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Application of agro-waste-mediated silica nanoparticles to sustainable agriculture

Application of agro-waste-mediated silica nanoparticles to sustainable agriculture Introduction SiO NPs has a high positive response to biotic and abi- Nanomaterials potential uses are expanding in a variety otic stress, as well as metal toxicity such as copper, zinc, of industries, including agriculture and biotechnology. and iron (Tubana et al. 2016; Mostofa et al. 2021). Earlier, Every year, agriculture-based industries generate massive the antifungal activity of SiO NPs was well incorporated amounts of trash, such as sugarcane bagasse, corncob, in the field of medical science. Fusarium and Aspergil - rice husk, wheat straw and discharge them into the envi- lus spp. are highly specialized in infecting crops, accord- ronment. Dumping and burning of agro-wastes might ing to Aoudou et al. (2011). The application of SiO NPs behave as potent environmental pollutants. These wastes to maize plants has indicated improved leaf transpira- can be exploited as a starting point for the formation of tion rates under water stress (Kaya et al. 2006; Gao et al. useful nanomaterials. Silica nanoparticles (SiO NPs) 2006). Increased sensitivity to biotic and abiotic stresses mediated by agro-waste would be a unique concept. NPs is caused not only by a lack of necessary plant nutrients, and their derivatives are one-of-a-kind not only in terms but also by a decrease in silicon content in soil and plants of treatment approaches, but also in terms of physical (Ma and Yamaji 2008). SiO NPs undergoes polymeriza- and biological characteristics. However, research into the tion in root tissues prior to transfer and deposition in the behavior of SiO NPs in agricultural applications is still shoot sections (Debona et al. 2017). Because of their huge in its infancy. However, advances in agricultural opera- surface area and tiny size, SiO NPs are attracting a lot tions have necessitated the use of SiO NPs to improve of attention in the agriculture industry. This ensures that stress tolerance and plant growth development (Reyn- SiO NPs diffuse well into root tissues (Hafez et al. 2021). olds et al. 2009). As a result, research have revealed that SiO NPs (less than 20  nm) inhibited seed germination 2 G oswami and Mathur Bioresources and Bioprocessing (2022) 9:9 Page 3 of 12 and growth of rice seedlings, according to Nair et  al. 80 °C. (Sarangi et al. 2011; Chanadee and Chaiyarat 2016; (2011); however SiO NPs larger than 20  nm had good Sethy et al. 2019). impacts on several plant parameters. Similarly, investiga- tions found that tomato seedlings treated with SiO NPs Characterization of  SiO NPs 2 2 had better seed germination (Siddiqui and Al-Whaibi Various analytical methods were used to identify and 2014). validate the synthesized SiO NPs powder. Field emis- The existing field of nanobiotechnology is at the prime sion scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used stage of development due to lack of execution of novel to examine the morphology of SiO NPs (model: MIRA3 techniques in industrial scale and yet to be improved TESCAN). Prior to FESEM, the samples were sputtered with innovative technologies. coated with a very thin layer of gold (Au). The elemental Therefore, the present study investigated the antifungal configuration of SiO NPs was determined using energy potency of agro-waste-mediated SiO NPs by disc dif- dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) associated with the fusion experiment and broth dilution assay. Compara- FESEM. Aside from that, the crystalline structure of SiO tive studies were also performed to analyze the impacts NPs was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), pat - of these synthesized SiO NPs on physiological and bio- terns (Bruker D8 Discover X-ray Diffraction). A small chemical aspects of taramira (Eruca sativa) seedlings quantity of small (1 wt %) was scrupulously mixed with (family: Brassicaceae) in terms of germination rate, mor- potassium bromide (KBr) pellet (FTIR grade) and a disc phological characteristics, chlorophyll content, protein was prepared. Thereafter prepared pellet was measured and antioxidant enzymes. Agro-waste (sugarcane bagasse through FTIR spectroscope (Bruker FTIR) have in the −1 and corn cob) is more favorable than physical or chemi- wave number region of 4000–400  cm (Kumari and cal approaches for the production of SiO NPs since it is Khan 2017). readily accessible, cost effective, eco-friendly, and prac - ticable. This research will offer enough data to use SiO Plant material NPs to improve agricultural productivity. Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University Jobner, Rajasthan, provided E. sativa seeds. The seeds were sur - Material and methods face sterilized in a 10% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) Chemicals and materials solution for 10 min before being germinated in petri plate In the current study, analytical grade reagents were (50 seeds/plate) with a double layer of filter paper. employed. Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT), ethylenedi- amine tetra acetic acid (EDTA), dithiothreitol (DTT), Hydroponic cultivation polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), Triton-X, and ribo- Hoagland solution composed of multiple salts to provide flavin were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich in India. For a vital nutritional element. It is prepared by combining −1 deionized water, a Millipore milli-Q system was used. the macronutrients (g  L ) such as MgSO .7HO, KNO , 4 2 3 Sugarcane bagasse (SB) was taken from the Daurala sugar NH NO, KH PO, H BO, MnSO .4HO, CaCl .2H O 4 3 2 4 3 4 4 2 2 2 mill (Uttar Pradesh) for the SiO NPs synthesis, while and micronutrients as Z nSO .7H O, KI, C uSO .5H O, 2 4 2 4 2 corn cob (CC) was collected from the local market of FeSO .7HO, Na EDTA and N a MoO .2H O. The entire 4 2 2 2 4 2 Jaipur, Rajasthan. investigation was carried out in a plant growth cham- ber under controlled conditions (photoperiod of 12  h Synthesis of  SiO NPs at temperature 26  °C (± 2) and humidity 21% (± 2) and SB and CC were cleaned and dried for 2  h at 110  °C. A arranged as completely randomized block designs in 500  g of dry waste crushed into little crumbs. Waste replicates. residues were introduced into a muffle furnace for cal - cinations at different temperatures varying from 400 to Impact of  SiO NPs on E. sativa 1000  °C at an interval of 200  °C for 2  h soaking time in The effects of SiO NPs on E. sativa have been studied in static air. About 10 g of the resultant ash was agitated in terms of seed germination, physiological and biochemi- 60 mL of a 1 N NaOH (sodium hydroxide) aqueous solu- cal properties. For the investigation, four different con - tion at 80  °C to dissolve