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Agro-industrial wastes and their utilization using solid state fermentation: a review

Agro-industrial wastes and their utilization using solid state fermentation: a review Agricultural residues are rich in bioactive compounds. These residues can be used as an alternate source for the production of different products like biogas, biofuel, mushroom, and tempeh as the raw material in various researches and industries. The use of agro-industrial wastes as raw materials can help to reduce the production cost and also reduce the pollution load from the environment. Agro-industrial wastes are used for manufacturing of biofuels, enzymes, vitamins, antioxidants, animal feed, antibiotics, and other chemicals through solid state fermentation (SSF). A variety of microorganisms are used for the production of these valuable products through SSF processes. Therefore, SSF and their effect on the formation of value-added products are reviewed and discussed. Keywords: Agro-industrial wastes, Oil cakes, Solid state fermentation, Bioactive compounds, Biotechnological approaches and cereal industries produced husks. All over the world Background approximately 147.2 million metric tons of fiber sources Agricultural-based industries produced the vast amount are found, whereas 709.2 and 673.3 million metric tons of residues every year. If these residues are released to of wheat straw residues and rice straws were estimated, the environment without proper disposal procedure that respectively, in the 1990s (Belewu and Babalola 2009). As may cause to environmental pollution and harmful effect per the composition of these agro-industrial residues are on human and animal health. Most of the agro-industrial concerned, they have high nutritional prospective, there- wastes are untreated and underutilized, therefore in max- fore they are getting more consideration for quality con- imum reports it disposed of either by burning, dumping trol and also categorized as agro-industrial by-products or unplanned landfilling. These untreated wastes create (Graminha et al. 2008). different problems with climate change by increasing a Various studies reported that different kinds of waste number of greenhouse gases. Besides this, the use of fos- such as pomegranate peels, lemon peels and green wal- sil fuels also contributing the effect on greenhouse gases nut husks can be used as natural antimicrobials (Adámez (GHG) emission (Bos and Hamelinck 2014). So, now it et al. 2012; Katalinic et al. 2010). Wastes from the organic is a worldwide concern to dictating the improvement of compounds although a risk to the atmosphere, but they alternative cleaner and renewable bioenergy resources represent a possible source for making of mushrooms as (Okonko et  al. 2009). These wastes cause a serious dis - foodstuffs and other bio-based products like bio-energy posal problem (Rodríguez-Couto 2008). For examples, and biofertilizers. Some of the agricultural residues are the juice industries produced a huge amount of waste as used for animal food. However, such wastes contain peels, the coffee industry produced coffee pulp as a waste, variability in composition like high amount of proteins, sugars, and minerals. Due to high nutritional composi- tion, these residues not described as “wastes” but con- *Correspondence: duhanjs68@gmail.com Department of Biotechnology, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa, sidered as raw materials for other product formation and Haryana 125055, India developments. The availability of these nutrients in raw Full list of author information is available at the end of the article © The Author(s) 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Sadh et al. Bioresour. Bioprocess. (2018) 5:1 Page 2 of 15 materials offers appropriate environments for the growth of microorganisms. These microorganisms have got the ability to reuse the raw materials with the use of fermen- tation processes. The agro-industrial residues are used for solid support in SSF developments for making differ - ent beneficial products. It also helps for the production of fermentable sugars by reducing the production cost on the basis of food crops. Various studies were carried out to know the conversion of agricultural waste into sugars by using different microorganisms (Nguyen et  al. 2010). Finally, this review described the prospective uses of agro-industrial wastes by SSF processes. Types of agro‑industrial wastes Agricultural residues Figure  1 shows two different types of agro-industrial wastes, i.e., agriculture residues and industrial residues. Agriculture residues can be further divided into field residues and process residues. Field residues are residues that present in the field after the process of crop harvest - ing. These field residues consist of leaves, stalks, seed pods, and stems, whereas the process residues are resi- Fig. 1 Agro-industrial wastes and their types dues present even after the crop is processed into alter- nate valuable resource (Table 1). These residues consist of molasses, husks, bagasse, seeds, leaves, stem, straw, stalk, shell, pulp, stubble, peel, digested to produce useful products like production of roots, etc. and used for animal feed, soil improvement, biogas, bio-ethanol, and other commercially useful exam- fertilizers, manufacturing, and various other processes. ples. Approximately, 20% of the production of fruits and Huge amount of field residues are generated and most of vegetables in India are going waste every year (Rudra them are underutilized. Controlled use of field remains et al. 2015) because in India a large amount of apple, cot- can enhance the proficiency of irrigation and control of ton, soy bean, and wheat are produced. So as the pro- erosion. In Middle East region, wheat and barley are the duction increased in the country, it also increased the major crops. In addition to this, various other crops like percentage of waste produced from them. Similarly, the rice, lentils, maize, chickpeas, fruits, and vegetables are waste produced from food industries contains high value also produced all over the world. Agricultural residues of BOD, COD, and other suspended solids. Most of these are differentiated on the basis of their availability as well wastes are left unutilized or untreated, which caused as characteristics that can be different from other solid adverse effect on environment as well as human and ani - fuels like charcoal, wood, and char briquette (Zafar 2014). mal health but the composition of these wastes contains a large number of organic compound that produced a vari- Industrial wastes ety of value-added products and also reduced the cost of A huge amount of organic residues and related efflu - production as described in Table 1. ents are produced every year through the food process- Especially in oil industries, huge amount of processed ing industries like juice, chips, meat, confectionary, and residues are produced after oil extraction from the seeds; fruit industries. These organic residues can be utilized these residues are known as oil cakes. These industries for different energy sources. As the population increases cause air, water, and solid waste pollution because these continuously, the requirement of food and their uses also residues contain high concentration of fat, oil, grease, increased. So, in most of the countries, different indus - suspended solids, and dissolved solids. Oil cakes have tries of food and beverage have increased remarkably in variabilities based on their substrate (Table 3). Oil cake is that region for fulfillment of need of food. Table  2 shows of different types like canola oil cake (CaOC), sunflower different compositions of fruit industrial wastes that oil cake (SuOC), coconut oil cake (COC), sesame oil constitute the different compositions of cellulose, hemi - cake (SOC), mustard oil cake (MOC), palm kernel cake cellulose, lignin, moisture, ash, carbon, nitrogen, etc. (PKC), soy bean cake (SBC), groundnut oil cake (GOC), and these constituents have potential to biochemically cotton seed cake (CSC), olive oil cake (OOC), rapeseed Sadh et al. Bioresour. Bioprocess. (2018) 5:1 Page 3 of 15 Table 1 Composition of agro‑industrial wastes Agro-industrial wastes Chemical composition (% w/w) References Cellulose Hemicellulose Lignin Ash (%) Total solids (%) Moisture (%) Sugarcane bagasse 30.2 56.7 13.4 1.9 91.66 4.8 El-Tayeb et al. (2012) and Nigam et al. (2009) Rice straw 39.2 23.5 36.1 12.4 98.62 6.58 El-Tayeb et al. (2012) Corn stalks 61.2 19.3 6.9 10.8 97.78 6.40 El-Tayeb et al. (2012) Sawdust 45.1 28.1 24.2 1.2 98.54 1.12 El-Tayeb et al. (2012) and Martin et al. (2012) Sugar beet waste 26.3 18.5 2.5 4.8 87.5 12.4 El-Tayeb et al. (2012) Barley straw 33.8 21.9 13.8 11 _ _ Nigam et al. (2009) Cotton stalks 58.5 14.4 21.5 9.98 _ 7.45 Nigam et al. (2009) Oat straw 39.4 27.1 17.5 8 _ _ Martin et al. (2012) Soya stalks 34.5 24.8 19.8 10.39 _ 11.84 Motte et al. (2013) Sunflower stalks 42.1 29.7 13.4 11.17 _ _ Motte et al. (2013) Wheat straw 32.9 24.0 8.9 6.7 95.6 7 Nigam et al. (2009) and Martin et al. (2012) Table 2 Composition of fruit‑industrial wastes Fruit-indus- Chemical composition (% w/w) trial waste Cellulose Hemi-cellu- Lignin Ash Total solids Moisture Total carbon Total nitro- References lose gen Potato peel 2.2% – – 7.7% – 9.89 1.3% – Weshahy and waste Rao (2012) Orange peel 9.21% 10.5% 0.84% 3.5% – 11.86 – – Rivas et al. (2008) Coffee skin 23.77 16.68 28.58 5.36 – – C/N 14.41 Lina et al. (g/100 g) (g/100 g) (g/100 g) (g/100 g) (2014) Pineapple 18.11 – 1.37 93.6 91 40.8 0.99 Paepatung peel et al. (2009) Table 3 Composition of oil cakes Oil cakes Dry matter Crude protein Crude fiber Ash Calcium Phosphorus References CaOC 90 33.9 9.7 6.2 0.79 1.06 Ewing (1997) COC 88.8 25.2 10.8 6.0 0.08 0.67 Gohl (1970) CSC 94.3 40.3 15.7 6.8 0.31 0.11 Friesecke (1970) GOC 92.6 49.5 5.3 4.5 0.11 0.74 Kuo (1967) MOC 89.8 38.5 3.5 9.9 0.05 1.11 Kuo (1967) OOC 85.2 6.3 40.0 4.2 – – Maymone et al. (1961) PKC 90.8 18.6 37 4.5 0.31 0.85 Owusu et al. (1970) SuOC 91 34.1 13.2 6.6 0.30 1.30 Brendon (1957) cake (RSC) (Ramachandran et al. 2007). These discussed Solid state fermentation (SSF) agro-industrial residues are relatively cheap, contain- Any biotechnological processes in which organisms ing high amount of constituents that have an unlimited grow on non-soluble material or solid substrates in the prospective to be consumed as alternative substrates for absence or near absence of free