (tepuis) with the only Brazilian Burrowing Owl - Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782): records coming from Roraima state (Naka et al. 2006, S.H.B. photographed a Burrowing Owl in a white-sand see a photograph by Robson Czaban WA 52254). Based campina on the Aracá River (WA 1826686). In addition, on the literature consulted (Phelps & Phelps-Jr. 1947, Friedmann 1948, Phelps-Jr. 1972, Sick 1997), this is several records of this owl were obtained in the central Amazon, along the AM 010 and AM 352 highways in the likely the first recor d of Band-Winged Nightjar for the Novo Airão (WA 1826694) and Iranduba municipalities Amazonas state. (WA 1826689). Pairs of this owl have been consistently Sand-Colored Nighthawk - Chordeiles rupestris (Spix, recorded from 2010 to 2014 along these roads, always 1825): S.H.B. obtained several images of a group of more than 40 individuals C. rupestris perched in a leafless tree associated with active or abandoned pastures (Fig. 2). The earliest recor ds of this species for central Amazon are near the mouth of Jaú River in May 2015 (WA 1826675). likely those reported between 1992 and 1994 from farms This represented t he first recor d of this species for the located 80 km north of Manaus (Cohn-Haft et al. 1997). JNP avifauna (Borges & Almeida 2011). This nighthawk It seems probable that Burrowing Owls are colonizing the species appears to be common in sand beaches in white- water rivers, with some records in riverine habitats in central portion of the Amazon by dispersing along roads, as has been suggested by Cohn-Haft et al. (1997), and Roraima state (Naka et al. 2006). However, there is no then using the pastures as breeding habitats. However, we record of C. rupestris for the Anavilhanas Arquipelagos in never observed active nests or nestling in our study region the lower Negro River, even though huge sand beaches to confirm successful colonization, but photographs in have been observed there during the dry season (Cintra et al. 2007). Manaus region have documented young birds (www. wikiaves.com.br, accessed on 24 August 2016). Blue-Fronted Lancebill - Doryfera johannae White-Tailed Hawk - Geranoaetus albicaudatus (Bourcier, 1847): two individuals of this hummingbird (Vieillot, 1816): there are few records of this hawk in species were captured and photographed at the summit the central Amazon, which is reported as rare in the of the Serra do Aracá at 1200 m a.s.l. This species was Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central Amazon Borges et al. commonly netted on Cierro de la Neblina on the border White-Browed Antbird - Myrmoborus leucophrys between Venezuela and Amazonas state in Brazil (Willard (Tschudi, 1844): S.H.B. photographed a male White- et al. 1991). In Brazil, D. johannae has previously been Browed Antbird in a secondary forest in the Demini recorded only for Roraima state (Sick 1997, Naka et al. River region (Borges et al. 2014). Apparently this species has few records from the Negro River Basin (Ridgely & 2006). Buff-Breasted Sa brewing - Campylopterus duidae Tudor 2009), and it appears absent from the lower course Chapman, 1929: this very distinctive hummingbird was of this river (Cintra et al. 2007, Borges & Almeida 2011). captured in the edge of open field and a forest fragment However, White-Browed Antbird is common in a variety at the summit of Serra do Aracá (photograph in Borges et of forest habitats in the Viruá National Park (Laranjeiras et al. 2014). al. 2014). This hummingbir d was reported as one of the most common birds in all habitats present on Cierro de la White-Bellied Antbird - Myrmeciza longipes Neblina (Willard et al. 1991). It is likely the second record (Swainson, 1825): White-Bellied Antbird was frequently of C. duidae for the Amazonas state, since a photograph of observed in lowland forests near the foot of Serra do Aracá, this species taken in São Gabriel da Cachoeira is available with several individuals captured and photographed (images in Borges et al. 2014). This species appears not on wikiaves (Robson Czaban WA 70464). In Brazil, this species was previously reported only for Roraima state to have been previously reported for the Amazonas state (Sick 1997, Naka et al. 2006). avifauna (Phelps & Phelps-Jr. 1947, Friedmann 1948, Brown Violetear - Colibri delphinae (Lesson, 1839): Phelps-Jr. 1972, see also maps in Zimmer & Isler 2003 an adult male C. delphinae was collected and deposited and Ridgely & Tudor 2009). We suspect that in part of its geographic distribution, this species shows a preference in the INPA Bird Collection (INPA 2432, collected in 8 August 2007, see also photograph in Borges et al. 2014). for the montane environment. The individual was netted at a forest edge on the Serra Gray-Bellied Antbird - Ammonastes pelzelni do Aracá. Willard et al. (1991) did not record this bird (Sclater, 1890): S.H.B. record the voice, captured and during their expedition to Cierro de la Neblina, but photographed an adult male of this species in a small patch of white-sand campina located near the foot of reported specimens collected on the Brazilian side of the mountain. Serra do Aracá (see images in Borges et al. [2014] and Green-Bellied Hummingbird - Amazilia viridigaster tape record in WA2422618). S.H.B. made several (Bourcier, 1843): this is another hummingbird species unsuccessful playback trails of Gray-Bellied Antbird in captured and photographed on the top of Serra do Aracá, apparently suitable habitat (i.e. vegetation growing over sandy soils) suggesting that this species is rare even within as well as in a small patch of white-sand campina on the piedmont (images in Borges et al. 2014). It is reported as its known geographic distribution. This antbir d is one common on the Cierro de la Neblina at 750 m a.s.l., but of the few genuine endemic species that give support to less so at higher altitudes (Willard et al. 1991). Taxonomic the Imeri Area of Endemism (Borges & Silva 2012), not status of this hummingbird is debated (Remsen-Jr. et being recorded in the white-sand vegetation in the lower Negro River or Branco River (Borges & Almeida 2011, al. 2016), with some authors recognizing the tepui populations (A. v. cupreicauda) as a full species (Weller Laranjeiras et al. 2014). 2000, Grantsau 2010). Yapacana Antbird - Aprositornis disjuncta Barred Antshrike - Thamnophilus doliatus (Linnaeus, (Friedmann, 1945): the only record of the Yapacana 1764): this antbird species was frequently observed in Antbird in the Serra do Aracá region is a female captured in in a patch of flooded w hite-sand campina, and partially shrubby campinas along the Aracá River, and several individuals were netted and photographed. We also eaten by a Rufescent Tiger Heron (Tigrisoma lineatum). observed this species on the top of Serra do Aracá The individua l was prepared as a voucher specimen and where a pair was collected and deposited in the INPA deposited in the INPA Bird Collection (INPA 2081 Bird Collection (INPA 2433 collected on 7 August collected on 13 August 2010). We also collected four other Yapacana Anbird specimens in two small patches (< 2007 and INPA 4920 collected on 29 July 07). This antbird is widely distributed in the Neotropics, with 12 than 50 ha) of white-sand campinas in JNP (INPA 4676, different subspecies recognized (Zimmer & Isler 2003). 4678, 4679, 4680, all collected in October 2010). We In the Amazon Basin, Barred Antshrike apparently has have not found this species in other patches of white-sand preference for habitats associated with white-water rivers. campinas near Novo Airão or Iranduba municipalities, suggesting that southern limit of its range coincide with This antbir d was reported as common in the várzea forests and white-sand campinas of Viruá National Park the Jaú River region (Fig. 2). The Yapacana Antbir d (Laranjeiras et al. 2014), but has not been reported from has been reported as common in Viruá National Park JNP and Anavilhanas National Park (Cintra et al. 2007, (Laranjeiras et al. 2014). Borges & Almeida 2011). Pearly-Vented Tody-Tyrant - Hemitriccus Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central Amazon Borges et al. margaritaceiventer (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837): this state highway in middle August and late September 2011. fly catcher species was commonly recorded in white-sand There is also an additional undocumented re cord of E. campinas in the Aracá River region, and also from the spectabilis in disturbed vegetation at JNP, this being the edge of forest fragments on the summit of Serra do Aracá first recor d of this species for this protected area (Borges (Borges et al. 2014). We also captured individuals of this & Almeida 2011). species at several sites in Viruá National Park, where the Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant - Stigmatura napensis species is reported as common (Laranjeiras et al. 2014). Chapman, 1926: a juvenile Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant had its The Pearl y-Vented Tody-Tyrant is a polytypic species vocalization recorded from sparse vegetation growing on composed of nine subspecies, with overall fragmented a sand bank on an islet in the Negro River within the distribution in open area vegetation across the Amazon boundaries of JNP on 4 October 2012 (WA2423839 and (Fig. 2) (Fitzpatrick et al. 2004, Aleixo & Poletto 2007, WA2423833). We failed to find t he species again after Pacheco et al. 2007, Santos et al. 2011, Laranjeiras et al. monitoring the same spot in subsequent years, suggesting 2014). Smaller patches of open vegetation in the central the individual was a vagrant to the region. The Lesser portion of Amazon Basin are not occupied by Pearly- Wagtail-tyrant is considered to be a specialist in fluvial Vented Tody-Tyrant (Sanaiotti & Cintra 2001, Borges islands at the initial stages of succession (Rosenberg & Almeida 2011, Vasconcelos et al. 2011, Borges et al. 1990). This species has been recorded on fluvial islands 2016a) suggesting that the size and connectivity of habitat on the Branco River (Naka et al. 2007), but has not patches are important when predicting the occurrence of been previously reported for the same habitat in the this species in the Amazon Basin. Negro River main channel (Cintra et al. 2007, Borges & Pelzeln's Tody-Tyrant - Hemitriccus inornatus Almeida 2011). (Pelzeln, 1868): this species was rediscovered, near Cliff F lycatcher - Hirundinea ferruginea (Gmelin, Manaus, more than 100 years after its original description 1788): Marcelo Moreira (M.M.) photographed an (Whittaker 1994). S.H.B. heard some individuals individual of this species in the Serra do Aracá (Fig. 3) (WA and recorded its vocalization in a patch of white-sand 2292408, WA 2292411, WA 2292412). Although recorded campinas at base of Serra do Aracá (WA2423832 and in the Venezuelan side of Cierro de la Neblina (Willard et WA2423831). Additionally, the species has been reported al. 1991), apparently this bird species was not previously from white-sand campina on the Uatumã River, and at recorded for the Amazonas state avifauna (Sick 1997). several sites in Viruá National Park (Fig. 2). Together, Orange-bellied Manakin - Lepidothrix suavissima these field re cords added evidence that this species has (Salvin & Godman, 1882): a pair of this manakin was a preference for vegetation growing on white-sand soil, captured and collected in a low-canopy forest near the top as does its congener H. minimus (Borges et al. 2016a). of Serra do Aracá (INPA 2435 and 2436, both collected Pelzeln's Tody-Tyrant has also been recorded from on 5 August 2007, see also images in Borges et al. 2014). savannas in Suriname (Zyskowski et al. 2011). Friedmann (1948) reported two specimens collected in Yellow-Bellied Elaenia - Elaenia flavogaster (Thunberg, the