silica and form sodium silicates centrations of SiO NPs were used: 100, 250, 500, and −1 (Na SiO ). The clear solution was allowed to cool at room 1000 μg  L (Singh et  al. 2015). The NPs suspension for 2 3 temperature, and the pH was maintained at 7 by apply- treatment was sonicated for 30  min to obtain homog- ing 1  N HCl at constant stirring and then incubated for enous mixture. Surface sterilized 50 seeds were placed 12 h to commence gel formation. The synthesized gel was in their respective Petri dishes, and then a suspension of desiccated for 24 h at 80 °C to obtain xerogel (Fig. 1). To SiO NPs at each concentration was added to each Petri produce silica powder, the obtained xerogel was dried at dish. Petri dishes were kept in the dark with regulated Goswami and Mathur Bioresources and Bioprocessing (2022) 9:9 Page 4 of 12 Fig. 1 Schematic representation of SiO NPs synthesized from agro-waste (SB and CC) conditions for germination. Firstly, the germination rate Chl a mg/L = 12.72(A ) − 2.59(A ), 663 645 (1) was estimated based on the number of seeds germinated, and seeds with a root tip of 1 mm or greater were consid- Chl b mg/L = 22.88(A ) − 4.67(A ), (2) 645 663 ered germinated. Root–shoot length (cm) and biochemi- cal assays were carried out at 3, 6, and 9  days following seed germination. Total chlorophyll content mg/L = Chl a + Chl b. (3) Polyphenol analysis Total protein The polyphenol content was determined using the Bray Total protein was calculated using the Bradford (1976) and Thorpe (1954) method. A 0.1  g plant sample was method at different concentration and time frames. extracted in 75% methanol. After adding 25% sodium This was done by mixing 100 μL of enzyme extract with carbonate, the absorbance was measured at 725 nm with 1  mL of Bradford solution and measuring absorbance at a spectrophotometer. 595 nm. Determination of chlorophyll content Antioxidant activity Li et al. (2016) demonstrated a technique for quantifying The plant’s antioxidant potential was determined by chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in a leaf sample at 3, 6, monitoring the activity of various enzymes such as super- and 9  days intervals. Seedlings were homogenized with oxide dismutase and peroxidase. Leaf samples (2.0  g) 80% acetone and incubated overnight. The amount of from non-treated and treated seedlings were rinsed and chlorophyll in the sample was calculated as follows: extracted in 10  mL extraction buffer (50  mM phosphate G oswami and Mathur Bioresources and Bioprocessing (2022) 9:9 Page 5 of 12 buffer (pH 7.0) containing 1  mM EDTA, 3  mM DTT, were transferred into 96-well microtiter plates containing 5% w/v PVPP, 0.05% Triton-X). The crude extract was 100 µL of potato dextrose broth for fungal assay. Dilutions filtered using Whatman filter paper and centrifuged at were performed by the twofold serial dilution method. 13,000 rpm for 30 min at 4 °C. Later, 100 µL of tested microorganisms were inoculated to Peroxidase activity was measured using the method all wells and the microtiter plates were incubated at 27 °C described by Güneş et  al. (2019). 3  mL of solution com- (48  h) for fungi. The minimum inhibitory concentration prising 0.5  mL of guaiacol solution in 0.1  mL of pH 7.0 was determined as the lowest concentration of SiO NPs sodium phosphate buffer, 0.3  mL of hydrogen peroxide, that inhibits the growth of microorganism (Basha and Ula- and 0.1 mL of enzyme extract were mixed for this. Perox- ganathan 2002; Chan and Don 2012). idase activity was measured using a spectrophotometer at 436 nm every 30 s for up to 3 min. The extinction coef - Statistical analysis −1 −1 ficient (26.6  mM  cm ) of guaiacol at 436 nm was used The results were determined using the analysis of vari - to calculate activity. ance (ANOVA) test. Individual bars in the data represent NBT in the presence of riboflavin was used to assess the mean standard deviation of three replicates, followed superoxide dismutase activity (Güneş et  al. 2019). After by a ‘*’ signifying that the means were significantly differ - mixing 50  μL enzymes extract with 1  mL NBT (50  M), ent (p ≤ 0.05) using Tukey’s test. 500  μL methionine (13  mM), 1  mL riboflavin (1.3  M), 950  μL (50  mM) phosphate buffer, and 500  μL EDTA (75 mM), the absorbance at 560 nm was measured. Results and discussion SiO NPs characterization Microscopic analysis FESEM was used to examine the surface morphology of The presence of SiO NPs in root, shoot, and leaf tis-synthesized SiO NPs (Fig. 2a). The majority of NPs were sues was confirmed using a FESEM associated with found to be in a nano-agglomerated form with irregular EDX. The plant tissues were fixed in a 0.5  M phosphate SiO NPs shape. The EDX elemental spectrum revealed buffer containing 2.5% glutaraldehyde, left overnight, and the presence of Si (43.84%), O (24.2%) and C (17.23%) in then dehydrated with a series of alcohol concentrations the component composition (Fig.  2b). The XRD pattern (Kumari and Khan 2018). Light microscopy was used to of SiO NPs is shown in Fig.  2c; strong diffraction peaks investigate plant tissues initially, and then SEM was used of SiO NPs were observed at 2θ = 36.01°, 32.11°, 46.10° to examine them further. Aside from that, the existence and 57.13°. The diffraction peaks reported were similar of SiO NPs in root, shoot, and leaf tissues was confirmed to Suriyaprabha et al. 2012, and Chanadee and Chaiyarat by EDX analysis. (2016) which confirmed the crystallographic structure of SiO NPs. The Debye–Scherrer equation was used to cal - culate the average size of SiO NPs (Yew et al. 2016). Media for testing fungus and culture conditions Debye–Scherrer equation is shown as: Strains of Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus niger were procured from MTCC, Chandigarh. Each fungal D = k/β cos θ , hkl hkl (4) strain was sub-cultured at 27  °C in potato dextrose agar (Czerwinski and Szparaga 2015). where D is the crystallite size, λ is the X-ray wavelength of radiation for Cu Kά (0.154 nm), β is the full-width at hkl Disc diffusion assay half-maximum (FWHM), k is Scherrer constant (0.9) and Disc diffusion test was performed to evaluate the anti - θ is the diffraction angle. The average crystallite size of hkl fungal activity as described (Dhabalia et al. 2020). Sterile SiO NPs was 17.23 nm. 6-mm disks were impregnated in the agar plates. Differ - The chemical composition and functional groups of ent concentrations of SiO NPs were pipetted onto sterile the produced SiO NPs were investigated using a FTIR −1 disks. A standard disk of Manocozeb was used as positive spectrum. The 1073  cm peak corresponds to the asym- control for this study. Plates were then incubated at 30 °C metric stretching vibration and shear bands of Si–O–Si for 24–48  h until a clear zone of inhibition was formed. bonds. The symmetric stretching vibration of Si–O bonds −1 The diameter of these zones was measured. Each test was is represented by the 800  cm peak band (Palanivelu conducted in triplicates to ensure reproducibility. et al. 2014). The vibrational modifications of the silica gel network were disclosed by the peaks detected between −1 −1 Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 1090 and 799  cm as evident at 1111.39  cm . Aside −1 MIC assay was carried out using the dilution method from that, a band at 1645  cm was discovered, which with slight modifications. 