Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.
In nature, marine mussels (Mytilus edulis) suffer less fouling colonization on the newly formed sides of their shells. Using settlement assays with algal spores of Porphyra suborbiculata, we determined that spore attachment and germination on the periostracum decreased to 36.8 and 3.3 %, respectively. Additionally, the spore settlement was considerably diminished by periostracum dichloromethane extracts containing 19 % oleamide, a major antifouling compound. A scanning electron micrograph of the surface revealed a regular ripple structure with approximately 1.4 μm between ripples. Based on these results, mussel periostraca or their associated biomimetic materials may become environmentally friendly, antifouling agents for preventing the settlement of soft foulants. Keywords: Antifouling, Mytilus edulis, Oleamide, Periostracum Background important (Scardino and de Nys 2011). Researchers have Biofouling is a natural marine ecosystem process caused observed that some marine species, such as mussels, can by the surface colonization and development of micro- resist fouling when in good physiological condition and macrofoulers on submerged natural or artificial (Scardino and de Nys 2004; Bers et al. 2006). Mussels marine structures, and can lead to economic and envir- have a tough, yet pliable, proteinaceous shell covering onmental losses worldwide. The fouling of ship hulls secreted by the mantle, known as the periostracum and fishing nets results in major costs for the marine in- (Harper and Skelton 1993; Scardino et al. 2003). Wahl dustry through increased maintenance and fuel require- et al. (1998) found that when the periostracum was ments due to greater levels of hull drag, lost productivity physically removed in Mytilus edulis, they observed an due to an increased frequency of dry-docking for the re- increase in the settlement of barnacles and algae on the moval of fouling organisms, and compliance with envir- shell. Conversely, mussels with an intact periostracum onmental regulations (Yebra et al. 2004). Previously showed a greater resistance to fouling pressure (Scardino utilized antifouling agents, such as the common vessel et al. 2003). Several studies have reported the benefits of tributyltin biocidal coatings, although effective against microtopography on mussel shells as a physical fouling fouling, are also toxic (Minchin et al. 1996; Atanasov deterrent (Bers and Wahl 2004; Scardino and de Nys et al. 2005; Sonak 2009). As a result of the negative 2004). However, the general antifouling role of the peri- environmental impacts associated with its toxicity, ostracum in deterring settlement of fouling organisms tributyltin has become the subject of a relatively recent and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. There- worldwide ban by the International Maritime fore, we investigated chemical elements from perios- Organization (IMO). Due to the limitations of conven- tracum extracts and the physical surface of the tional coatings, research on biomimetic surfaces and periostracum responsible for defense against algal compounds inspired by natural systems has become spore settlement. Monospores of Porphyra suborbicu- lata, one of common wild seaweed and easily obtain- able throughout the year in a laboratory scale, were * Correspondence: email@example.com conveniently used as an assay organism for spore Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Namku, Busan 48513, Korea attachent and germination. Full list of author information is available at the end of the article © 2016 Kang et al. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Kang et al. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2016) 19:7 Page 2 of 6 Methods a scanning-electron microscope (JSM-6700F; JEOL, Mussels Tokyo, Japan). Aquacultured (6.5 ± 0.4 cm) and wild (4.4 ± 0.3 cm) Mytilus edulis mussels were purchased from the Nam- cheon fish market and collected from the rocky inter- Algal spores tidal area at Eegidae (35°11′97″ N, 129°12′74″ E), on Juvenile blades of P. suborbiculata were collected from the east coast of Busan, Korea. For solvent extraction, the rocky intertidal area at the mussel collection site. shells of aquacultured mussels were gently cleaned to re- The fresh blades were rinsed, sonicated (40 kHz) twice move associated detritus and epibionts prior to submer- for 1 min in autoclaved seawater, and immersed in 1 % sion in vinegar solution. Betadine solution with 2 % Triton X-100 for 1 min to eliminate epiphytes (Choi et al. 2005). To liberate the Periostracum extracts monospores, blades were cultured in Provasoli-enriched Whole shells were submerged in a vinegar and seawater seawater (PES) medium (Provasoli 1968) under a mixture (1:2 vinegar: seawater, approximately 2 % acetic 40 μmol/m /s light intensity (10 L:14D) at 18 °C. Mono- acid) to aid in removing the periostracum (Grandison spores were then used for attachment and germination et al. 2011). Shells were retained in this mixture for 1 d, assays under