Serro Imeri not far from northern limit of Serra do 1822): this fly catcher is known from a few records in the Aracá within Amazonas state. central portion of the Amazon Basin (Ridgley & Tudor Scarlet-Horned Manakin - Ceratopipra cornuta (Spix, 2009). We tape recorded several individuals of E. flavogaster 1825): two Scarlet-horned Manakin individuals were in the municipalities of Iranduba and Novo Airão, where captured in the same spot where we recorded Orange- birds were associated with abandoned pastures, disturbed bellied Manakin and a male was collected (INPA 2437 vegetation and urban environments (WA2422630). collected on 5 August 2007, see also images in Borges et al. Additionally, a tape recording of this species, made in 2014). S.H.B. observed one adult male and three females Presidente Figueiredo municipality, 100 km north of or immature males performing typical manakin dancing Manaus, is available at the xeno-canto website (Dan Lane, behavior. We were unable to find any mention of this XC286573). Although there are difficulties in identifying species for Amazonas state in the literature (Friedmann Elaenia species only by plumage and body shape, numerous 1948, Sick 1997), but a photograph of a male taken in images apparently of E. flavogaster are available on the São Gabriel da Cachoeira is available in wikiaves website wikiaves website from several municipalities in the central (Robson Czaban WA71868). Amazon. From the abundance of records it would appear Tepui Greenlet - Vireo sclateri (Salvin & Godman, that the Yellow-Bellied Elaenia is becoming progressively 1883): S.H.B. capture and collected an individual of more common in the central Amazon, with its dispersal Tepui Greenlet at the edge of a forest fragment on the favoring by the increase of degraded areas along the roads top of Serra do Aracá (INPA 2438 collected on 7 August and rivers (Fig. 3). 2007, see also image in Borges et al. 2014). This bird Large Elaenia - Elaenia spectabilis Pelzeln, 1868: this species was commonly heard in montane forest canopy species was recorded at two points along the AM 365 on the summit of Serra do Aracá, sometimes following Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central Amazon Borges et al. Figure 2. Distribution maps of some species reported in this study based in BirdLife International & NatureServe (2015). Points represents our records and also those reported by Naka et al. (2006) (Aprositornis disjuncta), Laranjeiras et al. (2014) (A. disjuncta, Hemtriccus margaritaceiventer, H. inornatus), Aleixo & Poletto (2007) (H. margaritaceiventer), Santos et al. (2011) (H. margaritaceiventer), Whittaker (1994) (H. innornatus) and Zyskowski et al. (2011) (H. inornatus). Figure 3. Distribution maps of some species reported in this study based in BirdLife International & NatureServe (2015). Points represents our records and also those reported by Borges et al. (2001) for Emberezoides herbicola. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central Amazon Borges et al. mixed flocks of bir ds. In Brazil, Tepui Greenlet is complete contrast with the grayish individuals of the otherwise known only from Roraima state (Naka et al. white-sand campinas in the lowlands of the same region 2006, Sick 1997). (see images in Borges et al. 2014). It is possible that this Brown-Headed Greenlet - Hylophilus brunneiceps individual was T. i. murinus which is a taxon found on tepuis in northern South America (Restall et al. 2006). Sclater, 1866: this species was commonly found in the more forested areas of white-sand campinas in the Aracá Tropical Mockingbird - Mimus gilvus (Vieillot, 1807): S.B.H. photographed and collected a specimen region, where it was recorded at several localities. It is a bird usually associated with lowlands, although S.H.B. (INPA 2440 collected on 25 July 2007, see image captured and collected one individual in the Serra do in Borges et al. 2014) of this species in a white-sand campina of the Aracá River. Apparently this species was Aracá at 1200 m a.s.l. (INPA 2439 collected on 7 August 2007, see also image in Borges et al. 2014). Although not abundant, since it was observed at only three sites. The Tropical Mo ckingbird is a common species in the the Brown-headed Greenlet was formerly considered endemic to northwestern Amazonia (Ridgely & Tudor Roraima savannas (Naka et al. 2006), and in white-sand 2009), we recorded this species in the central Amazon campinas in the Viruá National Park (Laranjeiras et al. 2014), but apparently has not been previously reported only 50 km from Manaus. Its close association with vegetation growing in the margins of black-water rivers for Amazonas state. Rufous-Collared Sparrow - Zonotrichia capensis probably contributes to the dispersal capabilities of this greenlet species. (Statius Muller, 1776): S.H.B. captured and photographed Azure-Naped Jay - Cyanocorax heilprini Gentry, 1885: this species at 1100 m a.s.l. in the Serra do Aracá (images in Borges et al. 2014). We also recorded this species in Azure-naped Jay is endemic to northwestern Amazonia and gives support to Imeri Area of Endemism (Fig. 3) two lowland sites in the white-sand campinas on Aracá River. In the Amazon lowlands, Rufous-collared Sparrow (Haffer 1978, Cracraft 1985). We recor ded this species in the Aracá River region on three occasions, during which is only recorded from areas with rock outcrops such as Serra dos Carajás and Serra do Cachimbo (Pacheco et we were able to photograph (WA 1824922 to 1824924), al. 2007, Santos et al. 2011). In the northern Amazonia tape recorded the vocalization, and collect an adult male (INPA 2000 collected on 04 August 2010). This jay was this species is associated with tepuis in Venezuela and neighboring parts of Brazil, where it is represented by the commonly observed in small flocks of three to eight individuals moving through shrubby areas of white-sand taxon Z. c. roraimae (Sick 1997, Naka et al. 2006, Restall et al. 2006). This species was not previously recor ded campinas or in the canopy of white-sand forests. S.H.B. for Amazonas state, although it is considered a common also observed a flock of six individuals moving through flooded forests along the Aracá River. This species is species in the Venezuelan side of Cierro de la Neblina (Willard et al. 1991). absent from patches of white-sand campinas or forests in both lower Negro and Branco Rivers (Borges & Almeida Wedge-Tailed Grass-Finch - Emberizoides herbicola (Vieillot, 1817): we recorded this bird through 2011, Laranjeiras et al. 2014). In Viruá National Park, photographs, voice recordings and specimen collection at C. helprini apparently is substituted by two congenerics, C. violaceus and C. cayanus, in habitats similar to those several localities in the Serra do Aracá, both in highland (1100 m a.s.l.) and lowlands (two unregistered specimens found at Aracá (Laranjeiras et al. 2014). Black-Billed Thrush - Turdus ignobilis Sclater, 1858: in the INPA Bird Collection collected on July 2007, INPA 2078 collected on 26 July 2010, INPA 2079 collected on this thrush species was commonly found on the white- 12 August 2010). This is a very common bird in large and sand campinas in the Aracá River, where we captured and connected patches of white-sand campinas, but is absent collected two individuals (INPA 2072, 2073 collected from small isolated patches of this habitat at Novo Airão in 29 and 26 July 2010, respectively). We also collected an adult male in a small patch of shrub campina in the and on the Uatumã River (Laranjeiras et al. 2014, Borges et al. 2016b). Recently, S.H.B. found a population of JNP (INPA 4621 collected on 23 October 2012) which E. herbicola in a small patch of degraded savanna called represent the first recor d of this species for this protected Campo Amélia, only 50 km from Manaus, which was area (Borges & Almeida 2011). Black-billed Thrush was documented by tape recording and photographs (WA also common in white-sand campinas on the Uatumã River. The observed birds likely belong to T. i. arthuri, 1845892 and 1845893). This is the most central re cord in the geographic distribution of this bird species (Fig. 3) a taxon associated with white-sand campinas (Oren (Ridgely & Tudor 2009). 1981). Recently, it was suggested that this taxon could Plumbeous Seedeater - Sporophila plumbea (Wied, be recognized as a full species (Cerqueira et al. 2016, 1830): a small group of 12 Plumbeous Seedeaters was Avendaño et al. 2017). In the Serra do Aracá summit (1200 m a.s.l.), S.H.B. photographed individuals of observed on July 2007 feeding in grass seeds growing in crevices in a rock outcrop (inselberg) in the Aracá River. this thrush with plumage entirely brownish, and so in Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central Amazon Borges et al. Here, we collected one adult and two juvenile males In complement of biological monitoring programs, (INPA 2441, 2442 and 24431, see also images in Borges inventories are still vital part of biodiversity investigation et al. 2014). In Viruá National Park, the Plumbeous making important contributions in the documenting Seedeater is reported as common bird in white-sand the distribution of bird species and assemblages. Our campina and human-altered habitats (Laranjeiras et al. records of species previously unreported to the Amazonas 2014). In Amazonas state there are records of this species state shows that even for such large territory, biological in Manicoré (Aleixo & Poletto 2007, Edson Lopes WA inventories in areas with difficult accesses have an 1443383) and Humaitá (Robson Czaban WA 1130066 important contribution to characterized the Amazonian and WA 516809), both municipalities located in the biodiversity. south portion of the state. Most species records described in this study were well documented and are potentially useful when reviewing the geographic distribution of the DISCUSSION individual species, as well as other applications, such as ecological niche modeling. Unfortunately, due to The Amazon Basin is experiencing major alterations short time available to fieldwork and small size of in its landscape and ecosystems, affecting the regional ornithologist teams, only 14 out of 35 species were biodiversity (Davidson et al. 2012, Barlow et al. 2016). properly documented with collected specimens. Birds are important biological indicators for monitoring This is especially unfortunate for the Serra do Aracá, the dynamic and complex interactions between a tepui whose endemic bird species are poorly environmental changes and biodiversity distribution represented in bird collections. Consequently, the (Moura et al. 2013). Although obtained through Branco and Negro Rivers interfluve remains a priority qualitative sampling, our bird records suggest that the region for bird collection. Also, it is recommended environmental modifications currently underway in the that specimens of birds that have recently occupied central portion of the Amazon are affecting bird species the central Amazon, such as E. flavogaster and A. distribution. cunicularia, be collected to improve understanding Cumulative records of V. chilensis, E. flavogaster, A. of this colonization processes. cunicularia and G. albicaudatus, for example, indicate The birds recorded in this study emphasize that the colonization of this region by bird species not biological inventories in areas with difficult access, and normally associated with the Amazonian Biome. Such bird monitoring in sectors of the Amazon with different colonization processes are likely favored by the increasing levels of habitat modification, are complementary environmental degradation as already occurred in other strategies to achieving a full understand of Amazon parts of the basin (Less et al. 2013). However, details biodiversity and its distribution. on how