100  µL of SiO NPs of known matched to the adsorption of silanol OH groups (Fig. 2d) concentration produced throughout sampling period (Palanivelu et al. 2014). Goswami and Mathur Bioresources and Bioprocessing (2022) 9:9 Page 6 of 12 Fig. 2 a–d shows characterization of synthesized SiO NPs. a FESEM, b EDX spectrum, c FTIR, and d XRD pattern Eecfft of  SiO NPs on E. sativa root–shoot lengths of 6.51 and 5.10  cm were recorded −1 The effects of SiO NPs on the majority of the evaluated at 200 μg  L SiO NPs concentrations (Alsaeedi et  al. 2 2 morphological characteristics in E. sativa seedlings were 2019). The observations made above are consistent with favorable (Fig.  3a–d). Seed germination was measured the findings of Nair et  al. (2011). This analysis revealed for the observation by monitoring the radical presence. that using FITC-labeled SiO NPs enhanced rice seedling Control seedlings were those that had not been treated germination. As a result, based on the outcome of SiO with SiO NPs. All plants treated with SiO NPs had sig- NPs treatment, we may imagine their direct and indirect 2 2 nificantly increased germination, shoot and root lengths. engagement in plant growth (Fig. 3a-b) via an increase in −1 After 9  days of treatment with 1000  μg  L SiO NPs, seed germination qualities. the longest shoot length measured was 6.3 cm, while the shortest shoot length measured was 5.5  cm in the con- Polyphenol content trol (Fig.  3c). Simultaneously, the maximum root length Phenols are important defense compounds that protect −1 at 1000 μg  L  SiO NPs treatment was 6.6 cm, whereas plants from a variety of stresses because they absorb the lowest root length in control seedlings was 6.3  cm and deactivate free radicals and decompose peroxides (Fig.  3d). Overall, the results revealed that root and (Shah et  al. 2010). The effect of SiO NPs on the poly- shoot length were somewhat increased at lower concen- phenol content of treated E. sativa seedlings is demon- −1 −1 trations such as 250  μg  L and 500 μg  L   and signifi - strated (Fig.  4b). The treatment of varied concentrations −1 cantly increased at higher concentrations (1000  μg  L ). of SiO NPs enhanced the polyphenol content linearly. Similar findings were obtained for the treatment with At 9  days intervals, the highest polyphenol content was −1 SiO NPs, which improved the root–shoot length and recorded at 1000  μg  L SiO NPs therapy while the 2 2 −1 growth of cucumber seedlings, however a minor drop lowest was reported at 100  μg  L SiO NPs treatment. was noted after a certain concentration. Maximum Similarly, SiO NPs treatments boosted the accumulation 2 G oswami and Mathur Bioresources and Bioprocessing (2022) 9:9 Page 7 of 12 −1 Fig. 3 Eec ff t of SiO NPs on E. sativa plant a and c root length and b and d shoot length at 9 days interval at 100–1000 μg L concentration of phenolic compounds in leaf epidermis compared to his study. Sun et  al. (2016) found that mesoporous SiO untreated leaves. The mechanism of SiO NPs induced NPs enhanced chlorophyll a, b, and total concentrations, phenols may be due to the accumulation of insoluble sil- which supported these findings. The results showed an ica NPs in the epidermis, which induces the enrichment increase in total protein content at 3, 6, and 9 days for all −1 of constitutional phenols in epidermal cells due to their SiO NPs treatments (100, 250, 500, and 1000 μg  L ). The −1 super high adsorption surface (Li et al. 2004). reported total protein content with 100 μg  L treatment, on the other hand, revealed no significant variation as Determination of chlorophyll and protein content compared to control pots (Fig. 5b). In comparison to 100, −1 −1 Leaves were obtained from treated and control pots, 250, and 1000  μg  L SiO NPs treatments, 500  μg  L revealing that the chlorophyll a and b contents increased SiO NPs treatment yielded the highest protein content. considerably with increasing SiO NPs concentrations Protein content was reduced at the maximum SiO NPs 2 2 −1 and time intervals (Fig.  5a). Chlorophyll a, b, and total concentration of 1000 μg  L , demonstrating the harmful −1 content were found to be highest at 1000 μg  L SiO NPs effect of SiO NPs over a specific concentration. Sun et al. 2 2 −1 concentration and lowest at 100 μg  L SiO NPs concen- (2016) showed similar results of protein content increase tration. El-Serafy (2019) observed comparable results in up to a specific threshold. Goswami and Mathur Bioresources and Bioprocessing (2022) 9:9 Page 8 of 12 −1 Fig. 4 Eec ff t of different concentrations of SiO NPs on E. sativa a germination percentage at 48 h with concentration 100, 250, 500 and 1000 μg L of SiO NPs and b polyphenol content with same treatment −1 Fig. 5 a Chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b) and total chlorophyll content and b protein content in fresh leaves of E. sativa with 100 μg L , −1 −1 −1 250 μg L , 500 μg L and 1000 μg L of SiO NPs after 9 days hydroponic cultivation Impact on oxidative stress The antioxidant capacity of the seedlings increased as Under oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes and metab- the amounts of SiO NPs increased, as measured by olites exert a significant control on the development the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In contrast to ear- of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their fatal effects. lier research, the activity of both antioxidant enzymes, G oswami and Mathur Bioresources and Bioprocessing (2022) 9:9 Page 9 of 12 −1 Fig. 6 Antioxidant activity a peroxidase and b superoxide dismutase of E. sativa with 100, 250, 500 and 1000 μg L of SiO NPs after 9 days Antifungal activity peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, was lowered with The disc diffusion experiment was used to assess the anti - increasing SiO NPs treatments, even when the treatment fungal efficacy of SiO NPs against F. oxysporum and A. method was the same. Peroxidase activity reduced when niger mycelia on potato dextrose agar plates. A control SiO NPs treatments increased, according to spectro- plate with no SiO NPs was maintained independently photometric analysis (Fig.  6a). All SiO NPs treatments 2 2 −1 for both fungal strains. Fusarium oxysporum and A. niger (100–1000 μg  L ) reduced peroxidase activity. The activ - were both inhibited by SiO NPs produced from