water is recognized as fermentation. solid state fermentation (SSF) (Bhargav et  al. 2008). Sadh et al. Bioresour. Bioprocess. (2018) 5:1 Page 4 of 15 Commonly used substrates in SSF are cereal grains SSF, but with a lower yield. SSF is a multistep process (rice, wheat, barley, and corn), legume seeds, wheat involving the following steps: bran, lignocellulose materials such as straws, sawdust or wood shavings, and a wide range of plant and animal 1. Selection of substrate. materials. The compounds of these substrates are poly - 2. Pre-treatment of substrate either by mechanical, meric and remain insoluble or sparingly soluble in water chemical or biochemical processing to improve but most of them have low cost and easily obtainable the availability of the bound nutrients and also to and represent a concentrated source of nutrients for reduce the size of the components, e.g., pulverizing microbial growth. Food preparation by fermentation is straw and shredding vegetable materials to optimize one of the oldest methods. Critical study of the litera- the physical aspects of the process. However, the ture shows that low amount of water or the absence of cost of pre-treatment should be balanced with even- water in SSF offer several advantages such as easy prod - tual product value. uct recovery, low cost of complete production process, 3. Hydrolysis of primarily polymeric substrates, e.g., smaller fermenter-size, reduced downstream process- polysaccharides and proteins. ing, and also reduction of energy requirements for stir- 4. Fermentation process for utilizing hydrolysis prod- ring and sterilization (Pandey 2003). For the successful ucts. process of SSF, different factors like microorganisms, 5. Downstream processing for purification and quanti - solid support used, water activity, temperature, aera- fication of end products. tion, and type of fermenter used should be considered before going to start any fermentation process. The Most of the Asian and African countries used different microorganisms used in SSF can occur as single pure fermented foods as a part of their diet regularly. Differ - cultures, mixed identifiable cultures or a consortium ent forms of activated oxygen like free and non-free radi- of mixed indigenous microorganisms. Some SSF pro- cals such as superoxide anion radicals (O ), hydroxyl cesses, e.g., tempeh and oncom production, require radicals (OH) and H O and singled oxygen (O ), respec- 2 2 2 selective growth of microorganisms such as molds that tively, reported that these can lead oxidative injury to liv- need low moisture levels to carry out fermentation with ing organisms. So, these species produced a significant the help of extracellular enzymes secreted by ferment- part in numerous diseases such as cancer, emphysema, ing microorganisms. Table  4 shows different microor - atherosclerosis, and arthritis (Jacobs et al. 1999). SSF has ganisms like fungi, yeasts, and bacteria that are used been mainly employed from ancient time for processing in SSF processes. Molds are frequently used in SSF for of foods, but nowadays it is gaining a lot of attention due maximizing production of value added products as to the increasing use of different types of organic wastes they grow naturally on solid substrates such as pieces and the larger production of value-added products (Pan- of wood, seeds, stems, and roots. However, bacteria and dey et  al. 2000; Wang and Yang 2007). The search for yeasts, which require comparatively higher moisture sustainable and green processes for bioconversion of content for efficient fermentation, can also be used for organic wastes into valuable products could substitute Table 4 Recent studies of solid state fermentation using different microorganisms and agro ‑industrial wastes Microorganisms Solid supports References Bacteria Amycolatopsis mediterranean MTCC 14 GOC and COC Vastrad and Neelagund (2011a, b) Xanthomonas campestries MTCC 2286 Potato peel Vidhyalakshmi et al. (2012) Pseudomonas spp. BUP6 GOC, COC, SOC, and CSC Faisal et al. (2014) Bacillus licheniformis MTCC 1483 Wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, maize straw, and paddy straw Kaur et al. (2015) Fungi Aspergillus niger Rice bran, wheat bran, black gram bran, GOC, and COC Suganthi et al. (2011) Aspergillus niger Rice bran, wheat bran, black gram bran, and soybean Kumar and Duhan (2011) Streptomyces spp. Household kitchen wastes Ezejiofor et al. (2012) Aspergillus oryzae Soybean meal (waste) Thakur et al. (2015) Rhizopus arrhizus and Mucor subtillissimus Caorncob cassava peel, soybeans, wheat bran, and citrus pulp Nascimento et al. (2015) Aspergillus niger Rice bran, wheat bran, black gram bran, GOC, and COC Mahalakshmi and Jayalakshmi (2016) Aspergillus terreus Palm oil cake Rahman et al. (2016) Sadh et al. Bioresour. Bioprocess. (2018) 5:1 Page 5 of 15 non-renewable materials and also transform chemical Bio fuel production processes into cleaner practices in the industrial sector Bio-fuels remain significant because they are used as sub - that highlights the potential of SSF. The particular inter - stitute for fossil fuels. Previous studies revealed the pro- est of SSF is due to its relatively simple process that uses duction of biofuels from positive agro-industrial residues abundant low-cost biomaterials with minimal or no pre- like rice straw, sweet potato waste, sawdust, potato waste, treatment for bioconversion, less waste water generation, corn stalks, sugarcane bagasse, and sugar beet waste and the capacity for simulating similar micro-environ- (Duhan et  al. 2013; Kumar et  al. 2014, 2016). In 2011, ments, favorable to microorganism growth (Singhania all over the world bioethanol production increased as et  al. 2009). Further, SSF has opened a new paradigm of showed by the production of 85 billion liters of bioetha- bioconversion of organic solid wastes through the pro- nol (Avci et  al. 2013; Saini et  al. 2014). With the help of duction of biologically active metabolites both at the lab agricultural residues, it supports in decrease the deforest- and industrial scale. The application of SSF in the produc - ation by reducing our dependence on forest woody bio- tion of different bio-products has been widely reported mass. In addition, field residues have small harvest time including enzymes, organic acids, biofertilizers, biopesti- that reduces them extra consistently offered to bioetha - cides, biosurfactants, bioethanol, aroma compounds, ani- nol production (Limayema and Ricke 2012). mal feed, pigments, vitamins, and antibiotics. Similarly, Many researches have completed the making of etha- SSF simulates natural microbiological processes such as nol from materials having lignocellulosic composition composting and ensiling (Thomas et al. 2013). Therefore, (Cadoche and Lopez 1989; Bjerre et al. 1996). Najafi et al. solid state fermentation and their effect on the formation (2009) also studied the production of bioethanol from of value-added products by this process are reviewed and various agricultural residues obtained from different discussed. agricultural crops. Saini et  al. (2014) discussed various agricultural wastes for the production of bioethanol for Substrate used for solid state fermentation second-generation. They focused on the use of lignocel - Solid waste from different industries like food, beer and lulosic composition of different agro-industrial wastes. wine, agriculture, paper, textiles, detergent, and animal They concluded that the biofuels are useful alternatives feed industries are used as a substrate for SSF. Substrates of various fossil fuels like petrol and diesel. On the basis that remain solid also contain low moisture levels which of their discussion and review of various approaches for is preferred for SSF. Figure 2 shows some of the substrate biofuel production, it is clearly shown that the lignocel- used for SSF. Several researchers used different substrates lulosic-derived biofuels are cost effective as well as eco- designed for their study like rice (Oryza sativa) (Sadh friendly and alternative source of energy for upcoming et al. 2017a), seim (Lablab purpureus) (Sadh et al. 2017b, future. Another study for the production of biogas by c), black eyed pea (Vigna unguiculata) (Chawla et  al. using various agriculture residues from different sources 2017), peanut press cake (Arachis hypogea) (Sadh et  al. as well as two weeds, i.e., Typha angustifolia L. and 2017d). Orzuaa et  al. (2009) studied ten agro-industrial Eichornia crassipes solms was carried out by Paepatung wastes used for their appropriateness as fungus immo- et al. (2009). bilization carrier for SSF. They found that some of the In most of the developing countries, a fast growth in waste materials have better potential for use as immobi- population as well as their rapid development in indus- lization carrier in SSF, because they contain high water trialization causes the high demand of low-priced energy absorption capacity, and are acceptable as good growth source by using economical agricultural residues. A large rate of microorganisms. amount of required waste is available in these countries for the production of biofuels. Mushimiyimana and Tal- Utilization of agro-industrial wastes using solid state lapragada (2016) produced bioethanol from vegetable’s fermentation waste by fermentation technique with the help of yeast Agricultural wastes are used to produce large value- Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They used common vegeta - added products. Figure  3 shows the schematic represen- bles waste like potato peel, carrot peel, and onion peel. tation of applications from different substrates. Most of Bioethanol production could be the best alternate for the field wastes can be used globally by the production the consumption of agricultural residues. Use of banana of biofuels, biogas in place of heat, and power through stem as a substrate for bioethanol production is a good various technologies. Different substrates have different alternate in India because of huge availability of banana compositions and used in the production of different val - pseudo stem as a waste. Ingale et  al. (2014) produced uable products on the basis of their composition. Some of bioethanol by using banana pseudo stem as a substrate the valuable products are described below. with pre-treatment of Aspergillus ellipticus and Asper- gillus fumigatus. Maiti et  al. (2016) used agro-industrial Sadh et al. Bioresour. Bioprocess. (2018) 5:1 Page 6 of 15 Fig. 2 