the same conditions. after which the periostracum was peeled from the shell with forceps and stored in seawater. After rinsing with distilled water, the peeled periostraca were freeze-dried Attachment and germination assays and ground to a powder by hand for 5 min using a mor- For assays of algal spore attachment, aliquots of 100 μL tar and pestle. Twenty mg of periostracum powder was seawater were first distributed into a 96-well plate. We extracted with each one mL solvent of dichloromethane, added 1 μL of periostracum extract (40 mg/ml), 4 μL ethyl acetate, and methanol. Extraction with each solvent PES stock, and approximately 100–200 spores to each, was repeated three times for 1 h using pulses of an ultra- with the final volume being 200 μL. The resulting spore sonic water bath (low-intensity frequency of 40 kHz), suspensions were placed in the dark for 1 d at 18 °C to and the extracts were then dried with nitrogen. A stock allow for even settlement on the bottom. At the end of solution of each extraction was prepared by adding this period, nonattached spores were removed from the 1 mL dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to each 40 mg of dried bottom by centrifugation in an inverted position at extract. The prepared stocks were filtered through a 1500 × g for 15 min. The number of attached spores was 0.45-μm syringe filter before use. counted under a microscope after replacing the PES so- lution. Relative attachment (%) was expressed as a per- GC-MS analysis centage of the attached spores against total spores The dichloromethane extracts of non-treated (i.e., no added. The reference for each test was prepared using vinegar) periostraca were analyzed by gas chromatog- the same procedure but with no extract. The minimum raphy–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using a QP5050A detectable inhibition of spore attachment by DMSO oc- instrument (Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan) equipped with a curred at 0.5 %. Thus, the solvent extracts and reference flame-ionization detector and compared with spectral were always added to the assay medium to provide a data from the database. Analysis was performed on an DMSO concentration of less than 0.5 %. For spore ger- HP-5 column (30 m × 0.25 mm, 0.25 μm; Agilent Tech- mination assays, approximately 100–200 spores were nologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). The temperature was added to a 200-μL aliquot of PES in a 96-well plate and initially held at 50 °C for 2 min and raised to 150 °C at placed in the dark for 1 d at 18 °C to allow spores to set- 4 °C/min and to 250 °C at 7 °C/min. Helium carrier gas tle on the bottom. After removing the nonattached was controlled at 0.6 mL/min with a split ratio of 1:50. spores by centrifugation in an inverted position, a fresh The mass spectrometer was operated in electron- 200 μL of PES was added. Then, 1 μL of each extract ionization mode at 70 eV. (40 mg/ml) was immediately added to each 200 μL cul- ture. The resulting germination cultures were placed at Scanning electron microscopy 18 °C and 80 μmol/m /s light intensity on a 12 L:12D The periostracum, peeled from the shell, was rinsed with cycle for 1 week to permit development. The number of distilled water and freeze-dried under vacuum before germlings was counted under a microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. For SEM expressed as relative germination (%), i.e., the percentage images, periostracum was mounted on conductive car- of germinated spores to the total number of spores at- bon tabs of a SEM post (Ted Pella, Inc., Redding, CA), tached. The minimum DMSO concentration leading to sputter-coated using a Desk-II coater equipped with a detectable inhibition was 0.5 %. Thus the final concen- gold target (Alfa Aesar, Ward Hill, MA), and imaged in tration of DMSO was kept below 0.5 % in all assays. Kang et al. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2016) 19:7 Page 3 of 6 Statistical analysis correlation exists between the presence of an intact peri- The experiments were repeated at least three times with ostracum and reduced fouling, which is consistent with each independent assay. The means of each indicator the idea that the periostracum is used as an antifouling were compared to the controls using Student’s t-tests. structure. The aquacultured mussel shells were dipped in vinegar Results and discussion seawater, and the periostracum was peeled. When The shells of epibenthic bivalves offer substantial space monospores of P. suborbiculata were added to the peri- for settlement of larvae and algal spores; however, the ostracum peels in PES, 36.8 % of spores attached suc- shells of mytilids often appear less fouled than adjacent cessfully, and among attached spores, only 3.3 % biological and nonbiological substrata, where newer germinated (Table 1). Thus, the periostracum showed margin parts generally have fewer epibionts in nature. potent anti-settlement effects on algal spores compared When we divided the external surface of wild mussel