Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Subscribe now for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil

An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão,... Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 317-340 ARTICLE December 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil 1,4 2 3 Diego Mendes Lima , Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Conservação de Aves Silvestres/ICMBio, BR 230, km 10, Renascer, CEP 58108-012, Cabedelo, PB, Brazil. Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, UFMA, Av. dos Portugueses s/n, Bacanga, CEP 65080-040, São Luis, MA, Brazil. Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade, Reserva Biológica do Gurupi BR 222 Km 12, CEP 65.930-000, Açailândia, MA, Brazil. Corresponding author: diego.lima@icmbio.gov.br Received on 28 August 2014. Accepted on 8 November 2014. ABSTRACT: We carried out an avifaunal inventory of the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, municipalities of Bom Jardim and Centro Novo do Maranhão, between December 2009 and December 2013. The main objective was to estimate species richness and identify endemic species. A further objective was to identify vulnerable and endangered species to provide information for the development of conservation strategies. Data were collected using mist-netting and MacKinnon lists, as well as nonsystematic observations. A total of 424 species were recorded from 64 families; 18 of which considered endemic taxa. Seven are threatened nationally: Psophia obscura, Guaruba guarouba, Pyrrhura lepida lepida, Pteroglossus bitorquatus bitorquatus, Phlegopsis nigromaculata paraensis, Dendrocincla merula badia, and Dendrocolaptes medius. In addition to these, another eight are threatened internationally (IUCN 2014): Tinamus tao, Penelope pileata, Lophornis gouldii, Pyrrhura amazonum, Touit huetii, Pionites leucogaster, Pyrilia vulturina and Lepidothrix iris. Survey results underscore the extreme importance of the Gurupi Biological Reserve as a strategic site for the conservation and maintenance of endemic and endangered species of the Belém Center of Endemism in Brazilian Amazonia. KEYWORDS: Amazon, birds, Belém Center of Endemism, endangered species, inventory. INTRODUCTION fauna and flora of one of the last significant remnants of the typical dense alluvial and plateau rainforests of the state of Maranhão (IBAMA 1999). During the 1980s, a number of scientific expeditions were conducted in the remaining tracts of Amazonian forest in The REBIO Gurupi is an extremely important area the Brazilian state of Maranhão, many of which involved for bird conservation in the Amazon, since it is located the ornithological division of the Goeldi Museum, in in the most threatened endemism center in Brazil, the Belém Center of Endemism (hereafter Belém CE) (Silva Belém (IBAMA 1999). et al. 2005, De Luca et al. 2009). The greatest threats to These studies resulted in the production of a number of reports, which were presented in 1984 by the this center are disorderly occupation, illegal logging and Brazilian Institute for Forestry Development (Instituto deforestation due to the expansion of agricultural activities Brasileiro de Desenvolvimeno Florestal - IBDF), as the (Skole & Tucker 1993, Gascon et al. 2001, Valois 2003). The expansion of agriculture and deforestation in the federal forestry institute was then known, concerning Brazilian Amazon has reached its highest rates in 1970s, the Golden Parakeet, Guaruba guarouba (IBAMA 1999). These documents recommended the creation of a with western and southern Maranhão ranking among the national park or biological reserve in western Maranhão. most heavily deforested areas. Only a few scattered forest This proposal was based on biogeographical analyses of fragments, located primarily within reserves, remained (Aleixo 2009). endemism and total species richness (Oren 1988), which These areas are important for studies on historical focused primarily on the threatened species that occur in the region. biogeography, as well as providing data for the testing of These initiatives led to the creation of the Gurupi hypotheses on the processes that resulted in the formation Biological Reserve (REBIO Gurupi), through the Federal of the region’s biota (Cracraft 1985, 1994, Morrone 1994, Morrone & Crisci 1995). They also contain a number of Decree N° 95614 of January 12, 1988, which had the unique and irreplaceable species (Silva et al. 2005). primary objective of ensuring the conservation of the An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces There have been no comprehensive surveys of the courbaril Linnaeus, Cenostigma tocantinum Ducke, avifauna of the interior of the REBIO Gurupi. The and Goupia glabra Aubl., in addition to genera such few available studies have been conducted in the areas as Hymenolobium Benth., Eschweilera Mart. ex DC., surrounding the reserve, such as Oren & Roma (2011) Cordia L., Inga Mill., Jacaranda Juss., Simarouba Aubl., and Oren (1992), who described a new subspecies, Celeus Spondias L., and Vismia Vand. Below the canopy, the torquatus pieteroyensi (Pieter Oyen’s Ringed Woodpecker), lower strata are formed by a diversity of trees, shrubs, from the region of the Gurupi River in Maranhão, and lianas, and herbaceous plants, which formed a well also the forested districts of Marajo Island. To further stratified, shady and humid understory, with a thick layer illustrate the lack of primary data on the bird fauna of leaf litter. This zone is dominated by plant species of of REBIO Gurupi, the appendix VII of the reserve’s the families Rubiaceae, Maranthaceae, and Arecaceae. The management plan provides a list of species actually found structure and composition of this forest are characteristic in a nearby forest reserve belonging to the Vale do Rio of an advanced stage of maturity (Freitas et al. 2005, Prata Doce mining company, in the municipality of Buriticupu 2007, Guariguata & Ostertag 2001). However, some (IBAMA 1999). areas have suffered the effects of illegal logging, which has Here, we compile a list of bird species for the resulted in clearings produced by the felling and dragging REBIO of Gurupi, identifying endemic, endangered and of trees. vulnerable species to support conservation and protection Recovery zone strategies in the area. The REBIO Gurupi management plan defines this area MATERIAL AND METHODS as the portion of the reserve affected by anthropogenic impacts, which will be reclassified as and when it will Study area be completely restored. This zone is characterized by the presence of a number of tracts of degraded primary The REBIO Gurupi is an integral protection conservation forest as well as many areas previously deforested for unit, created by decree number 95,614 of January 12th, the establishment of pastures and “slash and burn” 1988, which delimits a total area of 341,650 hectares. agriculture, presenting different successional stages. Some Subsequently, however, measurements of the area using a of the sampling points were located in areas characterized Global Positioning System corrected the area to 271,000 by widely-spaced emergents of the genera Eschweilera ha, partially located within the municipalities of Bom Mart. Ex DC., Byrsonima H.B.K., Ocotea Aubl., and Jardim, Centro Novo do Maranhão, and São João do Inga Mill., with an understory dominated by shrubs of Carú, all in the state of Maranhão. The reserve is bordered the family Piperaceae which are typical of an advanced by three indigenous reservations, Alto Turiaçu to the stage of regeneration (Prata 2007). Other areas of this north, and Carú and Awa to the west, and is located zone are characterized by the presence of the Jamaican within the Belém CE. nettletree (Trema micrantha (L.) Blume.), a number of The reserve’s management plan establishes three different Cecropia species, as well as Tapirira guianensis zones, that is, areas that present specific characteristics, Aubl., which are considered to be indicators of early- which require distinct strategies of intervention and growth forests (Guariguata & Ostertag 2001). Other protection. During the present study, data were collected records were collected at distinct features of the landscape at 12 points within two of these zones - the undisturbed in the study areas, such as pastures, and small marshes zone and the recovery zone (Figure 1). The points were and permanent lakes. located to best sample the different successional stages and Systematic field work was conducted by D. M. aquatic environments found within each zone (Figure 2). L. and D. S. L. R., beginning in August, 2010, and All sampling points were georeferenced using a Garmin ending in December, 2012. Nonsystematic observations Etrex Vista, Datum SAD 69 handheld GPS (Table 1). were carried out by C. M. between December, 2009, and December, 2013. Surveys of the reserve’s avifauna Undisturbed zone also involved the use of complementary qualitative and quantitative methods for the collection of data in the The REBIO Gurupi management plan defines this area different habitats sampled. Survey data were collected as the central and best preserved portion of the reserve using mist-nets and MacKinnon lists (Anjos et al. 2010, (IBAMA 1999). The vegetation is dense rainforest with Ribon 2010). a continuous canopy of approximately 35 m in height, The MacKinnon lists method employed with emergent trees reaching 50 m. The most frequent (MacKinnon 1991) consisted of the identification of 10 canopy tree species include Manilkara huberi (Ducke) species, which represent a sampling unit, based on the Standl, Shefflera morototoni (Aubl.) March., Hymenaea modifications suggested by Herzog et al. (2002). This Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces FIGURE 1. Localities surveyed during this study at REBIO Gurupi between December 2009 and December 2012. The figure also shows the location of the reservation with respect to the state of Maranhão, adjacent municipalities, the Belém Center of Endemism, and the arc of deforestation in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) FIGURE 2. Habitats surveyed in both undisturbed and recovery areas at REBIO Gurupi: (a) primary forest; (b) forest regeneration in advanced stage; (c) small marshes; (d) forest regeneration in early stage; (e) disturbed areas / pastures; (f ) temporary lake. Photographs were taken by D. M. L. procedure was used to survey all different habitat types sampling time. Complementary data were collected in found within the reserve, and resulted in the collection a nonsystematic manner by C. M. between December, of a total of 199 lists, in order to obtain a rarefaction 2009, and December, 2013, during periodic visits to curve and quantify the number of species. These records the reserve as part of the eastern Amazonian division of were collected during 30 nonconsecutive days, generally the national Program for Biodiversity Research (PPBio). between 06:00 h and 10:00 h in the morning, and 15:00- However, nonsystematic data obtained by C. M. were not 18:30 h in the afternoon, with a total of 225 hours of used to estimate a rarefaction curve. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Estimates of species richness obtained with the Extinction (MMA 2003), as follows: Psophia obscura Mackinnon lists were carried out with Bootstrap Mean (Endangered - EN; also regarded as threatened globaly, estimators and CHAO 2 using the statistical program see IUCN 2014), Guaruba guarouba (Vulnerable - VU; EstimateSWin 8.2 (Colwell 2006). also threatened globaly according to the IUCN 2014), Additional data were collected using mist nets, with Pyrrhura lepida lepida (Endangered - EN, also threatened 10 nets (9 m x 2.5 m, with a 25 mm mesh) set up on globaly according to the IUCN 2014), Pteroglossus nonconsecutive days in each sampling area, with five bitorquatus bitorquatus (Vulnerable - VU), Phlegopsis days spent in the recovery Zone, and four days in the nigromaculata paraensis (Endangered - EN), Dendrocincla undisturbed zone. The nets were open between 05:30 h and merula badia (Endangered - EN), and Dendrocolaptes 18:00 h, with a total sampling effort of 625 net-hours in medius (Endangered - EN). In addition to these, eight the recovery Zone, and 500 net-hours in the undisturbed species are threatened globally (IUCN 2014): Tinamus zone. Following identification and processing, the birds tao (Vulnerable - VU), Penelope pileata (Vulnerable - VU), captured were marked with standard CEMAVE/ICMBio Lophornis gouldii (Vulnerable - VU), Pyrrhura amazonum metallic bands before released back into the wild. (Endangered - EN), Touit huetii (Vulnerable - VU), Species were identified based on the specialized Pionites leucogaster (Vulnerable - VU), Pyrilia vulturina literature (Erize et al. 2006, Ridgely & Tudor 1989, (Vulnerable - VU), and Lepidothrix iris (Vulnerable - VU). 1994, 2009, Sick 1997, Sigrist 2009, van Perlo 2009). We recorded 18 taxa endemic to the Belém Photographic records obtained in the field of considerable CE: Ortalis superciliaris, P. obscura, P. lepida lepida, P. biogeographic importance were compared with material bitorquatus bitorquatus, Celeus torquatus pieteroyensi, available online (www.wikiaves.com.br), and later archived Thamnophilus aethiops incertus, Pyriglena leuconota this same database. In the case of threatened species leuconota, Phlegopsis nigromaculata paraensis, Dendrocincla for which no documentation was available, a detailed merula badia, Synallaxis rutilans omissa, Todirostrum description was recorded, based on field observations. chrysocrotaphum illigeri, Piprites chloris grisescens, Manacus Species of relevant biogeographical interest, for which we manacus purissimus, Terenotriccus erythrurus hellmayri, obtained only isolated observations, were listed separately Ramphocaenus melanurus austerus, Lanio cristatus (Appendix 1), following the recommendations in Lees et pallidigula, Tangara velia signata and Granatellus pelzelni al. (2014). paraensis. The data from mist-net captures are included here only for the calculation of species richness. The cumulative RESULTS species curve based on the 10 species MacKinnon lists accumulated throughout REBIO Gurupi (n = 199) Altogether 424 species were recorded at the REBIO reached a total of 320 species. The CHAO 2 and Boostrap Gurupi (Table 2). Among the species and subspecies estimators calculated a total species richness of 380 and recorded, seven were considered endangered according 364, respectively. Therefore, the estimated values are higher to the National List of Brazilian Fauna Threatened with than the species richness recorded empirically (Figure 3). FIGURE 3. Species accumulation curve based on 199 Mackinnon lists obtained between August 2010 and December 2012 at REBIO Gurupi. Values of observed species richness (Sobs) along with those estimated by Bootstrap and CHAO 2 are shown. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces TABLE 1. Coordinates (SAD 69 Lat/Lon hddd°mm’ss.s”) of sampling (CBRO 2014). Tyrannids are highly versatile ecologically, points in undisturbed (Zd) and recovery zones (Zr) of REBIO Gurupi. and are able to live in a wide range of habitats, including primary and secondary forests, as well as more open spaces (Sick 1997, Sigrist 2009). In the present study, Points Lat Long Area species typical of open areas, such as Pitangus sulphuratus, 1 W 46 42 38.0 S 03 38 33.7 Zd Tyrannus melancholicus, Machetornis rixosa, and Fluvicola nengeta, were common in the recovery Zone. Early and 2 W 46 41 21.5 S 03 37 21.2 Zd mid-growth secondary forests also favor the occurrence 3 W 46 50 03.1 S 03 47 50.0 Zd of more generalist species, tolerant of habitat disturbance, 4 W 46 45 16.7 S 03 54 21.2 Zd such as Forpus xanthopterygius, Thamnophilus doliatus, Thamnophilus palliatus, Taraba major, Legatus leucophaius, 5 W 46 45 18.0 S 03 55 10.0 Zd Cyanocorax cyanopogon, Pheugopedius genibarbis, and 6 W 46 47 15.5 S 03 59 07.4 Zr Ramphocelus carbo. 7 W 46 51 38.1 S 03 52 48.7 Zr The geographical proximity to other, more open 8 W 46 51 36.3 S 03 54 17.3 Zr biomes, such as the cerrado and dry forests, may account for species from other biomes occurring into the study 9 W 46 44 57.9 S 03 37 57.1 Zr area following the new open areas created by deforestation 10 W 46 45 02.5 S 03 36 41.2 Zr (Develey 2009, Sick 1997). Species in this category are, 11 W 46 45 35.2 S 03 35 52.2 Zr for example, Bubo virginianus, Ara severus, Brotogeris 12 W 46 41 34.2 S 03 14 42.5 Zr chiriri, Columbina minuta and Polioptila plumbea. Army ant swarms, which displace insects such as crickets and cockroaches during their forays, are common DISCUSSION in the Amazon basin (Sick 1997). These columns attract birds that habitually exploit the insect prey disturbed According to Oren & Roma (2011) 503 species of birds by the ants’ foraging behavior, including species of were recorded in the Amazonian sector of Maranhão the families Thamnophilidae, Dendrocolaptidae, and State. According to our data, REBIO Gurupi holds at least Furnaridae. This phenomenon was observed frequently during the period of the present study, with the 84% of these species. Compared with the total number of species recorded for the state of Maranhão (640 spp., following species commonly attending the army ant Oren 1991), REBIO Gurupi harbors about 66% of the swarms: Pyriglena leuconota, Willisornis vidua, Phlegopsis bird species recorded in the state. The number of species nigromaculata paraensis, Dendrocincla merula badia, inventoried by us in the reserve, taking into account the Deconychura longicauda and Dendrocincla fuliginosa. The largest numbers of thamnophilid, dendrocolaptid proportions of the sampled area, habitat heterogeneity, and sampling effort, is also significant in comparison to and furnarid species were observed in mixed species the total number of species recorded for the Belém CE. flocks in the undergrowth, which normally included Roma (1996) lists 529 species for the Belém CE in the Thamnomanes caesius, Xenops minutus, Glyphorynchus eastern part of the state of Pará, while Novaes & Lima spirurus, Deconychura longicauda, Dendrocincla fuliginosa, Dendroplex picus, Xiphorhynchus guttatus, Myrmotherula (2009) recorded 490 species for the Belém metropolitan area, and Lees et al. (2012) listed 440 species for several axillaris, Isleria hauxwelli, Myrmotherula menetriesii, sites at Paragominas. Only Portes et al. (2011) recorded Dysithamnus mentalis, Automolus rufipileatus and a slightly greater number of species (441 species) than Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus. us at nine forest fragments of the Belém CE in the state The relatively large number of accipitrid species recorded during the present study, in addition to a number of Pará, covering the municipalities of Paragominas, Tailândia and Tomé-Açu. of frugivores that are sensitive to habitat fragmentation, In our study, the cumulative species curve did not such as Selenidera gouldii, Cotinga cotinga, Cotinga cayana, stabilize by the end of the sampling (Figure 3), indicating Xipholena lamellipennis, Iodopleura isabellae, Haematoderus that additional species would probably have been militaris, and Aburria cujubi indicate the presence of good quality habitat, and suggest a relatively well-balanced food recorded if more MacKinnon lists had been collected. The asymptote may rarely be reached in areas of high web at REBIO Gurupi (Willis 1979, Ricklefs 2001, Noss diversity (Ribon 2010), and it seems likely that further & Csuti 1997, Lees & Peres 2006). In particular, records surveys at REBIO Gurupi will render a more complete of Harpia harpyja, Spizaetus tyrannus, and Leucopternis picture of the diversity of the reserve’s avifauna. albicollis indicate good primary forest cover, given that the presence of these raptor species may be dependent on In the present study, the most diverse bird family was Tyrannidae, which is the third richest avian taxon in Brazil large areas of pristine habitat (Oren & Roma 2011). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces The family Psittacidae was one of the five most It seemed to be longer-tailed than the latter species, and diverse recorded in the present study, as might be expected, showed a rufous color in the upper breast. Further and considering that the Amazon region has the highest most importantly, the falcon was around twice the size diversity of parrots (Sick 1997). Two of the taxa recorded of the parakeet it had captured, eliminating any possible - Guaruba guarouba and Pyrrhura lepida lepida - are listed misidentification. in Brazil (MMA 2003) as threatened with extinction. Dark-winged Trumpeter (Psophia obscura). This species was recorded on 20 occasions during the present Noteworthy conservation and biogeographic records study. Two records were obtained in December, 2009, three in June, 2010, three in August, 2010 (Lima & Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja). An individual was observed Raíces 2012), two in December, 2010, two in September, perched on a maçaranduba tree (Manilkara huberi) in the 2011, and six in December, 2013, all in the recovery recovery Zone in September, 2011, at around 08:00 h. This Zone (Figure 4, C. M. photographed), with a further two relatively robust specimen was presumed to be a female. records obtained in the undisturbed zone in November, In the same area in March, 2012, a second individual 2011 (D.M. L. and D. S. L. R.). The species was observed was sighted flying over an area of late-growth secondary at several locations in primary forest, but sometimes also forest. A third photographic record was obtained from a in disturbed areas affected by illegal deforestation. While local resident of the sustainable forest management project most of the sightings were recorded in the recovery zone, adjacent to the biological reserve. Prior to the present the vast majority of these observations coincided with the study, in January, 2000, C. M. observed the species areas of pristine forest within this zone. While the species in a peripheral area of the reserve, which has now been may occur throughout the Belém CE (Oren & Roma deforested. There is evidence of genetic structuring of the 2011), it is dependent on well-preserved habitats, and Harpia populations in the Amazon biome, which are still may thus be vulnerable to disturbance, which may often relatively large, although there is lower variability in the lead to local extinction. The species is considered to be Arc of Deforestation (ICMBio 2008). Given this, the endangered, both in Brazil (MMA 2003) and within its populations located in highly impacted areas may be at geographic range in general (IUCN 2014), as well as in increased risk of local extinction, given that this species is the state of Pará (COEMA 2007). The species is rare and sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance, and is among the difficult to observe in most other forest remnants located first to disappear when deforestation accelerates (Trinca within the Belém CE (A. Aleixo pers. comm.). et al. 2008, ICMBio 2008). The species is included in Golden Parakeet (Guaruba guarouba). This species Appendix I of CITES (Convention on International Trade was recorded in both recovery and undisturbed zones. On in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) and is October, 2010, D. M. L. and D. S. L. R observed an active also listed as near-threatened by the IUCN (2014). G. guarouba nest containing two nestlings in an angelim Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus melanoleucus). tree (Hymenolobium sp.) of approximately 40 m in height D. M. L. recorded an individual flying over the margin in an area of secondary forest at the edge of an access of the primary forest in the northern extreme of the road close to the sustainable forest management project reserve, at 03°14'42.56"S, 46°41'34.22"W (Lima 2010). (Lima 2012a). Laranjeiras (2011) also observed Golden In December, 2013, C. M. recorded another individual Parakeet nests in open areas adjacent to the continuous in the south of the reserve. These appear to be the first forest, which were exposed to potential disturbance such published records of the species in the Amazon sector of as nest robbery for the illegal wild bird trade. During Maranhão, given that it is not cited in Oren & Roma observations of this nest, a group of three individuals (2011), although C. M. observed the species previously were observed feeding the nestlings. Similar cooperative at a different locality (unpublished data). According to infant care involving family members has been observed Sick (1997) the species occurs from Mexico to Argentina, in this species by Silveira & Belmonte (2005). During the and in Brazil its presence is characterized by scattered present study, a total of approximately 145 individuals occurrences. were observed during 19 encounters with the species, Orange-breasted Falcon (Falco deiroleucus). C. M. although it seems likely that many of these parakeets were th observed one individual on 4 March 2010 a few km south recorded more than once, given that it was not possible to of the ICMBio station, not strictly inside the Reserve, but identify the animals individually. The maximum number in the buffer zone. As far as we know, this is the first report of individuals observed during a single encounter was 34. for this species in Maranhão. The observation took place Pearly Parakeet (Pyrrhura lepida lepida) – C. M. at around 07:00 hs, during a walk in the area, and the observed four individuals flying over an area of the r ecovery bird was perched, eating an individual of Eupsittula aurea zone in December 2009 and two other individuals were (Psittacidae). The falcon showed a less compact appearence seen, also in flight, on September, 2011. Four individuals than the similar and far more common Falco rufigularis. were sighted resting in the subdossel of a forest in an Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces advanced state of regeneration, connected by continuous documented, but that it probably occurred in the REBIO primary forest in December 2011 (registration by D. M. Gurupi. Thus, this is the first documented record of this L). In December 2012 a flock of about 8-10 individuals species for the REBIO Gurupi (Table 2). The nominate was sighted consuming the inflorescence of Parkia decussata subspecies distribution is in upland forest of northern and Ducke (Fabaceae) (Lima 2012b). This species was sighted eastern Pará, between the Tocantins and Gurupi Rivers at least four times in December, 2013, in flocks of up to and western Maranhão, being endemic to the Belém CE six individuals (registration by C. M.). Once again, it is (Oren & Roma 2011, Silveira 2008a). It is categorized as not possible to confirm whether these encounters involved endangered (MMA 2003). The main threats are habitat the same or different groups. Silveira (2008a) indicated loss and, in recent years, capture to the illegal trade of wild that recent records of the subspecies are scarce and poorly birds (Silveira 2008b). FIGURE 4. Flock of Dark-winged trumpeters (Psophia obscura). Photograph taken on December, 2013 by C. M. TABLE 2. List of the 424 bird species recorded in the Gurupi Biological Reserve (MA, Brazil), from December 2010 to December 2012 and (*) complementary data collected in a nonsystematic manner by C. M. between December, 2009, and December, 2013. Zoning: Zd = undisturbed zone; Zr = recovery zone. Habitat: P = primary forest; S = forest regeneration in advanced stage; Cp = forest regeneration in early stage; B = small marshes; L = lakes; aa = disturbed areas / pasture. Type of record: A = Auditory, V = Visual, Ca = capture in mist nets; F = Photographed. Photo reference numbers are searchable in the online databases of www.wikiaves.com.br (WA). Taxon/species names followed by the acronym (Tn) indicate those regarded as threatened according to the National List of Brazilian Fauna Species Threatened with Extinction (MMA 2003). Taxon/species names followed by the acronym (Ti) indicate those regarded as threatened globally according to IUCN (2014). EN = Endemic species / subspecies to the Belém Center of Endemism according to Oren & Roma (2011). Taxonomy and nomenclature follows CBRO (2014). Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Tinamidae Gray, 1840 Tinamus major (Gmelin, 1789)* x P A Ti Tinamus tao Temminck, 1815 xx P, S A Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Crypturellus cinereus (Gmelin, 1789) x Cp A Crypturellus soui (Hermann, 1783) x S A Crypturellus strigulosus (Temminck, 1815) x Cp A Crypturellus variegatus (Gmelin, 1789) x x P, Cp A Crypturellus parvirostris (Wagler, 1827) x x P, S V, A Anhimidae Stejneger, 1885 Anhima cornuta (Linnaeus, 1766) x x Cp, B F,V 1037719 Anatidae Leach, 1820 Dendrocygna viduata (Linnaeus, 1766) x B, L F Dendrocygna autumnalis (Linnaeus, 1758) x B, L V Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758) x B, L F Amazonetta brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1789) x B, L F 1064152 Cracidae Rafinesque, 1815 EN Ortalis superciliaris (Gray, 1867) x x P, Cp, S, B V Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815 x x Cp, S V Ti Penelope pileata Wagler, 1830 x P, S F,V 1036681 Aburria cujubi (Pelzeln, 1858) x x P, Cp V Pauxi tuberosa (Spix, 1825) x P, Cp F 1029277 Odontophoridae Gould, 1844 Odontophorus gujanensis (Gmelin, 1789)* x P A Podicipedidae Bonaparte, 1831 Tachybaptus dominicus (Linnaeus, 1766)* x B V Podilymbus podiceps (Linnaeus, 1758) x B, L V Ciconiidae Sundevall, 1836 Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758 x B F 1065020 Anhingidae Reichenbach, 1849 Anhinga anhinga (Linnaeus, 1766) x B, L F 1041429 Ardeidae Leach, 1820 Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783) x B, L V Cochlearius cochlearius (Linnaeus, 1766) x B V Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758) x B V Butorides striata (Linnaeus, 1758) x B, L V Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus, 1758) x x B V Ardea cocoi Linnaeus, 1766 x L V Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758 x B, L V Pilherodius pileatus (Boddaert, 1783) x B V Egretta thula (Molina, 1782) x B, L V Threskiornithidae Poche, 1904 Mesembrinibis cayennensis (Gmelin, 1789)* x B V Theristicus caudatus (Boddaert, 1783) x B V Cathartidae Lafresnaye, 1839 Cathartes aura (Linnaeus, 1758) x x P, S, Cp, B, C V Cathartes burrovianus Cassin, 1845 x x P, Cp, B, C V Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Cathartes melambrotus Wetmore, 1964 x Cp F 1064209 Coragyps atratus (Bechstein, 1793) x x P, Cp, aa V Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758) x x P, Cp V Accipitridae Vigors, 1824 Leptodon cayanensis (Latham, 1790) x x P, S F 1065446 Chondrohierax uncinatus (Temminck, 1822) x S V Elanoides forficatus (Linnaeus, 1758) x x P, Cp, B F 1036637 Gampsonyx swainsonii Vigors, 1825 x Cp V Elanus leucurus (Vieillot, 1818) x x aa V Harpagus bidentatus (Latham, 1790) x Cp V, F 1180188 Harpagus diodon (Temminck, 1823) x S V Ictinia plumbea (Gmelin, 1788) x Cp V Accipiter superciliosus (Linnaeus, 1766)* x P V Accipiter bicolor (Vieillot, 1817)* x P V Busarellus nigricollis (Latham, 1790) x x P, Cp V Rostrhamus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817)* x B V Geranospiza caerulescens (Vieillot, 1817) x S V Heterospizias meridionalis (Latham, 1790) x x P V Urubitinga urubitinga (Gmelin, 1788) x B F 1180181 Rupornis magnirostris (Gmelin, 1788) x x Cp, S V Geranoaetus albicaudatus (Vieillot, 1816) x x aa V Pseudastur albicollis (Latham, 1790) x x P, S F 1030148 Leucopternis kuhli Bonaparte, 1850* x P V Buteo nitidus (Latham, 1790) x Cp V, F 1238809 Buteo brachyurus Vieillot, 1816 x Cp, S V, F 1194316 Buteo albonotatus Kaup, 1847 x P V, F 1238793 Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758) x P V Spizaetus tyrannus (Wied, 1820) x x P V Spizaetus melanoleucus (Vieillot, 1816) x x P F 1065501 Aramidae Bonaparte, 1852 Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766) x B V Psophiidae Bonaparte, 1831 Tn; Ti; EN Psophia obscura Pelzeln x x P, Cp V, A, F C. M. R. Rallidae Rafinesque, 1815 Aramides cajaneus (Statius Muller, 1776) x B A Laterallus viridis (Statius Muller, 1776) x B A Laterallus melanophaius (Vieillot, 1819) x B, L V Porzana flaviventer (Boddaert, 1783) x B V Gallinula galeata (Lichtenstein,1818) x B, L V Porphyrio martinicus (Linnaeus, 1766) x B, L V Charadriidae Leach, 1820 Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782) x x B, aa V Scolopacidae Rafinesque, 1815 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Actitis macularius (Linnaeus, 1766) x x B, L V Tringa solitaria Wilson, 1813 x B, L F 1038987 Jacanidae Chenu & Des Murs, 1854 Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766) x x B, L V Columbidae Leach, 1820 Columbina passerina (Linnaeus, 1758) x Cp, aa, S V Columbina minuta (Linnaeus, 1766)* x Cp V Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1811) x x Cp, aa, B V Columbina squammata (Lesson, 1831) x Cp, aa V,A Columbina picui (Temminck, 1813)* x Cp V Claravis pretiosa (Ferrari-Perez, 1886) x x Cp, S V, A, Ca Patagioenas speciosa (Gmelin, 1789) x P, Cp V Patagioenas cayennensis (Bonnaterre, 1792)* x P, S, Cp V Patagioenas plumbea (Vieillot, 1818) x P, Cp V Patagioenas subvinacea (Lawrence, 1868)* x P V Zenaida auriculata (Des Murs, 1847) x Cp V Leptotila verreauxi Bonaparte, 1855 x x Cp A Leptotila rufaxilla (Richard & Bernard, 1792) x x Cp V, A, Ca Geotrygon montana (Linnaeus, 1758) x x Cp, S A, Ca Cuculidae Leach, 1820 Coccycua minuta (Vieillot, 1817) x x P V,F Piaya cayana (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp V Coccyzus melacoryphus Vieillot, 1817 x S V Coccyzus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758)* x S V Coccyzus euleri Cabanis, 1873 x P, S A Crotophaga major Gmelin, 1788 x x Cp, B, aa V Crotophaga ani Gmelin, 1788 x B, aa V Guira guira (Gmelin, 1788) x x Cp, B, aa V Tapera naevia (Linnaeus, 1766) x aa V Dromococcyx phasianellus (Spix, 1824)* x Cp V Tytonidae Mathews, 1912 Tyto furcata (Temminck, 1827)* x Cp, aa V Strigidae Leach, 1820 Megascops choliba (Vieillot, 1817) x Cp A Megascops usta (Sclater, 1858) x Cp Ca Lophostrix cristata (Daudin, 1800) x P A Pulsatrix perspicillata (Latham, 1790) x P, Cp A Bubo virginianus (Gmelin, 1788)* x S V, A Strix virgata (Cassin, 1849)* x P, S V, A Strix huhula Daudin, 1800 x x P, Cp A Glaucidium hardyi Vielliard, 1990* x P A Glaucidium brasilianum (Gmelin, 1788) x Cp A, Ca Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782) x aa V Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Nyctibiidae Chenu & Des Murs, 1851 Nyctibius grandis (Gmelin, 1789) x P, Cp A Nyctibius griseus (Gmelin, 1789) x x Cp V, A Nyctibius leucopterus (Wied, 1821)* x P V Caprimulgidae Vigors, 1825 Nyctiphrynus ocellatus (Tschudi, 1844)* x P, S V Antrostomus rufus (Boddaert, 1783)* x P, S V, A Antrostomus sericocaudatus Cassin, 1849* x P V Hydropsalis leucopyga (Spix, 1825)* x P, S V Hydropsalis nigrescens (Cabanis, 1848) x x P, Cp V Hydropsalis albicollis (Gmelin, 1789) x x P, Cp V, A, Ca Hydropsalis parvula (Gould, 1837)* x P, S V, A Chordeiles acutipennis (Hermann, 1783) x Cp V Apodidae Olphe-Galliard, 1887 Chaetura spinicaudus (Temminck, 1839) x x Cp, aa V Chaetura chapmani Hellmayr, 1907* x S V Chaetura brachyura (Jardine, 1846) x x Cp, aa, S V Tachornis squamata (Cassin, 1853) x x Cp V Panyptila cayennensis (Gmelin, 1789) x x Cp V Trochilidae Vigors, 1825 Glaucis hirsutus (Gmelin, 1788) x Cp V, Ca Phaethornis ruber (Linnaeus, 1758) x x P, Cp, S V, Ca Phaethornis superciliosus (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp, S V, Ca EN Campylopterus largipennis obscurus Gould, 1848 * x P, S V, Ca Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788) x Cp V Florisuga mellivora (Linnaeus, 1758)* x P V Anthracothorax nigricollis (Vieillot, 1817) x Cp V Topaza pella (Linnaeus, 1758) x x P, Cp, S V Chrysolampis mosquitus (Linnaeus, 1758) x x P, Cp, S V, Ca Ti Lophornis gouldii (Lesson, 1832)*xx S V Chlorostilbon notatus (Reich, 1793)* x P,S V, Ca Thalurania furcata (Gmelin, 1788) x x P, Cp V, Ca Amazilia versicolor (Vieillot, 1818)* x S V Amazilia fimbriata (Gmelin, 1788) x x Cp, S V Heliothryx auritus (Gmelin, 1788) x x P, Cp V Heliomaster longirostris (Audebert & Vieillot, 1801)* x S V Calliphlox amethystina (Boddaert, 1783)* x S V Trogonidae Lesson, 1828 Trogon melanurus Swainson, 1838 x x P V Trogon viridis Linnaeus, 1766 x Cp V, A Trogon ramonianus Deville & DesMurs, 1849 x x P, S V, A Trogon curucui Linnaeus, 1766 x P V, A Trogon rufus Gmelin, 1788 x P Ca Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Alcedinidae Rafinesque, 1815 Megaceryle torquata (Linnaeus, 1766) x x B V Chloroceryle amazona (Latham, 1790) x x B V Chloroceryle americana (Gmelin, 1788) x L V Chloroceryle inda (Linnaeus, 1766) x L V Momotidae Gray, 1840 Momotus momota (Linnaeus, 1766) x P, S V, A Galbulidae Vigors, 1825 Brachygalba lugubris (Swainson, 1838) x B F 1041472 Galbula cyanicollis Cassin, 1851 x x P, Cp V, Ca Galbula ruficauda Cuvier, 1816 x x P, Cp, S V, F Galbula dea (Linnaeus, 1758) x B V Jacamerops aureus (Statius Muller, 1776)* x P V Bucconidae Horsfield, 1821 Notharchus hyperrhynchus (Sclater, 1856) x x P F 1073816 Notharchus tectus (Boddaert, 1783) x x P, Cp, S V, F 1081976 Bucco tamatia Gmelin, 1788 x S V Bucco capensis Linnaeus, 1766 x x P, Cp A Nystalus torridus Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1940 x x P, Cp, S A, F 1073824 Nystalus maculatus (Gmelin, 1788) x x Cp A Monasa nigrifrons (Spix, 1824) x x P, Cp V, A Monasa morphoeus (Hahn & Küster, 1823) x x P, Cp, S V, F,A 1030081 Chelidoptera tenebrosa (Pallas, 1782) x x Aa F 1029232 Ramphastidae Vigors, 1825 Ramphastos tucanus Linnaeus, 1758 x x P, Cp, S V, A, F 1180193 Ramphastos vitellinus Lichtenstein, 1823 x x P, Cp, S V, A, F 1036649 Selenidera gouldii (Natterer, 1837) x P A,F 1238732 Pteroglossus inscriptus Swainson, 1822 x x P, Cp V, A, F 1031536 Tn; Ti; EN Pteroglossus bitorquatus bitorquatus Vigors, 1826 x x P, Cp, S V, F 1029361 Pteroglossus aracari (Linnaeus, 1758) x x S, Cp V Picidae Leach, 1820 Picumnus exilis (Lichtenstein, 1823)* z P, Cp V Melanerpes candidus (Otto, 1796) x Cp V Melanerpes cruentatus (Boddaert, 1783) x Cp V, F 1032436 Veniliornis affinis (Swainson, 1821)* x P, S V Piculus flavigula (Boddaert, 1783)* x P, S V EN Piculus paraensis (Snethlage, 1907) *x P V Colaptes melanochloros (Gmelin, 1788) x Cp V Celeus elegans (Statius Muller, 1776) x x S V, A Celeus ochraceus (Spix, 1824)* x P V Celeus flavus (Statius Muller, 