these species are adapting and increasing their populations require quantitative data collected at the ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS appropriate scale. Indeed, for a full understanding of ecological distribution of birds (and other elements of biodiversity) The fieldwork reported here would never have been and their relationships with environmental disturbance, accomplished without the institutional and financial it will be necessary to implement biological monitoring support provided by Fundação Vitória Amazônica (FVA), Secretaria de Desenvolvimento Sustentável do Estado do programs in several parts of the Amazon Basin. Unfortunately, such programs are currently very scarce Amazonas (SDS), Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade (ICMBio), Gordon & Betty Moore in the region. For example, of the 36 sites of the Long Duration Ecological Research Program implemented Foundation, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado in Brazil, only five are located in the Brazilian Amazon do Amazonas (FAPEAM), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa (Barbosa 2013). do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) through the FAPESP/ Our distribution records also indicate that avifauna FAPEAM joint funding program (09/53365-0), and Instituto de Conservação e Desenvolvimento Sustentável monitoring could be useful to understand bird dispersal in landscapes with low to moderate anthropogenic do Amazonas (IDESAM). We are also grateful for influence. Recor ds of species normally associated with the enthusiastic collaboration of Zélio (Soldado), S. white water rivers habitats (e.g. S. napensis and C. Raimundo, Roberto, Camila Duarte, Gisiane Lima, rupestris) on the lower course of Negro River suggests that Claudeir Vargas, Antenor Anicácio and Célio Ribeiro. rare events of dispersal could be important for connecting Adrian Barnett helped with the English. S.H.B. is grantee bird populations apparently isolated in the várzeas of the of Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Amazonas Branco and Solimões Rivers (Naka et al. 2007). (FAPEAM – Programa Fixam). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central Amazon Borges et al. differentiation within the South American avifauna: areas of REFERENCES endemism. Ornithological Monographs 36: 49–84. Davidson E.A., Araújo A.C., Artaxo P., Balch J.K., Brown I.F., Aleixo A. & Poletto F. 2007. Birds of an open vegetation enclave in Bustamante M.M.C., Coe M.T., DeFries R.S., Keller M., Longo southern Brazilian Amazonia. 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Species Habitats Study regions Latitud Longitud Crypturellus duidae white sand forest Interfluve Negro-Branco -0.3276 -62.9691 -0.2763 -62.7442 Crypturellus duidae secondary forest Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.8655 -63.4690 Crypturellus duidae white sand forest Interfluve Negro-Branco -0.3276 -62.9691 Sarkidiornis sylvicola river beach Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.1422 -63.1836 Vanellus chilensis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.6101 -63.4274 Vanellus chilensis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4748 -63.4716 Vanellus chilensis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.3929 -63.4074 Vanellus chilensis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.3837 -63.3520 Vanellus chilensis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.3267 -63.2623 Vanellus chilensis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4553 -63.2586 Vanellus chilensis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco -3.2217 -60.2825 Vanellus chilensis pasture Interfluve Solimões-Negro -3.1622 -60.0936 Vanellus chilensis pasture Interfluve Solimões-Negro -2.7225 -60.9428 Vanellus chilensis pasture Interfluve Solimões-Negro -2.2865 -58.9560 Vanellus chilensis pasture Uatumã River -0.3276 -62.9691 Leucophaeus atricilla river beach Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Patagioenas fasciata tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.1424 -63.1837 Athene cunicularia white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco -2.9197 -60.9658 Athene cunicularia pasture Interfluve Solimões-Negro -2.9686 -60.9465 Athene cunicularia agriculture field Interfluve Solimões-Negro -3.1901 -60.6026 Athene cunicularia agriculture field Interfluve Solimões-Negro -2.3333 -60.0833 Athene cunicularia agriculture field Fazenda Dimona (PDBFF) Geranoaetus albicaudatus agriculture field Interfluve Solimões-Negro -3.1901 -60.6026 Falco peregrinus fluvial island Confluence Jaú-Negro -1.8128 -61.3925 Hydropsalis roraimae tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Chordeiles rupestris igapó flooded forest Confluence Jaú-Negro -1.8614 -61.4197 Doryfera johannae tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Campylopterus duidae tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Colibri delphinae tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Amazilia viridigaster tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Amazilia viridigaster white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.8655 -63.4690 Thamnophilus doliatus tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Thamnophilus doliatus w hite sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco -0.3276 -62.9691 0.4054 -63.4066 Thamnophilus doliatus w hite sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.5686 -63.2430 Thamnophilus doliatus w hite sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4751 -63.4285 Thamnophilus doliatus w hite sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.3579 -63.2590 Thamnophilus doliatus w hite sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.3238 -63.2630 Thamnophilus doliatus w hite sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.1424 -63.1837 Thamnophilus doliatus w hite sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco -2.9793 -60.6044 Thamnophilus doliatus secondary forest Interfluve Solimões-Negro -2.9696 -60.6162 Thamnophilus doliatus secondary forest Interfluve Solimões-Negro Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central Amazon Borges et al. Species Habitats Study regions Latitud Longitud Myrmoborus leucophrys secondary forest Interfluve Negro-Branco -0.2763 -62.7442 Myrmeciza longipes piedmont forest Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.8824 -63.4480 Myrmeciza longipes piedmont forest Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.8665 -63.4537 Myrmeciza longipes piedmont forest Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.8778 -63.4702 Ammonastes pelzelni white sand forest Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.8655 -63.4690 Aprositornis disjuncta white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.3267 -63.2623 Aprositornis disjuncta white sand campinas Confluence Jaú-Negro -1.7572 -61.6150 Aprositornis disjuncta white sand campinas Confluence Jaú-Negro -1.7303 -61.5353 Aprositornis disjuncta white sand campinas Confluence Jaú-Negro 1.3312 -60.9741 1.3312 -60.9741 Aprositornis disjuncta white sand campinas Confluence Jaú-Negro 1.3312 -60.9741 Aprositornis disjuncta white sand campinas Viruá National Park 0.9589 -61.1592 Aprositornis disjuncta white sand campinas Viruá National Park 1.4096 -60.9878 Aprositornis disjuncta white sand campinas Viruá National Park -1.9134 -61.5918 Aprositornis disjuncta white sand campinas Confluence Jaú-Negro -1.9088 -61.7049 Aprositornis disjuncta igapó flooded forest Confluence Jaú-Negro 0.5511 -63.5000 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.5686 -63.2431 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.5451 -63.4583 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4748 -63.4716 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4095 -63.4074 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.3837 -63.3520 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.3267 -63.2623 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4553 -63.2586 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 1.4146 -60.9895 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Viruá National Park 1.3312 -60.9741 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Viruá National Park 1.6582 -60.9364 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Viruá National Park -9.2833 -55.1667 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Serra do Cachimbo -8.6500 -61.4167 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Manicoré 0.5451 -63.4583 Hemitriccus inornatus white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.8653 -63.4689 Hemitriccus inornatus white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco -2.2720 -58.6746 Hemitriccus inornatus white sand campinas Uatumã River -2.2863 -58.8640 Hemitriccus inornatus white sand campinas Uatumã River 1.4096 -60.9878 Hemitriccus inornatus white sand campinas Virua National Park 0.9937 -61.2566 Hemitriccus inornatus white sand campinas Virua National Park 1.4173 -60.8462 Hemitriccus inornatus white sand campinas Virua National Park 3.7933 -56.1483 Hemitriccus inornatus savanna Suriname -3.1622 -60.0936 Elaenia flavogaster degraded landscape Interfluve Solimões-Negro -3.1667 -60.0928 Elaenia flavogaster degraded landscape Interfluve Solimões-Negro Elaenia flavogaster degraded landscape Interfluve Solimões-Negro -2.6750 -60.9433 Elaenia flavogaster degraded landscape Interfluve Solimões-Negro -3.1600 -60.0947 Elaenia flavogaster degraded landscape Interfluve Solimões-Negro -3.1625 -60.0978 Elaenia flavogaster secondary forest Interfluve Solimões-Negro -2.9793 -60.6044 Elaenia flavogaster urban habitat Interfluve Solimões-Negro -2.6311 -60.9458 Elaenia flavogaster pasture Interfluve Solimões-Negro -3.2230 -60.2822 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central Amazon Borges et al. Species Habitats Study regions Latitud Longitud Elaenia spectabilis degraded landscape Interfluve Solimões-Negro -3.1589 -60.0997 Elaenia spectabilis degraded landscape Interfluve Solimões-Negro -3.1622 -60.0936 Elaenia spectabilis secondary forest Confluence Jaú-Negro -1.8276 -61.6110 Stigmatura napensis fluvial island Confluence Jaú-Negro -1.9119 -61.4075 Hirundinea ferruginea tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9491 -63.4395 Lepidothrix suavissima tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Lepidothrix suavissima tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Ceratopipra cornuta tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Vireo sclateri tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 0.9176 -63.4462 Hylophilus brunneiceps tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco -0.3276 -62.9691 Hylophilus brunneiceps white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.8655 -63.4690 Hylophilus brunneiceps white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco -3.0573 -60.7621 Hylophilus brunneiceps white sand campinas Interfluve Solimões-Negro -3.0444 -60.7275 Hylophilus brunneiceps white sand campinas Interfluve Solimões-Negro -2.9659 -60.7275 Hylophilus brunneiceps igapó flooded forest Interfluve Solimões-Negro 0.5451 -63.4583 Cyanocorax heilprini igapó flooded forest Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.6101 -63.4274 Cyanocorax heilprini white sand forest Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4748 -63.4716 Cyanocorax heilprini white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4095 -63.4074 Cyanocorax heilprini white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.8653 -63.4689 Cyanocorax heilprini white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Turdus ignobilis tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco -0.3276 -62.9691 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4552 -63.2586 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4054 -63.4066 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.5686 -63.2430 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4751 -63.4285 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.3579 -63.2590 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.3238 -63.2630 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.1424 -63.1837 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4189 -63.3840 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.5453 -63.4983 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.5556 -63.3840 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco -1.7534 -61.6804 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Confluence Jaú-Negro -2.2812 -59.0300 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Uatumã River -2.2780 -59.0632 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Uatumã River -2.2865 -58.9560 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Uatumã River -2.2720 -58.6746 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Uatumã River 1.3312 -60.9741 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Virua National Park Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Virua National Park 1.6006 -61.0347 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Virua National Park 1.6582 -60.9364 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Virua National Park 1.3566 -60.6047 Mimus gilvus white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4054 -63.4066 Mimus gilvus white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4751 -63.4285 Zonotrichia capensis tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central Amazon Borges et al. Species Habitats Study regions Latitud Longitud Zonotrichia capensis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4054 -63.4066 Zonotrichia capensis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.3579 -63.2590 Emberizoides herbicola tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Emberizoides herbicola white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4552 -63.2586 Emberizoides herbicola white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4054 -63.4066 Emberizoides herbicola white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.3238 -63.2630 Emberizoides herbicola white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.1424 -63.1837 Emberizoides herbicola white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4751 -63.4285 Emberizoides herbicola white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4751 -63.4285 0.3267 -63.2622 Emberizoides herbicola white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.5511 -63.5001 Emberizoides herbicola white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco -3.0363 -60.5986 Emberizoides herbicola savanna Interfluve Solimões-Negro -1.8183 -61.7581 Emberizoides herbicola white sand campinas Confluence Jaú-Negro 0.4189 -63.3840 Sporophila plumbea rock outcrop Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4189 -63.3840 Sporophila plumbea rock outcrop Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4189 -63.3840 Sporophila plumbea rock outcrop Interfluve Negro-Branco Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Ornithology Research Springer Journals

Bird records in the northwestern and central portions of the Amazon Basin highlight the needs for inventories and long-term monitoring in the region

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Copyright © Sociedade Brasileira de Ornitologia 2017
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Abstract

Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 206–220. ARTICLE September 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central portions of the Amazon Basin highlight the needs for inventories and long-term monitoring in the region 1,4 2 3 1 Sérgio Henrique Borges , Andrew Whittaker , Ricardo Afonso Almeida , Cintia Cornélius , 3 3 Marcelo Augusto dos Santos-Jr. & Marcelo Moreira Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Departamento de Biologia, Av. General Rodrigo O. Jordão Ramos 3000, Manaus, AM, 69077-000, Brazil. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi - MPEG, CP 399, 66040-170, Belém, PA, Brazil. Fundação Vitória Amazônica - FVA, Rua Estrela D'Alva 146, Loteamento Parque Morada do Sol, Aleixo, 69060-093, Manaus, AM, Brazil. Corresponding author: shborges9@gmail.com Received on 08 May 2017. Accepted on 01 October 2017. ABSTRACT: Field records are critical to understand the bird species distribution in ecological and evolutionary contexts, especially in regions with high species diversity such as the Amazon Basin. Here we describe notable bird species records in areas with difficult access, sites monitored from long-term and human-impacted regions in the central and northwestern portions of the Amazon Basin. We present information for 35 selected species, including birds rarely observed in nature (e.g. Crypturelus duidae, Ammonastes pelzelni, Cyanocorax heilprini), species common in other biomes but rare in the Amazon (e.g. Vanellus chilensis, Elaenia flavogaster), and species apparently reported for the first time for the Amazonas state, Brazil (e.g. Hydropsalis roraimae, Myrmeciza longipes). Our records suggest recent colonization of central Amazon by some species, likely favored by the increasing environmental degradation in the region. In addition, records of species previously not reported for Amazonas state reinforce the relevance of inventories in poorly sampled regions. These bir d records illustrates how biological inventories and long-term monitoring are complementary strategies for a better understand of distribution and dynamics of the Amazon avifauna. KEY-WORDS: Amazonas state, biological inventories, colonization, dispersal. INTRODUCTION can be complemented by other forms of documentation, including voice recording, videos, and photographs (Lees The understanding of biota distribution in ecological and et al. 2014). Integrating different methods to generate distributional data is especially relevant in regions with evolutionary contexts has been considerably improved with ecological niche modeling, macroecological analysis high bird diversity such as the Amazon Basin (Lees et al. and bioregionalization proposals (Keith et al. 2012, 2014). Peterson & Soberón 2012, Holt et al. 2013). These Natural history and distributional data are available advances were only possible because an accumulation of for a meaningful number of Amazonian birds thanks to the cumulative efforts of ornithologists and citizens distributional data organized in large public databases (e.g. Species Link, Global Biodiversity Facility) and specialized interested in birds. Range extensions and new ecological literature (e.g. Ridgely & Tudor 2009). information concerning birds are continuously reported, Species distributional data is available mainly from even for sites monitored for decades (Johnson et al. specimens collected and deposited in public natural 2010, Lees et al. 2013, Rutt et al. 2017). Despite these remarkable advances, the geographical distribution of history museums and documented field o bservations. The methods applied to inventory bir d species have Amazonian birds found in regions with limited access both advantages and limitations in terms of providing remains poorly documented. Moreover, birds are well distributional data. It is widely accepted that specimen known for expanding their ranges and colonizing new collection is the high-quality way to document species regions. Therefore, species reports for sites under long- term monitoring are also strategically to understanding presence at a site. However, documentation by voucher specimens of all species present in an area rarely occurs the temporal and spatial dynamics of bird distributions in due to logistic constraints such as time available to different parts of the Amazon Basin (Cohn-Haft et al. 1997, sampling avifauna. Consequently, distributional data Johnson et al. 2010, Lees et al. 2013, Rutt et al. 2017). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central Amazon Borges et al. Over recent years, we have had the opportunities to landscapes in these regions are very distinct and are carry out bird inventories in poorly-investigated regions described in more detailed below. of the Amazonas state, such as the Rio Negro-Rio Branco Negro-Branco Rivers interfluve: We studied the interfluve in northwestern Brazilian Amazon (Borges et avifauna of the Aracá region during a series of short al. 2014), and areas whose avifauna have been monitored fieldwork visits between 2007 and 2010, and t he results of for long-term, such as Jaú National Park (Borges et al. the field expeditions were used to generate a preliminary 2001, Borges & Almeida 2011). Also, we have made field checklist of 400 bird species (Borges et al. 2014). Sites observations in human-impacted landscapes in the Rio visited by the authors in the Aracá River valley and the Negro-Rio Solimões interfluve, which is crossed b y roads Serra do Aracá regions varied in altitude from 50 to 1200 and connected to Manaus via a recently constructed m a.s.l. (Fig. 1). We sampled birds in all major habitats bridge. Here, we present the results of these fieldworks, in the region, but gave special attention to extensive which include birds rarely observed in nature, species natural areas of open vegetation growing over sandy soils common in other biomes but rare in the Amazon, and (white-sand campinas) and forests and high-altitude species apparently reported for the first time for the grasslands (tepuis). Serra do Aracá is a low mountain with Amazonas state avifauna. maximum altitude of 1200 m a.s.l covered by vegetation typical of Venezuelan tepuis, with numerous endemic plant species (Prance & Johnson 1992). Our sampling METHODS effort on the Serra do Aracá was low compared to white- sand campinas in lowlands due difficulties of staying in Study regions and methods the field for extended periods. Here we present a species- by-species analysis of selected records as a complement We studied avifauna in contrasting landscapes to the general faunistic analysis available in Borges et al. from disturbed side-road habitats to pristine forests and (2014), which details methods, sampling effort, habitat fields. Bir d species were recorded in three main regions: i) description and sites visited. Negro-Branco interfluve in the northwestern Amazonia, Negro and Jaú Rivers confluence : the avifauna of ii) lower course of the Rio Negro near the confluence Jaú National Park (JNP) on the lower Negro River has with the Jaú River, and iii) Negro-Solimões interfluve in been monitored since 1993 (Borges et al. 2001, Borges central Amazonia (Fig. 1). The natural and anthropogenic & Almeida 2011). In recent years, field efforts have Figure 1. Landsat images of the studied regions in northwestern and central Amazon showing the major landscape and habitats where bird inventories were undertaken. Green tones represent different types of forests, mainly terra firme forest and flooded forests. See text for more detailed description of the landscapes. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central Amazon Borges et al. focused on characterizing the avifauna of Negro River RESULTS fluvial islands and of the patches of white-sand campinas located at the confluence of Jaú and Negro Rivers (Fig. 1). Below we detail the records of 35 selected bird species, Fluvial islands vary from small sand bars of a few hectares most of them new records for Amazonas state or range covered with sparse vegetation, to large forested islands of extensions. To make the data easily available to other thousands hectares in extent (Fig. 1). In contrast to the applications (e.g. reviews of species distribution maps), fluvial is lands, white-sand campinas were located far from the individual records data were presented as a list in the large rivers and have a very dense vegetation structure Appendix I. (Borges et al. 2016a). The general methodology used for Gray-legged Tinamou - Crypturellus duidae Zimmer, sampling birds on islands and in white-sand campina 1938: this little tinamou is endemic to northwestern patches included captures with mist-nets and qualitative Amazonia with extensions of its range to northern Peru censuses using tape recorders, photographs and sporadic and central Amazonia in Jaú National Park (Novaes specimen collections to document regional species 1978, Alonso & Whitney 2003, Borges & Almeida presence. A quantitative analysis of bird assemblages on 2011). Andrew Whittaker (A.W.) recorded the calls of the Negro River islands is in preparation and will be at least four individuals in forests growing on sandy soil presented elsewhere. in the Aracá region. On that occasion A.W. had a good Negro-Solimões River interfluve: between 2009 and view of one individual and observed all the field marks 2012 we sampled birds along the AM 070 and AM 352 typical of the species, notably its gray tarsus. S.H.B. also state highways as well the secondary roads that cross the tape recorded an individual in a small patch of white-sand campina near the foot of Serra do Aracá (wikiaves - WA Negro/Solimões interfluve (Fig. 1). A recently inaugurated bridge provided a terrestrial connection between Manaus 2422641), and another in a secondary forest near the (the state capital) and the right margin of Negro River. mouth of Demini River. Unfortunately, in both occasions It is likely that the sudden increase in accessibility to this S.H.B. was not able to observe the vocalizing individuals. part of the Negro River is causally linked to the increase In the Aracá region, Gray-legged Tinamou was recorded in forests growing over sandy soils similar to those in Peru in deforestation rates in the region (Fig. 1). The landscape along the AM 070 highway includes seasonally flooded and Jaú National Park (Alonso & Whitney 2003, Borges grassland and forests, large fragments of secondary & Almeida 2011). Apparently, Gray-legged Tinamou is replaced by its congeneric C. erythropus (Red-legged forests, active and abandoned pastures and agricultural fields. In contrast, the landscapes bordering the AM Tinamou) in the eastern margin of Branco River where it uses habitats similar to that found in the Aracá region 352 highway are composed primarily of large tracts of lowland tropical rainforest with varying degrees of local (Naka et al. 2006, Laranjeiras et al. 2014). disturbance, ranging from small-scale agricultural fields Comb Duck - Sarkidiornis sylvicola Ihering & Ihering, 1907: A.W. observed a female of this species to forest subject to illegal logging (Fig. 1). Small patches of active and abandoned pasture are also present along on a sand bank along the Aracá River in 14 December 2014. Unfortunately this observation could not be this highway. In addition to these main study regions, we also include selected bird records from Uatumã River and documented through photographs or tape records. There Viruá National Park. are few records of this species in the Amazon Basin. The INPA Bird Collection has a male Comb Duck (INPA Bird species records were documented through voice recording, photographs or voucher specimens deposited 699), collected in August 1985 on Janauacá Lake, central Amazon. Until recently, this species was considered a race in the Bird Collection of National Institute of Amazonian of Sarkidiornis melanotos, but now is recognized as a full Research (INPA), Manaus, Amazonas. In most cases, the photographs and bird voices records have been made species (del Hoyo & Collar 2014). Southern Lapwing - Vanellus chilensis (Molina, available at the wikiaves website (http://www.wikiaves. com.br). We searched both old and recent literature to 1782): Southern Lapwing was frequently observed in pairs or small groups of four to six individuals in the confirm the presence of bird species in Amazonas state grassy open fields along the Aracá River where several (Phelps & Phelps-Jr. 1947, Friedmann 1948, Phelps-Jr. 1972, Cohn-Haft et al. 1997, Mestre et al. 2010). We also photographs and tape records were obtained. Near Manaus, Southern Lapwing is irregularly observed made a systematic search of species at the wikiaves and along rivers at small farms with active pastures (e.g. xenocanto sites (http://www.wikiaves.com.br/, http:// WA2422295). S.H.B. observed this species in several www.xeno-canto.org/), since these public databases has pastures and small farms in Iranduba and Manacapuru been proven to be important sources of scientific data (Lees & Martin 2015). Species taxonomic arrangement municipalities (WA2422303 and WA2422305). These central Amazon records for Southern Lapwing are follows the Brazilian Ornithological Records Committee suggestive of recent range expansion and colonization. (Piacentini et al. 2015). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central Amazon Borges et al. Indeed, numerous photographs documented the presence area north of Manaus (Cohn-Haft et al. 1997). S.H.B. of this bird in municipalities such as Manaus, Iranduba, photographed a juvenile in the Manacapuru municipality Careiro da Várzea and Manacapuru (www.wikiaves.com. in an active pasture (WA 1828172 and WA 1828173). br, accessed on 24 August 2016). Visual records of individuals overflying the AM 356 near Novo Airão and Manaus could be also referred to this Laughing Gull - Leucophaeus atricilla (Linnaeus, 1758): A.W. observed and tape recorded an individual in species. The abundance of White-Tailed Hawk also could a river beach in the Aracá River in December 2004. This be increasing in the central Amazon due to progressive migratory bird is rarely recorded in inland parts of the forest degradation in the region, as suggested by records Amazon Basin, with most occurrences reported along the of this species in Manaus and Presidente Figueiredo (www.wikiaves.com.br, accessed on 24 August 2016). coastal regions of Pará and Maranhão states (Valente et al. 2011). Mestre et al. (2010) reported a banded individual Peregrine Falcon - Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771: in of Laughing Gull recovered at an unspecified location at the central Amazon, Peregrine Falcon is most frequently Amazonas state. There are several p hotographic records of recorded in the white-water environments or várzea Laughing Gull in the coastal regions of Amapá, and Pará forests of the Solimões River (Stotz et al. 1992, Petermann 1997). S.H.B. photographed a juvenile Peregrine Falcon states, at the mouth of Amazon River, but no previous ones from the central portion of the Amazon Basin (www. (WA 1826674 and WA 1825456) perched on the border wikiaves.com.br, accessed in 24 August 2016). of a fluvial island on 2 November 2014, within the Band-Tailed Pigeon - Patagioenas fasciata (Say, boundaries of JNP. This was the first recor d of this species 1823): Ricardo Almeida (R.A.) observed a pigeon under for JNP, an area whose avifauna have been monitored for decades (Borges & Almeida 2011). There are few good lighting condition perched in a tree in border of a forest fragment at the summit of Serra do Aracá at 1200 records of Peregrine Falcon in várzea forest along the Rio m a.s.l. Although this record was not documented, the Branco (Naka et al. 2006) but no record is available for main field marks of Band-Tailed Pigeon (general gray Anavilhanas Archipelago on the lower reaches of Negro color and white neck collar) were observed. This pigeon River (Cintra et al. 2007). Band-Winged Nightjar - Hydropsalis roraimae species is typical of Venezuelan tepuis, with few records from Brazilian Amazon, most from Roraima state (Phelps (Chapman, 1929): R.A. photographed this nightjar at a & Phelps-Jr. 1947, Phelps-Jr. 1972, Sick 1997, Naka rock outcrop on the Serra do Aracá around 1100 m a.s.l. et al. 2006). Band-Tailed Pigeon was collected on the The images clearly show t he drop-like marks in the neck Venezuelan side of Cierro de la Neblina (Willard et al. typical for this species (photograph available in Borges et al. 2014). This nightjar species was considered restricted 1991), but apparently was not recorded for Amazonas state, Brazil. to the Guyana Highlands (tepuis) with the only Brazilian Burrowing Owl - Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782): records coming from Roraima state (Naka et al. 2006, S.H.B. photographed a Burrowing Owl in a white-sand see a photograph by Robson Czaban WA 52254). Based campina on the Aracá River (WA 1826686). In addition, on the literature consulted (Phelps & Phelps-Jr. 1947, Friedmann 1948, Phelps-Jr. 1972, Sick 1997), this is several records of this owl were obtained in the central Amazon, along the AM 010 and AM 352 highways in the likely the first recor d of Band-Winged Nightjar for the Novo Airão (WA 1826694) and Iranduba municipalities Amazonas state. (WA 1826689). Pairs of this owl have been consistently Sand-Colored Nighthawk - Chordeiles rupestris (Spix, recorded from 2010 to 2014 along these roads, always 1825): S.H.B. obtained several images of a group of more than 40 individuals C. rupestris perched in a leafless tree associated with active or abandoned pastures (Fig. 2). The earliest recor ds of this species for central Amazon are near the mouth of Jaú River in May 2015 (WA 1826675). likely those reported between 1992 and 1994 from farms This represented t he first recor d of this species for the located 80 km north of Manaus (Cohn-Haft et al. 1997). JNP avifauna (Borges & Almeida 2011). This nighthawk It seems probable that Burrowing Owls are colonizing the species appears to be common in sand beaches in white- water rivers, with some records in riverine habitats in central portion of the Amazon by dispersing along roads, as has been suggested by Cohn-Haft et al. (1997), and Roraima state (Naka et al. 2006). However, there is no then using the pastures as breeding habitats. However, we record of C. rupestris for the Anavilhanas Arquipelagos in never observed active nests or nestling in our study region the lower Negro River, even though huge sand beaches to confirm successful colonization, but photographs in have been observed there during the dry season (Cintra et al. 2007). Manaus region have documented young birds (www. wikiaves.com.br, accessed on 24 August 2016). Blue-Fronted Lancebill - Doryfera johannae White-Tailed Hawk - Geranoaetus albicaudatus (Bourcier, 1847): two individuals of this hummingbird (Vieillot, 1816): there are few records of this hawk in species were captured and photographed at the summit the central Amazon, which is reported as rare in the of the Serra do Aracá at 1200 m a.s.l. This species was Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central Amazon Borges et al. commonly netted on Cierro de la Neblina on the border White-Browed Antbird - Myrmoborus leucophrys between Venezuela and Amazonas state in Brazil (Willard (Tschudi, 1844): S.H.B. photographed a male White- et al. 1991). In Brazil, D. johannae has previously been Browed Antbird in a secondary forest in the Demini recorded only for Roraima state (Sick 1997, Naka et al. River region (Borges et al. 2014). Apparently this species has few records from the Negro River Basin (Ridgely & 2006). Buff-Breasted Sa brewing - Campylopterus duidae Tudor 2009), and it appears absent from the lower course Chapman, 1929: this very distinctive hummingbird was of this river (Cintra et al. 2007, Borges & Almeida 2011). captured in the edge of open field and a forest fragment However, White-Browed Antbird is common in a variety at the summit of Serra do Aracá (photograph in Borges et of forest habitats in the Viruá