to the reference polystyrene material of the 24-well shells into five sections, approximately 70 epibionts of plate. The intact periostracum is able to resist fouling epizoons and epiphytes were observed on the oldest pressures via chemical and physical antifouling defense umbo parts, and fewer were detected on the margin components. To investigate the potential antifouling ef- parts (Fig. 1); the new margin parts have intact surfaces fects of the periostracum, solvent extracts were first to defend against fouling settlement. Aquaculture mus- prepared and tested for efficacy in preventing the attach- sels generally had the same trend, even with fewer num- ment and germination of algal spores. Three solvents, bers of epibionts on shell surfaces. This reduced dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol, with dif- settlement may be related to the intact texture and/or ferent polarities were used to extract the soluble com- fresh components of the non-damaged periostracum. pounds from fresh periostraca and vinegar-treated When looking at fouling organisms on mussel shells, we periostricum peels. When 200 μg/ml of each extract was observed that the shells of aquaculture mussels had in- placed in the attachment and germination assay mix- tact periostraca while those of wild mussels were dam- tures, dichloromethane extracts of both non-treated and aged. Thus, the shells of aquaculture mussels were vinegar-treated periostraca showed an attachment reduc- largely unfouled compared to the shells of wild mussels. tion of 31–35 % and a germination reduction of 3–5% In various molluscs, a range of fouling organisms, in- (Table 2). Extracts produced by the more nonpolar sol- cluding endolithic algae, sponges, and other inverte- vents were more effective in preventing attachment and brates, have shown a preference for areas of the shell germination, suggesting that the responsible compound where the periostracum is abraded or absent, such as on also has a nonpolar lipophilic property. The chemical older shells (Kaehler 1999). Wahl et al. (1998) found that composition of the potent dichloromethane extract of fouling by algae and barnacles on M. edulis was signifi- non-treated periostraca was analyzed by GC-MS cantly greater on areas of the shell where the periostra- (Table 3). The major components by relative mass per- cum had been physically removed. Overall, a strong centage were oleamide (19 %), an amide of the fatty acid oleic acid, and 1-tetracosanol (9 %), a fatty alcohol de- rived from the fatty acid lignoceric acid. One of the major compounds in the dichloromethane extract of mussel periostraca was oleamide (C H NO; CAS num- 18 35 ber 301-02-0), an endogenous amide form of oleic acid. This compound has shown antifouling effects on Ulva pertusa spore settlement and germination; i.e., it inhib- ited 100 % settlement with 10 μg/ml (Cho 2012). Olea- mide is also known to induce sleep in animals by Table 1 Attachment and germination of algal spores on periostracum peels of the mussel Mytilus edulis c c Relative attachment (%) Relative germination (%) Periostracum 232/629 (36.8 %)* 10/299 (3.3 %)** peels Reference 1532/1823 (84.0 %) 1042/1288 (80.9 %) Fig. 1 Numbers of epibionts on periostraca of the wild and farmed mussel Mytilus edulis. Black and gray bars represent wild and farmed Spores were added to the periostracum peels in the 24-well plate mussels, respectively. Regions are divided into five sections from the Polystyrene material of the 24-well plate without peels was used as a reference oldest umbo part (1) to the newer margin parts (5) of shells. Values Values are means ± SD (n ≥ 4) are means ± SD (n = 100) *P < 0.1, **P < 0.01 Kang et al. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2016) 19:7 Page 4 of 6 Table 2 Effects of periostracum extracts (200 μg/mL each) on the attachment and germination of Porphyra suborbiculata monospores a a Periostracum Extracts Yield (%) Relative attachment (%) Relative germination (%) Acidified outer Dichloromethane 21.5 35 ± 17** 5.1 ± 1.8** Ethyl acetate 5.0 41 ± 7** 8.9 ± 2.4** Methanol 5.0 55 ± 9* 10.6 ± 5.0** Acidified inner Dichloromethane 37.5 31 ± 7** 3.5 ± 3.2** Ethyl acetate 5.0 32 ± 1** 5.2 ± 2.6** Methanol 5.0 34 ± 6** 10.6 ± 2.4** Fresh inner Dichloromethane 0.5 35 ± 5** 3.4 ± 5.4** Ethyl acetate 1.5 37 ± 9** 4.5 ± 4.1** Methanol 1.0 47 ± 8* 16.5 ± 3.6** Reference 81 ± 7 83.2 ± 5.9 Relative activities (%) are expressed as means ± SD (n ≥ 3) *P < 0.1, **P < 0.01 interacting with multiple neurotransmitter systems unlubricated surfaces. An organic corrosion inhibitor (Huitron-Resendiz et al. 2001; Mendelson and Basile such as disodium oleamide sulfosuccinate can be used 2001). In an open-field test of locomotion, the ED to control either corrosion attack at anodic sites or (the dose causing half of the observed effect) of loco- depolarizing reactions at cathodic sites (Brooman motion reduction was an injection of 17 ± 1.5 mg/kg 2002). A second major compound found in the peri- (Fedorova et al. 2001). Oleamide injections