1776)* x P V EN Celeus torquatus pieteroyensi Oren, 1992 x x P V, A Dryocopus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp, S V, F 1041940 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Campephilus rubricollis (Boddaert, 1783) x x P, Cp, S V, F 1083897 Campephilus melanoleucos (Gmelin, 1788) x x P V Falconidae Leach, 1820 Ibycter americanus (Boddaert, 1783) x x P, Cp, S F 1180215 Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777) x x B, aa F Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816) x aa V Herpetotheres cachinnans (Linnaeus, 1758) x x Cp F 1031555 Micrastur ruficollis (Vieillot, 1817)* x P V Micrastur mintoni Whittaker, 2002 x x P V Micrastur semitorquatus (Vieillot, 1817) x P V Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758 x Cp, aa V Falco rufigularis Daudin, 1800 x x Cp F 1083881 Falco deiroleucus Temminck, 1825* x Cp V Psittacidae Rafinesque, 1815 Ara macao (Linnaeus, 1758) x x P, Cp, S F 1036661 Ara chloropterus Gray, 1859 x P, S F 1030079 Ara severus (Linnaeus, 1758)* x P, S, Cp V Orthopsittaca manilatus (Boddaert, 1783) x P, Cp V Diopsittaca nobilis (Linnaeus, 1758) x S, Cp V Tn; Ti Guaruba guarouba (Gmelin, 1788) x x P, Cp, S F 1029265 Psittacara leucophthalmus (Statius Muller, 1776) x x Cp, S F 1185791 Aratinga jandaya (Gmelin, 1788) x x P, Cp, S V,F Eupsittula aurea (Gmelin, 1788)* x S, Cp V Tn; Ti; EN Pyrrhura lepida lepida (Wagler, 1832) x x P, S F 1027814 Ti Pyrrhura amazonum Hellmayr, 1906 *x P, S V Forpus xanthopterygius (Spix, 1824) x x Cp V Brotogeris chiriri (Vieillot, 1818)* x x Cp, S V Brotogeris chrysoptera (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P V Ti Touit huetii (Temminck, 1830) *xP V Ti Pionites leucogaster (Kuhl, 1820) x x P, Cp, S V Ti Pyrilia vulturina (Kuhl, 1820) x P F 1238382 Pionus menstruus (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp, S F 1038941 Pionus fuscus (Statius Muller, 1776) x x P, Cp F 1029310 Amazona farinosa (Boddaert, 1783) x x Cp, S V Amazona amazonica (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P V Amazona ochrocephala (Gmelin, 1788)* x P V,F 1083958 Deroptyus accipitrinus (Linnaeus, 1758) x x P, S F 1180250 Thamnophilidae Swainson, 1824 Pygiptila stellaris (Spix, 1825) x x P, Cp A Myrmotherula multostriata Sclater, 1858 x x P V, A Myrmotherula longipennis Pelzeln, 1868* x P V Myrmotherula axillaris (Vieillot, 1817) x x P, Cp A, Ca Myrmotherula menetriesii (d'Orbigny, 1837) x x P, Cp V, Ca Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Formicivora grisea (Boddaert, 1783) x x P, Cp A, Ca Isleria hauxwelli (Sclater, 1857) x P, S A, Ca Thamnomanes caesius (Temminck, 1820) x x P, Cp A, Ca Dysithamnus mentalis (Temminck, 1823) x x P, Cp A, P, Ca Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus (Temminck, 1822) x x P, Cp, S A Sakesphorus luctuosus (Lichtenstein, 1823) x P A Thamnophilus doliatus (Linnaeus, 1764)* x Cp V Thamnophilus palliatus (Lichtenstein, 1823) x Cp, S, B F 1041503 Thamnophilus pelzelni Hellmayr, 1924 x P A EN Thamnophilus aethiops incertus Pelzeln, 1869 x x P, Cp A, Ca Thamnophilus amazonicus Sclater, 1858 x x P, Cp, S A, Ca Taraba major (Vieillot, 1816) x Cp, S V, A, F 1036704 Hypocnemoides maculicauda (Pelzeln, 1868) x S A EN Pyriglena leuconota leuconota (Spix, 1824) x x P, Cp V, A, Ca Cercomacra cinerascens (Sclater, 1857)* x x P, Cp A Cercomacra laeta Todd, 1920* x P, S, Cp V, A, Ca Willisornis vidua (Hellmayr, 1905) x x P, Cp A, Ca Tn; EN Phlegopsis nigromaculata paraensis Hellmayr, 1904 x x P, Cp V Conopophagidae Sclater & Salvin, 1873 EN Conopophaga roberti Hellmayr, 1905 x Cp V, A, Ca Grallariidae Sclater & Salvin, 1873 Hylopezus paraensis Snethlage, 1910 x x P, Cp A Formicariidae Gray, 1840 Formicarius colma Boddaert, 1783 x Cp A, Ca Formicarius analis (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837)* x P, S V, A Scleruridae Swainson, 1827 Sclerurus macconnelli Chubb, 1919 x P A Sclerurus rufigularis Pelzeln, 1868 x P V, A Sclerurus caudacutus (Vieillot, 1816) x x P, Cp, S V, A Dendrocolaptidae Gray, 1840 Dendrocincla fuliginosa (Vieillot, 1818) x x P, Cp A,Ca Tn; EN Dendrocincla merula badia (Zimmer, 1934) x P A, Ca Deconychura longicauda (Pelzeln, 1868) *x P Ca Certhiasomus stictolaemus (Pelzeln, 1868) x Cp A Glyphorynchus spirurus (Vieillot, 1819) x x P, Cp V,Ca Xiphorhynchus spixii (Lesson, 1830) x x S A Xiphorhynchus obsoletus (Lichtenstein, 1820) x S A, Ca Xiphorhynchus guttatus (Lichtenstein, 1820) x x P, S A, F 1038873 Dendroplex picus (Gmelin, 1788) x x P, Cp, S A, Ca Lepidocolaptes layardi (Sclater, 1873)* x P, S V, A Tn; EN Dendrocolaptes medius Todd, 1920 x x P, Cp, S V, A Xenopidae Bonaparte, 1854 Xenops minutus (Sparrman, 1788) x x P, Cp Ca Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Furnariidae Gray, 1840 Berlepschia rikeri (Ridgway, 1886) x x P, Cp A Automolus paraensis Hartert, 1902* x P V, A Automolus rufipileatus (Pelzeln, 1859)* x P, S V, A, Ca Anabacerthia ruficaudata (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838) * x P V Philydor erythrocercum (Pelzeln, 1859)* x P V, Ca Philydor pyrrhodes (Cabanis, 1848) x P A Certhiaxis cinnamomeus (Gmelin, 1788) x B A Synallaxis albescens Temminck, 1823 x Cp, B A EN Synallaxis rutilans omissa (Hartert, 1901) x x P, Cp A Synallaxis gujanensis (Gmelin, 1789)* x S V Pipridae Rafinesque, 1815 Tyranneutes stolzmanni (Hellmayr, 1906)* x P V, A Ceratopipra rubrocapilla Temminck, 1821* x P V, A Ti Lepidothrix iris (Schinz, 1851) xP A EN Manacus manacus purissimus Todd, 1928 x x Cp V, Ca Chiroxiphia pareola (Linnaeus, 1766) x x Cp, S V, Ca Dixiphia pipra (Linnaeus, 1758) x P V, A Onychorhynchidae Tello, Moyle, Marchese & Cracraft, 2009 Onychorhynchus coronatus (Statius Muller, 1776) x x P, Cp V, Ca EN Terenotriccus erythrurus hellmayri (E. Snethlage, 1907) x x P, Cp, S V, Ca Myiobius atricaudus Lawrence, 1863 x x Cp, S V, Ca Tityridae Gray, 1840 Schiffornis turdina (Wied, 1831)* x P A, Ca Iodopleura isabellae Parzudaki, 1847* x P V Tityra inquisitor (Lichtenstein, 1823) x x P, S V Tityra cayana (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, S F 1194380 Tityra semifasciata (Spix, 1825) x x P, Cp V Pachyramphus castaneus (Jardine & Selby, 1827)* x S V Pachyramphus polychopterus (Vieillot, 1818) x x P, Cp A Pachyramphus marginatus (Lichtenstein, 1823) x P, S V Pachyramphus minor (Lesson, 1830) x S V, A Pachyramphus validus (Lichtenstein, 1823) x x P V, A Cotingidae Bonaparte, 1849 Lipaugus vociferans (Wied, 1820) x x P, Cp, S A Gymnoderus foetidus (Linnaeus, 1758)* x P V Xipholena lamellipennis (Lafresnaye, 1839) x x P F 1180204 Cotinga cotinga (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, S F 1422358 Cotinga cayana (Linnaeus, 1766)* x P V Haematoderus militaris (Shaw, 1792) x P F 1080430 Querula purpurata (Statius Muller, 1776) x Cp F 1081252 Pipritidae Ohlson, Irestedt, Ericson & Fjeldså, 2013 EN Piprites chloris grisescens (Novaes, 1964) x x P, Cp, S V, A Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Platyrinchidae Bonaparte, 1854 Platyrinchus saturatus Salvin & Godman, 1882* x P V Platyrinchus platyrhynchos (Gmelin, 1788)* x P V Rhynchocyclidae Berlepsch, 1907 Taeniotriccus andrei (Berlepsch & Hartert, 1902)* x P A Mionectes oleagineus (Lichtenstein, 1823) x x P, Cp A, Ca Mionectes macconnelli (Chubb, 1919) x x P Ca Tolmomyias sulphurescens Zimmer, 1939 x x P V Tolmomyias flaviventris (Wied, 1831) x x P, S V Todirostrum maculatum (Desmarest, 1806) x P V Todirostrum cinereum (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp V EN Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum illigeri (Cabanis & Heine, 1859) * x x P, Cp V, A Poecilotriccus fumifrons (Hartlaub, 1853)* x P V Poecilotriccus sylvia (Desmarest, 1806)* x P V Myiornis ecaudatus (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837)* x P V Hemitriccus striaticollis (Lafresnaye, 1853) x S V Lophotriccus galeatus (Boddaert, 1783) x x P, Cp V, Ca Tyrannidae Vigors, 1825 Zimmerius acer (Salvin & Godman, 1883)* x P, S, Cp V, A, Ornithion inerme Hartlaub, 1853* x P V Camptostoma obsoletum (Temminck, 1824) x x Cp, S, B A Elaenia flavogaster (Thunberg, 1822) x Cp A Elaenia cristata Pelzeln, 1868* x Cp A Myiopagis gaimardii (d'Orbigny, 1839)* x P, S V,A Myiopagis viridicata (Vieillot, 1817) x Cp A Tyrannulus elatus (Latham, 1790)* x S V, A Phaeomyias murina (Spix, 1825) x x P, S A Attila spadiceus (Gmelin, 1789) x x P V, A Legatus leucophaius (Vieillot, 1818) x x P, Cp, aa, B, S A, F, V 1038926 Ramphotrigon ruficauda (Spix, 1825)* x P V Myiarchus tuberculifer (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837)* x P, S, Cp V Myiarchus swainsoni Cabanis & Heine, 1859 x S A Myiarchus ferox (Gmelin, 1789) x x P, Cp, S A Myiarchus tyrannulus (Statius Muller, 1776)* x S V, A Casiornis fuscus Sclater & Salvin, 1873 x P V Pitangus sulphuratus (Linnaeus, 1766) x x Cp, aa, S V, A Machetornis rixosa (Vieillot, 1819)* x aa V Myiodynastes maculatus (Statius Muller, 1776) x x Cp, aa F 1030139 Tyrannopsis sulphurea (Spix, 1825)* x S,B V, A Megarynchus pitangua (Linnaeus, 1766) x x Cp, aa A Myiozetetes cayanensis (Linnaeus, 1766) x x Cp, B, aa V, A Myiozetetes similis (Spix, 1825) x x Cp V, A Tyrannus melancholicus Vieillot, 1819 x x Cp, aa, B,S V, A Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Tyrannus savana Vieillot, 1808* x S, Cp V Empidonomus varius (Vieillot, 1818) x Cp V Colonia colonus (Vieillot, 1818)* x P V Myiophobus fasciatus (Statius Muller, 1776)* x S V Fluvicola nengeta (Linnaeus, 1766) x x Cp, B, aa V Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764) x B V Lathrotriccus euleri (Cabanis, 1868)* x P, S V Cnemotriccus fuscatus (Wied, 1831)* x S V Contopus nigrescens (Sclater & Salvin, 1880) x x P, S F 1151531 Vireonidae Swainson, 1837 Cyclarhis gujanensis (Gmelin, 1789) x x Cp, aa, S V, A Vireo chivi (Vieillot, 1817) x x P, S A Hylophilus semicinereus Sclater & Salvin, 1867 x x P, Cp, S V, A Hylophilus pectoralis Sclater, 1866 x Cp A Corvidae Leach, 1820 Cyanocorax cyanopogon (Wied, 1821)* x S, Cp V Hirundinidae Rafinesque, 1815 Stelgidopteryx ruficollis (Vieillot, 1817) x x B, aa V Progne tapera (Vieillot, 1817) x x Cp, aa, B V Progne chalybea (Gmelin, 1789) x x aa V Tachycineta albiventer (Boddaert, 1783) x x B V Troglodytidae Swainson, 1831 Microcerculus marginatus (Sclater, 1855)* x S Ca Troglodytes musculus Naumann, 1823 x aa V Campylorhynchus turdinus (Wied, 1831) x Cp V Pheugopedius genibarbis (Swainson, 1838) x x P, Cp, S A, Ca Cantorchilus leucotis (Lafresnaye, 1845) x P A Donacobiidae Aleixo & Pacheco, 2006 Donacobius atricapilla (Linnaeus, 1766) x B V Polioptilidae Baird, 1858 EN Ramphocaenus melanurus austerus Zimmer, 1937 * x P, S, Cp V Polioptila plumbea (Gmelin, 1788) x x Cp V Polioptila paraensis Todd, 1937* x S V Turdidae Rafinesque, 1815 Turdus nudigenis Lafresnaye, 1848* x P, S V Turdus fumigatus Lichtenstein, 1823* x P, S V Turdus leucomelas Vieillot, 1818 x S V, A Turdus amaurochalinus Cabanis, 1850 x x P, Cp A Turdus albicollis Vieillot, 1818 x x P A Passerellidae Cabanis & Heine, 1850 Ammodramus humeralis (Bosc, 1792) x x aa V Arremon taciturnus (Hermann, 1783) x x Cp, S A, Ca Parulidae Wetmore & Zimmer 1947 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Myiothlypis mesoleuca (Sclater, 1866) x x P, Cp A Icteridae Vigors, 1825 Psarocolius viridis (Statius Muller, 1776) x S V, F 1031543 Psarocolius decumanus (Pallas, 1769) x S, Cp V Psarocolius bifasciatus (Spix, 1824) x x P, S V, A Procacicus solitarius (Vieillot, 1816)* x P, S V Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp, S V Cacicus cela (Linnaeus, 1758) x x P, Cp V, F 1037714 Icterus cayanensis (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp V Icterus jamacaii (Gmelin, 1788) x Cp V Molothrus oryzivorus (Gmelin, 1788) x Cp, S V Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789) x B,aa V Sturnella militaris (Linnaeus, 1758) x x Cp, aa V,F 1030127 Mitrospingidae Barker, Burns, Klicka, Lanyon & Lovette, 2013 Lamprospiza melanoleuca (Vieillot, 1817) x x P, S F 1081284 Thraupidae Cabanis, 1847 Coereba flaveola (Linnaeus, 1758) x x Cp, S V Saltator grossus (Linnaeus, 1766)* x P, S V, A Saltator coerulescens Vieillot, 1817* x S, Cp V Saltator maximus (Statius Muller, 1776) x x Cp, S V,A Parkerthraustes humeralis (Lawrence, 1867)* x P V Nemosia pileata (Boddaert, 1783) x S V Tachyphonus rufus (Boddaert, 1783) x x P, Cp, S, B V Ramphocelus carbo (Pallas, 1764) x x P, Cp, S V Lanio luctuosus (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) x Cp V EN Lanio cristatus pallidigula Zimmer, 1945 xCa V Tangara mexicana (Linnaeus, 1766) x P V EN Tangara velia signata (Hellmayr, 1905)* xP V Tangara punctata (Linnaeus, 1766) x S V Tangara episcopus (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp, B, S V Tangara palmarum (Wied, 1823) x x P, Cp, S V,F 1041465 Tangara cayana (Linnaeus, 1766) x Cp V Cissopis leverianus (Gmelin, 1788) x Cp V Dacnis lineata (Gmelin, 1789)* x P V Dacnis cayana (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp, S V Cyanerpes caeruleus (Linnaeus, 1758)* x P, S Cyanerpes cyaneus (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp,S V Chlorophanes spiza (Linnaeus, 1758) x P, S, Cp V Hemithraupis guira (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp, S V Conirostrum speciosum (Temminck, 1824) x P, S V Emberizoides herbicola (Vieillot, 1817) x x aa V Volatinia jacarina (Linnaeus, 1766) x x aa, B, Cp V Sicalis columbiana Cabanis, 1851* x Cp, aa V Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Sporophila lineola (Linnaeus, 1758) x x aa V Sporophila nigricollis (Vieillot, 1823) x x aa, B V Sporophila bouvreuil (Statius Muller, 1776) x aa V Sporophila minuta (Linnaeus, 1758) x B F 1027698 Sporophila angolensis (Linnaeus, 1766) x x Cp, aa, B V Cardinalidae Ridgway, 1901 EN Granatellus pelzelni paraensis Rothschild, 1906 x x P, Cp, S A, Ca Caryothraustes canadensis (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp, S F 1043126 Cyanoloxia rothschildii (Lafresnaye, 1847)* x S, Cp V Fringillidae Leach, 1820 V Euphonia chlorotica (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp, S V Euphonia violacea (Linnaeus, 1758) x x P, Cp A Euphonia cayennensis (Gmelin, 1789)* x P V of the species inside the reserve. However, it is relatively Vulturine Parrot (Pyrilia vulturina). An individual common in the whole area and in preserved forest was photographed in November 2011 by D. M. L. (Lima 2011a). The species was recorded in an area of continuous remnants in neighboring localities. primary forest. Pyrilia vulturina is endemic to eastern White-chinned Woodcreeper (Dendrocincla merula Amazon (lower Amazon), with other recent records in badia). The first record of this species at REBIO Gurupi was documented by Lima & Raíces (2012). During the the Belém CE by Portes et al. (2011) and Oren & Roma survey the species was recorded only in the undisturbed (2011). Due to habitat loss the species was assessed globally by the IUCN (2014) as vulnerable of extinction. zone of the protected area, where the vegetation is White-winged Potoo (Nyctibius leucopterus). C.M. characterized as dense rainforest, with a continuous held a single sighting, from December 10th, 2010. The canopy (D. M. L). The species was sighted foraging alongside army ants in the undersrtorey. This subspecies is bird was found around 1 km NW from the ICMBio endemic to the Belém CE, occurring east of the Tocantins station, in the southern border of the Reserve. As far as we know, this is the first report for this species in Maranhão. river into Amazonian Maranhão (Aleixo 2008a). The The observation took place at around 20:00 hs, during a species is considered endangered at both national (MMA nocturnal spot lighting, and the bird was perched in the 2003) and state (Pará) levels (COEMA 2007). Todd’s Woodcreeper (Dendrocolaptes medius). This usual attitude for the species of Nyctibius, in a primary species was recorded both in primary forest and capoeira terra firme forest. The bird remained perched, and could be observed for several minutes, under the spot-light, and (secondary forest) inside the reserve (registration by using binoculars. The diagnostic large white patch on D. M. L). According to Aleixo (2008b) the species can wing coverts could be observed under optimal conditions. often be found in upland forests, floodplains and forest in an advanced stage of succession. According to the list Red-necked Aracari (Pteroglossus bitorquatus of species of Brazilian fauna threatened with extinction bitorquatus). The species was recorded at base camp of the Gurupi REBIO consuming papaya (registration by (MMA 2003), the species is endangered under the same D. M. L). This is a disturbed area with forest regeneration category of threat as in the state of Pará (COEMA 2007). in advanced stage. It was also recorded in the recovery Black-spotted Bare-eye (Phlegopsis nigromaculata paraensis). The species was recorded foraging solitarily in zone with predominant secondary vegetation and primary forest and forest in advanced stage of succession plenty of Cecropia spp. (Lima 2012c), as well as in the undisturbed zone where it was sighted consuming the inside the reserve (D. M. L). Aleixo (2008c) reports that fruits of a Sapotaceae of the genus Pouteria sp. The species this species may forage alone, in pairs, or family groups. is common in the reserve area and its surroundings. The Apparently, the species is more tolerant to fragmentation and degradation of forest structure than other species species is distributed in lowland forests from the right associated with army ants (Aleixo 2008c). This explains bank of the Tocantins River through northern Maranhão, and according to Silveira (2008b) it would likely occur in the presence of the species in forest at advanced stages of the Gurupi REBIO. This is the first documented record regeneration, which suffered from selective logging. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Blackish Pewee (Contopus nigrescens). D.M.L. and (Lima & Raíces 2012); this occupation has resulted in C. M. observed this species on five occasions during the the raising of livestock and has stimulated illegal logging. present study in an area of primary forest in the recovery According to the latest land survey of the reserve, there zone, and in the undisturbed zone. On all occasions, a are roughly 6,306 people living within REBIO Gurupi solitary individual was observed perched in the middle (ESTRUTURAL 2007). stratum of the forest, engaging in flying forays during Actions that can minimize the loss of habitat and which it captured insects on the wing, a typical behavior hunting of the local avifauna have been performed, for of this genus. D. M. L. photographed the species in example: demarcation of the unit, judicial direction to December 2011 (Lima 2011b) where the diagnostic begin proceedings for land compensation, creation of an overall uniform dark sooty-gray plumage, dark head, advisory board, and drafting terms of commitment for neck and upper parts, blackish-brown wings, blackish settlers. Furthermore, an institutional presence has been tail (sooty gray below) and slightly paler throat could established in the form of two operational field bases with be easily noticed. Sick (1997) reports that the species full-time policing, as well as instruction in administrative is rare, with a patchy distribution in the eastern Andes, processes for the removal of cattle from inside the reserve. and in the Acary Mountains of Guyana, for example. In At the time of the study, approximately 3,500 heads of Brazil, the species is known from specimens collected at cattle were removed from inside the reserve (E.A. Lisboa Itupiranga, Pará (specimens housed at Museu de Zoologia pers. comm.). da Universidade de São Paulo – MZUSP number 64232), Given that much of the Gurupi reserve has been and from observations in the Serra dos Carajás, and one impacted by illegal logging, in addition to the areas sighting in the area of the Pindaré River, Maranhão, in cleared for pastures and other land use, there is an urgent November, 1977 (Ridgely & Tudor 1994). The species need for the development of a reforestation project, which was recently recorded in the Carajás National Forest by will guarantee the connectivity of habitats, especially for Aleixo et al. (2012), but was not registered by Oren & those species that require large tracts of continuous forest Roma (2011), Portes et al. (2011) or Lees et al. (2012) for for their survival. These species include the members of the Belém CE. C. M. has also recorded the species several the Cracidae, in particular Crax fasciolata pinima, which times from a site near Açailândia. was reported by local residents to still occur in the region, Crimson Fruitcrow (Haematoderus militaris). and may in fact be held in captivity in some households. D.M.L. recorded this species on August, 2012. A male The presence in the reserve of seven endangered perched on a tree was photographed from a distance species, and two others (Harpia harpyja and Pyrilia (Lima 2012d) in an area of primary forest surrounded by vulturina) that are likely to be included in the Brazilian secondary growth. This species is considered to be rare, list of threatened species in the near future, reinforce and is probably sensitive to habitat fragmentation and the need for the establishment of a continuous research disturbance (Lees et al. 2012). program for the REBIO Gurupi, with the aim of providing effective conservation measures that can be implemented Actions for conservation by the unit’s administrators and partner institutions. In particular, the confirmation of the occurrence of Crax The REBIO Gurupi is the only integral protection fasciolata pinima in the reserve and adjoining indigenous conservation unit located within the Belém CE, which reservations, is a major research priority. encompasses the most impacted region of the Brazilian Surrounding the unit grows the demand for permits Amazon basin, located between eastern Pará and western to implement plans for selective logging and vegetation Maranhão. This reserve is even more significant in the local removal. Therefore, it is important that the National context of the Amazon sector of Maranhão, where forest Action Plan for the Conservation of Endangered Species cover has been reduced to less than 25% of the original of the Amazon is enforced since it contains the regulatory area (Martins 2011). This whole region, including the instructions and resolutions governing the environmental REBIO Gurupi, is suffering from the ongoing expansion licensing procedures. As such, environmental agencies are of the Arc of Deforestation, which is converting forest legally required to heed protocols that establish conditions into pasture at an alarming rate, reducing the once and procedures for protection, for example, of trees that continuous forest to a series of fragments. present nests of Harpya harpyja and Guaruba guarouba; as One of the major bottlenecks hindering the well as to promote the recovery of degraded areas. conservation unit from fully realizing its goal of New formats for the planning and execution of preserving the flora and fauna within its limits is non- inspection activities have been carried out, providing an sustainable illegal occupation. For decades REBIO intelligence service aimed at disrupting illegal logging. Gurupi has been occupied by irregular settlements Another aspect strengthening enforcement actions is approved by government agencies and by squatters the publication of the term of reciprocity between the Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Aleixo, A. 2008b. Dendrocolaptes certhia medius Todd, 1920. p. Public Security Bureau of Maranhão and the Chico 524-525. In: Machado, A. B. M.; Drummond, G. M. & Paglia, Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation, since the A. P. (eds.). Livro Vermelho da Fauna Brasileira Ameaçada de agreement fosters the training of law enforcement agents Extinção. Volume II: Ministério do Meio Ambiente e Fundação and police support staff in the field to identify any species Biodiversitas. Brasília, Brasil. that are targeted for trafficking or hunting, as well as the Aleixo, A. 2008c. Phlegopsis nigromaculata paraensis Hellmayr, 1904. p. 612-613. In: Machado, A. B. M.; Drummond, G. M. & Paglia, development of allocation protocols for Crax fasciolata A. P. (eds.). Livro Vermelho da Fauna Brasileira Ameaçada de pinima, Pteroglossus bitorquatus bitorquatus, Psophia Extinção. Volume II: Ministério do Meio Ambiente e Fundação obscura, Guaruba guarouba, Pyrrhura lepida lepida and Biodiversitas. Brasília, Brasil. Harpya harpyja. Aleixo, A. 2009. Lacunas de Conhecimento, Prioridades de Pesquisa e Perspectivas Futuras na Conservação de Aves na Amazônia Public policy actions, along with the participation of Brasileira, p. 39-48. In: De Luca, A. C.; Develey, P. F.; Bencke, G. civil entities, in the commitment to protect and conserve A. & Goerck, J. M. (eds.). Áreas importantes para a conservação the Amazonian forest fragments existing in the REBIO das aves no Brasil. Parte II – Amazônia, Cerrado e Pantanal. São Gurupi and indigenous lands with their surrounding areas Paulo: SAVE Brasil. Aleixo, A.; Carneiro, L. S. & Dantas, S. M. 2012. Aves, p. 98-138. have strengthened the implementation and consolidation In: Martins, F. D.; Castilho, A.; Campos, J.; Hatano, F. M. & of the conservation unit. The high number of endemic Rolim, S. G. (eds.). Fauna da Floresta Nacional de Carajás: estudo and endangered species identified in the reserve reinforces sobre vertebrados terrestres. São Paulo: Nitro Imagens. its importance for conservation. It is essential to continue Anjos, L.; Volpato, G. H.; Mendonça, L. B.; Serafini, P. P.; Lopes, all efforts by the federal government to implement these E. V.; Boçon, R.; Silva, E. S. & Bisheimer, M. V. 2010. Técnicas de levantamento quantitativo de aves em ambiente florestal: uma actions specific to the unit, established as effective and análise comparativa baseada em dados empíricos, p. 61-76. In: Von efficient tools for the full compliance of the conservation Matter, S.; Straube, F. C.; Accordi, I.; Piacentini, V. & Cândido- unit’s original mission. Jr, J. F. Ornitologia e Conservação: ciência aplicada, técnicas de pesquisa e levantamento. Rio de Janeiro, Technical Books Editora. CBRO - Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos. 2014. Listas das aves do Brasil,11ª Ed., 01/01/2014. http://www.cbro.org.br/ ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CBRO/pdf/AvesBrasil2014.pdf (access on 11 February 2014). COEMA. 2007. Resolução COEMA nº 54, de 24 de outubro de We thank the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity 2007, PA. Homologa a lista de espécies da flora e da fauna ameaçadas Conservation (ICMBio) for institutional and no Estado do Pará. www.sema.pa.gov.br/resolucoes_detalhes. php?idresolucao=54. (acesso on 5 november 2012). financial support, as well as the Biodiversity Research Colwell, R. K. 2006. EstimateS: Statistical estimation of species richness Program (PPBio), which funded part of the trips. The and shared species from samples, version 8.0. http://viceroy.eeb. Environmental Battalion of Military Police of Maranhão uconn.edu/EstimateS. (access on 10 november 2012). provided logistical support. Thanks also goes to the Cracraft, J. 1985. Historical biogeography and patterns of following attendants: Eloisa Neves Mendonça for her differentiation within the South American avifauna: areas of endemism. Ornithological Monographs 36: 49-84. characterization of vegetation and field activities; the head Cracraft, J. 1994. Species diversity, biogeography, and the evolution of the unit, Evane Alves Lisboa; as well as the coordinator of biotas. American Zoologist 34: 33-47. of PPBio Eastern Amazonia, Marlúcia Bonifácio Martins, De Luca, A. C.; Develey, P. F.; Bencke, G. A. & Goerck, J. M. 2009. and the coordinator of PPBio Maranhão, Francisca Áreas importantes para a conservação das aves no Brasil. Parte II – Amazônia, Cerrado e Pantanal. São Paulo: SAVE Brasil. Helena Muniz, for encouraging this research. We thank Develey, P. F. 2009. Conservação de Aves no Brasil: Considerações the collaborator of ICMBio, Everton Sousa Ferreira, as para a Amazônia, o Cerrado e o Pantanal, p. 1-10. In: De Luca, well as the PPBio collaborators José Carlos Pereira Júnior, A. C.; Develey, P. F.; Bencke, G. A. & Goerck, J. M. Áreas Adriano Kid Azambuja, Ighor Dienes Mendes, Ítalo importantes para a conservação das aves no Brasil. Parte II – Rafael Gomes Aguiar, Laurent Guimarães Carvalho and Amazônia, Cerrado e Pantanal. São Paulo: SAVE Brasil. Erize, F.; J. R. R. Mata & M. Rumboll. 2006. Birds of South America: Deranilde Santana da Silva for their aid in field activities. Non-Passerines: Rheas to Woodpeckers. Princeton Illustrated Lastly, we thank Alexandre Aleixo, Marcos Pérsio Dantas Checklists. Santos, Julio César Roma and Luis Fábio Silveira for ESTRUTURAL (Estudos e Projetos LTDA). 2007. Consolidação their bibliographic help and encouragement during the Territorial da Reserva Biológica do Gurupi. Relatório Técnico 1. Brasília. p. 79. preparation of this manuscript. Freitas, S. R.; Mello, M. C. S. & Cruz, C. B. M. 2005. Relações entre maturidade estrutural da Floresta e índices de vegetação na Mata Atlântica. p. 1537-1544. In: XII Simpósio Brasileiro de REFERENCES Sensoriamento Remoto, Goiânia, Brasil, INPE. Gascon, C.; Bierregaard Jr. R. O.; Laurance, W. F. & Rankin-de- Aleixo, A. 2008a. Dendrocincla merula badia Zimmer, 1934. p. Merona, J. 2001. Deforestation and forest fragmentation in the 523. In: Machado, A. B. M.; Drummond, G. M. & Paglia, Amazon, p. 22-30. In: Bierregaard, R.O. Jr.; Gascon, C.; Lovejoy, A. P. (eds.). Livro Vermelho da Fauna Brasileira Ameaçada de T. E. & Mesquita, R. (eds.). Lessons from Amazonia: the ecology Extinção. Volume II: Ministério do Meio Ambiente e Fundação and conservation of a fragmented forest. Yale University Press, Biodiversitas. Brasília, Brasil. New Haven, EUA. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Guariguata, M. R. & Ostertag, R. 2001. Neotropical secondary forest Novaes, F. C. & Lima, M. F. C. 2009. Aves da Grande Belém: succession: changes in structural and functional characteristics. Municípios de Belém e Ananindeua, Pará. 2 ª ed. Belém: Museu Forest Ecology and Management 148: 185-206. Paraense Emílio Goeldi. p. 415. Herzog, S. K.; Kessler, M. & T. M. Cahill. 2002. Estimating species Oren, D. C. & Roma, J. C. 2011. Composição e vulnerabilidade da richness of tropical communities from rapid assessment data. Auk, avifauna da Amazônia maranhense, p. 221-247. In: Martins, M. 119: 749-768. B. & Oliveira, T. G. (eds.). Amazônia Maranhense: Diversidade e IBAMA. 1999. Plano de Manejo da Reserva Biológica do Gurupi. Conservação. Belém: MPEG. Brasília. Ordinance IBAMA 167, 24 December 2002. Oren, D. C. 1988. Uma Reserva Biológica para o Maranhão. Ciência ICMBio. 2008. Plano de ação nacional para a conservação de aves de Hoje. 8:36-45. rapina. Coordenação-Geral de Espécies Ameaçadas. Série Espécies Oren, D. C. 1991. Aves do Maranhão. Goeldiana, Série Zoologia, Ameaçadas nº 5. Brasília: ICMBio, p 40-136. 9: 1-55. IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Oren, D. C. 1992. Celeus torquatus pieteroyensi, a new subspecies of http://www.iucnredlist.org. (access on 23 July 2014). ringed woodpecker (Aves, Picidae) from eastern Para and western Laranjeiras, T. O. 2011. Biology and population size of the Maranhão, Brazil. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Serie Golden Parakeet (Guaruba guarouba) in western Pará, Brazil, zoologia 8(2): 385-389. with recommendations for conservation. Revista Brasileira de Portes, C. E. B.; Carneiro, L. S.; Schunck, F.; Silva, M. S. S.; Ornitologia, 19(3): 303-314. Zimmer, K. J.; Whittaker, A.; Poletto, F.; Silveira, L. F. & Lees, A. C. & Peres, C. A. 2006. Rapid avifaunal collapse along the Aleixo. A. 2011. Annotated checklist of birds recorded between Amazonian deforestation frontier. Biol. Cons., 133: 198-211. 1998 and 2009 at nine areas in the Belém area of endemism, with Lees, A. C.; Moura, N. G.; Santana, A.; Aleixo, A.; Barlow, J.; notes on some range extensions and the conservation status of Berenguer, E.; Ferreira, J. & Gardner, T. A. 2012. Paragominas: endangered species. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 19: 167-184. a quantitative baseline inventory of na eastern amazonian avifauna. Prata, S. S. 2007. Sucessão ecológica da vegetação arbórea em florestas Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 20(2): 93-118. secundárias do nordeste do estado do Pará. Ph.D. dissertation. Lees, A.C.; Naka, L.N.; Aleixo, A.; Cohn-Haft, M.; Piacentini, Belém: Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia. V.Q.; Santos, M.P.D. & Silveira, L.F. 2014. Conducting Ribon, R. 2010. Amostragem de aves pelo método de listas de rigorous avian inventories: Amazonian case studies and a roadmap MacKinnon, p. 31-44. In: Von Matter, S.; Straube, F. C.; for improvement. Revista Brasileira Ornitologia, 22(2): 107-120. Accordi, I.; Piacentini, V. & Cândido-Jr, J. F. (eds.). Ornitologia e Lima, D. M. 2010. [WA1065501, Spizaetus melanoleucus (Vieillot, Conservação: ciência aplicada, técnicas de pesquisa e levantamento. 1816)]. www.wikiaves.com/1065501 (access on 06 February Rio de Janeiro, Technical Books Editora. 2014). Ricklefs, R. E. 2001. The economy of nature: a textbook in basic ecology. Lima, D. M. 2011a. [WA1238382, Pyrilia vulturina (Kuhl, 1820)]. Nova York: Chiron Press, Incorporated. W. H. Freeman and www.wikiaves.com/1238382 (access on 06 February 2014). Company. Lima, D. M. 2011b. [WA1151531, Contopus nigrescens (Sclater Ridgely, R. S. & Tudor, G. 1989. The birds of South America: the & Salvin, 1880)]. www.wikiaves.com/1151531 (access on 06 oscine passerines. v. 1. Austin: University Texas Press. February 2014). Ridgely, R. S. & Tudor, G. 1994. The birds of South America: the Lima, D. M. & Raices, D. S. L. 2012. Primeiro registro de Psophia suboscine passerines. v. 2. Austin: University Texas Press. abscura Pelzeln, 1857 e Dendrocincla merula badia Zimmer, Ridgely, R. S. & Tudor, G. 2009. Field guide to the songbirds of South 1934 para a Reserva Biológica do Gurupi, Maranhão, Brasil. America: the passerines. University of Texas Press, Austin, USA, Ornithologia 5(1): 39-42. 750 pp. Lima, D. M. 2012a. [WA1029265, Guaruba guarouba (Gmelin, Roma, J. C. 1996. Composição e vulnerabilidade da avifauna do leste do 1788)]. www.wikiaves.com/1029265 (access on 06 February estado do Pará, Brasil. MSc. dissertation. Belém: Museu Paraense 2014). Emílio Goeldi. Lima, D. M. 2012b. [WA1027672, Pyrrhura lepida (Wagler, 1832)]. Sick, H. 1997. Ornitologia Brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira. www.wikiaves.com/1027672 (access on 13 November 2013) Sigrist, T. 2009. Avifauna Brasileira: descrição das espécies. Guia de Lima, D. M. 2012c. [WA1029361, Pteroglossus bitorquatus Vigors, campo. Editora Avis Brasilis. 1826]. www.wikiaves.com/1029361 (access on 06 February 2014). Silva, J. M. C.; Rylands, A. B. & Fonseca, G. A. B. 2005. O destino Lima, D. M. 2012d. [WA1080430, Haematoderus militaris (Shaw, das áreas de endemismo da Amazônia. Megadiversidade 1: 124- 1792)]. www.wikiaves.com/1080430 (access on 13 November 131. 2013). Silveira, L. F. & Belmonte, F. 2005. Comportamento reprodutivo Mackinnon, J. 1991. Field guide to the birds of Java and Bali. Gadjah e hábitos da ararajuba, Guarouba guarouba, no município de Mada University Press, Bulaksumur, 390p. Tailândia, Pará. Ararajuba, 13(1): 89-93. Martins, M. B. 2011. O Programa de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade na Silveira, L. F. 2008a. Pyrrhura lepida lepida (Wagler, 1832). p. 480- Amazônia Maranhense, p. 17-21. In: Martins, M. B. & Oliveira, 481. In: Machado, A. B. M.; Drummond, G. M. & Paglia, A. T. G. (eds.). Amazônia Maranhense: Diversidade e Conservação. P. (eds.). Livro Vermelho da Fauna Brasileira Ameaçada de Belém: MPEG. Extinção. Volume II: Ministério do Meio Ambiente e Fundação MMA. 2003. Lista da fauna brasileira ameaçada de extinção. Instrução Biodiversitas. Brasília, Brasil. Normativa do Ministério do Meio Ambiente nº 03/2003, Diário Silveira, L. F. 2008b. Pteroglossus bitorquatus bitorquatus Vigors, 1826. Oficial da União nº 101, Seção 1, p. 88-97. p. 504. In: Machado, A. B. M.; Drummond, G. M. & Paglia, Morrone, J. J. & Crisci, J. V. 1995. Historical biogeography: A. P. (eds.). Livro Vermelho da Fauna Brasileira Ameaçada de introduction to methods. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics Extinção. Volume II: Ministério do Meio Ambiente e Fundação 26: 373-401. Biodiversitas. Brasília, Brasil. Morrone, J. J. 1994. On the identification of areas of endemism. Skole, D. & Tucker, C. 1993. Tropical Deforestation and Habitat Systematic Biology 43: 438-441. Fragmentation in the Amazon: Satellite Data from 1978 to 1988. Noss, R. F. & Csuti, B. 1997. Habitat fragmentation. p 269-304 In: Science, 260 (5116):1905-1910. Meffe, G. K. & Carroll, C. R. (eds.). Principles of Conservation Trinca, C. T.; Ferrari, S. F. & Lees, A. C. 2008. Curiosity killed the Biology, 2ª ed. Sunderland: Sinauer Associates. bird: arbitrary hunting of Harpy Eagles Harpia harpyja on an Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces agricultural frontier in southern Brazilian Amazonia. Cotinga, Willis, E. O. 1979. The composition of avian communities in 30:12-15. remanescent woodlots in southern Brazil. Papéis Avulsos de Valois, A. C. C. 2003. Benefícios e estratégias de utilização sustentável Zoologia, 33:1-25. da Amazônia. Brasília: EMBRAPA Informação Tecnológica, páginas 34-37. (Discussion Paper, ISSN 1677-5473; 18). van Perlo, B. 2009. A Field Guide to the Birds of Brazil. Oxford University Press. Associate Editor: Alexander C. Lees APPENDIX Species of relevant biogeographical interest, for which we obtained only isolated and undocumented records. We recommend that they are added to the REBIO Gurupi checklist whenever material evidence such as digital or specimen vouchers are obtained. Species Tinamus guttatus Porzana flaviventer Phaethornis maranhaoensis Chlorostilbon mellisugus Myrmornis torquata Synallaxis frontalis Myiobius barbatus Elaenia chiriquensis Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Ornithology Research Springer Journals

An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer-journals/an-avifaunal-inventory-and-conservation-prospects-for-the-gurupi-MIavCF1YTU

References (47)

Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © Sociedade Brasileira de Ornitologia 2014