Substrates used for solid state fermentation waste for the production of butanol by using Clostridium the fulfillment of requirement of energy through limited beijerinckii. The maximum butanol, i.e., 11.04  g/l was resources. produced after 96 h of fermentation from the agro-indus- trial waste starch industry wastewater (SIW). So, the use Antioxidant properties of inexpensive and ecological agricultural waste for the Antioxidants are known as radical scavengers because production of valuable biofuels is a better pathway for they protects the human body from free radicals that Sadh et al. Bioresour. Bioprocess. (2018) 5:1 Page 7 of 15 Fig. 3 Schematic representation of applications of different substrates causes several diseases included ischemia, asthma, ane- of fruit and it contains about 50% of total fruit weight. mia, aging process, dementias, and arthritis. Because of The researchers concluded from their results that the the lack of knowledge about molecular composition of fermented pineapple wastes have increased amount of natural antioxidants, their use is limited. Natural anti- protein content, fiber content, phenolic content, and oxidants tend to be safer and they also have antiviral, antioxidant activities too. So they suggested that the anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-tumor, and hepato - waste from pineapple can be an alternate for new benefi - protective properties (Nigam et al. 2009). cial strategies (Rashad et al. 2015). SSF can be used to enhance the antioxidant activity The residue of different fruits and vegetables such as of different substrates with the use of microorganisms. fruit and vegetable peels is commonly known as a waste Antioxidant as well as anti-cancer agents was also pro- or no use. But many researches focused on these peels duced with pineapple waste as a substrate for SSF. Pine- and got good results. So these wastes are considered as apple waste included the outer peel and the central part a valuable raw material for the production of various Sadh et al. Bioresour. Bioprocess. (2018) 5:1 Page 8 of 15 pharmaceutical products (Parashar et  al. 2014). Duda- Antibiotic production Chodak and Tarko (2007) investigated the antioxidant Antibiotics are substances which are produced by differ - properties, total polyphenols, and tannin content of ent microorganisms that selectively inhibit the growth seeds and peels of some selected fruits. They found from or kill other microorganisms at very low concentrations their study that the peels of selected fruits have maxi- (Tripathi 2008). Various agriculture wastes are used for mum scavenging activity and also got high polyphenol the production of different antibiotics. Different studies contents in the peels as compared to the selected seeds. were carried out by using agro-industrial waste and pro- Orange peel extracted with different solvents exhibit duced antibiotics. Ifudu (1986) used corn cobs, sawdust, variable antioxidant activities (Hegazy and Ibrahium and rice hulls as a raw material for the production of anti- 2012). Singh and Genitha (2014) find the maximum biotic, i.e., oxytetracycline. Asagbra et al. (2005) success- percentage of antioxidant activity in pomegranate peel fully produced oxytetracycline with SSF by consuming among the lemon and orange peel. A study on peanut groundnut shell as a raw material with strain of Strep- fractions like their skin, hull, raw, and cooked kernel was tomyces rimosus. Yang and Swei (1996) and Tobias et  al. carried out by Win et  al. (2011). They evaluated their (2012) also support the production of oxytetracycline by properties of antioxidant and resulted that the activity using agro-waste. of antioxidants as well as phenolic compounds of peanut The cost of antibiotics production was significantly skin were maximum than the other parts of peanut hull, decreased by using low-cost carbon source from vari- cooked, and raw kernel. Field residues like stem, leaves, ous agricultural residues. These residues cab be used and stalks were also be used for antioxidant and antimi- as a remarkable substitute for the construction of neo- crobial activities. Several researchers studied the antioxi- mycin and other antibiotics (Vastrad and Neelagund dant properties of several stem extracts, leaf extracts, and 2011a). Vastrad and Neelagund (2011b) studied the pro- fruit extracts of Argemone mexicana and u Th ja orientalis duction of extra cellular rifamycin B by using solid state (Duhan et  al. 2011a, b; Saharan et  al. 2012; Saharan and fermentation with the help of Amycolatopsis mediterra- Duhan 2013) mixture of several medicinal plants, wheat nean MTCC 14 with the help of oil pressed cake as a raw fractions, rice (Rana et  al. 2014; Duhan et  al. 2015a, b, material, which is also regarded as agro-industrial waste. 2016) and found high antioxidant activity in extracts of Among the different agro-industrial wastes, two of them, these plants. i.e., coconut oil cake and ground nut shell, showed maxi- Sadh et al. (2017a, b) conducted a study to find out the mum antibiotic production. Supply of external energy effect of solid state fermentation on release of phenolics sources was used for enhanced production of antibiotic. and subsequently on improvement of antioxidant activ- ity of Lablab purpureus (seim), Oryza sativa (rice), and Oncom production their combination using GRAS filamentous fungi, i.e., Oncom is an indigenous fermented product from Indo- A. awamori and A. oryzae. They observed a significant nesia made from several agricultural wastes. There are increase in TPC level after fermentation of seed and flour three types of oncom. The most well-known is that made with selected strains as compared to non-fermented sub- from peanut press-cake (waste product from peanut oil strate. With the increase in TPC level, the antioxidant processing factories). This is oncom kacang and popular activity of fermented samples was also increased in etha- in West Java (Van Veen et  al. 1968; Beuchat 1986). The nolic extract of all the substrates with A. awamori and A. second type is oncom tahoo which is popular in Jakarta. oryzae. It is prepared from the solid wastes of tahoo, a soya bean Sadh et al. (2017c) used a combination of substrate, i.e., curd. Its preparation is similar to that for oncom kacang. rice and seim to find out the effect of solid state fermen - The third type is made from the solid wastes of mung - tation on release of phenolics, antioxidants, and some bean (Phaseolus radiata) starch flour (Hunkwe), and is other functional properties. From their study, it was called oncom ampas hunkwe (Steinkraus 1983). confirmed from the extract analysis of fermented sam - ples that they have high phenolic, antioxidant, and func- Tempeh production tional properties than the non-fermented ones as many Tempeh is a type of fermented food used in most of the biochemical changes occur during fermentation, so fer- developing as well as developed countries. Especially in mentation has been used to improve or transformed the Indonesia and Malaysia tempeh is made in home individ- proportion of nutritive and antinutritive constituents of ually or in small industries. The aroma and texture of fer - substrates, which affect product’s properties such as bio - mented product, i.e., tempeh are superior as compared to chemical or functional. the non-fermented product. Use of boiled soya beans in tempeh production showed better results as compared to Sadh et al. Bioresour. Bioprocess. (2018) 5:1 Page 9 of 15 the use of steamed or autoclaved technique. Boiled soya coupling enzymic treatment. They also studied the enzy - bean also gave a soft product as tempeh (Mak 1986). matic production such as cinnamoyl esterase production Rhizopus strains are used for the production of tem- and xylanase production. Food industries waste like peel, peh as they have the abilities to degrade the raw material seed, oil cakes, and field residues such as rice bran and based on their composition. Some researchers suggested wheat bran are also used for amylase and Glucoamylase that the utilization of soya bean milk waste produced a production by A. awamori in solid state fermentation better tempeh and it also made an alternative substrate was also reported (Ellaiah et  al. 2002; Negi and Baner- or raw material for the production of cost effective as jee 2009; Suganthi et  al. 2011). Likewise production of well as nutritionally enhanced tempeh. These studies also α-amylase by Aspergillus niger MTCC 104 employing showed that the protein content of tempeh improved sig- solid state fermentation has been reported (Duhan et al. nificantly after using soya bean milk wastes. Thus, soya 2013; Kumar et  al. 2013a, b). Buenrostro et  al. (2013) bean milk wastes can used as a substitute of raw material used four agro-industrials by-products such as sugarcane for making a protein-rich human food instead of being bagasse, corn cobs, candelilla stalks, and coconut husks thrown out. Various kinds of tempeh and tempeh-like for the production of ellagitannase, enzyme used for bio- products are available in Indonesia (Lim 1991). degradation of ellagic acid production and ellagitannins. They found highest production in corn cabs followed by Enzyme production sugarcane bagasse, coconut husks, and candelilla stalks. Agro-industrial wastes consist of variable composition The production of lipase enzyme and their optimization that supports the growth of microorganisms as a result was carried out by Oliveira et  al. (2017) using oil cakes of fermentation produced different valuable enzymes. as substrate from agro-industrial waste. They used Asper - These wastes are used as a raw material. The growth rate gillus ibericus for the production of lipase. Highest lipase of fungi are enhanced by use of these substrates which production was found in palm kernel oil cake (PKOC). resulted into the conversion of lignocellulosic substrate Similarly, Saharan et  al. (2017) carried out a study to into less complicated ones by degrading action of several know the effect of fermentation on phenolics, flavonoids, enzymes. One of the important enzymes, i.e., amylase, and free radical scavenging activity of commonly used was used in starch processing industries for degradation cereals and also studied the role of α-amylase, xylanase, of polysaccharides into sugar components (Nigam and and β-glucosidase enzymes in release of polyphenols and Singh 1995; Akpan et  al. 1999). Kalogeris et  al. (2003) antioxidants during solid state fermentation of