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A Swinhoe’s Storm-petrel (Hydrobates monorhis) in French Guiana: the first record for South America

A Swinhoe’s Storm-petrel (Hydrobates monorhis) in French Guiana: the first record for South America Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 226–230. SHORT-COMMUNIC ARA TICLE TION September 2017 A Swinhoe's Storm-petrel (Hydrobates monorhis) in French Guiana: the first record for South America 1,3 2 2 2 Robert L. Flood , Jonathon Simon , Jéréme Tribot & Kévin Pineau FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, DST-NRF Centre of Excellence, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa. Nature Reserve of Ile du Grand-Connétable, Association GEPOG, 15 Av Louis Pasteur, 97300 Cayenne, French Guiana. Corresponding author: live2seabird@gmail.com Received on 26 July 2017. Accepted on 31 October 2017. ABSTRACT: A Swinhoe's Storm-petrel (Hydrobates monorhis) captured in French Guiana in May 2017 is the first documented record for South America. The cir cumstances of the capture are presented and the process of identification is summarized. The origin of this bird and sightings of Swinhoe's Storm-petrel in the Atlantic are discussed. KEY-WORDS: Swinhoe's Storm-petrel, Hydrobates monorhis, Ile du Grand-Connétable. Swinhoe's Storm-petrel (Hydrobates monorhis) breeds in the hut and dropped unharmed to the ground. All storm- the northern summer mainly on islands in the Yellow petrels previously recorded in French Guiana have been Sea and the Sea of Japan. It is a long-distance migrant, “white-rumped” (i.e. have white uppertail-coverts): the travelling in the non-breeding season mainly to the familiar Wilson's Storm-petrel (Oceanites oceanicus) and northern Indian Ocean, as far west as Somalia. There is nominate Leach's Storm-petrel (Hydrobates leucorhous), a handful of westerly records south of the equator in the and the vagrant Band-rumped Storm-petrel (H. castro southwest Indian Ocean. There has been an increasing sensu lato) (Tostain et al. 1992, Comité d'homologation number of sightings in the Atlantic north of the equator de Guyane 2016). However, the Ile du Grand-Connétable since first recor ded in 1983, though the origins and storm-petrel was “dark rumped” (i.e. had dark uppertail- breeding status of these birds are unknown (Flood & coverts) and warranted further study. Fisher 2013). This article documents the first recor d of The plumage aspect was recor ded, feathers were Swinhoe's Storm-petrel for South America. inspected for wear and moult, and the condition of the Ile du Grand-Connétable Réserve Naturelle is brood patch was noted. Biometrics were taken. A correct- an island nature reserve 15 km off the mouth of the sized ring was not at hand to ring the bird. The bir d was Approuague Estuary, French Guiana (about 4 49'N; kept safe in a box overnight. Next morning it was taken 51 55'W). The nature reserve was created to protect the out to sea on a motorboat, released away from shore breeding colonies of six seabirds: Magnificent Frigatebir d and predators, and flew off strongly until lost to view. (Fregata magnificens ), Brown Noddy (Anous stolidus), Photographs were taken at night, in the morning, and as Laughing Gull (Larus atricilla), Sooty Tern (Onychoprion the bird flew off after release. The tentative identification fuscatus), Cayenne Tern (Thalasseus sandvicensis Swinhoe's Storm-petrel (H. monorhis) was based on eurygnathus), and Royal Tern (T. maximus). Flood & Fisher (2013). A description of the storm-petrel A seabird monitoring program for Ile du Grand- and photographs were sent to R.L.F. who confirmed t he Connétable involves weekly visits April–December, identification (Figs. 1A–F). including a few days on the island mid breeding season (May), and fortnightly visits January–March. Mist nets DESCRIPTION are used to capture breeding gulls and terns but are unlikely to capture a storm-petrel. No storm-petrel had been seen on or from the island prior to May 2017. Main features of plumage aspect: overall dark with K.P. and colleagues visited Ile du Grand-Connétable contrasting pale upperwing-covert bars. Strong gray cast to head and neck. Remainder of the plumage aspect had for a few days in May 2017. Overnight accommodation was a small hut with minimal lighting. On 25 May, strong brown tones. Body feathers and scapulars dark around 7:30 h, a storm-petrel collided with the roof of grayish-brown. Crucially, all uppertail-coverts wholly and Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 First Swinhoe's Storm-petrel for South America Flood et al. Figure 1. Swinhoe's Storm-petrel Hydrobates monorhis, 26/27 May 2017, Ile du Grand-Connétable Réserve Naturelle, French Guiana (A–F). Photo author: J. Tribot. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 First Swinhoe's Storm-petrel for South America Flood et al. unequivocally dark grayish-brown. Contrasting warm- The “ dark-rumped” Matsudaira's Storm-petrel (H. toned buff-colored upperwing-covert bars: long, broad, matsudairae) is a potential vagrant to the central Atlantic. and fell short of the leading edge of the wing. White It's breeding and non-breeding ranges are similar to bases to outer primary shafts p6–p10. Underwing-coverts Swinhoe's Storm-petrel and there are records from and axillaries dark grayish-brown. Flight feathers dark offshore of Durban and Cape Town in South Africa, on grayish-brown in low contrast with the slightly paler body the margins of the South Atlantic. The plumage aspect is feathers, giving the impression of a mainly concolorous similar to Swinhoe's Storm-petrel – both exhibit strong plumage aspect. brown tones to the plumage aspect, have pale upperwing- Main features of structure: on release, after the initial covert bars, and pale forewing patches. However, there hurry to get away, wings long and quite broad, with are key differences in plumage aspect (notwithstanding medium-length hands, long arms, and fairly blunt wing the effects of light) and structure (mostly relevant to flight tips. Caudal projection medium-length. Tail held largely views) (Flood & Fisher 2013): closed in flight showing a shallow notch. Bill medium On Swinhoe's, the upperwing-covert bars are quite length and quite deep for a storm-petrel. Short-legged, conspicuous, being pale buff, long and broad, slightly typical of northern storm-petrels. curved though of fairly even width, and fall just short Moult and wear: remiges quite fresh. Upperwing- of the leading-edge. On Matsudaira's, they are rather coverts and rectrices had light to moderate wear. No inconspicuous, being dull buff, long and very broad, evidence of active moult. slightly curved though of fairly even width, and clearly Brood patch: 0/0 (i.e. feathered, not vascularised). reach the leading-edge. Sex: unknown. Actual wing measurements Matsudaira's normally has more obvious pale indeterminate against male/female measurements in forewing patches than Swinhoe's, head-on like aeroplane BWPi (2006, see Table 1). In any case, these wing landing lights. measurements were found to be unreliable in sexing birds The wings look proportionately large in both (Miles et al. 2014). species, but Matsudaira's has relatively longer and Elimination of confusion species: the similar-sized broader wings than Swinhoe's so that in flight its wings nominate Leach's Storm-petrel with a white “rump look proportionately very large. patch” is common in the Atlantic. Variation in the white Matsudaira's has a relatively small squarish head “rump patch”, discoloration, wear and moult, can lead to that looks oddly small relative to the size of the rest of the appearance of a dark “rump patch” (Flood & Fisher the bird; Swinhoe's has a relatively large squarish head 2013). The French Guiana storm-petrel had a full set of (emphasized by a robust bill, at least in some birds). uppertail-coverts that were in good condition and wholly Matsudaira's has a relatively long tail with a deep fork; and unequivocally all dark. In addition, Leach's Storm- Swinhoe's has a medium-length tail with a shallower fork. petrel rarely has white bases to the outer primary shafts, its That said, the biometrics of these two storm-petrels blackish-brown feathers bleach browner but do not acquire do not overlap, thus immediately ruling out the larger “strong” brown tones, and the upperwing-covert bars are Matsudaira's Storm-petrel (Flood & Fisher 2013). normally cool-toned grayish and not warm-toned buff. Table 1. Comparison of the biometrics of the Swinhoe's Storm-petrel (Hydrobates monorhis) captured in French Guiana with biometrics of birds captured in the northern Atlantic and biometrics published