National Park (Laranjeiras et al. 2014). al. 2014). This hummingbir d was reported as one of the most common birds in all habitats present on Cierro de la White-Bellied Antbird - Myrmeciza longipes Neblina (Willard et al. 1991). It is likely the second record (Swainson, 1825): White-Bellied Antbird was frequently of C. duidae for the Amazonas state, since a photograph of observed in lowland forests near the foot of Serra do Aracá, this species taken in São Gabriel da Cachoeira is available with several individuals captured and photographed (images in Borges et al. 2014). This species appears not on wikiaves (Robson Czaban WA 70464). In Brazil, this species was previously reported only for Roraima state to have been previously reported for the Amazonas state (Sick 1997, Naka et al. 2006). avifauna (Phelps & Phelps-Jr. 1947, Friedmann 1948, Brown Violetear - Colibri delphinae (Lesson, 1839): Phelps-Jr. 1972, see also maps in Zimmer & Isler 2003 an adult male C. delphinae was collected and deposited and Ridgely & Tudor 2009). We suspect that in part of its geographic distribution, this species shows a preference in the INPA Bird Collection (INPA 2432, collected in 8 August 2007, see also photograph in Borges et al. 2014). for the montane environment. The individual was netted at a forest edge on the Serra Gray-Bellied Antbird - Ammonastes pelzelni do Aracá. Willard et al. (1991) did not record this bird (Sclater, 1890): S.H.B. record the voice, captured and during their expedition to Cierro de la Neblina, but photographed an adult male of this species in a small patch of white-sand campina located near the foot of reported specimens collected on the Brazilian side of the mountain. Serra do Aracá (see images in Borges et al. [2014] and Green-Bellied Hummingbird - Amazilia viridigaster tape record in WA2422618). S.H.B. made several (Bourcier, 1843): this is another hummingbird species unsuccessful playback trails of Gray-Bellied Antbird in captured and photographed on the top of Serra do Aracá, apparently suitable habitat (i.e. vegetation growing over sandy soils) suggesting that this species is rare even within as well as in a small patch of white-sand campina on the piedmont (images in Borges et al. 2014). It is reported as its known geographic distribution. This antbir d is one common on the Cierro de la Neblina at 750 m a.s.l., but of the few genuine endemic species that give support to less so at higher altitudes (Willard et al. 1991). Taxonomic the Imeri Area of Endemism (Borges & Silva 2012), not status of this hummingbird is debated (Remsen-Jr. et being recorded in the white-sand vegetation in the lower Negro River or Branco River (Borges & Almeida 2011, al. 2016), with some authors recognizing the tepui populations (A. v. cupreicauda) as a full species (Weller Laranjeiras et al. 2014). 2000, Grantsau 2010). Yapacana Antbird - Aprositornis disjuncta Barred Antshrike - Thamnophilus doliatus (Linnaeus, (Friedmann, 1945): the only record of the Yapacana 1764): this antbird species was frequently observed in Antbird in the Serra do Aracá region is a female captured in in a patch of flooded w hite-sand campina, and partially shrubby campinas along the Aracá River, and several individuals were netted and photographed. We also eaten by a Rufescent Tiger Heron (Tigrisoma lineatum). observed this species on the top of Serra do Aracá The individua l was prepared as a voucher specimen and where a pair was collected and deposited in the INPA deposited in the INPA Bird Collection (INPA 2081 Bird Collection (INPA 2433 collected on 7 August collected on 13 August 2010). We also collected four other Yapacana Anbird specimens in two small patches (< 2007 and INPA 4920 collected on 29 July 07). This antbird is widely distributed in the Neotropics, with 12 than 50 ha) of white-sand campinas in JNP (INPA 4676, different subspecies recognized (Zimmer & Isler 2003). 4678, 4679, 4680, all collected in October 2010). We In the Amazon Basin, Barred Antshrike apparently has have not found this species in other patches of white-sand preference for habitats associated with white-water rivers. campinas near Novo Airão or Iranduba municipalities, suggesting that southern limit of its range coincide with This antbir d was reported as common in the várzea forests and white-sand campinas of Viruá National Park the Jaú River region (Fig. 2). The Yapacana Antbir d (Laranjeiras et al. 2014), but has not been reported from has been reported as common in Viruá National Park JNP and Anavilhanas National Park (Cintra et al. 2007, (Laranjeiras et al. 2014). Borges & Almeida 2011). Pearly-Vented Tody-Tyrant - Hemitriccus Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central Amazon Borges et al. margaritaceiventer (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837): this state highway in middle August and late September 2011. fly catcher species was commonly recorded in white-sand There is also an additional undocumented re cord of E. campinas in the Aracá River region, and also from the spectabilis in disturbed vegetation at JNP, this being the edge of forest fragments on the summit of Serra do Aracá first recor d of this species for this protected area (Borges (Borges et al. 2014). We also captured individuals of this & Almeida 2011). species at several sites in Viruá National Park, where the Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant - Stigmatura napensis species is reported as common (Laranjeiras et al. 2014). Chapman, 1926: a juvenile Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant had its The Pearl y-Vented Tody-Tyrant is a polytypic species vocalization recorded from sparse vegetation growing on composed of nine subspecies, with overall fragmented a sand bank on an islet in the Negro River within the distribution in open area vegetation across the Amazon boundaries of JNP on 4 October 2012 (WA2423839 and (Fig. 2) (Fitzpatrick et al. 2004, Aleixo & Poletto 2007, WA2423833). We failed to find t he species again after Pacheco et al. 2007, Santos et al. 2011, Laranjeiras et al. monitoring the same spot in subsequent years, suggesting 2014). Smaller patches of open vegetation in the central the individual was a vagrant to the region. The Lesser portion of Amazon Basin are not occupied by Pearly- Wagtail-tyrant is considered to be a specialist in fluvial Vented Tody-Tyrant (Sanaiotti & Cintra 2001, Borges islands at the initial stages of succession (Rosenberg & Almeida 2011, Vasconcelos et al. 2011, Borges et al. 1990). This species has been recorded on fluvial islands 2016a) suggesting that the size and connectivity of habitat on the Branco River (Naka et al. 2007), but has not patches are important when predicting the occurrence of been previously reported for the same habitat in the this species in the Amazon Basin. Negro River main channel (Cintra et al. 2007, Borges & Pelzeln's Tody-Tyrant - Hemitriccus inornatus Almeida 2011). (Pelzeln, 1868): this species was rediscovered, near Cliff F lycatcher - Hirundinea ferruginea (Gmelin, Manaus, more than 100 years after its original description 1788): Marcelo Moreira (M.M.) photographed an (Whittaker 1994). S.H.B. heard some individuals individual of this species in the Serra do Aracá (Fig. 3) (WA and recorded its vocalization in a patch of white-sand 2292408, WA 2292411, WA 2292412). Although recorded campinas at base of Serra do Aracá (WA2423832 and in the Venezuelan side of Cierro de la Neblina (Willard et WA2423831). Additionally, the species has been reported al. 1991), apparently this bird species was not previously from white-sand campina on the Uatumã River, and at recorded for the Amazonas state avifauna (Sick 1997). several sites in Viruá National Park (Fig. 2). Together, Orange-bellied Manakin - Lepidothrix suavissima these field re cords added evidence that this species has (Salvin & Godman, 1882): a pair of this manakin was a preference for vegetation growing on white-sand soil, captured and collected in a low-canopy forest near the top as does its congener H. minimus (Borges et al. 2016a). of Serra do Aracá (INPA 2435 and 2436, both collected Pelzeln's Tody-Tyrant has also been recorded from on 5 August 2007, see also images in Borges et al. 2014). savannas in Suriname (Zyskowski et al. 2011). Friedmann (1948) reported two specimens collected in Yellow-Bellied Elaenia - Elaenia flavogaster (Thunberg, the Serro Imeri not far from northern limit of Serra do 1822): this fly catcher is known from a few records in the Aracá within Amazonas state. central portion of the Amazon Basin (Ridgley & Tudor Scarlet-Horned Manakin - Ceratopipra cornuta (Spix, 2009). We tape recorded several individuals of E. flavogaster 1825): two Scarlet-horned Manakin individuals were in the municipalities of Iranduba and Novo Airão, where captured in the same spot where we recorded Orange- birds were associated with abandoned pastures, disturbed bellied Manakin and a male was collected (INPA 2437 vegetation and urban environments (WA2422630). collected on 5 August 2007, see also images in Borges et al. Additionally, a tape recording of this species, made in 2014). S.H.B. observed one adult male and three females Presidente Figueiredo municipality, 100 km north of or immature males performing typical manakin dancing Manaus, is available at the xeno-canto website (Dan Lane, behavior. We were unable to find any mention of this XC286573). Although there are difficulties in identifying species for Amazonas state in the literature (Friedmann Elaenia species only by plumage and body shape, numerous 1948, Sick 1997), but a photograph of a male taken in images apparently of E. flavogaster are available on the São Gabriel da Cachoeira is available in wikiaves website wikiaves website from several municipalities in the central (Robson Czaban WA71868). Amazon. From the abundance of records it would appear Tepui Greenlet - Vireo sclateri (Salvin & Godman, that the Yellow-Bellied Elaenia is becoming progressively 1883): S.H.B. capture and collected an individual of more common in the central Amazon, with its dispersal Tepui Greenlet at the edge of a forest fragment on the favoring by the increase of degraded areas along the roads top of Serra do Aracá (INPA 2438 collected on 7 August and rivers (Fig. 3). 2007, see also image in Borges et al. 2014). This bird Large Elaenia - Elaenia spectabilis Pelzeln, 1868: this species was commonly heard in montane forest canopy species was recorded at two points along the AM 365 on the summit of Serra do Aracá, sometimes following Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central Amazon Borges et al. Figure 2. Distribution maps of some species reported in this study based in BirdLife International & NatureServe (2015). Points represents our records and also those reported by Naka et al. (2006) (Aprositornis disjuncta), Laranjeiras et al. (2014) (A. disjuncta, Hemtriccus margaritaceiventer, H. inornatus), Aleixo & Poletto (2007) (H. margaritaceiventer), Santos et al. (2011) (H. margaritaceiventer), Whittaker (1994) (H. innornatus) and Zyskowski et al. (2011) (H. inornatus). Figure 3. Distribution maps of some species reported in this study based in BirdLife International & NatureServe (2015). Points represents our records and also those reported by Borges et al. (2001) for Emberezoides herbicola. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central Amazon Borges et al. mixed flocks of bir ds. In Brazil, Tepui Greenlet is complete contrast with the grayish individuals of the otherwise known only from Roraima state (Naka et al. white-sand campinas in the lowlands of the same region 2006, Sick 1997). (see images in Borges et al. 2014). It is possible that this Brown-Headed Greenlet - Hylophilus brunneiceps individual was T. i. murinus which is a taxon found on tepuis in northern South America (Restall et al. 2006). Sclater, 1866: this species was commonly found in the more forested areas of white-sand campinas in the Aracá Tropical Mockingbird - Mimus gilvus (Vieillot, 1807): S.B.H. photographed and collected a specimen region, where it was recorded at several localities. It is a bird usually associated with lowlands, although S.H.B. (INPA 2440 collected on 25 July 2007, see image captured and collected one individual in the Serra do in Borges et al. 2014) of this species in a white-sand campina of the Aracá River. Apparently this species was Aracá at 1200 m a.s.l. (INPA 2439 collected on 7 August 2007, see also image in Borges et al. 2014). Although not abundant, since it was observed at only three sites. The Tropical Mo ckingbird is a common species in the the Brown-headed Greenlet was formerly considered endemic to northwestern Amazonia (Ridgely & Tudor Roraima savannas (Naka et al. 2006), and in white-sand 2009), we recorded this species in the central Amazon campinas in the Viruá National Park (Laranjeiras et al. 2014), but apparently has not been previously reported only 50 km from Manaus. Its close association with vegetation growing in the margins of black-water rivers for Amazonas state. Rufous-Collared Sparrow - Zonotrichia capensis probably contributes to the dispersal capabilities of this greenlet species. (Statius Muller, 1776): S.H.B. captured and photographed Azure-Naped Jay - Cyanocorax heilprini Gentry, 1885: this species at 1100 m a.s.l. in the Serra do Aracá (images in Borges et al. 2014). We also recorded this species in Azure-naped Jay is endemic to northwestern Amazonia and gives support to Imeri Area of Endemism (Fig. 3) two lowland sites in the white-sand campinas on Aracá River. In the Amazon lowlands, Rufous-collared Sparrow (Haffer 1978, Cracraft 1985). We recor ded this species in the Aracá River region on three occasions, during which is only recorded from areas with rock outcrops such as Serra dos Carajás and Serra do Cachimbo (Pacheco et we were able to photograph (WA 1824922 to 1824924), al. 2007, Santos et al. 2011). In the northern Amazonia tape recorded the vocalization, and collect an adult male (INPA 2000 collected on 04 August 2010). This jay was this species is associated with tepuis in Venezuela and neighboring parts of Brazil, where it is represented by the commonly observed in small flocks of three to eight individuals moving through shrubby areas of white-sand taxon Z. c. roraimae (Sick 1997, Naka et al. 2006, Restall et al. 2006). This species was not previously recor ded campinas or in the canopy of white-sand forests. S.H.B. for Amazonas state, although it is considered a common also observed a flock of six individuals moving through flooded forests along the Aracá River. This species is species in the Venezuelan side of Cierro de la Neblina (Willard et al. 1991). absent from patches of white-sand campinas or forests in both lower Negro and Branco Rivers (Borges & Almeida Wedge-Tailed Grass-Finch - Emberizoides herbicola (Vieillot, 1817): we recorded this bird through 2011, Laranjeiras et al. 2014). In Viruá National Park, photographs, voice recordings and specimen collection at C. helprini apparently is substituted by two congenerics, C. violaceus and C. cayanus, in habitats similar to those several localities in the Serra do Aracá, both in highland (1100 m a.s.l.) and lowlands (two unregistered specimens found at Aracá (Laranjeiras et al. 2014). Black-Billed Thrush - Turdus ignobilis Sclater, 1858: in the INPA Bird Collection collected on July 2007, INPA 2078 collected on 26 July 2010, INPA 2079 collected on this thrush species was commonly found on the white- 12 August 2010). This is a very common bird in large and sand campinas in the Aracá River, where we captured and connected patches of white-sand campinas, but is absent collected two individuals (INPA 2072, 2073 collected from small isolated patches of this habitat at Novo Airão in 29 and 26 July 2010, respectively). We also collected an adult male in a small patch of shrub campina in the and on the Uatumã River (Laranjeiras et al. 2014, Borges et al. 2016b). Recently, S.H.B. found a population of JNP (INPA 4621 collected on 23 October 2012) which E. herbicola in a small patch of degraded savanna called represent the first recor d of this species for this protected Campo Amélia, only 50 km from Manaus, which was area (Borges & Almeida 2011). Black-billed Thrush was documented by tape recording and photographs (WA also common in white-sand campinas on the Uatumã River. The observed birds likely belong to T. i. arthuri, 1845892 and 1845893). This is the most central re cord in the geographic distribution of this bird species (Fig. 3) a taxon associated with white-sand campinas (Oren (Ridgely & Tudor 2009). 1981). Recently, it was suggested that this taxon could Plumbeous Seedeater - Sporophila plumbea (Wied, be recognized as a full species (Cerqueira et al. 2016, 1830): a small group of 12 Plumbeous Seedeaters was Avendaño et al. 2017). In the Serra do Aracá summit (1200 m a.s.l.), S.H.B. photographed individuals of observed on July 2007 feeding in grass seeds growing in crevices in a rock outcrop (inselberg) in the Aracá River. this thrush with plumage entirely brownish, and so in Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central Amazon Borges et al. Here, we collected one adult and two juvenile males In complement of biological monitoring programs, (INPA 2441, 2442 and 24431, see also images in Borges inventories are still vital part of biodiversity investigation et al. 2014). In Viruá National Park, the Plumbeous making important contributions in the documenting Seedeater is reported as common bird in white-sand the distribution of bird species and assemblages. Our campina and human-altered habitats (Laranjeiras et al. records of species previously unreported to the Amazonas 2014). In Amazonas state there are records of this species state shows that even for such large territory, biological in Manicoré (Aleixo & Poletto 2007, Edson Lopes WA inventories in areas with difficult accesses have an 1443383) and Humaitá (Robson Czaban WA 1130066 important contribution to characterized the Amazonian and WA 516809), both municipalities located in the biodiversity. south portion of the state. Most species records described in this study were well documented and are potentially useful when reviewing the geographic distribution of the DISCUSSION individual species, as well as other applications, such as ecological niche modeling. Unfortunately, due to The Amazon Basin is experiencing major alterations short time available to fieldwork and small size of in its landscape and ecosystems, affecting the regional ornithologist teams, only 14 out of 35 species were biodiversity (Davidson et al. 2012, Barlow et al. 2016). properly documented with collected specimens. Birds are important biological indicators for monitoring This is especially unfortunate for the Serra do Aracá, the dynamic and complex interactions between a tepui whose endemic bird species are poorly environmental changes and biodiversity distribution represented in bird collections. Consequently, the (Moura et al. 2013). Although obtained through Branco and Negro Rivers interfluve remains a priority qualitative sampling, our bird records suggest that the region for bird collection. Also, it is recommended environmental modifications currently underway in the that specimens of birds that have recently occupied central portion of the Amazon are affecting bird species the central Amazon, such as E. flavogaster and A. distribution. cunicularia, be collected to improve understanding Cumulative records of V. chilensis, E. flavogaster, A. of this colonization processes. cunicularia and G. albicaudatus, for example, indicate The birds recorded in this study emphasize that the colonization of this region by bird species not biological inventories in areas with difficult access, and normally associated with the Amazonian Biome. Such bird monitoring in sectors of the Amazon with different colonization processes are likely favored by the increasing levels of habitat modification, are complementary environmental degradation as already occurred in other strategies to achieving a full understand of Amazon parts of the basin (Less et al. 2013). However, details biodiversity and its distribution. on how these species are adapting and increasing their populations require quantitative data collected at the ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS appropriate scale. Indeed, for a full understanding of ecological distribution of birds (and other elements of biodiversity) The fieldwork reported here would never have been and their relationships with environmental disturbance, accomplished without the institutional and financial it will be necessary to implement biological monitoring support provided by Fundação Vitória Amazônica (FVA), Secretaria de Desenvolvimento Sustentável do Estado do programs in several parts of the Amazon Basin. Unfortunately, such programs are currently very scarce Amazonas (SDS), Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade (ICMBio), Gordon & Betty Moore in the region. For example, of the 36 sites of the Long Duration Ecological Research Program implemented Foundation, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado in Brazil, only five are located in the Brazilian Amazon do Amazonas (FAPEAM), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa (Barbosa 2013). do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) through the FAPESP/ Our distribution records also indicate that avifauna FAPEAM joint funding program (09/53365-0), and Instituto de Conservação e Desenvolvimento Sustentável monitoring could be useful to understand bird dispersal in landscapes with low to moderate anthropogenic do Amazonas (IDESAM). We are also grateful for influence. Recor ds of species normally associated with the enthusiastic collaboration of Zélio (Soldado), S. white water rivers habitats (e.g. S. napensis and C. Raimundo, Roberto, Camila Duarte, Gisiane Lima, rupestris) on the lower course of Negro River suggests that Claudeir Vargas, Antenor Anicácio and Célio Ribeiro. rare events of dispersal could be important for connecting Adrian Barnett helped with the English. S.H.B. is grantee bird populations apparently isolated in the várzeas of the of Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Amazonas Branco and Solimões Rivers (Naka et al. 2007). (FAPEAM – Programa Fixam). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central Amazon Borges et al. differentiation within the South American avifauna: areas of REFERENCES endemism. Ornithological Monographs 36: 49–84. Davidson E.A., Araújo A.C., Artaxo P., Balch J.K., Brown I.F., Aleixo A. & Poletto F. 2007. Birds of an open vegetation enclave in Bustamante M.M.C., Coe M.T., DeFries R.S., Keller M., Longo southern Brazilian Amazonia. 