This study presents assessment results of the hazardous materials contained in ceramic tiles used in interior decorations and construction in Saudi Arabia. Chemical compositions and radiometric characterizations of the ceramic tiles were determined by using ICP-MS, XRD, and gamma-ray spectrometer with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The results showed that the ceramic tiles and clays contained 21 elements in the ppm to ppb range, including the major elements of Ca, Si, Fe, Na, Al, Mg, Si, and K, and heavy metals that are used as tracers such as Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb. Additionally, the XRD analysis had indicated that quartz (SiO2), albilte (feldspar) in the calcium and magnesium carbonate forms, and microcline (KAlSi3O8) are also presented in the samples. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K ranged from 29 to 129 Bq kg−1, 32 to 114 Bq kg−1, and 83 to 1100 Bq kg−1, respectively. Furthermore, an assessment of the radiological risks from exposure to these nuclides was conducted by estimating the radium equivalent activity index, activity concentration index, alpha index, outdoor absorbed gamma dose rate, and the corresponding annual effective dose rate.
Journal of the Australian Ceramic Society – Springer Journals
Published: Jul 8, 2019