in the literature (lengths in mm and body mass in g; m = male, f = female). FRGU = French Guiana, FIBO = Fair Isle Bird Observatory (Scotland) (Miles et al. 2014), NORW = Røst (Norway) (T. Anker-Nillsen in litt. 2017), TYNE = Tynemouth (England) (Cubitt 1995), SPBP (Flood & Fisher 2013), APSW (Onley & Scofield 2007), PASN (Howe ll 2012), BWPi (Birds of the Western Palearctic interactive 2006), HBWa (Carboneras et al. 2017, in Handbook of Birds of the World alive). In parenthesis are sample sizes (n) where known. *Presumed erroneous. FRGU FIBO NORW TYNE SPBP APSW PASN BWPi HBWa Body mass 45 44.4–44.6 (2) 47.8 (1) – 38–43 65–78* – – 25.6–53.5 Total length 195 – – – 180–200 180–210 180–200 – 180–200 m 146–157 Wing length 151 154–159 (2) 158 (1) 164–167 (3) – 146–165 – – f 150–165 Wingspan 455 – – – 450–480 450-480 450–500 – 440–450 Head & bill 36.3 – 38.1 (1) –– – – – – length Bill length 15.5 14.1–14.5 (2) 13.9 (1) 14.5–14.9 (3) –– – – – Tarsus length 27.7 24.3–25.7 (2) – 24.4 (1) –– – – – Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 First Swinhoe's Storm-petrel for South America Flood et al. Vagrancy potential is relatively low for the other Sea, and in the Mediterranean, completing the link to “dark-rumped” storm-petrels of the Pacific O cean. Even the Atlantic. However, this potential route has its sceptics since it involves an overland crossing (Morrison 1998). so, biometrics rule out the larger Black Storm-petrel Evidence to support the second possibility involves (H. melania), Markham's Storm-petrel (H. markhami), a few records from the Comoro Islands, offshore and Tristram's Storm-petrel (H. tristrami), and the Mozambique, and off the east coast of South Africa smaller Least Storm-petrel (H. microsoma) (Parkin 1995, (Flood & Fisher 2013, Carboneras et al. 2017, T. Howell 2012, Sausner et al. 2016). Of the species where Hardaker in litt. 2017). Swinhoe's Storm-petrel in the biometrics overlap, among other characteristics, the ashy- southwest of its range could follow the prevailing airflow gray plumage of Ashy Storm-petrel (H. homochroa) and and breakaway eddies from the warm southward flowing the blue-gray plumage of Fork-tailed Storm-petrel (H. Agulhas Current (e.g. Simon et al. 2013), around the furcatus) rule them out. The “Leach's/ leucorhous complex” southern tip of Africa into the South Atlantic (Bourne of the northeast Pacific includes “ dark-rumped” birds. Of 1991, 1992, Parkin 1995). Notwithstanding a possible these, Chapman's Storm-petrel (H. l. chapmani) is about Swinhoe's Storm-petrel off Cape Town, South Africa, the same size as Swinhoe's Storm-petrel, but it normally and two possible Swinhoe's Storm-petrels off Walvis Bay, lacks white bases to the outer primary shafts and some Namibia, there is no Atlantic record south of the equator birds have a paler gray “rump patch” (Howell 2012). (Flood & Fisher 2013, T. Hardaker in litt. 2017). Occurrence in the Atlantic Ocean: Swinhoe's Storm- That said, the presence of Swinhoe's Storm-petrel petrel is an enigma in the Atlantic Ocean. It was first in the northern Atlantic could be the result of ongoing recorded and trapped in 1983 on the Selvagen Islands vagrancy, a single large event, or an ancient relict population (Portugal), northeast Atlantic (Robb et al. 2008). Since (Bourne 1967, James & Robertson 1985, Bretagnolle et al. then, there has been a steady trickle of records in the 1991). DNA analysis of birds from Tynemouth (England), North Atlantic and identification has been confirmed and the Selvagen Islands, indicate that Swinhoe's Storm- using DNA (Bretagnolle et al. 1991). To July 2017, we petrels in the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific O cean are know of 46 documented records (Flood & Fisher 2013, inseparable (Dawson 1992, Dawson et al. 1995). Thus, if Demey 2016, Rare Bird Alert UK, B. Patteson & K. there is a population inhabiting the Atlantic, rather than a Sutherland in litt. 2017): 20 trapped, 1 captured sick, 24 trickle of vagrants, then the population must have become observed at sea, and one heard only. Of these, 41 are from separated recently. Recent in terms of DNA analysis the northeast Atlantic, ranging from Norway to south of probably means no more than a few centuries ago, possibly the Cape Verde Islands and Mauritania, including the since the Little Ice Age