agro- ity of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase reduced as waste (SB and CC), but no zone of inhibition was identi- the concentration of SiO NPs increased from 100 to −1 fied in control plates. At 1000 μg SiO NPs concentration, 1000 μg  L (Fig.  6b). This reduction might be due to the maximum percent inhibition reported in F. oxyspo- the better growing medium and nutrition given by SiO rum and A. niger was 73.42 ± 1.14 and 58.92 ± 3.49, NPs. Cucumber seedlings treated with SiO NPs showed respectively (Table  1). The minimum inhibitory con - a reduction in the quantity of ROS species (i.e., H O ) 2 2 centrations for F. oxysporum and A. niger were 3.1 and in a comparable research (Alsaeedi et  al. 2019). A linear −1 6.3 μg  mL , respectively. Similarly, higher antifungal reduction in peroxidase activity was found as a result of effectiveness of mesoporous SiO NPs against Alternaria increasing the dosage of applied SiO NPs. The soil treat - 2 2 solani in tomato plants has been found (Derbalah et  al. ment (S 200) produced the maximum peroxidase activ- −1 2018). The study demonstrated the highest inhibitory ity, whereas the foliar treatment of 200 mg  L  produced effectiveness of about 95% for both fungus F. oxysporum the lowest peroxidase activity when compared to the soil and A. niger (Akpinar et al. 2017). treatment of the same dose (Attia and Elhawat 2021). Microscopic studies Conclusion FESEM images of transverse sections (T.S.) of shoot and The current work demonstrates an efficient and econom - −1 root tissues at 1000 μg  L revealed SiO NPs uptake and ical green approach for producing SiO NPs from SB and accumulation in leaf, shoot, and root tissues of treated CC. At 3, 6, and 9 days intervals, SiO NPs doses of 100, −1 seedlings (Fig.  7). The existence of NPs was confirmed 250, 500, and 1000  μg  L were administered. SiO NPs after 9 days of SiO NPs therapy (Fig. 7c and e). The pres - applied to E. sativa seedlings improved not only plant ence of SiO NPs was also visible in FESEM images of leaf biometrics and physiology, but also served as an antifun- tissues (Fig.  7a). The presence of SiO NPs peaks in leaf, gal agent. SiO NPs inhibited F. oxysporum and A. niger shoot, and root tissues was confirmed by EDX analysis with maximal inhibition percentages of 73.42 and 58.92, for further validation (Fig. 7b, d, f ). respectively. Many processes, such as plant interaction Goswami and Mathur Bioresources and Bioprocessing (2022) 9:9 Page 10 of 12 −1 Fig. 7 a and b shows the FESEM and EDX spectrum of leaf tissues, c and d shoot tissue and e and f root tissues of E. sativa seedling at 1000 μg L SiO NPs treatment after 9 days 2 G oswami and Mathur Bioresources and Bioprocessing (2022) 9:9 Page 11 of 12 Table 1 Percentage (%) of growth inhibition of F. oxysporum and A. niger by SiO NPs Fungus SiO NPs content 1000 μg 500 μg 250 μg 100 μg Standard Control Fusarium oxysporum 73.42 ± 1.14 64.28 ± 2.30 61.30 ± 1.69 53.1 ± 1.52 M (97.67 ± 0.0 M) 0.00 ± 0.00 Aspergillus niger 58.92 ± 3.49 51.1 ± 2.79 43.7 ± 1.90 41.5 ± 1.58 F (100) 0.00 ± 0.00 Each value represented in table are means ± SD (N = 3), 0.00: indicates no inhibition M, Manocozeb Aoudou Y, Tatsadjieu NL, Mbofung CM (2011) Mycelia growth inhibition of with SiO NPs and their cellular and molecular activities, some Aspergillus and Fusarium species by essential oils and their potential necessitate further extensive investigation on all of these use as antiradical agent. Agric Biol J N Am 2:1362–1367 concerns. As a result, SiO NPs might be useful in agri- Attia EA, Elhawat N (2021) Combined foliar and soil application of silica nano- particles enhances the growth, flowering period and flower characteris- culture sectors as fungicides and fertilizers. tics of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.). Sci Hortic 282:110015 Basha S, Ulaganathan K (2002) Antagonism of Bacillus species (strain BC121) towards Curvularia lunata. Curr Sci 25:1457–1463 Abbreviations Bradford MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of SiO NPs: Silica nanoparticles; SEM: Scanning electron microscope; FTIR: Fourier microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye transmission infrared spectroscopy; XRD: X-ray diffraction; EDX: Energy disper - binding. Anal Biochem 72(1–2):248–254 sive X-ray; SBA: Sugarcane bagasse; MIC: Minimum inhibitory concentration. Bray HG, Thorpe WV (1954) Analysis of phenolic compounds of interest in metabolism. Methods Biochem Anal. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1002/ 97804 Acknowledgements 70110 171. ch2 The authors are thankful to Prof. Ina Shastri ( Vice-Chancellor) and Prof. Chan S, Don M (2012) Characterization of Ag nanoparticles produced by Dipjyoti Chakraborty, Head of the Department, Bioscience and Biotechnology, white-rot fungi and its in vitro antimicrobial activities. Int Arab J Anti- Banasthali Vidyapith for their encouragement and assistance. We also thank microb Agents 2(3: 3):1–8 the Bioinformatics Center, Banasthali Vidyapith, which is financed by DBT in Chanadee T, Chaiyarat S (2016) Preparation and characterization of low cost India, for providing computational assistance. silica powder from sweet corn cobs (Zea maize saccharata L.). J Mater Environ Sci 7(7):2369–2374 Authors’ contributions Czerwińska E, Szparaga A (2015) Antibacterial and antifungal activity of JM and PG conceived the present idea of writing the research and designed plant extracts. Rocz Ochr Środowiska 17(1):209–229 the content. JM encouraged to investigate and supervised the findings of this Debona D, Rodrigues FA, Datnoff LE (2017) Silicon’s role in abiotic and biotic work. PG developed the theory and performed the experiments. JM and PG plant stresses. Annu Rev Phytopathol 55:85–107 contributed to the analysis of the results and writing of the manuscript. Both Derbalah A, Shenashen M, Hamza A, Mohamed A, El Safty S (2018) Antifun- authors read and approved the final manuscript. gal activity of fabricated mesoporous silica nanoparticles against early blight of tomato. Egypt J Basic Appl Sci 5(2):145–150 Funding Dhabalia D, Ukkund SJ, Syed UT, Uddin W, Kabir MA (2020) Antifungal activ- The authors do not have any funding support. ity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles from Candida albicans on the strain lacking the CNP41 gene. Mater Res Express 7(12):125401 Availability of data and materials El-Serafy RS (2019) Silica nanoparticles enhances physio-biochemical char- All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this article. acters and postharvest quality of Rosa hybrida L. cut flowers. J Hortic Res. https:// doi. org/ 10. 2478/ johr- 2019- 0006 Gao X, Zou C, Wang L, Zhang F (2006) Silicon decreases transpiration Declarations rate and conductance from stomata of maize plants. J Plant Nutr 29:1637–1647 Ethics approval and consent to participate Güneş A, Kordali Ş, Turan M, Bozhüyük AU (2019) Determination of antioxidant Not applicable. enzyme activity and phenolic contents of some species of the Asteraceae family from medicinal plants. Ind Crops Prod 137:208–213 Consent for publication Hafez EM, Osman HS, Gowayed SM, Okasha SA, Omara AED, Sami R, Usama A The authors have consent for publication. 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Application of agro-waste-mediated silica nanoparticles to sustainable agriculture