eISSN
2178-7875
DOI
10.1007/bf03544270
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 317-340 ARTICLE December 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil 1,4 2 3 Diego Mendes Lima , Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Conservação de Aves Silvestres/ICMBio, BR 230, km 10, Renascer, CEP 58108-012, Cabedelo, PB, Brazil. Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, UFMA, Av. dos Portugueses s/n, Bacanga, CEP 65080-040, São Luis, MA, Brazil. Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade, Reserva Biológica do Gurupi BR 222 Km 12, CEP 65.930-000, Açailândia, MA, Brazil. Corresponding author: diego.lima@icmbio.gov.br Received on 28 August 2014. Accepted on 8 November 2014. ABSTRACT: We carried out an avifaunal inventory of the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, municipalities of Bom Jardim and Centro Novo do Maranhão, between December 2009 and December 2013. The main objective was to estimate species richness and identify endemic species. A further objective was to identify vulnerable and endangered species to provide information for the development of conservation strategies. Data were collected using mist-netting and MacKinnon lists, as well as nonsystematic observations. A total of 424 species were recorded from 64 families; 18 of which considered endemic taxa. Seven are threatened nationally: Psophia obscura, Guaruba guarouba, Pyrrhura lepida lepida, Pteroglossus bitorquatus bitorquatus, Phlegopsis nigromaculata paraensis, Dendrocincla merula badia, and Dendrocolaptes medius. In addition to these, another eight are threatened internationally (IUCN 2014): Tinamus tao, Penelope pileata, Lophornis gouldii, Pyrrhura amazonum, Touit huetii, Pionites leucogaster, Pyrilia vulturina and Lepidothrix iris. Survey results underscore the extreme importance of the Gurupi Biological Reserve as a strategic site for the conservation and maintenance of endemic and endangered species of the Belém Center of Endemism in Brazilian Amazonia. KEYWORDS: Amazon, birds, Belém Center of Endemism, endangered species, inventory. INTRODUCTION fauna and flora of one of the last significant remnants of the typical dense alluvial and plateau rainforests of the state of Maranhão (IBAMA 1999). During the 1980s, a number of scientific expeditions were conducted in the remaining tracts of Amazonian forest in The REBIO Gurupi is an extremely important area the Brazilian state of Maranhão, many of which involved for bird conservation in the Amazon, since it is located the ornithological division of the Goeldi Museum, in in the most threatened endemism center in Brazil, the Belém Center of Endemism (hereafter Belém CE) (Silva Belém (IBAMA 1999). et al. 2005, De Luca et al. 2009). The greatest threats to These studies resulted in the production of a number of reports, which were presented in 1984 by the this center are disorderly occupation, illegal logging and Brazilian Institute for Forestry Development (Instituto deforestation due to the expansion of agricultural activities Brasileiro de Desenvolvimeno Florestal - IBDF), as the (Skole & Tucker 1993, Gascon et al. 2001, Valois 2003). The expansion of agriculture and deforestation in the federal forestry institute was then known, concerning Brazilian Amazon has reached its highest rates in 1970s, the Golden Parakeet, Guaruba guarouba (IBAMA 1999). These documents recommended the creation of a with western and southern Maranhão ranking among the national park or biological reserve in western Maranhão. most heavily deforested areas. Only a few scattered forest This proposal was based on biogeographical analyses of fragments, located primarily within reserves, remained (Aleixo 2009). endemism and total species richness (Oren 1988), which These areas are important for studies on historical focused primarily on the threatened species that occur in the region. biogeography, as well as providing data for the testing of These initiatives led to the creation of the Gurupi hypotheses on the processes that resulted in the formation Biological Reserve (REBIO Gurupi), through the Federal of the region’s biota (Cracraft 1985, 1994, Morrone 1994, Morrone & Crisci 1995). They also contain a number of Decree N° 95614 of January 12, 1988, which had the unique and irreplaceable species (Silva et al. 2005). primary objective of ensuring the conservation of the An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces There have been no comprehensive surveys of the courbaril Linnaeus, Cenostigma tocantinum Ducke, avifauna of the interior of the REBIO Gurupi. The and Goupia glabra Aubl., in addition to genera such few available studies have been conducted in the areas as Hymenolobium Benth., Eschweilera Mart. ex DC., surrounding the reserve, such as Oren & Roma (2011) Cordia L., Inga Mill., Jacaranda Juss., Simarouba Aubl., and Oren (1992), who described a new subspecies, Celeus Spondias L., and Vismia Vand. Below the canopy, the torquatus pieteroyensi (Pieter Oyen’s Ringed Woodpecker), lower strata are formed by a diversity of trees, shrubs, from the region of the Gurupi River in Maranhão, and lianas, and herbaceous plants, which formed a well also the forested districts of Marajo Island. To further stratified, shady and humid understory, with a thick layer illustrate the lack of primary data on the bird fauna of leaf litter. This zone is dominated by plant species of of REBIO Gurupi, the appendix VII of the reserve’s the families Rubiaceae, Maranthaceae, and Arecaceae. The management plan provides a list of species actually found structure and composition of this forest are characteristic in a nearby forest reserve belonging to the Vale do Rio of an advanced stage of maturity (Freitas et al. 2005, Prata Doce mining company, in the municipality of Buriticupu 2007, Guariguata & Ostertag 2001). However, some (IBAMA 1999). areas have suffered the effects of illegal logging, which has Here, we compile a list of bird species for the resulted in clearings produced by the felling and dragging REBIO of Gurupi, identifying endemic, endangered and of trees. vulnerable species to support conservation and protection Recovery zone strategies in the area. The REBIO Gurupi management plan defines this area MATERIAL AND METHODS as the portion of the reserve affected by anthropogenic impacts, which will be reclassified as and when it will Study area be completely restored. This zone is characterized by the presence of a number of tracts of degraded primary The REBIO Gurupi is an integral protection conservation forest as well as many areas previously deforested for unit, created by decree number 95,614 of January 12th, the establishment of pastures and “slash and burn” 1988, which delimits a total area of 341,650 hectares. agriculture, presenting different successional stages. Some Subsequently, however, measurements of the area using a of the sampling points were located in areas characterized Global Positioning System corrected the area to 271,000 by widely-spaced emergents of the genera Eschweilera ha, partially located within the municipalities of Bom Mart. Ex DC., Byrsonima H.B.K., Ocotea Aubl., and Jardim, Centro Novo do Maranhão, and São João do Inga Mill., with an understory dominated by shrubs of Carú, all in the state of Maranhão. The reserve is bordered the family Piperaceae which are typical of an advanced by three indigenous reservations, Alto Turiaçu to the stage of regeneration (Prata 2007). Other areas of this north, and Carú and Awa to the west, and is located zone are characterized by the presence of the Jamaican within the Belém CE. nettletree (Trema micrantha (L.) Blume.), a number of The reserve’s management plan establishes three different Cecropia species, as well as Tapirira guianensis zones, that is, areas that present specific characteristics, Aubl., which are considered to be indicators of early- which require distinct strategies of intervention and growth forests (Guariguata & Ostertag 2001). Other protection. During the present study, data were collected records were collected at distinct features of the landscape at 12 points within two of these zones - the undisturbed in the study areas, such as pastures, and small marshes zone and the recovery zone (Figure 1). The points were and permanent lakes. located to best sample the different successional stages and Systematic field work was conducted by D. M. aquatic environments found within each zone (Figure 2). L. and D. S. L. R., beginning in August, 2010, and All sampling points were georeferenced using a Garmin ending in December, 2012. Nonsystematic observations Etrex Vista, Datum SAD 69 handheld GPS (Table 1). were carried out by C. M. between December, 2009, and December, 2013. Surveys of the reserve’s avifauna Undisturbed zone also involved the use of complementary qualitative and quantitative methods for the collection of data in the The REBIO Gurupi management plan defines this area different habitats sampled. Survey data were collected as the central and best preserved portion of the reserve using mist-nets and MacKinnon lists (Anjos et al. 2010, (IBAMA 1999). The vegetation is dense rainforest with Ribon 2010). a continuous canopy of approximately 35 m in height, The MacKinnon lists method employed with emergent trees reaching 50 m. The most frequent (MacKinnon 1991) consisted of the identification of 10 canopy tree species include Manilkara huberi (Ducke) species, which represent a sampling unit, based on the Standl, Shefflera morototoni (Aubl.) March., Hymenaea modifications suggested by Herzog et al. (2002). This Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces FIGURE 1. Localities surveyed during this study at REBIO Gurupi between December 2009 and December 2012. The figure also shows the location of the reservation with respect to the state of Maranhão, adjacent municipalities, the Belém Center of Endemism, and the arc of deforestation in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) FIGURE 2. Habitats surveyed in both undisturbed and recovery areas at REBIO Gurupi: (a) primary forest; (b) forest regeneration in advanced stage; (c) small marshes; (d) forest regeneration in early stage; (e) disturbed areas / pastures; (f ) temporary lake. Photographs were taken by D. M. L. procedure was used to survey all different habitat types sampling time. Complementary data were collected in found within the reserve, and resulted in the collection a nonsystematic manner by C. M. between December, of a total of 199 lists, in order to obtain a rarefaction 2009, and December, 2013, during periodic visits to curve and quantify the number of species. These records the reserve as part of the eastern Amazonian division of were collected during 30 nonconsecutive days, generally the national Program for Biodiversity Research (PPBio). between 06:00 h and 10:00 h in the morning, and 15:00- However, nonsystematic data obtained by C. M. were not 18:30 h in the afternoon, with a total of 225 hours of used to estimate a rarefaction curve. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Estimates of species richness obtained with the Extinction (MMA 2003), as follows: Psophia obscura Mackinnon lists were carried out with Bootstrap Mean (Endangered - EN; also regarded as threatened globaly, estimators and CHAO 2 using the statistical program see IUCN 2014), Guaruba guarouba (Vulnerable - VU; EstimateSWin 8.2 (Colwell 2006). also threatened globaly according to the IUCN 2014), Additional data were collected using mist nets, with Pyrrhura lepida lepida (Endangered - EN, also threatened 10 nets (9 m x 2.5 m, with a 25 mm mesh) set up on globaly according to the IUCN 2014), Pteroglossus nonconsecutive days in each sampling area, with five bitorquatus bitorquatus (Vulnerable - VU), Phlegopsis days spent in the recovery Zone, and four days in the nigromaculata paraensis (Endangered - EN), Dendrocincla undisturbed zone. The nets were open between 05:30 h and merula badia (Endangered - EN), and Dendrocolaptes 18:00 h, with a total sampling effort of 625 net-hours in medius (Endangered - EN). In addition to these, eight the recovery Zone, and 500 net-hours in the undisturbed species are threatened globally (IUCN 2014): Tinamus zone. Following identification and processing, the birds tao (Vulnerable - VU), Penelope pileata (Vulnerable - VU), captured were marked with standard CEMAVE/ICMBio Lophornis gouldii (Vulnerable - VU), Pyrrhura amazonum metallic bands before released back into the wild. (Endangered - EN), Touit huetii (Vulnerable - VU), Species were identified based on the specialized Pionites leucogaster (Vulnerable - VU), Pyrilia vulturina literature (Erize et al. 2006, Ridgely & Tudor 1989, (Vulnerable - VU), and Lepidothrix iris (Vulnerable - VU). 1994, 2009, Sick 1997, Sigrist 2009, van Perlo 2009). We recorded 18 taxa endemic to the Belém Photographic records obtained in the field of considerable CE: Ortalis superciliaris, P. obscura, P. lepida lepida, P. biogeographic importance were compared with material bitorquatus bitorquatus, Celeus torquatus pieteroyensi, available online (www.wikiaves.com.br), and later archived Thamnophilus aethiops incertus, Pyriglena leuconota this same database. In the case of threatened species leuconota, Phlegopsis nigromaculata paraensis, Dendrocincla for which no documentation was available, a detailed merula badia, Synallaxis rutilans omissa, Todirostrum description was recorded, based on field observations. chrysocrotaphum illigeri, Piprites chloris grisescens, Manacus Species of relevant biogeographical interest, for which we manacus purissimus, Terenotriccus erythrurus hellmayri, obtained only isolated observations, were listed separately Ramphocaenus melanurus austerus, Lanio cristatus (Appendix 1), following the recommendations in Lees et pallidigula, Tangara velia signata and Granatellus pelzelni al. (2014). paraensis. The data from mist-net captures are included here only for the calculation of species richness. The cumulative RESULTS species curve based on the 10 species MacKinnon lists accumulated throughout REBIO Gurupi (n = 199) Altogether 424 species were recorded at the REBIO reached a total of 320 species. The CHAO 2 and Boostrap Gurupi (Table 2). Among the species and subspecies estimators calculated a total species richness of 380 and recorded, seven were considered endangered according 364, respectively. Therefore, the estimated values are higher to the National List of Brazilian Fauna Threatened with than the species richness recorded empirically (Figure 3). FIGURE 3. Species accumulation curve based on 199 Mackinnon lists obtained between August 2010 and December 2012 at REBIO Gurupi. Values of observed species richness (Sobs) along with those estimated by Bootstrap and CHAO 2 are shown. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces TABLE 1. Coordinates (SAD 69 Lat/Lon hddd°mm’ss.s”) of sampling (CBRO 2014). Tyrannids are highly versatile ecologically, points in undisturbed (Zd) and recovery zones (Zr) of REBIO Gurupi. and are able to live in a wide range of habitats, including primary and secondary forests, as well as more open spaces (Sick 1997, Sigrist 2009). In the present study, Points Lat Long Area species typical of open areas, such as Pitangus sulphuratus, 1 W 46 42 38.0 S 03 38 33.7 Zd Tyrannus melancholicus, Machetornis rixosa, and Fluvicola nengeta, were common in the recovery Zone. Early and 2 W 46 41 21.5 S 03 37 21.2 Zd mid-growth secondary forests also favor the occurrence 3 W 46 50 03.1 S 03 47 50.0 Zd of more generalist species, tolerant of habitat disturbance, 4 W 46 45 16.7 S 03 54 21.2 Zd such as Forpus xanthopterygius, Thamnophilus doliatus, Thamnophilus palliatus, Taraba major, Legatus leucophaius, 5 W 46 45 18.0 S 03 55 10.0 Zd Cyanocorax cyanopogon, Pheugopedius genibarbis, and 6 W 46 47 15.5 S 03 59 07.4 Zr Ramphocelus carbo. 7 W 46 51 38.1 S 03 52 48.7 Zr The geographical proximity to other, more open 8 W 46 51 36.3 S 03 54 17.3 Zr biomes, such as the cerrado and dry forests, may account for species from other biomes occurring into the study 9 W 46 44 57.9 S 03 37 57.1 Zr area following the new open areas created by deforestation 10 W 46 45 02.5 S 03 36 41.2 Zr (Develey 2009, Sick 1997). Species in this category are, 11 W 46 45 35.2 S 03 35 52.2 Zr for example, Bubo virginianus, Ara severus, Brotogeris 12 W 46 41 34.2 S 03 14 42.5 Zr chiriri, Columbina minuta and Polioptila plumbea. Army ant swarms, which displace insects such as crickets and cockroaches during their forays, are common DISCUSSION in the Amazon basin (Sick 1997). These columns attract birds that habitually exploit the insect prey disturbed According to Oren & Roma (2011) 503 species of birds by the ants’ foraging behavior, including species of were recorded in the Amazonian sector of Maranhão the families Thamnophilidae, Dendrocolaptidae, and State. According to our data, REBIO Gurupi holds at least Furnaridae. This phenomenon was observed frequently during the period of the present study, with the 84% of these species. Compared with the total number of species recorded for the state of Maranhão (640 spp., following species commonly attending the army ant Oren 1991), REBIO Gurupi harbors about 66% of the swarms: Pyriglena leuconota, Willisornis vidua, Phlegopsis bird species recorded in the state. The number of species nigromaculata paraensis, Dendrocincla merula badia, inventoried by us in the reserve, taking into account the Deconychura longicauda and Dendrocincla fuliginosa. The largest numbers of thamnophilid, dendrocolaptid proportions of the sampled area, habitat heterogeneity, and sampling effort, is also significant in comparison to and furnarid species were observed in mixed species the total number of species recorded for the Belém CE. flocks in the undergrowth, which normally included Roma (1996) lists 529 species for the Belém CE in the Thamnomanes caesius, Xenops minutus, Glyphorynchus eastern part of the state of Pará, while Novaes & Lima spirurus, Deconychura longicauda, Dendrocincla fuliginosa, Dendroplex picus, Xiphorhynchus guttatus, Myrmotherula (2009) recorded 490 species for the Belém metropolitan area, and Lees et al. (2012) listed 440 species for several axillaris, Isleria hauxwelli, Myrmotherula menetriesii, sites at Paragominas. Only Portes et al. (2011) recorded Dysithamnus mentalis, Automolus rufipileatus and a slightly greater number of species (441 species) than Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus. us at nine forest fragments of the Belém CE in the state The relatively large number of accipitrid species recorded during the present study, in addition to a number of Pará, covering the municipalities of Paragominas, Tailândia and Tomé-Açu. of frugivores that are sensitive to habitat fragmentation, In our study, the cumulative species curve did not such as Selenidera gouldii, Cotinga cotinga, Cotinga cayana, stabilize by the end of the sampling (Figure 3), indicating Xipholena lamellipennis, Iodopleura isabellae, Haematoderus that additional species would probably have been militaris, and Aburria cujubi indicate the presence of good quality habitat, and suggest a relatively well-balanced food recorded if more MacKinnon lists had been collected. The asymptote may rarely be reached in areas of high web at REBIO Gurupi (Willis 1979, Ricklefs 2001, Noss diversity (Ribon 2010), and it seems likely that further & Csuti 1997, Lees & Peres 2006). In particular, records surveys at REBIO Gurupi will render a more complete of Harpia harpyja, Spizaetus tyrannus, and Leucopternis picture of the diversity of the reserve’s avifauna. albicollis indicate good primary forest cover, given that the presence of these raptor species may be dependent on In the present study, the most diverse bird family was Tyrannidae, which is the third richest avian taxon in Brazil large areas of pristine habitat (Oren & Roma 2011). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces The family Psittacidae was one of the five most It seemed to be longer-tailed than the latter species, and diverse recorded in the present study, as might be expected, showed a rufous color in the upper breast. Further and considering that the Amazon region has the highest most importantly, the falcon was around twice the size diversity of parrots (Sick 1997). Two of the taxa recorded of the parakeet it had captured, eliminating any possible - Guaruba guarouba and Pyrrhura lepida lepida - are listed misidentification. in Brazil (MMA 2003) as threatened with extinction. Dark-winged Trumpeter (Psophia obscura). This species was recorded on 20 occasions during the present Noteworthy conservation and biogeographic records study. Two records were obtained in December, 2009, three in June, 2010, three in August, 2010 (Lima & Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja). An individual was observed Raíces 2012), two in December, 2010, two in September, perched on a maçaranduba tree (Manilkara huberi) in the 2011, and six in December, 2013, all in the recovery recovery Zone in September, 2011, at around 08:00 h. This Zone (Figure 4, C. M. photographed), with a further two relatively robust specimen was presumed to be a female. records obtained in the undisturbed zone in November, In the same area in March, 2012, a second individual 2011 (D.M. L. and D. S. L. R.). The species was observed was sighted flying over an area of late-growth secondary at several locations in primary forest, but sometimes also forest. A third photographic record was obtained from a in disturbed areas affected by illegal deforestation. While local resident of the sustainable forest management project most of the sightings were recorded in the recovery zone, adjacent to the biological reserve. Prior to the present the vast majority of these observations coincided with the study, in January, 2000, C. M. observed the species areas of pristine forest within this zone. While the species in a peripheral area of the reserve, which has now been may occur throughout the Belém CE (Oren & Roma deforested. There is evidence of genetic structuring of the 2011), it is dependent on well-preserved habitats, and Harpia populations in the Amazon biome, which are still may thus be vulnerable to disturbance, which may often relatively large, although there is lower variability in the lead to local extinction. The species is considered to be Arc of Deforestation (ICMBio 2008). Given this, the endangered, both in Brazil (MMA 2003) and within its populations located in highly impacted areas may be at geographic range in general (IUCN 2014), as well as in increased risk of local extinction, given that this species is the state of Pará (COEMA 2007). The species is rare and sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance, and is among the difficult to observe in most other forest remnants located first to disappear when deforestation accelerates (Trinca within the Belém CE (A. Aleixo pers. comm.). et al. 2008, ICMBio 2008). The species is included in Golden Parakeet (Guaruba guarouba). This species Appendix I of CITES (Convention on International Trade was recorded in both recovery and undisturbed zones. On in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) and is October, 2010, D. M. L. and D. S. L. R observed an active also listed as near-threatened by the IUCN (2014). G. guarouba nest containing two nestlings in an angelim Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus melanoleucus). tree (Hymenolobium sp.) of approximately 40 m in height D. M. L. recorded an individual flying over the margin in an area of secondary forest at the edge of an access of the primary forest in the northern extreme of the road close to the sustainable forest management project reserve, at 03°14'42.56"S, 46°41'34.22"W (Lima 2010). (Lima 2012a). Laranjeiras (2011) also observed Golden In December, 2013, C. M. recorded another individual Parakeet nests in open areas adjacent to the continuous in the south of the reserve. These appear to be the first forest, which were exposed to potential disturbance such published records of the species in the Amazon sector of as nest robbery for the illegal wild bird trade. During Maranhão, given that it is not cited in Oren & Roma observations of this nest, a group of three individuals (2011), although C. M. observed the species previously were observed feeding the nestlings. Similar cooperative at a different locality (unpublished data). According to infant care involving family members has been observed Sick (1997) the species occurs from Mexico to Argentina, in this species by Silveira & Belmonte (2005). During the and in Brazil its presence is characterized by scattered present study, a total of approximately 145 individuals occurrences. were observed during 19 encounters with the species, Orange-breasted Falcon (Falco deiroleucus). C. M. although it seems likely that many of these parakeets were th observed one individual on 4 March 2010 a few km south recorded more than once, given that it was not possible to of the ICMBio station, not strictly inside the Reserve, but identify the animals individually. The maximum number in the buffer zone. As far as we know, this is the first report of individuals observed during a single encounter was 34. for this species in Maranhão. The observation took place Pearly Parakeet (Pyrrhura lepida lepida) – C. M. at around 07:00 hs, during a walk in the area, and the observed four individuals flying over an area of the r ecovery bird was perched, eating an individual of Eupsittula aurea zone in December 2009 and two other individuals were (Psittacidae). The falcon showed a less compact appearence seen, also in flight, on September, 2011. Four individuals than the similar and far more common Falco rufigularis. were sighted resting in the subdossel of a forest in an Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces advanced state of regeneration, connected by continuous documented, but that it probably occurred in the REBIO primary forest in December 2011 (registration by D. M. Gurupi. Thus, this is the first documented record of this L). In December 2012 a flock of about 8-10 individuals species for the REBIO Gurupi (Table 2). The nominate was sighted consuming the inflorescence of Parkia decussata subspecies distribution is in upland forest of northern and Ducke (Fabaceae) (Lima 2012b). This species was sighted eastern Pará, between the Tocantins and Gurupi Rivers at least four times in December, 2013, in flocks of up to and western Maranhão, being endemic to the Belém CE six individuals (registration by C. M.). Once again, it is (Oren & Roma 2011, Silveira 2008a). It is categorized as not possible to confirm whether these encounters involved endangered (MMA 2003). The main threats are habitat the same or different groups. Silveira (2008a) indicated loss and, in recent years, capture to the illegal trade of wild that recent records of the subspecies are scarce and poorly birds (Silveira 2008b). FIGURE 4. Flock of Dark-winged trumpeters (Psophia obscura). Photograph taken on December, 2013 by C. M. TABLE 2. List of the 424 bird species recorded in the Gurupi Biological Reserve (MA, Brazil), from December 2010 to December 2012 and (*) complementary data collected in a nonsystematic manner by C. M. between December, 2009, and December, 2013. Zoning: Zd = undisturbed zone; Zr = recovery zone. Habitat: P = primary forest; S = forest regeneration in advanced stage; Cp = forest regeneration in early stage; B = small marshes; L = lakes; aa = disturbed areas / pasture. Type of record: A = Auditory, V = Visual, Ca = capture in mist nets; F = Photographed. Photo reference numbers are searchable in the online databases of www.wikiaves.com.br (WA). Taxon/species names followed by the acronym (Tn) indicate those regarded as threatened according to the National List of Brazilian Fauna Species Threatened with Extinction (MMA 2003). Taxon/species names followed by the acronym (Ti) indicate those regarded as threatened globally according to IUCN (2014). EN = Endemic species / subspecies to the Belém Center of Endemism according to Oren & Roma (2011). Taxonomy and nomenclature follows CBRO (2014). Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Tinamidae Gray, 1840 Tinamus major (Gmelin, 1789)* x P A Ti Tinamus tao Temminck, 1815 xx P, S A Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Crypturellus cinereus (Gmelin, 1789) x Cp A Crypturellus soui (Hermann, 1783) x S A Crypturellus strigulosus (Temminck, 1815) x Cp A Crypturellus variegatus (Gmelin, 1789) x x P, Cp A Crypturellus parvirostris (Wagler, 1827) x x P, S V, A Anhimidae Stejneger, 1885 Anhima cornuta (Linnaeus, 1766) x x Cp, B F,V 1037719 Anatidae Leach, 1820 Dendrocygna viduata (Linnaeus, 1766) x B, L F Dendrocygna autumnalis (Linnaeus, 1758) x B, L V Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758) x B, L F Amazonetta brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1789) x B, L F 1064152 Cracidae Rafinesque, 1815 EN Ortalis superciliaris (Gray, 1867) x x P, Cp, S, B V Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815 x x Cp, S V Ti Penelope pileata Wagler, 1830 x P, S F,V 1036681 Aburria cujubi (Pelzeln, 1858) x x P, Cp V Pauxi tuberosa (Spix, 1825) x P, Cp F 1029277 Odontophoridae Gould, 1844 Odontophorus gujanensis (Gmelin, 1789)* x P A Podicipedidae Bonaparte, 1831 Tachybaptus dominicus (Linnaeus, 1766)* x B V Podilymbus podiceps (Linnaeus, 1758) x B, L V Ciconiidae Sundevall, 1836 Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758 x B F 1065020 Anhingidae Reichenbach, 1849 Anhinga anhinga (Linnaeus, 1766) x B, L F 1041429 Ardeidae Leach, 1820 Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783) x B, L V Cochlearius cochlearius (Linnaeus, 1766) x B V Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758) x B V Butorides striata (Linnaeus, 1758) x B, L V Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus, 1758) x x B V Ardea cocoi Linnaeus, 1766 x L V Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758 x B, L V Pilherodius pileatus (Boddaert, 1783) x B V Egretta thula (Molina, 1782) x B, L V Threskiornithidae Poche, 1904 Mesembrinibis cayennensis (Gmelin, 1789)* x B V Theristicus caudatus (Boddaert, 1783) x B V Cathartidae Lafresnaye, 1839 Cathartes aura (Linnaeus, 1758) x x P, S, Cp, B, C V Cathartes burrovianus Cassin, 1845 x x P, Cp, B, C V Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Cathartes melambrotus Wetmore, 1964 x Cp F 1064209 Coragyps atratus (Bechstein, 1793) x x P, Cp, aa V Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758) x x P, Cp V Accipitridae Vigors, 1824 Leptodon cayanensis (Latham, 1790) x x P, S F 1065446 Chondrohierax uncinatus (Temminck, 1822) x S V Elanoides forficatus (Linnaeus, 1758) x x P, Cp, B F 1036637 Gampsonyx swainsonii Vigors, 1825 x Cp V Elanus leucurus (Vieillot, 1818) x x aa V Harpagus bidentatus (Latham, 1790) x Cp V, F 1180188 Harpagus diodon (Temminck, 1823) x S V Ictinia plumbea (Gmelin, 1788) x Cp V Accipiter superciliosus (Linnaeus, 1766)* x P V Accipiter bicolor (Vieillot, 1817)* x P V Busarellus nigricollis (Latham, 1790) x x P, Cp V Rostrhamus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817)* x B V Geranospiza caerulescens (Vieillot, 1817) x S V Heterospizias meridionalis (Latham, 1790) x x P V Urubitinga urubitinga (Gmelin, 1788) x B F 1180181 Rupornis magnirostris (Gmelin, 1788) x x Cp, S V Geranoaetus albicaudatus (Vieillot, 1816) x x aa V Pseudastur albicollis (Latham, 1790) x x P, S F 1030148 Leucopternis kuhli Bonaparte, 1850* x P V Buteo nitidus (Latham, 1790) x Cp V, F 1238809 Buteo brachyurus Vieillot, 1816 x Cp, S V, F 1194316 Buteo albonotatus Kaup, 1847 x P V, F 1238793 Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758) x P V Spizaetus tyrannus (Wied, 1820) x x P V Spizaetus melanoleucus (Vieillot, 1816) x x P F 1065501 Aramidae Bonaparte, 1852 Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766) x B V Psophiidae Bonaparte, 1831 Tn; Ti; EN Psophia obscura Pelzeln x x P, Cp V, A, F C. M. R. Rallidae Rafinesque, 1815 Aramides cajaneus (Statius Muller, 1776) x B A Laterallus viridis (Statius Muller, 1776) x B A Laterallus melanophaius (Vieillot, 1819) x B, L V Porzana flaviventer (Boddaert, 1783) x B V Gallinula galeata (Lichtenstein,1818) x B, L V Porphyrio martinicus (Linnaeus, 1766) x B, L V Charadriidae Leach, 1820 Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782) x x B, aa V Scolopacidae Rafinesque, 1815 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Actitis macularius (Linnaeus, 1766) x x B, L V Tringa solitaria Wilson, 1813 x B, L F 1038987 Jacanidae Chenu & Des Murs, 1854 Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766) x x B, L V Columbidae Leach, 1820 Columbina passerina (Linnaeus, 1758) x Cp, aa, S V Columbina minuta (Linnaeus, 1766)* x Cp V Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1811) x x Cp, aa, B V Columbina squammata (Lesson, 1831) x Cp, aa V,A Columbina picui (Temminck, 1813)* x Cp V Claravis pretiosa (Ferrari-Perez, 1886) x x Cp, S V, A, Ca Patagioenas speciosa (Gmelin, 1789) x P, Cp V Patagioenas cayennensis (Bonnaterre, 1792)* x P, S, Cp V Patagioenas plumbea (Vieillot, 1818) x P, Cp V Patagioenas subvinacea (Lawrence, 1868)* x P V Zenaida auriculata (Des Murs, 1847) x Cp V Leptotila verreauxi Bonaparte, 1855 x x Cp A Leptotila rufaxilla (Richard & Bernard, 1792) x x Cp V, A, Ca Geotrygon montana (Linnaeus, 1758) x x Cp, S A, Ca Cuculidae Leach, 1820 Coccycua minuta (Vieillot, 1817) x x P V,F Piaya cayana (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp V Coccyzus melacoryphus Vieillot, 1817 x S V Coccyzus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758)* x S V Coccyzus euleri Cabanis, 1873 x P, S A Crotophaga major Gmelin, 1788 x x Cp, B, aa V Crotophaga ani Gmelin, 1788 x B, aa V Guira guira (Gmelin, 1788) x x Cp, B, aa V Tapera naevia (Linnaeus, 1766) x aa V Dromococcyx phasianellus (Spix, 1824)* x Cp V Tytonidae Mathews, 1912 Tyto furcata (Temminck, 1827)* x Cp, aa V Strigidae Leach, 1820 Megascops choliba (Vieillot, 1817) x Cp A Megascops usta (Sclater, 1858) x Cp Ca Lophostrix cristata (Daudin, 1800) x P A Pulsatrix perspicillata (Latham, 1790) x P, Cp A Bubo virginianus (Gmelin, 1788)* x S V, A Strix virgata (Cassin, 1849)* x P, S V, A Strix huhula Daudin, 1800 x x P, Cp A Glaucidium hardyi Vielliard, 1990* x P A Glaucidium brasilianum (Gmelin, 1788) x Cp A, Ca Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782) x aa V Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Nyctibiidae Chenu & Des Murs, 1851 Nyctibius grandis (Gmelin, 1789) x P, Cp A Nyctibius griseus (Gmelin, 1789) x x Cp V, A Nyctibius leucopterus (Wied, 1821)* x P V Caprimulgidae Vigors, 1825 Nyctiphrynus ocellatus (Tschudi, 1844)* x P, S V Antrostomus rufus (Boddaert, 1783)* x P, S V, A Antrostomus sericocaudatus Cassin, 1849* x P V Hydropsalis leucopyga (Spix, 1825)* x P, S V Hydropsalis nigrescens (Cabanis, 1848) x x P, Cp V Hydropsalis albicollis (Gmelin, 1789) x x P, Cp V, A, Ca Hydropsalis parvula (Gould, 1837)* x P, S V, A Chordeiles acutipennis (Hermann, 1783) x Cp V Apodidae Olphe-Galliard, 1887 Chaetura spinicaudus (Temminck, 1839) x x Cp, aa V Chaetura chapmani Hellmayr, 1907* x S V Chaetura brachyura (Jardine, 1846) x x Cp, aa, S V Tachornis squamata (Cassin, 1853) x x Cp V Panyptila cayennensis (Gmelin, 1789) x x Cp V Trochilidae Vigors, 1825 Glaucis hirsutus (Gmelin, 1788) x Cp V, Ca Phaethornis ruber (Linnaeus, 1758) x x P, Cp, S V, Ca Phaethornis superciliosus (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp, S V, Ca EN Campylopterus largipennis obscurus Gould, 1848 * x P, S V, Ca Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788) x Cp V Florisuga mellivora (Linnaeus, 1758)* x P V Anthracothorax nigricollis (Vieillot, 1817) x Cp V Topaza pella (Linnaeus, 1758) x x P, Cp, S V Chrysolampis mosquitus (Linnaeus, 1758) x x P, Cp, S V, Ca Ti Lophornis gouldii (Lesson, 1832)*xx S V Chlorostilbon notatus (Reich, 1793)* x P,S V, Ca Thalurania furcata (Gmelin, 1788) x x P, Cp V, Ca Amazilia versicolor (Vieillot, 1818)* x S V Amazilia fimbriata (Gmelin, 1788) x x Cp, S V Heliothryx auritus (Gmelin, 1788) x x P, Cp V Heliomaster longirostris (Audebert & Vieillot, 1801)* x S V Calliphlox amethystina (Boddaert, 1783)* x S V Trogonidae Lesson, 1828 Trogon melanurus Swainson, 1838 x x P V Trogon viridis Linnaeus, 1766 x Cp V, A Trogon ramonianus Deville & DesMurs, 1849 x x P, S V, A Trogon curucui Linnaeus, 1766 x P V, A Trogon rufus Gmelin, 1788 x P Ca Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Alcedinidae Rafinesque, 1815 Megaceryle torquata (Linnaeus, 1766) x x B V Chloroceryle amazona (Latham, 1790) x x B V Chloroceryle americana (Gmelin, 1788) x L V Chloroceryle inda (Linnaeus, 1766) x L V Momotidae Gray, 1840 Momotus momota (Linnaeus, 1766) x P, S V, A Galbulidae Vigors, 1825 Brachygalba lugubris (Swainson, 1838) x B F 1041472 Galbula cyanicollis Cassin, 1851 x x P, Cp V, Ca Galbula ruficauda Cuvier, 1816 x x P, Cp, S V, F Galbula dea (Linnaeus, 1758) x B V Jacamerops aureus (Statius Muller, 1776)* x P V Bucconidae Horsfield, 1821 Notharchus hyperrhynchus (Sclater, 1856) x x P F 1073816 Notharchus tectus (Boddaert, 1783) x x P, Cp, S V, F 1081976 Bucco tamatia Gmelin, 1788 x S V Bucco capensis Linnaeus, 1766 x x P, Cp A Nystalus torridus Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1940 x x P, Cp, S A, F 1073824 Nystalus maculatus (Gmelin, 1788) x x Cp A Monasa nigrifrons (Spix, 1824) x x P, Cp V, A Monasa morphoeus (Hahn & Küster, 1823) x x P, Cp, S V, F,A 1030081 Chelidoptera tenebrosa (Pallas, 1782) x x Aa F 1029232 Ramphastidae Vigors, 1825 Ramphastos tucanus Linnaeus, 1758 x x P, Cp, S V, A, F 1180193 Ramphastos vitellinus Lichtenstein, 1823 x x P, Cp, S V, A, F 1036649 Selenidera gouldii (Natterer, 1837) x P A,F 1238732 Pteroglossus inscriptus Swainson, 1822 x x P, Cp V, A, F 1031536 Tn; Ti; EN Pteroglossus bitorquatus bitorquatus Vigors, 1826 x x P, Cp, S V, F 1029361 Pteroglossus aracari (Linnaeus, 1758) x x S, Cp V Picidae Leach, 1820 Picumnus exilis (Lichtenstein, 1823)* z P, Cp V Melanerpes candidus (Otto, 1796) x Cp V Melanerpes cruentatus (Boddaert, 1783) x Cp V, F 1032436 Veniliornis affinis (Swainson, 1821)* x P, S V Piculus flavigula (Boddaert, 1783)* x P, S V EN Piculus paraensis (Snethlage, 1907) *x P V Colaptes melanochloros (Gmelin, 1788) x Cp V Celeus elegans (Statius Muller, 1776) x x S V, A Celeus ochraceus (Spix, 1824)* x P V Celeus flavus (Statius Muller, 1776)* x P V EN Celeus torquatus pieteroyensi Oren, 1992 x x P V, A Dryocopus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp, S V, F 