ended in the 1700s. Climatic and Canary Islands, the Azores Islands, and the Mediterranean habitat variations may have permitted entry into the Sea. The remaining five recor ds are from the Gulf Stream Atlantic around the tip of South Africa. off Hatteras, North Carolina, USA. In this regard, the Ile du Grand-Connétable record A dark-rumped storm-petrel recorded off Madeira is significant. It extends the known Atlantic range to Island (Portugal) in 1829 was the first of its kind for the the South American continent and is a step forward to region and suggests that Swinhoe's Storm-petrel may have understanding the occurrence of Swinhoe's Storm-petrel been present in the North Atlantic for perhaps 200 years in the Atlantic Ocean. (Bourne 1990). However, breeding in the North Atlantic, though likely, is not proven. For example, in the Selvagen Islands, northeast Atlantic, there are records of males and ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS females, singing birds, and birds seen entering suitable crevices, but searches failed to confirm breeding (Silva et Information and data about Swinhoe's Storm-petrels al. 2016, F. Zino in litt. 2017). The recor d of a Swinhoe's was kindly given by Will Miles for Fair Isle, T. Anker- Storm-petrel on Ile du Grand-Connétable shows that in Nillsen for Norway, and Frank Zino for the Selvagen fact breeding could occur on any suitable island in the Islands. Leandro Bugoni, Trevor Hardaker, and Peter tropical and temperate Atlantic. Ryan together helped to confirm the status of Swinhoe's When and how Swinhoe's Storm-petrel arrived in Storm-petrel off South America and off southern Africa. the northern Atlantic is a mystery discussed in Flood We are grateful to our referees for their comments and & Fisher (2013). There are two possible routes from suggestions that helped to improve this article. the northwest Indian Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean: (1) Via the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. (2) Via the southwest Indian Ocean, round the southern tip of REFERENCES Africa, and into the South Atlantic. Bourne W.R.P. 1967. Long-distance vagrancy in the petrels. Ibis 109: Evidence to support the first possibility involves 141–167. a small number of records off Eilat (Israel), in the Red Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 First Swinhoe's Storm-petrel for South America Flood et al. Bourne W.R.P. 1990. The first dark-rumped petrel. Birding World 3: James P.C. & Robertson H.A. 1985. First record of Swinhoe's Storm- petrel Oceanodroma monorhis in the Atlantic. Ardea 73: 105–106. Bourne W.R.P. 1991. Dark-rumped storm-petrels in the North Miles W.T.S., Collinson J.M., Parnaby D. & Cope R. 2014. An Atlantic. Sea Swallow 40: 62–63. analysis of biometrics, vocalisations and DNA of two Swinhoe's Bourne W.R.P. 1992. Debatable British and Irish seabirds. Birding Storm-petrels trapped on Fair Isle in 2013. British Birds 107: World 5: 382–390. 654–656. Bretagnolle V., Carruthers M., Cubitt M., Bioret F. & Cuillandre J.-P. Morrison S. 1998. All-dark petrels in the North Atlantic. British Birds 1991. Six captures of a dark-rumped, fork-tailed storm-petrel in 91: 540–560. the northeastern Atlantic. Ibis 133: 351–356. Onley D. & Scofield P. 2007. Albatrosses, petrels and shearwaters of the BWPi. 2006. Birds of the Western Palearctic, interactive DVD. Oxford: world. London: Helm. Oxford and Bird Guides. Parkin D.T. 1995. Editorial comment. In: Cubitt M. ‘Swinhoe's Carboneras C., Jutglar F., de Juana E. & Kirwan G.M. 2017. Swinhoe's Storm-petrels in Tynemouth: new to Britain and Ireland’. British Storm-petrel (Hydrobates monorhis). In: del Hoyo J., Elliott A., Birds 88: 342–348. Sargatal J., Christie D.A. & de Juana E. (eds.).  Handbook of Robb M., Mullarney K. & the Sound Approach. 2008. Petrels night the birds of the world alive. Barcelona: Lynx Editions (accessed and day. Poole: The Sound Approach. from http://www.hbw.com/node/52594 (access on 18 July 2017). Sausner J., Torres-Mura J.C., Robertson J. & Hertel F. 2016. Comite d'homologation de Guyane. 