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Abstract

Introduction SiO NPs has a high positive response to biotic and abi- Nanomaterials potential uses are expanding in a variety otic stress, as well as metal toxicity such as copper, zinc, of industries, including agriculture and biotechnology. and iron (Tubana et al. 2016; Mostofa et al. 2021). Earlier, Every year, agriculture-based industries generate massive the antifungal activity of SiO NPs was well incorporated amounts of trash, such as sugarcane bagasse, corncob, in the field of medical science. Fusarium and Aspergil - rice husk, wheat straw and discharge them into the envi- lus spp. are highly specialized in infecting crops, accord- ronment. Dumping and burning of agro-wastes might ing to Aoudou et al. (2011). The application of SiO NPs behave as potent environmental pollutants. These wastes to maize plants has indicated improved leaf transpira- can be exploited as a starting point for the formation of tion rates under water stress (Kaya et al. 2006; Gao et al. useful nanomaterials. Silica nanoparticles (SiO NPs) 2006). Increased sensitivity to biotic and abiotic stresses mediated by agro-waste would be a unique concept. NPs is caused not only by a lack of necessary plant nutrients, and their derivatives are one-of-a-kind not only in terms but also by a decrease in silicon content in soil and plants of treatment approaches, but also in terms of physical (Ma and Yamaji 2008). SiO NPs undergoes polymeriza- and biological characteristics. However, research into the tion in root tissues prior to transfer and deposition in the behavior of SiO NPs in agricultural applications is still shoot sections (Debona et al. 2017). Because of their huge in its infancy. However, advances in agricultural opera- surface area and tiny size, SiO NPs are attracting a lot tions have necessitated the use of SiO NPs to improve of attention in the agriculture industry. This ensures that stress tolerance and plant growth development (Reyn- SiO NPs diffuse well into root tissues (Hafez et al. 2021). olds et al. 2009). As a result, research have revealed that SiO NPs (less than 20  nm) inhibited seed germination 2 G oswami and Mathur Bioresources and Bioprocessing (2022) 9:9 Page 3 of 12 and growth of rice seedlings, according to Nair et  al. 80 °C. (Sarangi et al. 2011; Chanadee and Chaiyarat 2016; (2011); however SiO NPs larger than 20  nm had good Sethy et al. 2019). impacts on several plant parameters. Similarly, investiga- tions found that tomato seedlings treated with SiO NPs Characterization of  SiO NPs 2 2 had better seed germination (Siddiqui and Al-Whaibi Various analytical methods were used to identify and 2014). validate the synthesized SiO NPs powder. Field emis- The existing field of nanobiotechnology is at the prime sion scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used stage of development due to lack of execution of novel to examine the morphology of SiO NPs (model: MIRA3 techniques in industrial scale and yet to be improved TESCAN). Prior to FESEM, the samples were sputtered with innovative technologies. coated with a very thin layer of gold (Au). The elemental Therefore, the present study investigated the antifungal configuration of SiO NPs was determined using energy potency of agro-waste-mediated SiO NPs by disc dif- dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) associated with the fusion experiment and broth dilution assay. Compara- FESEM. Aside from that, the crystalline structure of SiO tive studies were also performed to analyze the impacts NPs was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), pat - of these synthesized SiO NPs on physiological and bio- terns (Bruker D8 Discover X-ray Diffraction). A small chemical aspects of taramira (Eruca sativa) seedlings quantity of small (1 wt %) was scrupulously mixed with (family: Brassicaceae) in terms of germination rate, mor- potassium bromide (KBr) pellet (FTIR grade) and a disc phological characteristics, chlorophyll content, protein was prepared. Thereafter prepared pellet was measured and antioxidant enzymes. Agro-waste (sugarcane bagasse through FTIR spectroscope (Bruker FTIR) have in the −1 and corn cob) is more favorable than physical or chemi- wave number region of 4000–400  cm (Kumari and cal approaches for the production of SiO NPs since it is Khan 2017). readily accessible, cost effective, eco-friendly, and prac - ticable. This research will offer enough data to use SiO Plant material NPs to improve agricultural productivity. Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University Jobner, Rajasthan, provided E. sativa seeds. The seeds were sur - Material and methods face sterilized in a 10% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) Chemicals and materials solution for 10 min before being germinated in petri plate In the current study, analytical grade reagents were (50 seeds/plate) with a double layer of filter paper. employed. Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT), ethylenedi- amine tetra acetic acid (EDTA), dithiothreitol (DTT), Hydroponic cultivation polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), Triton-X, and ribo- Hoagland solution composed of multiple salts to provide flavin were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich in India. For a vital nutritional element. It is prepared by combining −1 deionized water, a Millipore milli-Q system was used. the macronutrients (g  L ) such as MgSO .7HO, KNO , 4 2 3 Sugarcane bagasse (SB) was taken from the Daurala sugar NH NO, KH PO, H BO, MnSO .4HO, CaCl .2H O 4 3 2 4 3 4 4 2 2 2 mill (Uttar Pradesh) for the SiO NPs synthesis, while and micronutrients as Z nSO .7H O, KI, C uSO .5H O, 2 4 2 4 2 corn cob (CC) was collected from the local market of FeSO .7HO, Na EDTA and N a MoO .2H O. The entire 4 2 2 2 4 2 Jaipur, Rajasthan. investigation was carried out in a plant growth cham- ber under controlled conditions (photoperiod of 12  h Synthesis of  SiO NPs at temperature 26  °C (± 2) and humidity 21% (± 2) and SB and CC were cleaned and dried for 2  h at 110  °C. A arranged as completely randomized block designs in 500  g of dry waste crushed into little crumbs. Waste replicates. residues were introduced into a muffle furnace for cal - cinations at different temperatures varying from 400 to Impact of  SiO NPs on E. sativa 1000  °C at an interval of 200  °C for 2  h