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Species Habitats Study regions Latitud Longitud Crypturellus duidae white sand forest Interfluve Negro-Branco -0.3276 -62.9691 -0.2763 -62.7442 Crypturellus duidae secondary forest Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.8655 -63.4690 Crypturellus duidae white sand forest Interfluve Negro-Branco -0.3276 -62.9691 Sarkidiornis sylvicola river beach Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.1422 -63.1836 Vanellus chilensis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.6101 -63.4274 Vanellus chilensis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4748 -63.4716 Vanellus chilensis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.3929 -63.4074 Vanellus chilensis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.3837 -63.3520 Vanellus chilensis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.3267 -63.2623 Vanellus chilensis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4553 -63.2586 Vanellus chilensis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco -3.2217 -60.2825 Vanellus chilensis pasture Interfluve Solimões-Negro -3.1622 -60.0936 Vanellus chilensis pasture Interfluve Solimões-Negro -2.7225 -60.9428 Vanellus chilensis pasture Interfluve Solimões-Negro -2.2865 -58.9560 Vanellus chilensis pasture Uatumã River -0.3276 -62.9691 Leucophaeus atricilla river beach Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Patagioenas fasciata tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.1424 -63.1837 Athene cunicularia white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco -2.9197 -60.9658 Athene cunicularia pasture Interfluve Solimões-Negro -2.9686 -60.9465 Athene cunicularia agriculture field Interfluve Solimões-Negro -3.1901 -60.6026 Athene cunicularia agriculture field Interfluve Solimões-Negro -2.3333 -60.0833 Athene cunicularia agriculture field Fazenda Dimona (PDBFF) Geranoaetus albicaudatus agriculture field Interfluve Solimões-Negro -3.1901 -60.6026 Falco peregrinus fluvial island Confluence Jaú-Negro -1.8128 -61.3925 Hydropsalis roraimae tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Chordeiles rupestris igapó flooded forest Confluence Jaú-Negro -1.8614 -61.4197 Doryfera johannae tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Campylopterus duidae tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Colibri delphinae tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Amazilia viridigaster tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Amazilia viridigaster white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.8655 -63.4690 Thamnophilus doliatus tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Thamnophilus doliatus w hite sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco -0.3276 -62.9691 0.4054 -63.4066 Thamnophilus doliatus w hite sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.5686 -63.2430 Thamnophilus doliatus w hite sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4751 -63.4285 Thamnophilus doliatus w hite sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.3579 -63.2590 Thamnophilus doliatus w hite sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.3238 -63.2630 Thamnophilus doliatus w hite sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.1424 -63.1837 Thamnophilus doliatus w hite sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco -2.9793 -60.6044 Thamnophilus doliatus secondary forest Interfluve Solimões-Negro -2.9696 -60.6162 Thamnophilus doliatus secondary forest Interfluve Solimões-Negro Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central Amazon Borges et al. Species Habitats Study regions Latitud Longitud Myrmoborus leucophrys secondary forest Interfluve Negro-Branco -0.2763 -62.7442 Myrmeciza longipes piedmont forest Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.8824 -63.4480 Myrmeciza longipes piedmont forest Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.8665 -63.4537 Myrmeciza longipes piedmont forest Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.8778 -63.4702 Ammonastes pelzelni white sand forest Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.8655 -63.4690 Aprositornis disjuncta white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.3267 -63.2623 Aprositornis disjuncta white sand campinas Confluence Jaú-Negro -1.7572 -61.6150 Aprositornis disjuncta white sand campinas Confluence Jaú-Negro -1.7303 -61.5353 Aprositornis disjuncta white sand campinas Confluence Jaú-Negro 1.3312 -60.9741 1.3312 -60.9741 Aprositornis disjuncta white sand campinas Confluence Jaú-Negro 1.3312 -60.9741 Aprositornis disjuncta white sand campinas Viruá National Park 0.9589 -61.1592 Aprositornis disjuncta white sand campinas Viruá National Park 1.4096 -60.9878 Aprositornis disjuncta white sand campinas Viruá National Park -1.9134 -61.5918 Aprositornis disjuncta white sand campinas Confluence Jaú-Negro -1.9088 -61.7049 Aprositornis disjuncta igapó flooded forest Confluence Jaú-Negro 0.5511 -63.5000 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.5686 -63.2431 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.5451 -63.4583 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4748 -63.4716 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4095 -63.4074 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.3837 -63.3520 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.3267 -63.2623 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4553 -63.2586 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 1.4146 -60.9895 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Viruá National Park 1.3312 -60.9741 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Viruá National Park 1.6582 -60.9364 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Viruá National Park -9.2833 -55.1667 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Serra do Cachimbo -8.6500 -61.4167 Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer white sand campinas Manicoré 0.5451 -63.4583 Hemitriccus inornatus white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.8653 -63.4689 Hemitriccus inornatus white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco -2.2720 -58.6746 Hemitriccus inornatus white sand campinas Uatumã River -2.2863 -58.8640 Hemitriccus inornatus white sand campinas Uatumã River 1.4096 -60.9878 Hemitriccus inornatus white sand campinas Virua National Park 0.9937 -61.2566 Hemitriccus inornatus white sand campinas Virua National Park 1.4173 -60.8462 Hemitriccus inornatus white sand campinas Virua National Park 3.7933 -56.1483 Hemitriccus inornatus savanna Suriname -3.1622 -60.0936 Elaenia flavogaster degraded landscape Interfluve Solimões-Negro -3.1667 -60.0928 Elaenia flavogaster degraded landscape Interfluve Solimões-Negro Elaenia flavogaster degraded landscape Interfluve Solimões-Negro -2.6750 -60.9433 Elaenia flavogaster degraded landscape Interfluve Solimões-Negro -3.1600 -60.0947 Elaenia flavogaster degraded landscape Interfluve Solimões-Negro -3.1625 -60.0978 Elaenia flavogaster secondary forest Interfluve Solimões-Negro -2.9793 -60.6044 Elaenia flavogaster urban habitat Interfluve Solimões-Negro -2.6311 -60.9458 Elaenia flavogaster pasture Interfluve Solimões-Negro -3.2230 -60.2822 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central Amazon Borges et al. Species Habitats Study regions Latitud Longitud Elaenia spectabilis degraded landscape Interfluve Solimões-Negro -3.1589 -60.0997 Elaenia spectabilis degraded landscape Interfluve Solimões-Negro -3.1622 -60.0936 Elaenia spectabilis secondary forest Confluence Jaú-Negro -1.8276 -61.6110 Stigmatura napensis fluvial island Confluence Jaú-Negro -1.9119 -61.4075 Hirundinea ferruginea tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9491 -63.4395 Lepidothrix suavissima tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Lepidothrix suavissima tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Ceratopipra cornuta tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Vireo sclateri tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 0.9176 -63.4462 Hylophilus brunneiceps tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco -0.3276 -62.9691 Hylophilus brunneiceps white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.8655 -63.4690 Hylophilus brunneiceps white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco -3.0573 -60.7621 Hylophilus brunneiceps white sand campinas Interfluve Solimões-Negro -3.0444 -60.7275 Hylophilus brunneiceps white sand campinas Interfluve Solimões-Negro -2.9659 -60.7275 Hylophilus brunneiceps igapó flooded forest Interfluve Solimões-Negro 0.5451 -63.4583 Cyanocorax heilprini igapó flooded forest Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.6101 -63.4274 Cyanocorax heilprini white sand forest Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4748 -63.4716 Cyanocorax heilprini white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4095 -63.4074 Cyanocorax heilprini white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.8653 -63.4689 Cyanocorax heilprini white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Turdus ignobilis tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco -0.3276 -62.9691 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4552 -63.2586 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4054 -63.4066 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.5686 -63.2430 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4751 -63.4285 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.3579 -63.2590 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.3238 -63.2630 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.1424 -63.1837 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4189 -63.3840 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.5453 -63.4983 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.5556 -63.3840 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco -1.7534 -61.6804 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Confluence Jaú-Negro -2.2812 -59.0300 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Uatumã River -2.2780 -59.0632 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Uatumã River -2.2865 -58.9560 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Uatumã River -2.2720 -58.6746 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Uatumã River 1.3312 -60.9741 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Virua National Park Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Virua National Park 1.6006 -61.0347 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Virua National Park 1.6582 -60.9364 Turdus ignobilis white sand campinas Virua National Park 1.3566 -60.6047 Mimus gilvus white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4054 -63.4066 Mimus gilvus white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4751 -63.4285 Zonotrichia capensis tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 Bird records in the northwestern and central Amazon Borges et al. Species Habitats Study regions Latitud Longitud Zonotrichia capensis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4054 -63.4066 Zonotrichia capensis white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.3579 -63.2590 Emberizoides herbicola tepui Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.9176 -63.4462 Emberizoides herbicola white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4552 -63.2586 Emberizoides herbicola white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4054 -63.4066 Emberizoides herbicola white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.3238 -63.2630 Emberizoides herbicola white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.1424 -63.1837 Emberizoides herbicola white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4751 -63.4285 Emberizoides herbicola white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4751 -63.4285 0.3267 -63.2622 Emberizoides herbicola white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.5511 -63.5001 Emberizoides herbicola white sand campinas Interfluve Negro-Branco -3.0363 -60.5986 Emberizoides herbicola savanna Interfluve Solimões-Negro -1.8183 -61.7581 Emberizoides herbicola white sand campinas Confluence Jaú-Negro 0.4189 -63.3840 Sporophila plumbea rock outcrop Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4189 -63.3840 Sporophila plumbea rock outcrop Interfluve Negro-Branco 0.4189 -63.3840 Sporophila plumbea rock outcrop Interfluve Negro-Branco Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017

Journal

Ornithology ResearchSpringer Journals

Published: Sep 1, 2017

Keywords: Amazonas state; biological inventories; colonization; dispersal

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