2016. Liste des Oiseaux de Guyane – Ecomorphological differences in foraging and pattering behavior version Mars 2016: http://files.biolovision.net/www.faune-guyane. among storm-petrels in the eastern Pacific O cean. Auk 133: 397–414. fr/userfiles/ListeCHGdesOiseaux deGuyanemars2016intro.pdf Silva M.C., Matias R., Ferreira V., Catry P. & Granadeiro J.P. 2016. Cubitt M.G. 1995. Swinhoe's Storm-petrels at Tynemouth: new to Searching for a breeding population of Swinhoe's storm-petrel at Britain and Ireland. British Birds 88: 342–348. Selvagem Grande, NE Atlantic, with a molecular characterization Dawson R.J.G. 1992. Blood, sweat and petrels. Birding World 5: of occurring birds and relationships within the Hydrobatinae. 443–444. Journal of Ornithology 157: 117–123. Dawson R.J.G., Parkin D.T., Cubitt M., Won P.-O. & Zino F.J.A. Simon M.H., Arthur K.L., Hall I.R., Peeters F.J.C., Loveday B.R., 1995. DNA amplification and sequencing of unidentified dark- Barker S., Ziegler M. & Zahn R. 2013. Millennial-scale Agulhas rumped Oceanodroma Storm-petrels (Aves) in the North Atlantic Current variability and its implications for salt-leakage through Ocean. Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal 4: 201–210. the Indian–Atlantic Ocean Gateway. Earth and Planetary Science Demey R. 2016. Recent reports. Bulletin of the African Bird Club 23: Letters 383: 101–112. 104–123. Tostain O., Dujardin J.L., Erard C. & Thiollay J.M. 1992. Oiseaux Flood R.L. & Fisher E.A. 2013. North Atlantic seabirds: storm-petrels de Guyane. Biologie, ecologie, protection et répartition. Brunoy: & Bulwer's Petrel. Revised edition. Scilly: Pelagic Birds & Birding Multimedia ID Guides. Alauda-Seof. Howell S.N.G. 2012. Petrels, albatrosses, and storm-petrels of North America. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. Associate Editor: Alexander C. Lees. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Ornithology Research Springer Journals

A Swinhoe’s Storm-petrel (Hydrobates monorhis) in French Guiana: the first record for South America

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Abstract

Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 226–230. SHORT-COMMUNIC ARA TICLE TION September 2017 A Swinhoe's Storm-petrel (Hydrobates monorhis) in French Guiana: the first record for South America 1,3 2 2 2 Robert L. Flood , Jonathon Simon , Jéréme Tribot & Kévin Pineau FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, DST-NRF Centre of Excellence, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa. Nature Reserve of Ile du Grand-Connétable, Association GEPOG, 15 Av Louis Pasteur, 97300 Cayenne, French Guiana. Corresponding author: live2seabird@gmail.com Received on 26 July 2017. Accepted on 31 October 2017. ABSTRACT: A Swinhoe's Storm-petrel (Hydrobates monorhis) captured in French Guiana in May 2017 is the first documented record for South America. The cir cumstances of the capture are presented and the process of identification is summarized. The origin of this bird and sightings of Swinhoe's Storm-petrel in the Atlantic are discussed. KEY-WORDS: Swinhoe's Storm-petrel, Hydrobates monorhis, Ile du Grand-Connétable. Swinhoe's Storm-petrel (Hydrobates monorhis) breeds in the hut and dropped unharmed to the ground. All storm- the northern summer mainly on islands in the Yellow petrels previously recorded in French Guiana have been Sea and the Sea of Japan. It is a long-distance migrant, “white-rumped” (i.e. have white uppertail-coverts): the travelling in the non-breeding season mainly to the familiar Wilson's Storm-petrel (Oceanites oceanicus) and northern Indian Ocean, as far west as Somalia. There is nominate Leach's Storm-petrel (Hydrobates leucorhous), a handful of westerly records south of the equator in the and the vagrant Band-rumped Storm-petrel (H. castro southwest Indian Ocean. There has been an increasing sensu lato) (Tostain et al. 1992, Comité d'homologation number of sightings in the Atlantic north of the equator de Guyane 2016). However, the Ile du Grand-Connétable since first recor ded in 1983, though the origins and storm-petrel was “dark rumped” (i.e. had dark uppertail- breeding status of these birds are unknown (Flood & coverts) and warranted further study. Fisher 2013). This article documents the first recor d of The plumage aspect was recor ded, feathers were Swinhoe's Storm-petrel for South America. inspected for wear and moult, and the condition of the Ile du Grand-Connétable Réserve Naturelle is brood patch was noted. Biometrics were taken. A correct- an island nature reserve 15 km off the mouth