soaking time in The effects of SiO NPs on E. sativa have been studied in static air. About 10 g of the resultant ash was agitated in terms of seed germination, physiological and biochemi- 60 mL of a 1 N NaOH (sodium hydroxide) aqueous solu- cal properties. For the investigation, four different con - tion at 80  °C to dissolve silica and form sodium silicates centrations of SiO NPs were used: 100, 250, 500, and −1 (Na SiO ). The clear solution was allowed to cool at room 1000 μg  L (Singh et  al. 2015). The NPs suspension for 2 3 temperature, and the pH was maintained at 7 by apply- treatment was sonicated for 30  min to obtain homog- ing 1  N HCl at constant stirring and then incubated for enous mixture. Surface sterilized 50 seeds were placed 12 h to commence gel formation. The synthesized gel was in their respective Petri dishes, and then a suspension of desiccated for 24 h at 80 °C to obtain xerogel (Fig. 1). To SiO NPs at each concentration was added to each Petri produce silica powder, the obtained xerogel was dried at dish. Petri dishes were kept in the dark with regulated Goswami and Mathur Bioresources and Bioprocessing (2022) 9:9 Page 4 of 12 Fig. 1 Schematic representation of SiO NPs synthesized from agro-waste (SB and CC) conditions for germination. Firstly, the germination rate Chl a mg/L = 12.72(A ) − 2.59(A ), 663 645 (1) was estimated based on the number of seeds germinated, and seeds with a root tip of 1 mm or greater were consid- Chl b mg/L = 22.88(A ) − 4.67(A ), (2) 645 663 ered germinated. Root–shoot length (cm) and biochemi- cal assays were carried out at 3, 6, and 9  days following seed germination. Total chlorophyll content mg/L = Chl a + Chl b. (3) Polyphenol analysis Total protein The polyphenol content was determined using the Bray Total protein was calculated using the Bradford (1976) and Thorpe (1954) method. A 0.1  g plant sample was method at different concentration and time frames. extracted in 75% methanol. After adding 25% sodium This was done by mixing 100 μL of enzyme extract with carbonate, the absorbance was measured at 725 nm with 1  mL of Bradford solution and measuring absorbance at a spectrophotometer. 595 nm. Determination of chlorophyll content Antioxidant activity Li et al. (2016) demonstrated a technique for quantifying The plant’s antioxidant potential was determined by chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in a leaf sample at 3, 6, monitoring the activity of various enzymes such as super- and 9  days intervals. Seedlings were homogenized with oxide dismutase and peroxidase. Leaf samples (2.0  g) 80% acetone and incubated overnight. The amount of from non-treated and treated seedlings were rinsed and chlorophyll in the sample was calculated as follows: extracted in 10  mL extraction buffer (50  mM phosphate G oswami and Mathur Bioresources and Bioprocessing (2022) 9:9 Page 5 of 12 buffer (pH 7.0) containing 1  mM EDTA, 3  mM DTT, were transferred into 96-well microtiter plates containing 5% w/v PVPP, 0.05% Triton-X). The crude extract was 100 µL of potato dextrose broth for fungal assay. Dilutions filtered using Whatman filter paper and centrifuged at were performed by the twofold serial dilution method. 13,000 rpm for 30 min at 4 °C. Later, 100 µL of tested microorganisms were inoculated to Peroxidase activity was measured using the method all wells and the microtiter plates were incubated at 27 °C described by Güneş et  al. (2019). 3  mL of solution com- (48  h) for fungi. The minimum inhibitory concentration prising 0.5  mL of guaiacol solution in 0.1  mL of pH 7.0 was determined as the lowest concentration of SiO NPs sodium phosphate buffer, 0.3  mL of hydrogen peroxide, that inhibits the growth of microorganism (Basha and Ula- and 0.1 mL of enzyme extract were mixed for this. Perox- ganathan 2002; Chan and Don 2012). idase activity was measured using a spectrophotometer at 436 nm every 30 s for up to 3 min. The extinction coef - Statistical analysis −1 −1 ficient (26.6  mM  cm ) of guaiacol at 436 nm was used The results were determined using the analysis of vari - to calculate activity. ance (ANOVA) test. Individual bars in the data represent NBT in the presence of riboflavin was used to assess the mean standard deviation of three replicates, followed superoxide dismutase activity (Güneş et  al. 2019). After by a ‘*’ signifying that the means were significantly differ - mixing 50  μL enzymes extract with 1  mL NBT (50  M), ent (p ≤ 0.05) using Tukey’s test. 500  μL methionine (13  mM), 1  mL riboflavin (1.3  M), 950  μL (50  mM) phosphate buffer, and 500  μL EDTA (75 mM), the absorbance at 560 nm was measured. Results and discussion SiO NPs characterization Microscopic analysis FESEM was used to examine the surface morphology of The presence of SiO NPs in root, shoot, and leaf tis-synthesized SiO NPs (Fig. 2a). The majority of NPs were sues was confirmed using a FESEM associated with found to be in a nano-agglomerated form with irregular EDX. The plant tissues were fixed in a 0.5  M phosphate SiO NPs shape. The EDX elemental spectrum revealed buffer containing 2.5% glutaraldehyde, left overnight, and the presence of Si (43.84%), O (24.2%) and C (17.23%) in then dehydrated with a series of alcohol concentrations the component composition (Fig.  2b). The XRD pattern (Kumari and Khan 2018). Light microscopy was used to of SiO NPs is shown in Fig.  2c; strong diffraction peaks investigate plant tissues initially, and then SEM was used of SiO NPs were observed at 2θ = 36.01°, 32.11°, 46.10° to examine them further. Aside from that, the existence and 57.13°. The diffraction peaks reported were similar of SiO NPs in root, shoot, and leaf tissues was confirmed to Suriyaprabha et al. 2012, and Chanadee and Chaiyarat by EDX analysis. (2016) which confirmed the crystallographic structure of SiO NPs. The Debye–Scherrer equation was used to cal - culate the average size of SiO NPs (Yew et al. 2016). Media for testing fungus and culture conditions Debye–Scherrer equation is shown as: Strains of Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus niger were procured from MTCC, Chandigarh. Each fungal D = k/β cos θ , hkl hkl (4) strain was sub-cultured at 27  °C in potato dextrose agar (Czerwinski and Szparaga 2015). where D is the crystallite size, λ is the X-ray wavelength of radiation for Cu Kά (0.154 nm), β is the full-width at hkl Disc diffusion assay half-maximum (FWHM), k is Scherrer constant (0.9) and Disc diffusion test was performed to evaluate the anti - θ is the diffraction angle. The average crystallite size of hkl fungal activity as described (Dhabalia et al. 2020). Sterile SiO NPs was 17.23 nm. 6-mm disks were impregnated in the agar plates. Differ - The chemical composition and functional groups of ent concentrations of SiO NPs were pipetted onto sterile the produced SiO NPs were investigated using a FTIR −1 disks. A standard disk of Manocozeb was used as positive spectrum. The 1073  cm peak corresponds to the asym- control for this study. Plates were then incubated at 30 °C metric stretching vibration and shear bands of Si–O–Si for 24–48  h until a clear zone of inhibition was formed. bonds. The symmetric stretching vibration of Si–O bonds −1 The diameter of these zones was measured. Each test was is represented by the 800  cm peak band (Palanivelu conducted in triplicates to ensure reproducibility. et al. 2014). The vibrational modifications of the silica gel network were disclosed by the peaks detected between −1 −1 Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 1090 and 799  cm as evident at 1111.39  cm . Aside −1 MIC assay was carried out using the dilution method from that, a band at 1645  cm was discovered, which with slight modifications. 