cause ostracum extract was 1-tetracosanol (C H O; CAS 24 50 dose-dependent reductions in the time required to fall number 506-51-4), a fatty alcohol derived from the asleep, and reductions in locomotion in research ani- fatty acid lignoceric acid. Long-chain, primary alco- mals, both with high reliability. Synthetically produced hols are of high industrial value, mostly serving as oleamide has a variety of industrial uses, including its surfactants in detergents and other cleaning products application as a slip agent, lubricant, and corrosion (Houston 1984). The excellent lubrication properties inhibitor. Slip agents are used in polyethylene to and stabilities of fatty alcohols make them valuable to the bloom to the surface once the film has been pro- lubricant industry, particularly as high-performance duced and to reduce friction coefficients in post- factory machine lubricants and automobile transmission processing operations (Garrido-López et al. 2006). fluids. Thus, these major compounds are directly or Briscoe et al. (1972) found that adding surface films indirectly related to the antifouling effects of mussel of oleamide to a substrate reduced the friction periostraca. coefficient to as low as 0.03, compared to 0.4 for To understand physical antifouling defenses, a fresh margin part of mussel periostracum was used for scan- ning electron micrography (SEM). The natural surface Table 3 Profile of the major compounds in the microtopographies of the periostracum may contribute dichloromethane extract of periostraca using GC-MS to the antifouling strategies of mussels. As shown in RT (min) Compounds Composition (%) Fig. 2, the margin part of periostracum has a thin trans- 8.3 Nonanal 1.49 parent layer. Using a scanning electron microscope at 10.9 Pelargonic acid (C7:0) 0.32 10,000× magnification, a regular ripple structure was 17.6 Myristic acid (C14:0) 0.37 found on the periostracum, where regular corrugated 21.4 Palmitic acid (C16:0) 0.31 ridges run parallel to each other and stretch across the 22.8 Phytol 0.28 entire shell without branching. The distance between ridges is approximately 1.4 μm. Periostracum microtopo- 23.5 Stearic acid (C18:0) 0.38 graphy is on a substantially smaller scale than the 33.3 Oleamide 19.00 roughly 15 μm diameter of the typical algal Porphyra 37.7 1-Tetracosanol 8.89 monospore. Furthermore, intact Mytilus ripple struc- 38.0 Cholest-5-en-3-ol 3.61 tures are also known to reduce settlement of shellfish 40.4 1-Pentacosanol 3.91 larvae. Previous studies have shown that intact Mytilus – Unknown compounds 61.44 ripple structures significantly reduce the settlement of Composition values are percentages of the relative peak areas larvae of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite (Scardino Kang et al. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2016) 19:7 Page 5 of 6 Fig. 2 Surface structure of the periostracum from Mytilus edulis. a Light micrograph of the structure (10× magnification; bar = 1 mm). b Scanning electron micrograph (2000× magnification; bar = 5 μm). c Scanning electron micrograph (10,000× magnification; bar = 1.5 μm) et al. 2003). Behavioral experiments show that barnacle Author details Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Namku, Busan cyprids have a higher propensity for smooth surfaces 48513, Korea. Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, than for micro-textured surfaces. Surface textures with 3 Soonchunhyang University, Asan 31538, Korea. Department of Applied profile heights within a topographic range of 30–45 μm Chemistry, Kyungpook National University, Bukgu, Daegu 41566, Korea. Department of Chemical Engineering, Chungnam National University, reduced settlement and recruitment by 92 % compared Yuseonggu, Daejeon 34134, Korea. School of Environmental Science and to smooth surfaces. These repellent effects disappeared Engineering, Pohang University of Science & Technology, Namgu, Pohang when the microtopography was destroyed by periostra- 37673, Korea. cum erosion (Scardino et al. 2003). Thus, marine mus- Received: 9 March 2016 Accepted: 12 March 2016 sels have physical defensive structures to complement their chemical antifouling defenses (Bers et al. 2006). Biogenically derived microtopographies may represent a References promising nontoxic and environmentally friendly sub- Atanasov AG, Nashev LG, Tam S, Baker ME, Odermatt A. Organotins disrupt the strate, but the surface structures of biomimetic antifoul- 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2-dependent local inactivation of glucocorticoids. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113:1600–6. ing materials must parallel natural microtopographies. Bers AV, Wahl M. The influence of natural surface microtopographies on fouling. Biofouling. 