of the sized ring was not at hand to ring the bird. The bir d was Approuague Estuary, French Guiana (about 4 49'N; kept safe in a box overnight. Next morning it was taken 51 55'W). The nature reserve was created to protect the out to sea on a motorboat, released away from shore breeding colonies of six seabirds: Magnificent Frigatebir d and predators, and flew off strongly until lost to view. (Fregata magnificens ), Brown Noddy (Anous stolidus), Photographs were taken at night, in the morning, and as Laughing Gull (Larus atricilla), Sooty Tern (Onychoprion the bird flew off after release. The tentative identification fuscatus), Cayenne Tern (Thalasseus sandvicensis Swinhoe's Storm-petrel (H. monorhis) was based on eurygnathus), and Royal Tern (T. maximus). Flood & Fisher (2013). A description of the storm-petrel A seabird monitoring program for Ile du Grand- and photographs were sent to R.L.F. who confirmed t he Connétable involves weekly visits April–December, identification (Figs. 1A–F). including a few days on the island mid breeding season (May), and fortnightly visits January–March. Mist nets DESCRIPTION are used to capture breeding gulls and terns but are unlikely to capture a storm-petrel. No storm-petrel had been seen on or from the island prior to May 2017. Main features of plumage aspect: overall dark with K.P. and colleagues visited Ile du Grand-Connétable contrasting pale upperwing-covert bars. Strong gray cast to head and neck. Remainder of the plumage aspect had for a few days in May 2017. Overnight accommodation was a small hut with minimal lighting. On 25 May, strong brown tones. Body feathers and scapulars dark around 7:30 h, a storm-petrel collided with the roof of grayish-brown. Crucially, all uppertail-coverts wholly and Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 First Swinhoe's Storm-petrel for South America Flood et al. Figure 1. Swinhoe's Storm-petrel Hydrobates monorhis, 26/27 May 2017, Ile du Grand-Connétable Réserve Naturelle, French Guiana (A–F). Photo author: J. Tribot. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 First Swinhoe's Storm-petrel for South America Flood et al. unequivocally dark grayish-brown. Contrasting warm- The “ dark-rumped” Matsudaira's Storm-petrel (H. toned buff-colored upperwing-covert bars: long, broad, matsudairae) is a potential vagrant to the central Atlantic. and fell short of the leading edge of the wing. White It's breeding and non-breeding ranges are similar to bases to outer primary shafts p6–p10. Underwing-coverts Swinhoe's Storm-petrel and there are records from and axillaries dark grayish-brown. Flight feathers dark offshore of Durban and Cape Town in South Africa, on grayish-brown in low contrast with the slightly paler body the margins of the South Atlantic. The plumage aspect is feathers, giving the impression of a mainly concolorous similar to Swinhoe's Storm-petrel – both exhibit strong plumage aspect. brown tones to the plumage aspect, have pale upperwing- Main features of structure: on release, after the initial covert bars, and pale forewing patches. However, there hurry to get away, wings long and quite broad, with are key differences in plumage aspect (notwithstanding medium-length hands, long arms, and fairly blunt wing the effects of light) and structure (mostly relevant to flight tips. Caudal projection medium-length. Tail held largely views) (Flood & Fisher 2013): closed in flight showing a shallow notch. Bill medium On Swinhoe's, the upperwing-covert bars are quite length and quite deep for a storm-petrel. Short-legged, conspicuous, being pale buff, long and broad, slightly typical of northern storm-petrels. curved though of fairly even width, and fall just short Moult and wear: remiges quite fresh. Upperwing- of the leading-edge. On Matsudaira's, they are rather coverts and rectrices had light to moderate wear. No inconspicuous, being dull buff, long and very broad, evidence of active moult. slightly curved though of fairly even width, and clearly Brood patch: 0/0 (i.e. feathered, not vascularised). reach the leading-edge. Sex: unknown. Actual wing measurements Matsudaira's normally has more obvious pale indeterminate against male/female measurements in forewing patches than Swinhoe's, head-on like aeroplane BWPi (2006, see Table 1). In any case, these wing landing lights. measurements