100  µL of SiO NPs of known matched to the adsorption of silanol OH groups (Fig. 2d) concentration produced throughout sampling period (Palanivelu et al. 2014). Goswami and Mathur Bioresources and Bioprocessing (2022) 9:9 Page 6 of 12 Fig. 2 a–d shows characterization of synthesized SiO NPs. a FESEM, b EDX spectrum, c FTIR, and d XRD pattern Eecfft of  SiO NPs on E. sativa root–shoot lengths of 6.51 and 5.10  cm were recorded −1 The effects of SiO NPs on the majority of the evaluated at 200 μg  L SiO NPs concentrations (Alsaeedi et  al. 2 2 morphological characteristics in E. sativa seedlings were 2019). The observations made above are consistent with favorable (Fig.  3a–d). Seed germination was measured the findings of Nair et  al. (2011). This analysis revealed for the observation by monitoring the radical presence. that using FITC-labeled SiO NPs enhanced rice seedling Control seedlings were those that had not been treated germination. As a result, based on the outcome of SiO with SiO NPs. All plants treated with SiO NPs had sig- NPs treatment, we may imagine their direct and indirect 2 2 nificantly increased germination, shoot and root lengths. engagement in plant growth (Fig. 3a-b) via an increase in −1 After 9  days of treatment with 1000  μg  L SiO NPs, seed germination qualities. the longest shoot length measured was 6.3 cm, while the shortest shoot length measured was 5.5  cm in the con- Polyphenol content trol (Fig.  3c). Simultaneously, the maximum root length Phenols are important defense compounds that protect −1 at 1000 μg  L  SiO NPs treatment was 6.6 cm, whereas plants from a variety of stresses because they absorb the lowest root length in control seedlings was 6.3  cm and deactivate free radicals and decompose peroxides (Fig.  3d). Overall, the results revealed that root and (Shah et  al. 2010). The effect of SiO NPs on the poly- shoot length were somewhat increased at lower concen- phenol content of treated E. sativa seedlings is demon- −1 −1 trations such as 250  μg  L and 500 μg  L   and signifi - strated (Fig.  4b). The treatment of varied concentrations −1 cantly increased at higher concentrations (1000  μg  L ). of SiO NPs enhanced the polyphenol content linearly. Similar findings were obtained for the treatment with At 9  days intervals, the highest polyphenol content was −1 SiO NPs, which improved the root–shoot length and recorded at 1000  μg  L SiO NPs therapy while the 2 2 −1 growth of cucumber seedlings, however a minor drop lowest was reported at 100  μg  L SiO NPs treatment. was noted after a certain concentration. Maximum Similarly, SiO NPs treatments boosted the accumulation 2 G oswami and Mathur Bioresources and Bioprocessing (2022) 9:9 Page 7 of 12 −1 Fig. 3 Eec ff t of SiO NPs on E. sativa plant a and c root length and b and d shoot length at 9 days interval at 100–1000 μg L concentration of phenolic compounds in leaf epidermis compared to his study. Sun et  al. (2016) found that mesoporous SiO untreated leaves. The mechanism of SiO NPs induced NPs enhanced chlorophyll a, b, and total concentrations, phenols may be due to the accumulation of insoluble sil- which supported these findings. The results showed an ica NPs in the epidermis, which induces the enrichment increase in total protein content at 3, 6, and 9 days for all −1 of constitutional phenols in epidermal cells due to their SiO NPs treatments (100, 250, 500, and 1000 μg  L ). The −1 super high adsorption surface (Li et al. 2004). reported total protein content with 100 μg  L treatment, on the other hand, revealed no significant variation as Determination of chlorophyll and protein content compared to control pots (Fig. 5b). In comparison to 100, −1 −1 Leaves were obtained from treated and control pots, 250, and 1000  μg  L SiO NPs treatments, 500  μg  L revealing that the chlorophyll a and b contents increased SiO NPs treatment yielded the highest protein content. considerably with increasing SiO NPs concentrations Protein content was reduced at the maximum SiO NPs 2 2 −1 and time intervals (Fig.  5a). Chlorophyll a, b, and total concentration of 1000 μg  L , demonstrating the harmful −1 content were found to be highest at 1000 μg  L SiO NPs effect of SiO NPs over a specific concentration. Sun et al. 2 2 −1 concentration and lowest at 100 μg  L SiO NPs concen- (2016) showed similar results of protein content increase tration. El-Serafy (2019) observed comparable results in up to a specific threshold. Goswami and Mathur Bioresources and Bioprocessing (2022) 9:9 Page 8 of 12 −1 Fig. 4 Eec ff t of different concentrations of SiO NPs on E. sativa a germination percentage at 48 h with concentration 100, 250, 500 and 1000 μg L of SiO NPs and b polyphenol content with same treatment −1 Fig. 5 a Chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b) and total chlorophyll content and b protein content in fresh leaves of E. sativa with 100 μg L , −1 −1 −1 250 μg L , 500 μg L and 1000 μg L of SiO NPs after 9 days hydroponic cultivation Impact on oxidative stress The antioxidant capacity of the seedlings increased as Under oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes and metab- the amounts of SiO NPs increased, as measured by olites exert a significant control on the development the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In contrast to ear- of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their fatal effects. lier research, the activity of both antioxidant enzymes, G oswami and Mathur Bioresources and Bioprocessing (2022) 9:9 Page 9 of 12 −1 Fig. 6 Antioxidant activity a peroxidase and b superoxide dismutase of E. sativa with 100, 250, 500 and 1000 μg L of SiO NPs after 9 days Antifungal activity peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, was lowered with The disc diffusion experiment was used to assess the anti - increasing SiO NPs treatments, even when the treatment fungal efficacy of SiO NPs against F. oxysporum and A. method was the same. Peroxidase activity reduced when niger mycelia on potato dextrose agar plates. A control