cereals. studied various agricultural wastes for the production Results showed a positive correlation between polyphe- of different cellulolytic enzymes such as endoglucanase nols and enzyme activities. Similarly, various enzymatic and β-glucosidase by solid state cultivation. They used assays were performed such as α-amylase, xylanase, thermophilic fungus strain, i.e., Thermoascus aurantia - β-glucosidase, and lipase during fermentation of peanut cus. They suggested that the agricultural wastes or by- press cake with A. oryzae, resulted a significant enhance - products are low-cost nutrition source for solid state ment of enzyme activities in all assays (Sadh et al. 2017e). cultivation to produce endoglucanase and β-glucosidase. Table  5 shows several studies that have been conducted Topakas et  al. (2004) used corn cobs for the production on construction of various enzymes with the use of agro- of phenolics with solid state fermentation in addition to industrial residues. Table 5 Studies on production of enzymes by microorganisms using agro‑industrial wastes Substrates Enzymes Microorganisms Source Papaya waste α-Amylase A. niger Sharanappa et al. (2011) Groundnut oil cake (GOC) Lipase C. rugosa Rekha et al. (2012) Wheat bran and orange peel Pectin methyl esterase P. notatum Gayen and Ghosh (2011) Linseed oil cake (LOC) Lipase P. aeruginosa Dharmendra (2012) Orange peel α-Amylase A. niger Sindiri et al. (2013) Coconut oil cake (COC) α-Amylase A. oryzae Ramachandran et al. (2004) Rice bran α-Amylase Bacillus sp. Sodhi et al. (2005) Corn bran α-Amylase Bacillus sp. Sodhi et al. (2005) Rice bran, wheat bran, black gram bran, and soybean α-Amylase A. niger Akpan et al. (1999) Fruits peel waste Invertase A. niger Mehta and Duhan (2014) Sadh et al. Bioresour. Bioprocess. (2018) 5:1 Page 10 of 15 Mushroom production with the use of paddy straw as a substrate in their study. A mushroom constitutes unique fruiting body and can So, they also suggested the take of edible oyster mush- be epigeous or hypogenous in origin. Mushroom used room for high protein content and also suggested the use either as a protein-rich food or used as a bioremedia- of paddy straw as a substrate for the successful produc- tion tool. The agro-industrial lingo-cellulosic wastes and tion of mushroom (Akinyele et  al. 2012; Kumhomkul residues are used as a bio-conservation for the cultiva- and Panich 2013). tion of edible fungi in a controlled way. The environment- related problem with agro-based residues can be solved Other approaches using SSF by the production of mushroom in a controlled manner Apart from these studies, some other useful approaches by using these wastes as a raw material. Production of by SSF are also discussed here (Fig. 4). mushroom worked as a noticeable method of biotech- nology for the valorization of agro-industrial waste. Pro- Single cell protein production duction of mushroom also showed its strength towards Mondal et  al. (2012) studied the production of single- ecological as well as economical points by the transfor- cell protein (SCP) from fruit wastes. They used cucum - mation of agro-based residues using various microorgan- ber and orange peels as the substrate for the production isms (Chang 2006; Randive 2012). Mushroom production of SCP with the help of S. cerevisiae by using submerged is a good example of recovery of food proteins by using fermentation. They found that cucumber peel produced biological process in a small or large scale from lignocel- larger amount of protein as compared to the orange lulosic materials (Chiu and Moore 2001). peels. So it was suggested that these fruit wastes can con- Jonathan and Babalola (2013) studied 16 diverse agro- vert into SCP by using suitable microbes. The products industrial wastes for cultivation of edible mushroom, i.e., obtained from the bioconversion of agro-industry wastes Pleurotus tuber-regium. The species of Pleurotus is gen - are economical and nutritionally contained high content erally known as oyster mushrooms. Utilization of such of protein. agro-industrial residues for cultivation of mushroom resulted into modification to edible protein in relations Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) of mushroom fruit bodies (Lakshmi and Sornaraj 2014). Citrus fruits are consumed all over the world for differ - Banana stalks and Bahia grass were also utilized for Pleu- ent industrial purposes like fruit juice, and jams. So these rotus sajor-caju production (Siqueira et  al. 2011). The types of industries also produced a colossal amount of results for production of Pleurotus by using banana stalks waste as a peel residue or in other form but these cit- and bahia grass as substrate suggested that no other sup- rus wastes can be used in fermentation as they contain plement such as wheat bran and rice bran were needed large amount of carbohydrates. Sukan et  al. (2014) used for successfully production of the mushroom. orange peel waste for the production of Poly (3-HB). Edible oyster mushrooms are excellent delicacies in Their results showed that orange peel has a rich and unu - many regions of the world (Jonathan et  al. 2008). Ran- tilized agro-industrial waste. They reported first time the dive (2012) cultivated and studied the growth as well as production of Poly (3HB) using orange peel as a single nutrient composition of oyster mushroom by using vari- carbon source with a very simple pre-treatment method. ous agro-based residues as a substrate. He determined the proximate composition of mushroom such as protein Biosurfactant production content, fiber content, ash content, lipid content, mois - Most of the bacterial species are found in oil contami- ture content and carbohydrate content. From the results, nated sites and these bacterial species have the ability he suggested that even the same genus mushroom have to produce useful or beneficial products for mankind. different nutritional compositions as compared to each Saravanan and Vijayakumar (2014) isolate a bacterial other. However, all the produced mushroom was rich strain i.e., Pseudomonas aeruginosa PB3A from oil-con- in protein contents. So, in case of protein deficiency, taminated site. They used the strain for the production of he suggested to take oyster mushroom in diet. Oyster biosurfactant by using agro-waste such as castor oil, sun- mushroom can also be helpful against heart disease and flower oil, barley bran, peanut cake, and rice bran. They diabetes. In Southern America, a study was carried out used these wastes as a rich alternative carbon source for for the cultivation of oyster mushroom with the use of the production of biosurfactant by using isolated P. aer- coffee husks as a substrate (Murthy and Manonmani uginosa strain. 2008). Babu and subhasree (2010) cultivated the two Pleurotus mushroom, i.e., Pleurotus eous and Pleuro- Xanthan production tus platypus by using agro-industrial waste. They found Xanthan is a type of exopolysaccharides, produced from increased amount of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, etc. Xanthomonas species. Xanthan is used as food additives. Sadh et al. Bioresour. Bioprocess. (2018) 5:1 Page 11 of 15 Fig. 4 Applications of agro-industrial wastes Sadh et al. Bioresour. Bioprocess. (2018) 5:1 Page 12 of 15 Author details So, the production of xanthan from agro-waste is a valu- Department of Biotechnology, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa, Haryana able approach as cost-effective product. Vidhyalakshmi 125055, India. Department of Botany, GNC, Sirsa, Haryana 125055, India. et al. (2012) carried out a study for the production of xan- Acknowledgements than from different agro-industrial residues. They pro - The support by Department of Biotechnology, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, duced xanthan by SSF with the help of X. campestries, X. Sirsa, Haryana, India is gratefully acknowledged. citri, X. oryzae, and X. musacearum. The highest xanthan Competing interests was produced by X. citri on potato peels, i.e., 2.90 g/50 g The authors declare that they have no competing interests. followed by 2.87 g/50 g, 1.50 g/50 g, and 0.50 g/50 g by X. campestries, X. oryzae, and X. musacearum, respectively. Consent for publication All authors read and approved the manuscript for publication. Immobilization carrier production Ethics approval and consent to participate Orzuaa et  al. (2009) studied ten agro-industrial wastes Not applicable. including lime peel, orange peel, apple pomace, pista- Funding chio shell, wheat bran, coconut husk, etc. They studied There is no funding source. the appropriateness of various agro-industrial wastes as immobilization carrier for SSF. Before continuing the Publisher’s Note study, they characterized the agro-industrial wastes with Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in pub- lished maps and institutional affiliations. physio-chemical treatment. Finally, Orzuaa et  al. (2009) concluded that out of ten agro-industrial wastes, four Received: 14 October 2017 Accepted: 22 December 2017 of them including Citrus aurantifolia, Malus domes- tica, Citrus sinensis, and Cocos nucífera have exces- sive potential as immobilization carrier for SSF. 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M Dekker Inc, Rashad MM, Mahmoud AE, Ali MM, Nooman MU, Al-Kashef AS (2015) Antioxi- New York dant and anticancer agents produced from pineapple waste by solid Suganthi R, Benazir JF, Santhi R, Kumar RV, Hari A, Meenakshi N, Nidhiya KA, state fermentation. Intern J Toxicol Pharmacol Res 7(6):287–296 Kavitha G, Lakshmi R (2011) Amylase production by Aspergillus niger under solid state fermentation using agro-industrial wastes. Intern J Eng Sci Technol 3:1756–1763 Sadh et al. Bioresour. Bioprocess. (2018) 5:1 Page 15 of 15 Sukan A, Roy I, Keshavarz T (2014) Agro-industrial waste materials as substrates Vidhyalakshmi R, Vallinachiyar C, Radhika R (2012) Production of xanthan from for the production of poly (3-hydroxybutyric acid). J Biomater Nanobio- agro-industrial waste. J Adv Sci Res 3:56–59 technol 5:229–240 Wang L, Yang ST (2007) Solid state fermentation and its applications. 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Eng Life Sci 4(3):283–286 Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of peanut’s skin, hull, raw Tripathi KD (2008) Antimicrobial drugs. Essentials of medical pharmacology, kernel and roasted kernel flour. Pak J Bot 43:1635–1642 6th edn. Jaycee Brothers Medical Publishers Ltd, New Delhi, p 710 Yang SS, Swei WJ (1996) Cultural condition and oxytetracycline production by Van Veen AG, Graham DCW, Steinkraus KH (1968) Fermented peanut press Streptomyces rimosus in solid state fermentation of corn cob. World J cake. Cereal Sci Today 13:96–99 Microbiol Biotechnol 12:43–46 Vastrad BM, Neelagund SE (2011a) Optimization and production of neomycin Zafar S (2014) Waste management, waste-to-energy. https://www.bioenergy- from different agro industrial wastes in solid state fermentation. Intern J consult.com/tag/waste-to-energy Pharma Sci Drug Res 3:104–111 Vastrad BM, Neelagund SE (2011b) Optimization of process parameters for rifa- mycin b production under solid state fermentation from Amycolatopsis mediterranean MTCC 14. Intern J Curr Pharm Res 4:101–108 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png "Bioresources and Bioprocessing" Springer Journals