1041940 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Campephilus rubricollis (Boddaert, 1783) x x P, Cp, S V, F 1083897 Campephilus melanoleucos (Gmelin, 1788) x x P V Falconidae Leach, 1820 Ibycter americanus (Boddaert, 1783) x x P, Cp, S F 1180215 Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777) x x B, aa F Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816) x aa V Herpetotheres cachinnans (Linnaeus, 1758) x x Cp F 1031555 Micrastur ruficollis (Vieillot, 1817)* x P V Micrastur mintoni Whittaker, 2002 x x P V Micrastur semitorquatus (Vieillot, 1817) x P V Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758 x Cp, aa V Falco rufigularis Daudin, 1800 x x Cp F 1083881 Falco deiroleucus Temminck, 1825* x Cp V Psittacidae Rafinesque, 1815 Ara macao (Linnaeus, 1758) x x P, Cp, S F 1036661 Ara chloropterus Gray, 1859 x P, S F 1030079 Ara severus (Linnaeus, 1758)* x P, S, Cp V Orthopsittaca manilatus (Boddaert, 1783) x P, Cp V Diopsittaca nobilis (Linnaeus, 1758) x S, Cp V Tn; Ti Guaruba guarouba (Gmelin, 1788) x x P, Cp, S F 1029265 Psittacara leucophthalmus (Statius Muller, 1776) x x Cp, S F 1185791 Aratinga jandaya (Gmelin, 1788) x x P, Cp, S V,F Eupsittula aurea (Gmelin, 1788)* x S, Cp V Tn; Ti; EN Pyrrhura lepida lepida (Wagler, 1832) x x P, S F 1027814 Ti Pyrrhura amazonum Hellmayr, 1906 *x P, S V Forpus xanthopterygius (Spix, 1824) x x Cp V Brotogeris chiriri (Vieillot, 1818)* x x Cp, S V Brotogeris chrysoptera (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P V Ti Touit huetii (Temminck, 1830) *xP V Ti Pionites leucogaster (Kuhl, 1820) x x P, Cp, S V Ti Pyrilia vulturina (Kuhl, 1820) x P F 1238382 Pionus menstruus (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp, S F 1038941 Pionus fuscus (Statius Muller, 1776) x x P, Cp F 1029310 Amazona farinosa (Boddaert, 1783) x x Cp, S V Amazona amazonica (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P V Amazona ochrocephala (Gmelin, 1788)* x P V,F 1083958 Deroptyus accipitrinus (Linnaeus, 1758) x x P, S F 1180250 Thamnophilidae Swainson, 1824 Pygiptila stellaris (Spix, 1825) x x P, Cp A Myrmotherula multostriata Sclater, 1858 x x P V, A Myrmotherula longipennis Pelzeln, 1868* x P V Myrmotherula axillaris (Vieillot, 1817) x x P, Cp A, Ca Myrmotherula menetriesii (d'Orbigny, 1837) x x P, Cp V, Ca Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Formicivora grisea (Boddaert, 1783) x x P, Cp A, Ca Isleria hauxwelli (Sclater, 1857) x P, S A, Ca Thamnomanes caesius (Temminck, 1820) x x P, Cp A, Ca Dysithamnus mentalis (Temminck, 1823) x x P, Cp A, P, Ca Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus (Temminck, 1822) x x P, Cp, S A Sakesphorus luctuosus (Lichtenstein, 1823) x P A Thamnophilus doliatus (Linnaeus, 1764)* x Cp V Thamnophilus palliatus (Lichtenstein, 1823) x Cp, S, B F 1041503 Thamnophilus pelzelni Hellmayr, 1924 x P A EN Thamnophilus aethiops incertus Pelzeln, 1869 x x P, Cp A, Ca Thamnophilus amazonicus Sclater, 1858 x x P, Cp, S A, Ca Taraba major (Vieillot, 1816) x Cp, S V, A, F 1036704 Hypocnemoides maculicauda (Pelzeln, 1868) x S A EN Pyriglena leuconota leuconota (Spix, 1824) x x P, Cp V, A, Ca Cercomacra cinerascens (Sclater, 1857)* x x P, Cp A Cercomacra laeta Todd, 1920* x P, S, Cp V, A, Ca Willisornis vidua (Hellmayr, 1905) x x P, Cp A, Ca Tn; EN Phlegopsis nigromaculata paraensis Hellmayr, 1904 x x P, Cp V Conopophagidae Sclater & Salvin, 1873 EN Conopophaga roberti Hellmayr, 1905 x Cp V, A, Ca Grallariidae Sclater & Salvin, 1873 Hylopezus paraensis Snethlage, 1910 x x P, Cp A Formicariidae Gray, 1840 Formicarius colma Boddaert, 1783 x Cp A, Ca Formicarius analis (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837)* x P, S V, A Scleruridae Swainson, 1827 Sclerurus macconnelli Chubb, 1919 x P A Sclerurus rufigularis Pelzeln, 1868 x P V, A Sclerurus caudacutus (Vieillot, 1816) x x P, Cp, S V, A Dendrocolaptidae Gray, 1840 Dendrocincla fuliginosa (Vieillot, 1818) x x P, Cp A,Ca Tn; EN Dendrocincla merula badia (Zimmer, 1934) x P A, Ca Deconychura longicauda (Pelzeln, 1868) *x P Ca Certhiasomus stictolaemus (Pelzeln, 1868) x Cp A Glyphorynchus spirurus (Vieillot, 1819) x x P, Cp V,Ca Xiphorhynchus spixii (Lesson, 1830) x x S A Xiphorhynchus obsoletus (Lichtenstein, 1820) x S A, Ca Xiphorhynchus guttatus (Lichtenstein, 1820) x x P, S A, F 1038873 Dendroplex picus (Gmelin, 1788) x x P, Cp, S A, Ca Lepidocolaptes layardi (Sclater, 1873)* x P, S V, A Tn; EN Dendrocolaptes medius Todd, 1920 x x P, Cp, S V, A Xenopidae Bonaparte, 1854 Xenops minutus (Sparrman, 1788) x x P, Cp Ca Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Furnariidae Gray, 1840 Berlepschia rikeri (Ridgway, 1886) x x P, Cp A Automolus paraensis Hartert, 1902* x P V, A Automolus rufipileatus (Pelzeln, 1859)* x P, S V, A, Ca Anabacerthia ruficaudata (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838) * x P V Philydor erythrocercum (Pelzeln, 1859)* x P V, Ca Philydor pyrrhodes (Cabanis, 1848) x P A Certhiaxis cinnamomeus (Gmelin, 1788) x B A Synallaxis albescens Temminck, 1823 x Cp, B A EN Synallaxis rutilans omissa (Hartert, 1901) x x P, Cp A Synallaxis gujanensis (Gmelin, 1789)* x S V Pipridae Rafinesque, 1815 Tyranneutes stolzmanni (Hellmayr, 1906)* x P V, A Ceratopipra rubrocapilla Temminck, 1821* x P V, A Ti Lepidothrix iris (Schinz, 1851) xP A EN Manacus manacus purissimus Todd, 1928 x x Cp V, Ca Chiroxiphia pareola (Linnaeus, 1766) x x Cp, S V, Ca Dixiphia pipra (Linnaeus, 1758) x P V, A Onychorhynchidae Tello, Moyle, Marchese & Cracraft, 2009 Onychorhynchus coronatus (Statius Muller, 1776) x x P, Cp V, Ca EN Terenotriccus erythrurus hellmayri (E. Snethlage, 1907) x x P, Cp, S V, Ca Myiobius atricaudus Lawrence, 1863 x x Cp, S V, Ca Tityridae Gray, 1840 Schiffornis turdina (Wied, 1831)* x P A, Ca Iodopleura isabellae Parzudaki, 1847* x P V Tityra inquisitor (Lichtenstein, 1823) x x P, S V Tityra cayana (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, S F 1194380 Tityra semifasciata (Spix, 1825) x x P, Cp V Pachyramphus castaneus (Jardine & Selby, 1827)* x S V Pachyramphus polychopterus (Vieillot, 1818) x x P, Cp A Pachyramphus marginatus (Lichtenstein, 1823) x P, S V Pachyramphus minor (Lesson, 1830) x S V, A Pachyramphus validus (Lichtenstein, 1823) x x P V, A Cotingidae Bonaparte, 1849 Lipaugus vociferans (Wied, 1820) x x P, Cp, S A Gymnoderus foetidus (Linnaeus, 1758)* x P V Xipholena lamellipennis (Lafresnaye, 1839) x x P F 1180204 Cotinga cotinga (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, S F 1422358 Cotinga cayana (Linnaeus, 1766)* x P V Haematoderus militaris (Shaw, 1792) x P F 1080430 Querula purpurata (Statius Muller, 1776) x Cp F 1081252 Pipritidae Ohlson, Irestedt, Ericson & Fjeldså, 2013 EN Piprites chloris grisescens (Novaes, 1964) x x P, Cp, S V, A Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Platyrinchidae Bonaparte, 1854 Platyrinchus saturatus Salvin & Godman, 1882* x P V Platyrinchus platyrhynchos (Gmelin, 1788)* x P V Rhynchocyclidae Berlepsch, 1907 Taeniotriccus andrei (Berlepsch & Hartert, 1902)* x P A Mionectes oleagineus (Lichtenstein, 1823) x x P, Cp A, Ca Mionectes macconnelli (Chubb, 1919) x x P Ca Tolmomyias sulphurescens Zimmer, 1939 x x P V Tolmomyias flaviventris (Wied, 1831) x x P, S V Todirostrum maculatum (Desmarest, 1806) x P V Todirostrum cinereum (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp V EN Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum illigeri (Cabanis & Heine, 1859) * x x P, Cp V, A Poecilotriccus fumifrons (Hartlaub, 1853)* x P V Poecilotriccus sylvia (Desmarest, 1806)* x P V Myiornis ecaudatus (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837)* x P V Hemitriccus striaticollis (Lafresnaye, 1853) x S V Lophotriccus galeatus (Boddaert, 1783) x x P, Cp V, Ca Tyrannidae Vigors, 1825 Zimmerius acer (Salvin & Godman, 1883)* x P, S, Cp V, A, Ornithion inerme Hartlaub, 1853* x P V Camptostoma obsoletum (Temminck, 1824) x x Cp, S, B A Elaenia flavogaster (Thunberg, 1822) x Cp A Elaenia cristata Pelzeln, 1868* x Cp A Myiopagis gaimardii (d'Orbigny, 1839)* x P, S V,A Myiopagis viridicata (Vieillot, 1817) x Cp A Tyrannulus elatus (Latham, 1790)* x S V, A Phaeomyias murina (Spix, 1825) x x P, S A Attila spadiceus (Gmelin, 1789) x x P V, A Legatus leucophaius (Vieillot, 1818) x x P, Cp, aa, B, S A, F, V 1038926 Ramphotrigon ruficauda (Spix, 1825)* x P V Myiarchus tuberculifer (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837)* x P, S, Cp V Myiarchus swainsoni Cabanis & Heine, 1859 x S A Myiarchus ferox (Gmelin, 1789) x x P, Cp, S A Myiarchus tyrannulus (Statius Muller, 1776)* x S V, A Casiornis fuscus Sclater & Salvin, 1873 x P V Pitangus sulphuratus (Linnaeus, 1766) x x Cp, aa, S V, A Machetornis rixosa (Vieillot, 1819)* x aa V Myiodynastes maculatus (Statius Muller, 1776) x x Cp, aa F 1030139 Tyrannopsis sulphurea (Spix, 1825)* x S,B V, A Megarynchus pitangua (Linnaeus, 1766) x x Cp, aa A Myiozetetes cayanensis (Linnaeus, 1766) x x Cp, B, aa V, A Myiozetetes similis (Spix, 1825) x x Cp V, A Tyrannus melancholicus Vieillot, 1819 x x Cp, aa, B,S V, A Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Tyrannus savana Vieillot, 1808* x S, Cp V Empidonomus varius (Vieillot, 1818) x Cp V Colonia colonus (Vieillot, 1818)* x P V Myiophobus fasciatus (Statius Muller, 1776)* x S V Fluvicola nengeta (Linnaeus, 1766) x x Cp, B, aa V Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764) x B V Lathrotriccus euleri (Cabanis, 1868)* x P, S V Cnemotriccus fuscatus (Wied, 1831)* x S V Contopus nigrescens (Sclater & Salvin, 1880) x x P, S F 1151531 Vireonidae Swainson, 1837 Cyclarhis gujanensis (Gmelin, 1789) x x Cp, aa, S V, A Vireo chivi (Vieillot, 1817) x x P, S A Hylophilus semicinereus Sclater & Salvin, 1867 x x P, Cp, S V, A Hylophilus pectoralis Sclater, 1866 x Cp A Corvidae Leach, 1820 Cyanocorax cyanopogon (Wied, 1821)* x S, Cp V Hirundinidae Rafinesque, 1815 Stelgidopteryx ruficollis (Vieillot, 1817) x x B, aa V Progne tapera (Vieillot, 1817) x x Cp, aa, B V Progne chalybea (Gmelin, 1789) x x aa V Tachycineta albiventer (Boddaert, 1783) x x B V Troglodytidae Swainson, 1831 Microcerculus marginatus (Sclater, 1855)* x S Ca Troglodytes musculus Naumann, 1823 x aa V Campylorhynchus turdinus (Wied, 1831) x Cp V Pheugopedius genibarbis (Swainson, 1838) x x P, Cp, S A, Ca Cantorchilus leucotis (Lafresnaye, 1845) x P A Donacobiidae Aleixo & Pacheco, 2006 Donacobius atricapilla (Linnaeus, 1766) x B V Polioptilidae Baird, 1858 EN Ramphocaenus melanurus austerus Zimmer, 1937 * x P, S, Cp V Polioptila plumbea (Gmelin, 1788) x x Cp V Polioptila paraensis Todd, 1937* x S V Turdidae Rafinesque, 1815 Turdus nudigenis Lafresnaye, 1848* x P, S V Turdus fumigatus Lichtenstein, 1823* x P, S V Turdus leucomelas Vieillot, 1818 x S V, A Turdus amaurochalinus Cabanis, 1850 x x P, Cp A Turdus albicollis Vieillot, 1818 x x P A Passerellidae Cabanis & Heine, 1850 Ammodramus humeralis (Bosc, 1792) x x aa V Arremon taciturnus (Hermann, 1783) x x Cp, S A, Ca Parulidae Wetmore & Zimmer 1947 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Myiothlypis mesoleuca (Sclater, 1866) x x P, Cp A Icteridae Vigors, 1825 Psarocolius viridis (Statius Muller, 1776) x S V, F 1031543 Psarocolius decumanus (Pallas, 1769) x S, Cp V Psarocolius bifasciatus (Spix, 1824) x x P, S V, A Procacicus solitarius (Vieillot, 1816)* x P, S V Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp, S V Cacicus cela (Linnaeus, 1758) x x P, Cp V, F 1037714 Icterus cayanensis (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp V Icterus jamacaii (Gmelin, 1788) x Cp V Molothrus oryzivorus (Gmelin, 1788) x Cp, S V Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789) x B,aa V Sturnella militaris (Linnaeus, 1758) x x Cp, aa V,F 1030127 Mitrospingidae Barker, Burns, Klicka, Lanyon & Lovette, 2013 Lamprospiza melanoleuca (Vieillot, 1817) x x P, S F 1081284 Thraupidae Cabanis, 1847 Coereba flaveola (Linnaeus, 1758) x x Cp, S V Saltator grossus (Linnaeus, 1766)* x P, S V, A Saltator coerulescens Vieillot, 1817* x S, Cp V Saltator maximus (Statius Muller, 1776) x x Cp, S V,A Parkerthraustes humeralis (Lawrence, 1867)* x P V Nemosia pileata (Boddaert, 1783) x S V Tachyphonus rufus (Boddaert, 1783) x x P, Cp, S, B V Ramphocelus carbo (Pallas, 1764) x x P, Cp, S V Lanio luctuosus (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) x Cp V EN Lanio cristatus pallidigula Zimmer, 1945 xCa V Tangara mexicana (Linnaeus, 1766) x P V EN Tangara velia signata (Hellmayr, 1905)* xP V Tangara punctata (Linnaeus, 1766) x S V Tangara episcopus (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp, B, S V Tangara palmarum (Wied, 1823) x x P, Cp, S V,F 1041465 Tangara cayana (Linnaeus, 1766) x Cp V Cissopis leverianus (Gmelin, 1788) x Cp V Dacnis lineata (Gmelin, 1789)* x P V Dacnis cayana (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp, S V Cyanerpes caeruleus (Linnaeus, 1758)* x P, S Cyanerpes cyaneus (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp,S V Chlorophanes spiza (Linnaeus, 1758) x P, S, Cp V Hemithraupis guira (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp, S V Conirostrum speciosum (Temminck, 1824) x P, S V Emberizoides herbicola (Vieillot, 1817) x x aa V Volatinia jacarina (Linnaeus, 1766) x x aa, B, Cp V Sicalis columbiana Cabanis, 1851* x Cp, aa V Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Zoning Type of Photo Taxon Habitats record Ref. WA: Zd Zr Sporophila lineola (Linnaeus, 1758) x x aa V Sporophila nigricollis (Vieillot, 1823) x x aa, B V Sporophila bouvreuil (Statius Muller, 1776) x aa V Sporophila minuta (Linnaeus, 1758) x B F 1027698 Sporophila angolensis (Linnaeus, 1766) x x Cp, aa, B V Cardinalidae Ridgway, 1901 EN Granatellus pelzelni paraensis Rothschild, 1906 x x P, Cp, S A, Ca Caryothraustes canadensis (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp, S F 1043126 Cyanoloxia rothschildii (Lafresnaye, 1847)* x S, Cp V Fringillidae Leach, 1820 V Euphonia chlorotica (Linnaeus, 1766) x x P, Cp, S V Euphonia violacea (Linnaeus, 1758) x x P, Cp A Euphonia cayennensis (Gmelin, 1789)* x P V of the species inside the reserve. However, it is relatively Vulturine Parrot (Pyrilia vulturina). An individual common in the whole area and in preserved forest was photographed in November 2011 by D. M. L. (Lima 2011a). The species was recorded in an area of continuous remnants in neighboring localities. primary forest. Pyrilia vulturina is endemic to eastern White-chinned Woodcreeper (Dendrocincla merula Amazon (lower Amazon), with other recent records in badia). The first record of this species at REBIO Gurupi was documented by Lima & Raíces (2012). During the the Belém CE by Portes et al. (2011) and Oren & Roma survey the species was recorded only in the undisturbed (2011). Due to habitat loss the species was assessed globally by the IUCN (2014) as vulnerable of extinction. zone of the protected area, where the vegetation is White-winged Potoo (Nyctibius leucopterus). C.M. characterized as dense rainforest, with a continuous held a single sighting, from December 10th, 2010. The canopy (D. M. L). The species was sighted foraging alongside army ants in the undersrtorey. This subspecies is bird was found around 1 km NW from the ICMBio endemic to the Belém CE, occurring east of the Tocantins station, in the southern border of the Reserve. As far as we know, this is the first report for this species in Maranhão. river into Amazonian Maranhão (Aleixo 2008a). The The observation took place at around 20:00 hs, during a species is considered endangered at both national (MMA nocturnal spot lighting, and the bird was perched in the 2003) and state (Pará) levels (COEMA 2007). Todd’s Woodcreeper (Dendrocolaptes medius). This usual attitude for the species of Nyctibius, in a primary species was recorded both in primary forest and capoeira terra firme forest. The bird remained perched, and could be observed for several minutes, under the spot-light, and (secondary forest) inside the reserve (registration by using binoculars. The diagnostic large white patch on D. M. L). According to Aleixo (2008b) the species can wing coverts could be observed under optimal conditions. often be found in upland forests, floodplains and forest in an advanced stage of succession. According to the list Red-necked Aracari (Pteroglossus bitorquatus of species of Brazilian fauna threatened with extinction bitorquatus). The species was recorded at base camp of the Gurupi REBIO consuming papaya (registration by (MMA 2003), the species is endangered under the same D. M. L). This is a disturbed area with forest regeneration category of threat as in the state of Pará (COEMA 2007). in advanced stage. It was also recorded in the recovery Black-spotted Bare-eye (Phlegopsis nigromaculata paraensis). The species was recorded foraging solitarily in zone with predominant secondary vegetation and primary forest and forest in advanced stage of succession plenty of Cecropia spp. (Lima 2012c), as well as in the undisturbed zone where it was sighted consuming the inside the reserve (D. M. L). Aleixo (2008c) reports that fruits of a Sapotaceae of the genus Pouteria sp. The species this species may forage alone, in pairs, or family groups. is common in the reserve area and its surroundings. The Apparently, the species is more tolerant to fragmentation and degradation of forest structure than other species species is distributed in lowland forests from the right associated with army ants (Aleixo 2008c). This explains bank of the Tocantins River through northern Maranhão, and according to Silveira (2008b) it would likely occur in the presence of the species in forest at advanced stages of the Gurupi REBIO. This is the first documented record regeneration, which suffered from selective logging. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Blackish Pewee (Contopus nigrescens). D.M.L. and (Lima & Raíces 2012); this occupation has resulted in C. M. observed this species on five occasions during the the raising of livestock and has stimulated illegal logging. present study in an area of primary forest in the recovery According to the latest land survey of the reserve, there zone, and in the undisturbed zone. On all occasions, a are roughly 6,306 people living within REBIO Gurupi solitary individual was observed perched in the middle (ESTRUTURAL 2007). stratum of the forest, engaging in flying forays during Actions that can minimize the loss of habitat and which it captured insects on the wing, a typical behavior hunting of the local avifauna have been performed, for of this genus. D. M. L. photographed the species in example: demarcation of the unit, judicial direction to December 2011 (Lima 2011b) where the diagnostic begin proceedings for land compensation, creation of an overall uniform dark sooty-gray plumage, dark head, advisory board, and drafting terms of commitment for neck and upper parts, blackish-brown wings, blackish settlers. Furthermore, an institutional presence has been tail (sooty gray below) and slightly paler throat could established in the form of two operational field bases with be easily noticed. Sick (1997) reports that the species full-time policing, as well as instruction in administrative is rare, with a patchy distribution in the eastern Andes, processes for the removal of cattle from inside the reserve. and in the Acary Mountains of Guyana, for example. In At the time of the study, approximately 3,500 heads of Brazil, the species is known from specimens collected at cattle were removed from inside the reserve (E.A. Lisboa Itupiranga, Pará (specimens housed at Museu de Zoologia pers. comm.). da Universidade de São Paulo – MZUSP number 64232), Given that much of the Gurupi reserve has been and from observations in the Serra dos Carajás, and one impacted by illegal logging, in addition to the areas sighting in the area of the Pindaré River, Maranhão, in cleared for pastures and other land use, there is an urgent November, 1977 (Ridgely & Tudor 1994). The species need for the development of a reforestation project, which was recently recorded in the Carajás National Forest by will guarantee the connectivity of habitats, especially for Aleixo et al. (2012), but was not registered by Oren & those species that require large tracts of continuous forest Roma (2011), Portes et al. (2011) or Lees et al. (2012) for for their survival. These species include the members of the Belém CE. C. M. has also recorded the species several the Cracidae, in particular Crax fasciolata pinima, which times from a site near Açailândia. was reported by local residents to still occur in the region, Crimson Fruitcrow (Haematoderus militaris). and may in fact be held in captivity in some households. D.M.L. recorded this species on August, 2012. A male The presence in the reserve of seven endangered perched on a tree was photographed from a distance species, and two others (Harpia harpyja and Pyrilia (Lima 2012d) in an area of primary forest surrounded by vulturina) that are likely to be included in the Brazilian secondary growth. This species is considered to be rare, list of threatened species in the near future, reinforce and is probably sensitive to habitat fragmentation and the need for the establishment of a continuous research disturbance (Lees et al. 2012). program for the REBIO Gurupi, with the aim of providing effective conservation measures that can be implemented Actions for conservation by the unit’s administrators and partner institutions. In particular, the confirmation of the occurrence of Crax The REBIO Gurupi is the only integral protection fasciolata pinima in the reserve and adjoining indigenous conservation unit located within the Belém CE, which reservations, is a major research priority. encompasses the most impacted region of the Brazilian Surrounding the unit grows the demand for permits Amazon basin, located between eastern Pará and western to implement plans for selective logging and vegetation Maranhão. This reserve is even more significant in the local removal. Therefore, it is important that the National context of the Amazon sector of Maranhão, where forest Action Plan for the Conservation of Endangered Species cover has been reduced to less than 25% of the original of the Amazon is enforced since it contains the regulatory area (Martins 2011). This whole region, including the instructions and resolutions governing the environmental REBIO Gurupi, is suffering from the ongoing expansion licensing procedures. As such, environmental agencies are of the Arc of Deforestation, which is converting forest legally required to heed protocols that establish conditions into pasture at an alarming rate, reducing the once and procedures for protection, for example, of trees that continuous forest to a series of fragments. present nests of Harpya harpyja and Guaruba guarouba; as One of the major bottlenecks hindering the well as to promote the recovery of degraded areas. conservation unit from fully realizing its goal of New formats for the planning and execution of preserving the flora and fauna within its limits is non- inspection activities have been carried out, providing an sustainable illegal occupation. For decades REBIO intelligence service aimed at disrupting illegal logging. Gurupi has been occupied by irregular settlements Another aspect strengthening enforcement actions is approved by government agencies and by squatters the publication of the term of reciprocity between the Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Aleixo, A. 2008b. Dendrocolaptes certhia medius Todd, 1920. p. Public Security Bureau of Maranhão and the Chico 524-525. In: Machado, A. B. M.; Drummond, G. M. & Paglia, Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation, since the A. P. (eds.). Livro Vermelho da Fauna Brasileira Ameaçada de agreement fosters the training of law enforcement agents Extinção. Volume II: Ministério do Meio Ambiente e Fundação and police support staff in the field to identify any species Biodiversitas. Brasília, Brasil. that are targeted for trafficking or hunting, as well as the Aleixo, A. 2008c. Phlegopsis nigromaculata paraensis Hellmayr, 1904. p. 612-613. In: Machado, A. B. M.; Drummond, G. M. & Paglia, development of allocation protocols for Crax fasciolata A. P. (eds.). Livro Vermelho da Fauna Brasileira Ameaçada de pinima, Pteroglossus bitorquatus bitorquatus, Psophia Extinção. Volume II: Ministério do Meio Ambiente e Fundação obscura, Guaruba guarouba, Pyrrhura lepida lepida and Biodiversitas. Brasília, Brasil. Harpya harpyja. Aleixo, A. 2009. Lacunas de Conhecimento, Prioridades de Pesquisa e Perspectivas Futuras na Conservação de Aves na Amazônia Public policy actions, along with the participation of Brasileira, p. 39-48. In: De Luca, A. C.; Develey, P. F.; Bencke, G. civil entities, in the commitment to protect and conserve A. & Goerck, J. M. (eds.). Áreas importantes para a conservação the Amazonian forest fragments existing in the REBIO das aves no Brasil. Parte II – Amazônia, Cerrado e Pantanal. São Gurupi and indigenous lands with their surrounding areas Paulo: SAVE Brasil. Aleixo, A.; Carneiro, L. S. & Dantas, S. M. 2012. Aves, p. 98-138. have strengthened the implementation and consolidation In: Martins, F. D.; Castilho, A.; Campos, J.; Hatano, F. M. & of the conservation unit. The high number of endemic Rolim, S. G. (eds.). Fauna da Floresta Nacional de Carajás: estudo and endangered species identified in the reserve reinforces sobre vertebrados terrestres. São Paulo: Nitro Imagens. its importance for conservation. It is essential to continue Anjos, L.; Volpato, G. H.; Mendonça, L. B.; Serafini, P. P.; Lopes, all efforts by the federal government to implement these E. V.; Boçon, R.; Silva, E. S. & Bisheimer, M. V. 2010. Técnicas de levantamento quantitativo de aves em ambiente florestal: uma actions specific to the unit, established as effective and análise comparativa baseada em dados empíricos, p. 61-76. In: Von efficient tools for the full compliance of the conservation Matter, S.; Straube, F. C.; Accordi, I.; Piacentini, V. & Cândido- unit’s original mission. Jr, J. F. Ornitologia e Conservação: ciência aplicada, técnicas de pesquisa e levantamento. Rio de Janeiro, Technical Books Editora. CBRO - Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos. 2014. Listas das aves do Brasil,11ª Ed., 01/01/2014. http://www.cbro.org.br/ ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CBRO/pdf/AvesBrasil2014.pdf (access on 11 February 2014). COEMA. 2007. Resolução COEMA nº 54, de 24 de outubro de We thank the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity 2007, PA. Homologa a lista de espécies da flora e da fauna ameaçadas Conservation (ICMBio) for institutional and no Estado do Pará. www.sema.pa.gov.br/resolucoes_detalhes. php?idresolucao=54. (acesso on 5 november 2012). financial support, as well as the Biodiversity Research Colwell, R. K. 2006. EstimateS: Statistical estimation of species richness Program (PPBio), which funded part of the trips. The and shared species from samples, version 8.0. http://viceroy.eeb. Environmental Battalion of Military Police of Maranhão uconn.edu/EstimateS. (access on 10 november 2012). provided logistical support. Thanks also goes to the Cracraft, J. 1985. Historical biogeography and patterns of following attendants: Eloisa Neves Mendonça for her differentiation within the South American avifauna: areas of endemism. Ornithological Monographs 36: 49-84. characterization of vegetation and field activities; the head Cracraft, J. 1994. Species diversity, biogeography, and the evolution of the unit, Evane Alves Lisboa; as well as the coordinator of biotas. American Zoologist 34: 33-47. of PPBio Eastern Amazonia, Marlúcia Bonifácio Martins, De Luca, A. C.; Develey, P. F.; Bencke, G. A. & Goerck, J. M. 2009. and the coordinator of PPBio Maranhão, Francisca Áreas importantes para a conservação das aves no Brasil. Parte II – Amazônia, Cerrado e Pantanal. São Paulo: SAVE Brasil. Helena Muniz, for encouraging this research. We thank Develey, P. F. 2009. Conservação de Aves no Brasil: Considerações the collaborator of ICMBio, Everton Sousa Ferreira, as para a Amazônia, o Cerrado e o Pantanal, p. 1-10. In: De Luca, well as the PPBio collaborators José Carlos Pereira Júnior, A. C.; Develey, P. F.; Bencke, G. A. & Goerck, J. M. Áreas Adriano Kid Azambuja, Ighor Dienes Mendes, Ítalo importantes para a conservação das aves no Brasil. Parte II – Rafael Gomes Aguiar, Laurent Guimarães Carvalho and Amazônia, Cerrado e Pantanal. São Paulo: SAVE Brasil. Erize, F.; J. R. R. Mata & M. Rumboll. 2006. Birds of South America: Deranilde Santana da Silva for their aid in field activities. Non-Passerines: Rheas to Woodpeckers. Princeton Illustrated Lastly, we thank Alexandre Aleixo, Marcos Pérsio Dantas Checklists. Santos, Julio César Roma and Luis Fábio Silveira for ESTRUTURAL (Estudos e Projetos LTDA). 2007. Consolidação their bibliographic help and encouragement during the Territorial da Reserva Biológica do Gurupi. Relatório Técnico 1. Brasília. p. 79. preparation of this manuscript. Freitas, S. R.; Mello, M. C. S. & Cruz, C. B. M. 2005. Relações entre maturidade estrutural da Floresta e índices de vegetação na Mata Atlântica. p. 1537-1544. In: XII Simpósio Brasileiro de REFERENCES Sensoriamento Remoto, Goiânia, Brasil, INPE. Gascon, C.; Bierregaard Jr. R. O.; Laurance, W. F. & Rankin-de- Aleixo, A. 2008a. Dendrocincla merula badia Zimmer, 1934. p. Merona, J. 2001. Deforestation and forest fragmentation in the 523. In: Machado, A. B. M.; Drummond, G. M. & Paglia, Amazon, p. 22-30. In: Bierregaard, R.O. Jr.; Gascon, C.; Lovejoy, A. P. (eds.). Livro Vermelho da Fauna Brasileira Ameaçada de T. E. & Mesquita, R. (eds.). Lessons from Amazonia: the ecology Extinção. Volume II: Ministério do Meio Ambiente e Fundação and conservation of a fragmented forest. Yale University Press, Biodiversitas. Brasília, Brasil. New Haven, EUA. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces Guariguata, M. R. & Ostertag, R. 2001. Neotropical secondary forest Novaes, F. C. & Lima, M. F. C. 2009. Aves da Grande Belém: succession: changes in structural and functional characteristics. Municípios de Belém e Ananindeua, Pará. 2 ª ed. Belém: Museu Forest Ecology and Management 148: 185-206. Paraense Emílio Goeldi. p. 415. Herzog, S. K.; Kessler, M. & T. M. Cahill. 2002. Estimating species Oren, D. C. & Roma, J. C. 2011. Composição e vulnerabilidade da richness of tropical communities from rapid assessment data. Auk, avifauna da Amazônia maranhense, p. 221-247. In: Martins, M. 119: 749-768. B. & Oliveira, T. G. (eds.). Amazônia Maranhense: Diversidade e IBAMA. 1999. Plano de Manejo da Reserva Biológica do Gurupi. Conservação. Belém: MPEG. Brasília. Ordinance IBAMA 167, 24 December 2002. Oren, D. C. 1988. Uma Reserva Biológica para o Maranhão. Ciência ICMBio. 2008. Plano de ação nacional para a conservação de aves de Hoje. 8:36-45. rapina. Coordenação-Geral de Espécies Ameaçadas. Série Espécies Oren, D. C. 1991. Aves do Maranhão. Goeldiana, Série Zoologia, Ameaçadas nº 5. Brasília: ICMBio, p 40-136. 9: 1-55. IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Oren, D. C. 1992. Celeus torquatus pieteroyensi, a new subspecies of http://www.iucnredlist.org. (access on 23 July 2014). ringed woodpecker (Aves, Picidae) from eastern Para and western Laranjeiras, T. O. 2011. Biology and population size of the Maranhão, Brazil. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Serie Golden Parakeet (Guaruba guarouba) in western Pará, Brazil, zoologia 8(2): 385-389. with recommendations for conservation. Revista Brasileira de Portes, C. E. B.; Carneiro, L. S.; Schunck, F.; Silva, M. S. S.; Ornitologia, 19(3): 303-314. Zimmer, K. J.; Whittaker, A.; Poletto, F.; Silveira, L. F. & Lees, A. C. & Peres, C. A. 2006. Rapid avifaunal collapse along the Aleixo. A. 2011. Annotated checklist of birds recorded between Amazonian deforestation frontier. Biol. Cons., 133: 198-211. 1998 and 2009 at nine areas in the Belém area of endemism, with Lees, A. C.; Moura, N. G.; Santana, A.; Aleixo, A.; Barlow, J.; notes on some range extensions and the conservation status of Berenguer, E.; Ferreira, J. & Gardner, T. A. 2012. Paragominas: endangered species. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 19: 167-184. a quantitative baseline inventory of na eastern amazonian avifauna. Prata, S. S. 2007. Sucessão ecológica da vegetação arbórea em florestas Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 20(2): 93-118. secundárias do nordeste do estado do Pará. Ph.D. dissertation. Lees, A.C.; Naka, L.N.; Aleixo, A.; Cohn-Haft, M.; Piacentini, Belém: Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia. V.Q.; Santos, M.P.D. & Silveira, L.F. 2014. Conducting Ribon, R. 2010. Amostragem de aves pelo método de listas de rigorous avian inventories: Amazonian case studies and a roadmap MacKinnon, p. 31-44. In: Von Matter, S.; Straube, F. C.; for improvement. Revista Brasileira Ornitologia, 22(2): 107-120. Accordi, I.; Piacentini, V. & Cândido-Jr, J. F. (eds.). Ornitologia e Lima, D. M. 2010. [WA1065501, Spizaetus melanoleucus (Vieillot, Conservação: ciência aplicada, técnicas de pesquisa e levantamento. 1816)]. www.wikiaves.com/1065501 (access on 06 February Rio de Janeiro, Technical Books Editora. 2014). Ricklefs, R. E. 2001. The economy of nature: a textbook in basic ecology. Lima, D. M. 2011a. [WA1238382, Pyrilia vulturina (Kuhl, 1820)]. Nova York: Chiron Press, Incorporated. W. H. Freeman and www.wikiaves.com/1238382 (access on 06 February 2014). Company. Lima, D. M. 2011b. [WA1151531, Contopus nigrescens (Sclater Ridgely, R. S. & Tudor, G. 1989. The birds of South America: the & Salvin, 1880)]. www.wikiaves.com/1151531 (access on 06 oscine passerines. v. 1. Austin: University Texas Press. February 2014). Ridgely, R. S. & Tudor, G. 1994. The birds of South America: the Lima, D. M. & Raices, D. S. L. 2012. Primeiro registro de Psophia suboscine passerines. v. 2. Austin: University Texas Press. abscura Pelzeln, 1857 e Dendrocincla merula badia Zimmer, Ridgely, R. S. & Tudor, G. 2009. Field guide to the songbirds of South 1934 para a Reserva Biológica do Gurupi, Maranhão, Brasil. America: the passerines. University of Texas Press, Austin, USA, Ornithologia 5(1): 39-42. 750 pp. Lima, D. M. 2012a. [WA1029265, Guaruba guarouba (Gmelin, Roma, J. C. 1996. Composição e vulnerabilidade da avifauna do leste do 1788)]. www.wikiaves.com/1029265 (access on 06 February estado do Pará, Brasil. MSc. dissertation. Belém: Museu Paraense 2014). Emílio Goeldi. Lima, D. M. 2012b. [WA1027672, Pyrrhura lepida (Wagler, 1832)]. Sick, H. 1997. Ornitologia Brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira. www.wikiaves.com/1027672 (access on 13 November 2013) Sigrist, T. 2009. Avifauna Brasileira: descrição das espécies. Guia de Lima, D. M. 2012c. [WA1029361, Pteroglossus bitorquatus Vigors, campo. Editora Avis Brasilis. 1826]. www.wikiaves.com/1029361 (access on 06 February 2014). Silva, J. M. C.; Rylands, A. B. & Fonseca, G. A. B. 2005. O destino Lima, D. M. 2012d. [WA1080430, Haematoderus militaris (Shaw, das áreas de endemismo da Amazônia. Megadiversidade 1: 124- 1792)]. www.wikiaves.com/1080430 (access on 13 November 131. 2013). Silveira, L. F. & Belmonte, F. 2005. Comportamento reprodutivo Mackinnon, J. 1991. Field guide to the birds of Java and Bali. Gadjah e hábitos da ararajuba, Guarouba guarouba, no município de Mada University Press, Bulaksumur, 390p. Tailândia, Pará. Ararajuba, 13(1): 89-93. Martins, M. B. 2011. O Programa de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade na Silveira, L. F. 2008a. Pyrrhura lepida lepida (Wagler, 1832). p. 480- Amazônia Maranhense, p. 17-21. In: Martins, M. B. & Oliveira, 481. In: Machado, A. B. M.; Drummond, G. M. & Paglia, A. T. G. (eds.). Amazônia Maranhense: Diversidade e Conservação. P. (eds.). Livro Vermelho da Fauna Brasileira Ameaçada de Belém: MPEG. Extinção. Volume II: Ministério do Meio Ambiente e Fundação MMA. 2003. Lista da fauna brasileira ameaçada de extinção. Instrução Biodiversitas. Brasília, Brasil. Normativa do Ministério do Meio Ambiente nº 03/2003, Diário Silveira, L. F. 2008b. Pteroglossus bitorquatus bitorquatus Vigors, 1826. Oficial da União nº 101, Seção 1, p. 88-97. p. 504. In: Machado, A. B. M.; Drummond, G. M. & Paglia, Morrone, J. J. & Crisci, J. V. 1995. Historical biogeography: A. P. (eds.). Livro Vermelho da Fauna Brasileira Ameaçada de introduction to methods. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics Extinção. Volume II: Ministério do Meio Ambiente e Fundação 26: 373-401. Biodiversitas. Brasília, Brasil. Morrone, J. J. 1994. On the identification of areas of endemism. Skole, D. & Tucker, C. 1993. Tropical Deforestation and Habitat Systematic Biology 43: 438-441. Fragmentation in the Amazon: Satellite Data from 1978 to 1988. Noss, R. F. & Csuti, B. 1997. Habitat fragmentation. p 269-304 In: Science, 260 (5116):1905-1910. Meffe, G. K. & Carroll, C. R. (eds.). Principles of Conservation Trinca, C. T.; Ferrari, S. F. & Lees, A. C. 2008. Curiosity killed the Biology, 2ª ed. Sunderland: Sinauer Associates. bird: arbitrary hunting of Harpy Eagles Harpia harpyja on an Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014 An avifaunal inventory and conservation prospects for the Gurupi Biological Reserve, Maranhão, Brazil Diego Mendes Lima, Carlos Martínez and Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces agricultural frontier in southern Brazilian Amazonia. Cotinga, Willis, E. O. 1979. The composition of avian communities in 30:12-15. remanescent woodlots in southern Brazil. Papéis Avulsos de Valois, A. C. C. 2003. Benefícios e estratégias de utilização sustentável Zoologia, 33:1-25. da Amazônia. Brasília: EMBRAPA Informação Tecnológica, páginas 34-37. (Discussion Paper, ISSN 1677-5473; 18). van Perlo, B. 2009. A Field Guide to the Birds of Brazil. Oxford University Press. Associate Editor: Alexander C. Lees APPENDIX Species of relevant biogeographical interest, for which we obtained only isolated and undocumented records. We recommend that they are added to the REBIO Gurupi checklist whenever material evidence such as digital or specimen vouchers are obtained. Species Tinamus guttatus Porzana flaviventer Phaethornis maranhaoensis Chlorostilbon mellisugus Myrmornis torquata Synallaxis frontalis Myiobius barbatus Elaenia chiriquensis Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(4), 2014

Journal

Ornithology ResearchSpringer Journals

Published: Dec 1, 2014

Keywords: AmazoSn; birds; Belem Center of Endemism; endangered species; inventory

There are no references for this article.