were found to be unreliable in sexing birds The wings look proportionately large in both (Miles et al. 2014). species, but Matsudaira's has relatively longer and Elimination of confusion species: the similar-sized broader wings than Swinhoe's so that in flight its wings nominate Leach's Storm-petrel with a white “rump look proportionately very large. patch” is common in the Atlantic. Variation in the white Matsudaira's has a relatively small squarish head “rump patch”, discoloration, wear and moult, can lead to that looks oddly small relative to the size of the rest of the appearance of a dark “rump patch” (Flood & Fisher the bird; Swinhoe's has a relatively large squarish head 2013). The French Guiana storm-petrel had a full set of (emphasized by a robust bill, at least in some birds). uppertail-coverts that were in good condition and wholly Matsudaira's has a relatively long tail with a deep fork; and unequivocally all dark. In addition, Leach's Storm- Swinhoe's has a medium-length tail with a shallower fork. petrel rarely has white bases to the outer primary shafts, its That said, the biometrics of these two storm-petrels blackish-brown feathers bleach browner but do not acquire do not overlap, thus immediately ruling out the larger “strong” brown tones, and the upperwing-covert bars are Matsudaira's Storm-petrel (Flood & Fisher 2013). normally cool-toned grayish and not warm-toned buff. Table 1. Comparison of the biometrics of the Swinhoe's Storm-petrel (Hydrobates monorhis) captured in French Guiana with biometrics of birds captured in the northern Atlantic and biometrics published in the literature (lengths in mm and body mass in g; m = male, f = female). FRGU = French Guiana, FIBO = Fair Isle Bird Observatory (Scotland) (Miles et al. 2014), NORW = Røst (Norway) (T. Anker-Nillsen in litt. 2017), TYNE = Tynemouth (England) (Cubitt 1995), SPBP (Flood & Fisher 2013), APSW (Onley & Scofield 2007), PASN (Howe ll 2012), BWPi (Birds of the Western Palearctic interactive 2006), HBWa (Carboneras et al. 2017, in Handbook of Birds of the World alive). In parenthesis are sample sizes (n) where known. *Presumed erroneous. FRGU FIBO NORW TYNE SPBP APSW PASN BWPi HBWa Body mass 45 44.4–44.6 (2) 47.8 (1) – 38–43 65–78* – – 25.6–53.5 Total length 195 – – – 180–200 180–210 180–200 – 180–200 m 146–157 Wing length 151 154–159 (2) 158 (1) 164–167 (3) – 146–165 – – f 150–165 Wingspan 455 – – – 450–480 450-480 450–500 – 440–450 Head & bill 36.3 – 38.1 (1) –– – – – – length Bill length 15.5 14.1–14.5 (2) 13.9 (1) 14.5–14.9 (3) –– – – – Tarsus length 27.7 24.3–25.7 (2) – 24.4 (1) –– – – – Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 First Swinhoe's Storm-petrel for South America Flood et al. Vagrancy potential is relatively low for the other Sea, and in the Mediterranean, completing the link to “dark-rumped” storm-petrels of the Pacific O cean. Even the Atlantic. However, this potential route has its sceptics since it involves an overland crossing (Morrison 1998). so, biometrics rule out the larger Black Storm-petrel Evidence to support the second possibility involves (H. melania), Markham's Storm-petrel (H. markhami), a few records from the Comoro Islands, offshore and Tristram's Storm-petrel (H. tristrami), and the Mozambique, and off the east coast of South Africa smaller Least Storm-petrel (H. microsoma) (Parkin 1995, (Flood & Fisher 2013, Carboneras et al. 2017, T. Howell 2012, Sausner et al. 2016). Of the species where Hardaker in litt. 2017). Swinhoe's Storm-petrel in the biometrics overlap, among other characteristics, the ashy- southwest of its range could follow the prevailing airflow gray plumage of Ashy Storm-petrel (H. homochroa) and and breakaway eddies from the warm southward flowing the blue-gray plumage of Fork-tailed Storm-petrel (H. Agulhas Current (e.g. Simon et al. 2013), around the furcatus) rule them out. The “Leach's/ leucorhous complex” southern tip of Africa into the South Atlantic (Bourne of the northeast Pacific includes “ dark-rumped” birds. Of 1991, 1992, Parkin 1995). Notwithstanding a possible these, Chapman's Storm-petrel (H. l. chapmani) is about Swinhoe's Storm-petrel off Cape Town, South Africa, the same size as Swinhoe's Storm-petrel, but it normally and two possible Swinhoe's Storm-petrels off Walvis Bay, lacks white bases to the outer primary