Agro-industrial wastes and their utilization using solid state fermentation: a review

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Springer Journals
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2018 The Author(s)
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2197-4365
DOI
10.1186/s40643-017-0187-z
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Abstract

Agricultural residues are rich in bioactive compounds. These residues can be used as an alternate source for the production of different products like biogas, biofuel, mushroom, and tempeh as the raw material in various researches and industries. The use of agro-industrial wastes as raw materials can help to reduce the production cost and also reduce the pollution load from the environment. Agro-industrial wastes are used for manufacturing of biofuels, enzymes, vitamins, antioxidants, animal feed, antibiotics, and other chemicals through solid state fermentation (SSF). A variety of microorganisms are used for the production of these valuable products through SSF processes. Therefore, SSF and their effect on the formation of value-added products are reviewed and discussed. Keywords: Agro-industrial wastes, Oil cakes, Solid state fermentation, Bioactive compounds, Biotechnological approaches and cereal industries produced husks. All over the world Background approximately 147.2 million metric tons of fiber sources Agricultural-based industries produced the vast amount are found, whereas 709.2 and 673.3 million metric tons of residues every year. If these residues are released to of wheat straw residues and rice straws were estimated, the environment without proper disposal procedure that respectively, in the 1990s (Belewu and Babalola 2009). As may cause to environmental pollution and harmful effect per the composition of these agro-industrial residues are on human and animal health. Most of the agro-industrial concerned, they have high nutritional prospective, there- wastes are untreated and underutilized, therefore in max- fore they are getting more consideration for quality con- imum reports it disposed of either by burning, dumping trol and also categorized as agro-industrial by-products or unplanned landfilling. These untreated wastes create (Graminha et al. 2008). different problems with climate change by increasing a Various studies reported that different kinds of waste number of greenhouse gases. Besides this, the use of fos- such as pomegranate peels, lemon peels and green wal- sil fuels also contributing the effect on greenhouse gases nut husks can be used as natural antimicrobials (Adámez (GHG) emission (Bos and Hamelinck 2014). So, now it et al. 2012; Katalinic et al. 2010). Wastes from the organic is a worldwide concern to dictating the improvement of compounds although a risk to the atmosphere, but they alternative cleaner and renewable bioenergy resources represent a possible source for making of mushrooms as (Okonko et  al. 2009). These wastes cause a serious dis - foodstuffs and other bio-based products like bio-energy posal problem (Rodríguez-Couto 2008). For examples, and biofertilizers. Some of the agricultural residues are the juice industries produced a huge amount of waste as used for animal food. However, such wastes contain peels, the coffee industry produced coffee pulp as a waste, variability in composition like high amount of proteins, sugars, and minerals. Due to high nutritional composi- tion, these residues not described as “wastes” but con- *Correspondence: duhanjs68@gmail.com Department of Biotechnology, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa, sidered as raw materials for other product formation and Haryana 125055, India developments. The availability of these nutrients in raw Full list of author information is available at the end of the article © The Author(s) 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Sadh et al. Bioresour. Bioprocess. (2018) 5:1 Page 2 of 15 materials offers appropriate environments for the growth of microorganisms. These microorganisms have got the ability to reuse the raw materials with the use of fermen- tation processes. The agro-industrial residues are used for solid support in SSF developments for making differ - ent beneficial products. It also helps for the production of fermentable sugars by reducing the production cost on the basis of food crops. Various studies were carried out to know the conversion of agricultural waste into sugars by using different microorganisms (Nguyen et  al. 2010). Finally, this review described the prospective uses of agro-industrial wastes by SSF processes. Types of agro‑industrial wastes Agricultural residues Figure  1 shows two different types of agro-industrial wastes, i.e., agriculture residues and industrial residues. Agriculture residues can be further divided into field residues and process residues. Field residues are residues that present in the field after the process of crop harvest - ing. These field residues consist of leaves, stalks, seed pods, and stems, whereas the process residues are resi- Fig. 1 Agro-industrial wastes and their types dues present even after the crop is processed into alter- nate valuable resource (Table 1). These residues consist of molasses, husks, bagasse, seeds, leaves, stem, straw, stalk, shell, pulp, stubble, peel, digested to produce useful products like production of roots, etc. and used for animal feed, soil improvement, biogas, bio-ethanol, and other commercially useful exam- fertilizers, manufacturing, and various other processes. ples. Approximately, 20% of the production of fruits and Huge amount of field residues are generated and most of vegetables in India are going waste every year (Rudra them are underutilized. Controlled use of field remains et al. 2015) because in India a large amount of apple, cot- can enhance the proficiency of irrigation and control of ton, soy bean, and wheat are produced. So as the pro- erosion. In Middle East region, wheat and barley are the duction increased in the country, it also increased the major crops. In addition to this, various other crops like percentage of waste produced from them. Similarly, the rice, lentils, maize, chickpeas, fruits, and vegetables are waste produced from food industries contains high value also produced all over the world. Agricultural residues of BOD, COD, and other suspended solids. Most of these are differentiated on the basis of their availability as well wastes are left unutilized or untreated, which caused as characteristics that can be different from other solid adverse effect on environment as well as human and ani - fuels like charcoal, wood, and char briquette (Zafar 2014). mal health but the composition of these wastes contains a large number of organic compound that produced a vari- Industrial wastes ety of value-added products and also reduced the cost of A huge amount of organic residues and related efflu - production as described in Table 1. ents are produced every year through the food process- Especially in oil industries, huge amount of processed ing industries like juice, chips, meat, confectionary, and residues are produced after oil extraction from the seeds; fruit industries. These organic residues can be utilized these residues are known as oil cakes. These industries for different energy sources. As the population increases cause air, water, and solid waste pollution because these continuously, the requirement of food and their uses also residues contain high concentration of fat, oil, grease, increased. So, in most of the countries, different indus - suspended solids, and dissolved solids. Oil cakes have tries of food and beverage have increased remarkably in variabilities based on their substrate (Table 3). Oil cake is that region for fulfillment of need of food. Table  2 shows of different types like canola oil cake (CaOC), sunflower different compositions of fruit industrial wastes that oil cake (SuOC), coconut oil cake (COC), sesame oil constitute the different compositions of cellulose, hemi - cake (SOC), mustard oil cake (MOC), palm kernel cake cellulose, lignin, moisture, ash, carbon, nitrogen, etc. (PKC), soy bean cake (SBC), groundnut oil cake (GOC), and these constituents have potential to biochemically cotton seed cake (CSC), olive oil cake (OOC), rapeseed Sadh et al. Bioresour. Bioprocess. (2018) 5:1 Page 3 of 15 Table 1 Composition of agro‑industrial wastes Agro-industrial wastes Chemical composition (% w/w) References Cellulose Hemicellulose Lignin Ash (%) Total solids (%) Moisture (%) Sugarcane bagasse 30.2 56.7 13.4 1.9 91.66 4.8 El-Tayeb et al. (2012) and Nigam et al. (2009) Rice straw 39.2 23.5 36.1 12.4 98.62 6.58 El-Tayeb et al. (2012) Corn stalks 61.2 19.3 6.9 10.8 97.78 6.40 El-Tayeb et al. (2012) Sawdust 45.1 28.1 24.2 1.2 98.54 1.12 El-Tayeb et al. (2012) and Martin et al. (2012) Sugar beet waste 26.3 18.5 2.5 4.8 87.5 12.4 El-Tayeb et al. (2012) Barley straw 33.8 21.9 13.8 11 _ _ Nigam et al. (2009) Cotton stalks 58.5 14.4 21.5 9.98 _ 7.45 Nigam et al. (2009) Oat straw 39.4 27.1 17.5 8 _ _ Martin et al. (2012) Soya stalks 34.5 24.8 19.8 10.39 _ 11.84 Motte et al. (2013) Sunflower stalks 42.1 29.7 13.4 11.17 _ _ Motte et al. (2013) Wheat straw 32.9 24.0 8.9 6.7 95.6 7 Nigam et al. (2009) and Martin et al. (2012) Table 2 Composition of fruit‑industrial wastes Fruit-indus- Chemical composition (% w/w) trial waste Cellulose Hemi-cellu- Lignin Ash Total solids Moisture Total carbon Total nitro- References lose gen Potato peel 2.2% – – 7.7% – 9.89 1.3% – Weshahy and waste Rao (2012) Orange peel 9.21% 10.5% 0.84% 3.5% – 11.86 – – Rivas et al. (2008) Coffee skin 23.77 16.68 28.58 5.36 – – C/N 