2004;20:43–51. Bers AV, Prendergast GS, Zurn CM, Hansson L, Head RM, Thomason JC. A Conclusions comparative study of the anti-settlement properties of mytilid shells. Biol Our research has shown that periostracum extracts dis- Lett. 2006;2:88–91. Briscoe BJ, Mustafaev V, Tabor D. Lubrication of polythene by oleamide and play some antifouling effects, while the periostracum also stearamide. Wear. 1972;19:399–414. physically deters the settlement of spores. These findings Brooman EW. Modifying organic coatings to provide corrosion resistance – strengthen mimetic application claims holding that the part III: organic additives and conducting polymers. Met Finish. 2002;100: 104–10. components and surface microtopographies of M. edulis Cho JY. Antifouling activity of giffinisterone B and oleamide isolated from a periostraca can be used as models for antifouling mate- filamentous bacterium Leucothrix mucor culture against Ulva pertusa. Kor J rials. Our results, periostracum composition and structure Fish Aquat Sci. 2012;45:30–4. Choi JS, Kang SE, Cho JY, Shin HW, Hong YK. A simple screening method for results, suggest that mussel periostraca or their associated anti-attachment compounds using monospores of Porphyra yezoensis Ueda. biomimetic materials may become environmentally J Fish Sci Technol. 2005;8:51–5. friendly antifouling materials preventing the attachment Fedorova I, Hashimoto H, Fecik RA, Hedrick MP, Hanus LO, Boger DL, Rice KC, Basile AS. Behavioral evidence for the interaction of oleamide with multiple of diverse fouling organisms. neurotransmitter systems. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001;299:332–42. Garrido-López Á, Esquiu V, Tena MT. Determination of oleamide and erucamide in polyethylene films by pressurized fluid extraction and gas Competing interests chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1124:51–6. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Grandison C, Scardino A, Ovenden S. An investigation of the antifouling potential of extracts of the periostracum of Mytilus sp. Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Report DSTO-TN-1017, Australia. 2011. Authors’ contributions Harper EM, Skelton PW. A defensive value of the thickened periostracum in the JYK carried out the antifouling assay. IB carried out the collection of Mytiloidea. Veliger. 1993;36:36–42. periostracum and in situ survey. JYC carried out the composition analysis. JJ Houston CA. Marketing and economics of fatty alcohols. J Am Oil Chem Soc. participated in the design of the study. YSC participated in the design of the 1984;61:179–84. study. DSH conceived of the study and helped to draft the manuscript. YKH Huitron-Resendiz S, Gombart L, Cravatt BF, Henriksen SJ. Effect of oleamide on designed the study and completed the manuscript. All authors read and sleep and its relationship to blood pressure, body temperature, and approved the final manuscript. locomotor activity in rats. Exp Neurol. 2001;172:235–43. Kaehler S. Incidence and distribution of phototrophic shell-degrading endoliths Acknowledgments of the brown mussel Perna perna. Mar Biol. 1999;135:505–14. This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea grant Mendelson WB, Basile AS. The hypnotic actions of the fatty acid amide, oleamide. funded by the Korean government (MEST) (NRF-M1A5A1-2011-0029963). Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001;25:S36–9. Kang et al. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2016) 19:7 Page 6 of 6 Minchin D, Stroben E, Oehlmann J, Bauer B, Duggan CB, Keatinge M. Biological indicators used to map organotin contamination in Cork Harbour, Ireland. Mar Pollut Bull. 1996;32:188–95. Provasoli L. Media and prospects for the cultivation of marine algae. In: Watanabe A, Hattori A, editors. Cultures and collections of algae. Tokyo: The Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists; 1968. p. 63–75. Scardino AJ, de Nys R. Fouling deterrence on the bivalve shell Mytilus galloprovincialis: a physical phenomenon? Biofouling. 2004;20:249–57. Scardino AJ, de Nys R. Biomimetic models and bioinspired surfaces for fouling control. Biofouling. 2011;27:73–86. Scardino AJ, de Nys R, Ison O, O’Connor W, Steinberg PD. Microtopography and antifouling properties of shell surface of the bivalve molluscs Mytilis galloprovincialis and Pinctada imbricata. Biofouling. 2003;19:S221–30. Sonak S. Implications of organotins in the marine environment and their prohibition. J Environ Manage. 2009;90:S1–3. Wahl M, Kroeger K, Lenz M. Non-toxic protection against epibiosis. Biofouling. 1998;12:205–26. Yebra DM, Kiil S, Dam-Johansen K. Antifouling technology—past, present and future steps towards efficient and environmentally friendly antifouling coatings. Prog Org Coat. 2004;50:75–104. Submit your next manuscript to BioMed Central and we will help you at every step: • We accept pre-submission inquiries � Our selector tool helps you to ﬁnd the most relevant journal � We provide round the clock customer support � Convenient online submission � Thorough peer review � Inclusion in PubMed and all major indexing services � Maximum visibility for your research Submit your manuscript at www.biomedcentral.com/submit
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 18, 2016
Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.