shafts and some Namibia, there is no Atlantic record south of the equator birds have a paler gray “rump patch” (Howell 2012). (Flood & Fisher 2013, T. Hardaker in litt. 2017). Occurrence in the Atlantic Ocean: Swinhoe's Storm- That said, the presence of Swinhoe's Storm-petrel petrel is an enigma in the Atlantic Ocean. It was first in the northern Atlantic could be the result of ongoing recorded and trapped in 1983 on the Selvagen Islands vagrancy, a single large event, or an ancient relict population (Portugal), northeast Atlantic (Robb et al. 2008). Since (Bourne 1967, James & Robertson 1985, Bretagnolle et al. then, there has been a steady trickle of records in the 1991). DNA analysis of birds from Tynemouth (England), North Atlantic and identification has been confirmed and the Selvagen Islands, indicate that Swinhoe's Storm- using DNA (Bretagnolle et al. 1991). To July 2017, we petrels in the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific O cean are know of 46 documented records (Flood & Fisher 2013, inseparable (Dawson 1992, Dawson et al. 1995). Thus, if Demey 2016, Rare Bird Alert UK, B. Patteson & K. there is a population inhabiting the Atlantic, rather than a Sutherland in litt. 2017): 20 trapped, 1 captured sick, 24 trickle of vagrants, then the population must have become observed at sea, and one heard only. Of these, 41 are from separated recently. Recent in terms of DNA analysis the northeast Atlantic, ranging from Norway to south of probably means no more than a few centuries ago, possibly the Cape Verde Islands and Mauritania, including the since the Little Ice Age ended in the 1700s. Climatic and Canary Islands, the Azores Islands, and the Mediterranean habitat variations may have permitted entry into the Sea. The remaining five recor ds are from the Gulf Stream Atlantic around the tip of South Africa. off Hatteras, North Carolina, USA. In this regard, the Ile du Grand-Connétable record A dark-rumped storm-petrel recorded off Madeira is significant. It extends the known Atlantic range to Island (Portugal) in 1829 was the first of its kind for the the South American continent and is a step forward to region and suggests that Swinhoe's Storm-petrel may have understanding the occurrence of Swinhoe's Storm-petrel been present in the North Atlantic for perhaps 200 years in the Atlantic Ocean. (Bourne 1990). However, breeding in the North Atlantic, though likely, is not proven. For example, in the Selvagen Islands, northeast Atlantic, there are records of males and ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS females, singing birds, and birds seen entering suitable crevices, but searches failed to confirm breeding (Silva et Information and data about Swinhoe's Storm-petrels al. 2016, F. Zino in litt. 2017). The recor d of a Swinhoe's was kindly given by Will Miles for Fair Isle, T. Anker- Storm-petrel on Ile du Grand-Connétable shows that in Nillsen for Norway, and Frank Zino for the Selvagen fact breeding could occur on any suitable island in the Islands. Leandro Bugoni, Trevor Hardaker, and Peter tropical and temperate Atlantic. Ryan together helped to confirm the status of Swinhoe's When and how Swinhoe's Storm-petrel arrived in Storm-petrel off South America and off southern Africa. the northern Atlantic is a mystery discussed in Flood We are grateful to our referees for their comments and & Fisher (2013). There are two possible routes from suggestions that helped to improve this article. the northwest Indian Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean: (1) Via the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. (2) Via the southwest Indian Ocean, round the southern tip of REFERENCES Africa, and into the South Atlantic. Bourne W.R.P. 1967. Long-distance vagrancy in the petrels. Ibis 109: Evidence to support the first possibility involves 141–167. a small number of records off Eilat (Israel), in the Red Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(3): 2017 First Swinhoe's Storm-petrel for South America Flood et al. Bourne W.R.P. 1990. The first dark-rumped petrel. 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Journal

Ornithology ResearchSpringer Journals

Published: Sep 1, 2017

Keywords: Swinhoe’s Storm-petrel; Hydrobates monorhis; Ile du Grand-Connétable

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