14.41 Lina et al. (g/100 g) (g/100 g) (g/100 g) (g/100 g) (2014) Pineapple 18.11 – 1.37 93.6 91 40.8 0.99 Paepatung peel et al. (2009) Table 3 Composition of oil cakes Oil cakes Dry matter Crude protein Crude fiber Ash Calcium Phosphorus References CaOC 90 33.9 9.7 6.2 0.79 1.06 Ewing (1997) COC 88.8 25.2 10.8 6.0 0.08 0.67 Gohl (1970) CSC 94.3 40.3 15.7 6.8 0.31 0.11 Friesecke (1970) GOC 92.6 49.5 5.3 4.5 0.11 0.74 Kuo (1967) MOC 89.8 38.5 3.5 9.9 0.05 1.11 Kuo (1967) OOC 85.2 6.3 40.0 4.2 – – Maymone et al. (1961) PKC 90.8 18.6 37 4.5 0.31 0.85 Owusu et al. (1970) SuOC 91 34.1 13.2 6.6 0.30 1.30 Brendon (1957) cake (RSC) (Ramachandran et al. 2007). These discussed Solid state fermentation (SSF) agro-industrial residues are relatively cheap, contain- Any biotechnological processes in which organisms ing high amount of constituents that have an unlimited grow on non-soluble material or solid substrates in the prospective to be consumed as alternative substrates for absence or near absence of free water is recognized as fermentation. solid state fermentation (SSF) (Bhargav et  al. 2008). Sadh et al. Bioresour. Bioprocess. (2018) 5:1 Page 4 of 15 Commonly used substrates in SSF are cereal grains SSF, but with a lower yield. SSF is a multistep process (rice, wheat, barley, and corn), legume seeds, wheat involving the following steps: bran, lignocellulose materials such as straws, sawdust or wood shavings, and a wide range of plant and animal 1. Selection of substrate. materials. The compounds of these substrates are poly - 2. Pre-treatment of substrate either by mechanical, meric and remain insoluble or sparingly soluble in water chemical or biochemical processing to improve but most of them have low cost and easily obtainable the availability of the bound nutrients and also to and represent a concentrated source of nutrients for reduce the size of the components, e.g., pulverizing microbial growth. Food preparation by fermentation is straw and shredding vegetable materials to optimize one of the oldest methods. Critical study of the litera- the physical aspects of the process. However, the ture shows that low amount of water or the absence of cost of pre-treatment should be balanced with even- water in SSF offer several advantages such as easy prod - tual product value. uct recovery, low cost of complete production process, 3. Hydrolysis of primarily polymeric substrates, e.g., smaller fermenter-size, reduced downstream process- polysaccharides and proteins. ing, and also reduction of energy requirements for stir- 4. Fermentation process for utilizing hydrolysis prod- ring and sterilization (Pandey 2003). For the successful ucts. process of SSF, different factors like microorganisms, 5. Downstream processing for purification and quanti - solid support used, water activity, temperature, aera- fication of end products. tion, and type of fermenter used should be considered before going to start any fermentation process. The Most of the Asian and African countries used different microorganisms used in SSF can occur as single pure fermented foods as a part of their diet regularly. Differ - cultures, mixed identifiable cultures or a consortium ent forms of activated oxygen like free and non-free radi- of mixed indigenous microorganisms. Some SSF pro- cals such as superoxide anion radicals (O ), hydroxyl cesses, e.g., tempeh and oncom production, require radicals (OH) and H O and singled oxygen (O ), respec- 2 2 2 selective growth of microorganisms such as molds that tively, reported that these can lead oxidative injury to liv- need low moisture levels to carry out fermentation with ing organisms. So, these species produced a significant the help of extracellular enzymes secreted by ferment- part in numerous diseases such as cancer, emphysema, ing microorganisms. Table  4 shows different microor - atherosclerosis, and arthritis (Jacobs et al. 1999). SSF has ganisms like fungi, yeasts, and bacteria that are used been mainly employed from ancient time for processing in SSF processes. Molds are frequently used in SSF for of foods, but nowadays it is gaining a lot of attention due maximizing production of value added products as to the increasing use of different types of organic wastes they grow naturally on solid substrates such as pieces and the larger production of value-added products (Pan- of wood, seeds, stems, and roots. However, bacteria and dey et  al. 2000; Wang and Yang 2007). The search for yeasts, which require comparatively higher moisture sustainable and green processes for bioconversion of content for efficient fermentation, can also be used for organic wastes into valuable products could substitute Table 4 Recent studies of solid state fermentation using different microorganisms and agro ‑industrial wastes Microorganisms Solid supports References Bacteria Amycolatopsis mediterranean MTCC 14 GOC and COC Vastrad and Neelagund (2011a, b) Xanthomonas campestries MTCC 2286 Potato peel Vidhyalakshmi et al. (2012) Pseudomonas spp. BUP6 GOC, COC, SOC, and CSC Faisal et al. (2014) Bacillus licheniformis MTCC 1483 Wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, maize straw, and paddy straw Kaur et al. (2015) Fungi Aspergillus niger Rice bran, wheat bran, black gram bran, GOC, and COC Suganthi et al. (2011) Aspergillus niger Rice bran, wheat bran, black gram bran, and soybean Kumar and Duhan (2011) Streptomyces spp. Household kitchen wastes Ezejiofor et al. (2012) Aspergillus oryzae Soybean meal (waste) Thakur et al. (2015) Rhizopus arrhizus and Mucor subtillissimus Caorncob cassava peel, soybeans, wheat bran, and citrus pulp Nascimento et al. (2015) Aspergillus niger Rice bran, wheat bran, black gram bran, GOC, and COC Mahalakshmi and Jayalakshmi (2016) Aspergillus terreus Palm oil cake Rahman et al. (2016) Sadh et al. Bioresour. Bioprocess. (2018) 5:1 Page 5 of 15 non-renewable materials and also transform chemical Bio fuel production processes into cleaner practices in the industrial sector Bio-fuels remain significant because they are used as sub - that highlights the potential of SSF. The particular inter - stitute for fossil fuels. Previous studies revealed the pro- est of SSF is due to its relatively simple process that uses duction of biofuels from positive agro-industrial residues abundant low-cost biomaterials with minimal or no pre- like rice straw, sweet potato waste, sawdust, potato waste, treatment for bioconversion, less waste water generation, corn stalks, sugarcane bagasse, and sugar beet waste and the capacity for simulating similar micro-environ- (Duhan et  al. 2013; Kumar et  al. 2014, 2016). In 2011, ments, favorable to microorganism growth (Singhania all over the world bioethanol production increased as et  al. 2009). Further, SSF has opened a new paradigm of showed by the production of 85 billion liters of bioetha- bioconversion of organic solid wastes through the pro- nol (Avci et  al. 2013; Saini et  al. 2014). With the help of duction of biologically active metabolites both at the lab agricultural residues, it supports in decrease the deforest- and industrial scale. The application of SSF in the produc - ation by reducing our dependence on forest woody bio- tion of different bio-products has been widely reported mass. In addition, field residues have small harvest time including enzymes, organic acids, biofertilizers, biopesti- that reduces them extra consistently offered to bioetha - cides, biosurfactants, bioethanol, aroma compounds, ani- nol production (Limayema and Ricke 2012). mal feed, pigments, vitamins, and antibiotics. Similarly, Many researches have completed the making of etha- SSF simulates natural microbiological processes such as nol from materials having lignocellulosic composition composting and ensiling (Thomas et al. 2013). Therefore, (Cadoche and Lopez 1989; Bjerre et al. 1996). Najafi et al. solid state fermentation and their effect on the formation (2009) also studied the production of bioethanol from of value-added products by this process are reviewed and various agricultural residues obtained from different discussed. agricultural crops. Saini et  al. (2014) discussed various agricultural wastes for the production of bioethanol for Substrate used for solid state fermentation second-generation. They focused on the use of lignocel - Solid waste from different industries like food, beer and lulosic composition of different agro-industrial wastes. wine, agriculture, paper, textiles, detergent, and animal They concluded that the biofuels are useful alternatives feed industries are used as a substrate for SSF. Substrates of various fossil fuels like petrol and diesel. On the basis that remain solid also contain low moisture levels which of their discussion and review of various approaches for is preferred for SSF. Figure 2 shows some of the substrate biofuel production, it is clearly shown that the lignocel- used for SSF. Several researchers used different substrates lulosic-derived biofuels are cost effective as well as eco- designed for their study like rice (Oryza sativa) (Sadh friendly and alternative source of energy for upcoming et al. 2017a), seim (Lablab purpureus) (Sadh et al. 2017b, future. Another study for the production of biogas by c), black eyed pea (Vigna unguiculata) (Chawla et  al. using various agriculture residues from different sources 2017), peanut press cake (Arachis hypogea) (Sadh et  al. as well as two weeds, i.e., Typha angustifolia L. and 2017d). Orzuaa et  al. (2009) studied ten agro-industrial Eichornia crassipes solms was carried out by Paepatung wastes used for their appropriateness as fungus immo- et al. (2009). bilization carrier for SSF. They found that some of the In most of the developing countries, a fast growth in waste materials have better potential for use as immobi- population as well as their rapid development in indus- lization carrier in SSF, because they contain high water trialization causes the high demand of low-priced energy absorption capacity, and are acceptable as good growth source by using economical agricultural residues. A large rate of microorganisms. amount of required waste is available in these countries for the production of biofuels. Mushimiyimana and Tal- Utilization of agro-industrial wastes using solid state lapragada (2016) produced bioethanol from vegetable’s fermentation waste by fermentation technique with the help of yeast Agricultural wastes are used to produce large value- Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They used common vegeta - added