SiO NPs treatments increased, according to spectro- plate with no SiO NPs was maintained independently photometric analysis (Fig.  6a). All SiO NPs treatments 2 2 −1 for both fungal strains. Fusarium oxysporum and A. niger (100–1000 μg  L ) reduced peroxidase activity. The activ - were both inhibited by SiO NPs produced from agro- ity of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase reduced as waste (SB and CC), but no zone of inhibition was identi- the concentration of SiO NPs increased from 100 to −1 fied in control plates. At 1000 μg SiO NPs concentration, 1000 μg  L (Fig.  6b). This reduction might be due to the maximum percent inhibition reported in F. oxyspo- the better growing medium and nutrition given by SiO rum and A. niger was 73.42 ± 1.14 and 58.92 ± 3.49, NPs. Cucumber seedlings treated with SiO NPs showed respectively (Table  1). The minimum inhibitory con - a reduction in the quantity of ROS species (i.e., H O ) 2 2 centrations for F. oxysporum and A. niger were 3.1 and in a comparable research (Alsaeedi et  al. 2019). A linear −1 6.3 μg  mL , respectively. Similarly, higher antifungal reduction in peroxidase activity was found as a result of effectiveness of mesoporous SiO NPs against Alternaria increasing the dosage of applied SiO NPs. The soil treat - 2 2 solani in tomato plants has been found (Derbalah et  al. ment (S 200) produced the maximum peroxidase activ- −1 2018). The study demonstrated the highest inhibitory ity, whereas the foliar treatment of 200 mg  L  produced effectiveness of about 95% for both fungus F. oxysporum the lowest peroxidase activity when compared to the soil and A. niger (Akpinar et al. 2017). treatment of the same dose (Attia and Elhawat 2021). Microscopic studies Conclusion FESEM images of transverse sections (T.S.) of shoot and The current work demonstrates an efficient and econom - −1 root tissues at 1000 μg  L revealed SiO NPs uptake and ical green approach for producing SiO NPs from SB and accumulation in leaf, shoot, and root tissues of treated CC. At 3, 6, and 9 days intervals, SiO NPs doses of 100, −1 seedlings (Fig.  7). The existence of NPs was confirmed 250, 500, and 1000  μg  L were administered. SiO NPs after 9 days of SiO NPs therapy (Fig. 7c and e). The pres - applied to E. sativa seedlings improved not only plant ence of SiO NPs was also visible in FESEM images of leaf biometrics and physiology, but also served as an antifun- tissues (Fig.  7a). The presence of SiO NPs peaks in leaf, gal agent. SiO NPs inhibited F. oxysporum and A. niger shoot, and root tissues was confirmed by EDX analysis with maximal inhibition percentages of 73.42 and 58.92, for further validation (Fig. 7b, d, f ). respectively. Many processes, such as plant interaction Goswami and Mathur Bioresources and Bioprocessing (2022) 9:9 Page 10 of 12 −1 Fig. 7 a and b shows the FESEM and EDX spectrum of leaf tissues, c and d shoot tissue and e and f root tissues of E. sativa seedling at 1000 μg L SiO NPs treatment after 9 days 2 G oswami and Mathur Bioresources and Bioprocessing (2022) 9:9 Page 11 of 12 Table 1 Percentage (%) of growth inhibition of F. oxysporum and A. niger by SiO NPs Fungus SiO NPs content 1000 μg 500 μg 250 μg 100 μg Standard Control Fusarium oxysporum 73.42 ± 1.14 64.28 ± 2.30 61.30 ± 1.69 53.1 ± 1.52 M (97.67 ± 0.0 M) 0.00 ± 0.00 Aspergillus niger 58.92 ± 3.49 51.1 ± 2.79 43.7 ± 1.90 41.5 ± 1.58 F (100) 0.00 ± 0.00 Each value represented in table are means ± SD (N = 3), 0.00: indicates no inhibition M, Manocozeb Aoudou Y, Tatsadjieu NL, Mbofung CM (2011) Mycelia growth inhibition of with SiO NPs and their cellular and molecular activities, some Aspergillus and Fusarium species by essential oils and their potential necessitate further extensive investigation on all of these use as antiradical agent. Agric Biol J N Am 2:1362–1367 concerns. As a result, SiO NPs might be useful in agri- Attia EA, Elhawat N (2021) Combined foliar and soil application of silica nano- particles enhances the growth, flowering period and flower characteris- culture sectors as fungicides and fertilizers. tics of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.). Sci Hortic 282:110015 Basha S, Ulaganathan K (2002) Antagonism of Bacillus species (strain BC121) towards Curvularia lunata. Curr Sci 25:1457–1463 Abbreviations Bradford MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of SiO NPs: Silica nanoparticles; SEM: Scanning electron microscope; FTIR: Fourier microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye transmission infrared spectroscopy; XRD: X-ray diffraction; EDX: Energy disper - binding. Anal Biochem 72(1–2):248–254 sive X-ray; SBA: Sugarcane bagasse; MIC: Minimum inhibitory concentration. Bray HG, Thorpe WV (1954) Analysis of phenolic compounds of interest in metabolism. Methods Biochem Anal. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1002/ 97804 Acknowledgements 70110 171. ch2 The authors are thankful to Prof. Ina Shastri ( Vice-Chancellor) and Prof. Chan S, Don M (2012) Characterization of Ag nanoparticles produced by Dipjyoti Chakraborty, Head of the Department, Bioscience and Biotechnology, white-rot fungi and its in vitro antimicrobial activities. Int Arab J Anti- Banasthali Vidyapith for their encouragement and assistance. We also thank microb Agents 2(3: 3):1–8 the Bioinformatics Center, Banasthali Vidyapith, which is financed by DBT in Chanadee T, Chaiyarat S (2016) Preparation and characterization of low cost India, for providing computational assistance. silica powder from sweet corn cobs (Zea maize saccharata L.). J Mater Environ Sci 7(7):2369–2374 Authors’ contributions Czerwińska E, Szparaga A (2015) Antibacterial and antifungal activity of JM and PG conceived the present idea of writing the research and designed plant extracts. Rocz Ochr Środowiska 17(1):209–229 the content. JM encouraged to investigate and supervised the findings of this Debona D, Rodrigues FA, Datnoff LE (2017) Silicon’s role in abiotic and biotic work. PG developed the theory and performed the experiments. JM and PG plant stresses. Annu Rev Phytopathol 55:85–107 contributed to the analysis of the results and writing of the manuscript. Both Derbalah A, Shenashen M, Hamza A, Mohamed A, El Safty S (2018) Antifun- authors read and approved the final manuscript. gal activity of fabricated mesoporous silica nanoparticles against early blight of tomato. Egypt J Basic Appl Sci 5(2):145–150 Funding Dhabalia D, Ukkund SJ, Syed UT, Uddin W, Kabir MA (2020) Antifungal activ- The authors do not have any funding support. ity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles from Candida albicans on the strain lacking the CNP41 gene. 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Journal

Bioresources and BioprocessingSpringer Journals

Published: Jan 31, 2022

Keywords: Agro-waste; Silica nanoparticles; Hydroponic; Eruca sativa

References