products. Figure  3 shows the schematic represen- bles waste like potato peel, carrot peel, and onion peel. tation of applications from different substrates. Most of Bioethanol production could be the best alternate for the field wastes can be used globally by the production the consumption of agricultural residues. Use of banana of biofuels, biogas in place of heat, and power through stem as a substrate for bioethanol production is a good various technologies. Different substrates have different alternate in India because of huge availability of banana compositions and used in the production of different val - pseudo stem as a waste. Ingale et  al. (2014) produced uable products on the basis of their composition. Some of bioethanol by using banana pseudo stem as a substrate the valuable products are described below. with pre-treatment of Aspergillus ellipticus and Asper- gillus fumigatus. Maiti et  al. (2016) used agro-industrial Sadh et al. Bioresour. Bioprocess. (2018) 5:1 Page 6 of 15 Fig. 2 Substrates used for solid state fermentation waste for the production of butanol by using Clostridium the fulfillment of requirement of energy through limited beijerinckii. The maximum butanol, i.e., 11.04  g/l was resources. produced after 96 h of fermentation from the agro-indus- trial waste starch industry wastewater (SIW). So, the use Antioxidant properties of inexpensive and ecological agricultural waste for the Antioxidants are known as radical scavengers because production of valuable biofuels is a better pathway for they protects the human body from free radicals that Sadh et al. Bioresour. Bioprocess. (2018) 5:1 Page 7 of 15 Fig. 3 Schematic representation of applications of different substrates causes several diseases included ischemia, asthma, ane- of fruit and it contains about 50% of total fruit weight. mia, aging process, dementias, and arthritis. Because of The researchers concluded from their results that the the lack of knowledge about molecular composition of fermented pineapple wastes have increased amount of natural antioxidants, their use is limited. Natural anti- protein content, fiber content, phenolic content, and oxidants tend to be safer and they also have antiviral, antioxidant activities too. So they suggested that the anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-tumor, and hepato - waste from pineapple can be an alternate for new benefi - protective properties (Nigam et al. 2009). cial strategies (Rashad et al. 2015). SSF can be used to enhance the antioxidant activity The residue of different fruits and vegetables such as of different substrates with the use of microorganisms. fruit and vegetable peels is commonly known as a waste Antioxidant as well as anti-cancer agents was also pro- or no use. But many researches focused on these peels duced with pineapple waste as a substrate for SSF. Pine- and got good results. So these wastes are considered as apple waste included the outer peel and the central part a valuable raw material for the production of various Sadh et al. Bioresour. Bioprocess. (2018) 5:1 Page 8 of 15 pharmaceutical products (Parashar et  al. 2014). Duda- Antibiotic production Chodak and Tarko (2007) investigated the antioxidant Antibiotics are substances which are produced by differ - properties, total polyphenols, and tannin content of ent microorganisms that selectively inhibit the growth seeds and peels of some selected fruits. They found from or kill other microorganisms at very low concentrations their study that the peels of selected fruits have maxi- (Tripathi 2008). Various agriculture wastes are used for mum scavenging activity and also got high polyphenol the production of different antibiotics. Different studies contents in the peels as compared to the selected seeds. were carried out by using agro-industrial waste and pro- Orange peel extracted with different solvents exhibit duced antibiotics. Ifudu (1986) used corn cobs, sawdust, variable antioxidant activities (Hegazy and Ibrahium and rice hulls as a raw material for the production of anti- 2012). Singh and Genitha (2014) find the maximum biotic, i.e., oxytetracycline. Asagbra et al. (2005) success- percentage of antioxidant activity in pomegranate peel fully produced oxytetracycline with SSF by consuming among the lemon and orange peel. A study on peanut groundnut shell as a raw material with strain of Strep- fractions like their skin, hull, raw, and cooked kernel was tomyces rimosus. Yang and Swei (1996) and Tobias et  al. carried out by Win et  al. (2011). They evaluated their (2012) also support the production of oxytetracycline by properties of antioxidant and resulted that the activity using agro-waste. of antioxidants as well as phenolic compounds of peanut The cost of antibiotics production was significantly skin were maximum than the other parts of peanut hull, decreased by using low-cost carbon source from vari- cooked, and raw kernel. Field residues like stem, leaves, ous agricultural residues. These residues cab be used and stalks were also be used for antioxidant and antimi- as a remarkable substitute for the construction of neo- crobial activities. Several researchers studied the antioxi- mycin and other antibiotics (Vastrad and Neelagund dant properties of several stem extracts, leaf extracts, and 2011a). Vastrad and Neelagund (2011b) studied the pro- fruit extracts of Argemone mexicana and u Th ja orientalis duction of extra cellular rifamycin B by using solid state (Duhan et  al. 2011a, b; Saharan et  al. 2012; Saharan and fermentation with the help of Amycolatopsis mediterra- Duhan 2013) mixture of several medicinal plants, wheat nean MTCC 14 with the help of oil pressed cake as a raw fractions, rice (Rana et  al. 2014; Duhan et  al. 2015a, b, material, which is also regarded as agro-industrial waste. 2016) and found high antioxidant activity in extracts of Among the different agro-industrial wastes, two of them, these plants. i.e., coconut oil cake and ground nut shell, showed maxi- Sadh et al. (2017a, b) conducted a study to find out the mum antibiotic production. Supply of external energy effect of solid state fermentation on release of phenolics sources was used for enhanced production of antibiotic. and subsequently on improvement of antioxidant activ- ity of Lablab purpureus (seim), Oryza sativa (rice), and Oncom production their combination using GRAS filamentous fungi, i.e., Oncom is an indigenous fermented product from Indo- A. awamori and A. oryzae. They observed a significant nesia made from several agricultural wastes. There are increase in TPC level after fermentation of seed and flour three types of oncom. The most well-known is that made with selected strains as compared to non-fermented sub- from peanut press-cake (waste product from peanut oil strate. With the increase in TPC level, the antioxidant processing factories). This is oncom kacang and popular activity of fermented samples was also increased in etha- in West Java (Van Veen et  al. 1968; Beuchat 1986). The nolic extract of all the substrates with A. awamori and A. second type is oncom tahoo which is popular in Jakarta. oryzae. It is prepared from the solid wastes of tahoo, a soya bean Sadh et al. (2017c) used a combination of substrate, i.e., curd. Its preparation is similar to that for oncom kacang. rice and seim to find out the effect of solid state fermen - The third type is made from the solid wastes of mung - tation on release of phenolics, antioxidants, and some bean (Phaseolus radiata) starch flour (Hunkwe), and is other functional properties. From their study, it was called oncom ampas hunkwe (Steinkraus 1983). confirmed from the extract analysis of fermented sam - ples that they have high phenolic, antioxidant, and func- Tempeh production tional properties than the non-fermented ones as many Tempeh is a type of fermented food used in most of the biochemical changes occur during fermentation, so fer- developing as well as developed countries. Especially in mentation has been used to improve or transformed the Indonesia and Malaysia tempeh is made in home individ- proportion of nutritive and antinutritive constituents of ually or in small industries. The aroma and texture of fer - substrates, which affect product’s properties such as bio - mented product, i.e., tempeh are superior as compared to chemical or functional. the non-fermented product. Use of boiled soya beans in tempeh production showed better results as compared to Sadh et al. Bioresour. Bioprocess. (2018) 5:1 Page 9 of 15 the use of steamed or autoclaved technique. Boiled soya coupling enzymic treatment. They also studied the enzy - bean also gave a soft product as tempeh (Mak 1986). matic production such as cinnamoyl esterase production Rhizopus strains are used for the production of tem- and xylanase production. Food industries waste like peel, peh as they have the abilities to degrade the raw material seed, oil cakes, and field residues such as rice bran and based on their composition. Some researchers suggested wheat bran are also used for amylase and Glucoamylase that the utilization of soya bean milk waste produced a production by A. awamori in solid state fermentation better tempeh and it also made an alternative substrate was also reported (Ellaiah et  al. 2002; Negi and Baner- or raw material for the production of cost effective as jee 2009; Suganthi et  al. 2011). Likewise production of well as nutritionally enhanced tempeh. These studies also α-amylase by Aspergillus niger MTCC 104 employing showed that the protein content of tempeh improved sig- solid state fermentation has been reported (Duhan et al. nificantly after using soya bean milk wastes. Thus, soya 2013; Kumar et  al. 2013a, b). Buenrostro et  al. (2013) bean milk wastes can used as a substitute of raw material used four agro-industrials by-products such as sugarcane for making a protein-rich human food instead of being bagasse, corn cobs, candelilla stalks, and coconut husks thrown out. Various kinds of tempeh and tempeh-like for the production of ellagitannase, enzyme used for bio- products are available in Indonesia (Lim 1991). degradation of ellagic acid production and ellagitannins. They found highest production in corn cabs followed by Enzyme production sugarcane bagasse, coconut husks, and candelilla stalks. Agro-industrial wastes consist of variable composition The production of lipase enzyme and their optimization that supports the growth of microorganisms as a result was carried out by Oliveira et  al. (2017) using oil cakes of fermentation produced different valuable enzymes. as substrate from agro-industrial waste. They used Asper - These wastes are used as a raw material. The growth rate gillus ibericus for the production of lipase. Highest lipase of fungi are enhanced by use of these substrates which production was found in palm kernel oil cake (PKOC). resulted into the conversion of lignocellulosic substrate Similarly, Saharan et  al. (2017) carried out a study to into less complicated ones by degrading action of several know the effect of fermentation on phenolics, flavonoids, enzymes. One of the important enzymes, i.e., amylase, and free radical scavenging activity of commonly used was used in starch processing industries for degradation cereals and also studied the role of α-amylase, xylanase, of polysaccharides into sugar components (Nigam and and β-glucosidase enzymes in release of polyphenols and Singh 1995; Akpan et  al. 1999). Kalogeris et  al. (2003) antioxidants during solid state fermentation of cereals. studied various agricultural wastes for the production Results showed a positive correlation between polyphe- of different cellulolytic enzymes such as endoglucanase nols and enzyme activities. Similarly, various enzymatic and β-glucosidase by solid state cultivation. They used assays were performed such as α-amylase, xylanase, thermophilic fungus strain, i.e., Thermoascus aurantia - β-glucosidase, and lipase during fermentation of peanut cus. They suggested that the agricultural wastes or by- press cake with A. oryzae, resulted a significant enhance - products are low-cost nutrition source for solid state ment of enzyme activities in all assays (Sadh et al. 2017e). cultivation to produce endoglucanase and β-glucosidase. Table  5 shows several studies that have been conducted Topakas et  al. (2004) used corn cobs for the production on construction of various enzymes with the use of agro- of phenolics with solid state fermentation in addition to industrial residues. Table 5 Studies on production of enzymes by microorganisms using agro‑industrial wastes Substrates Enzymes Microorganisms Source Papaya waste α-Amylase A. niger Sharanappa et al. (2011) Groundnut oil cake (GOC) Lipase C. rugosa Rekha et al. (2012) Wheat bran and orange peel Pectin methyl esterase P. notatum Gayen and Ghosh (2011) Linseed oil cake (LOC) Lipase P. aeruginosa Dharmendra (2012) Orange peel α-Amylase A. niger Sindiri et al. (2013) Coconut oil cake (COC) α-Amylase A. oryzae Ramachandran et al. (2004) Rice bran α-Amylase Bacillus sp. Sodhi et al. (2005) Corn bran α-Amylase Bacillus sp. Sodhi et al. (2005) Rice bran, wheat bran, black gram bran, and soybean α-Amylase A. niger Akpan et al. (1999) Fruits peel waste Invertase A. niger Mehta and Duhan (2014) Sadh et al. Bioresour. Bioprocess. (2018) 5:1 Page 10 of 15 Mushroom production with the use of paddy straw as a substrate in their study. A mushroom constitutes unique fruiting body and can So, they also suggested the take of edible oyster mush- be epigeous or hypogenous in origin. Mushroom used room for high protein content and also suggested the use either as a protein-rich food or used as a bioremedia- of paddy straw as a substrate for the successful produc- tion tool. The agro-industrial lingo-cellulosic wastes and tion of mushroom (Akinyele et  al. 2012; Kumhomkul residues are used as a bio-conservation for the cultiva- and Panich 2013). tion of edible fungi in a controlled way. The environment- related problem with agro-based residues can be solved Other approaches using SSF by the production of mushroom in a controlled manner Apart from these studies, some other useful approaches by using these wastes as a raw material. Production of by SSF are also discussed here (Fig. 4). mushroom worked as a noticeable method of biotech- nology for the valorization of agro-industrial waste. Pro- Single cell protein production duction of mushroom also showed its strength towards Mondal et  al. (2012) studied the production of single- ecological as well as economical points by the transfor- cell protein (SCP) from fruit wastes. They used cucum - mation of agro-based residues using various microorgan- ber and orange peels as the substrate for the production isms (Chang 2006; Randive 2012). Mushroom production of SCP with the help of S. cerevisiae by using submerged is a good example of recovery of food proteins by using fermentation. They found that cucumber peel produced biological process in a small or large scale from lignocel- larger amount of protein as compared to the orange lulosic materials (Chiu and Moore 2001). peels. So it was suggested that these fruit wastes can con- Jonathan and Babalola (2013) studied 16 diverse agro- vert into SCP by using suitable microbes. The products industrial wastes for cultivation of edible mushroom, i.e., obtained from the bioconversion of agro-industry wastes Pleurotus tuber-regium. The species of Pleurotus is gen - are economical and nutritionally contained high content erally known as oyster mushrooms. Utilization of such of protein. agro-industrial residues for cultivation of mushroom resulted into modification to edible protein in relations Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) of mushroom fruit bodies (Lakshmi and Sornaraj 2014). Citrus fruits are consumed all over the world for differ - Banana stalks and Bahia grass were also utilized for Pleu- ent industrial purposes like fruit juice, and jams. So these rotus sajor-caju production (Siqueira et  al. 2011). The types of industries also produced a colossal amount of results for production of Pleurotus by using banana stalks waste as a peel residue or in other form but these cit- and bahia grass as substrate suggested that no other sup- rus wastes can be used in fermentation as they contain plement such as wheat bran and rice bran were needed large amount of carbohydrates. Sukan et  al. (2014) used for successfully production of the mushroom. orange peel waste for the production of Poly (3-HB). Edible oyster mushrooms are excellent delicacies in Their results showed that orange peel has a rich and unu - many regions of the world (Jonathan et  al. 2008). Ran- tilized agro-industrial waste. They reported first time the dive (2012) cultivated and studied the growth as well as production of Poly (3HB) using orange peel as a single nutrient composition of oyster mushroom by using vari- carbon source with a very simple pre-treatment method. ous agro-based residues as a substrate. He determined the proximate composition of mushroom such as protein Biosurfactant production content, fiber content, ash content, lipid content, mois - Most of the bacterial species are found in oil contami- ture content and carbohydrate content. From the results, nated sites and these bacterial species have the ability he suggested that even the same genus mushroom have to produce useful or beneficial products for mankind. different nutritional compositions as compared to each Saravanan and Vijayakumar (2014) isolate a bacterial other. However, all the produced mushroom was rich strain i.e., Pseudomonas aeruginosa PB3A from oil-con- in protein contents. So, in case of protein deficiency, taminated site. They used the strain for the production of he suggested to take oyster mushroom in diet. Oyster biosurfactant by using agro-waste such as castor oil, sun- mushroom can also be helpful against heart disease and flower oil, barley bran, peanut cake, and rice bran. They diabetes. In Southern America, a study was carried out used these wastes as a rich alternative carbon source for for the cultivation of oyster mushroom with the use of the production of biosurfactant by using isolated P. aer- coffee husks as a substrate (Murthy and Manonmani uginosa strain. 2008). Babu and subhasree (2010) cultivated the two Pleurotus mushroom, i.e., Pleurotus eous and Pleuro- Xanthan production tus platypus by using agro-industrial waste. They found Xanthan is a type of exopolysaccharides, produced from increased amount of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, etc. Xanthomonas species. Xanthan is used as food additives. Sadh et al. Bioresour. Bioprocess. (2018) 5:1 Page 11 of 15 Fig. 4 Applications of agro-industrial wastes Sadh et al. Bioresour. Bioprocess. (2018) 5:1 Page 12 of 15 Author details So, the production of xanthan from agro-waste is a valu- Department of Biotechnology, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa, Haryana able approach as cost-effective product. Vidhyalakshmi 125055, India. Department of Botany, GNC, Sirsa, Haryana 125055, India. et al. (2012) carried out a study for the production of xan- Acknowledgements than from different agro-industrial residues. They pro - The support by Department of Biotechnology, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, duced xanthan by SSF with the help of X. campestries, X. Sirsa, Haryana, India is gratefully acknowledged. citri, X. oryzae, and X. musacearum. The highest xanthan Competing interests was produced by X. citri on potato peels, i.e., 2.90 g/50 g The authors declare that they have no competing interests. followed by 2.87 g/50 g, 1.50 g/50 g, and 0.50 g/50 g by X. campestries, X. oryzae, and X. musacearum, respectively. Consent for publication All authors read and approved the manuscript for publication. Immobilization carrier production Ethics approval and consent to participate Orzuaa et  al. (2009) studied ten agro-industrial wastes Not applicable. including lime peel, orange peel, apple pomace, pista- Funding chio shell, wheat bran, coconut husk, etc. They studied There is no funding source. the appropriateness of various agro-industrial wastes as immobilization carrier for SSF. Before continuing the Publisher’s Note study, they characterized the agro-industrial wastes with Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in pub- lished maps and institutional affiliations. physio-chemical treatment. Finally, Orzuaa et  al. (2009) concluded that out of ten agro-industrial wastes, four Received: 14 October 2017 Accepted: 22 December 2017 of them including Citrus aurantifolia, Malus domes- tica, Citrus sinensis, and Cocos nucífera have exces- sive potential as immobilization carrier for SSF. 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Journal

"Bioresources and Bioprocessing"Springer Journals

Published: Dec 1, 2018

Keywords: Biochemical Engineering; Environmental Engineering/Biotechnology; Industrial and Production Engineering

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