Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.
Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 36-63 March 2015 A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions 1,3,4,5 2,3 Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia – Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia – INPA. Coordenação de Pesquisas em Biodiversidade - Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia – INPA Programa de Conservação do Gavião-real (PCGR) – INPA Current address: Laboratório de Zoologia, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade e Conservação, Universidade Federal do Pará – UFPA – Campus Universitário de Altamira. Rua José Porfírio, 2115, São Sebastião, CEP 68372-040, Altamira, PA, Brazil. Corresponding author: email@example.com Received on 1 December 2014. Accepted on 22 January 2015. ABSTRACT: Here we review the distribution of the Crested Eagle (Morphnus guianensis) in the Americas, and based on the Brazilian Harpy Eagle Conservation Program (PCGR) database, literature, online databases, zoos, wild and museum records, we provide an updated distribution map with 37 points outside the IUCN map; 16 were recorded close to the border of the map (up to 40 km), and do not expand or contribute to the distribution map. Far from the border (>40 km) we found 21 records, contributing to an expansion of the known range and habitat. At the northernmost extreme of distribution, the range was extended to southern Mexico; in Nicaragua, the range extension was farther south in the north, and two records extend the range to the southern border with Costa Rica. In Colombia, an old specimen is located between Darien Peninsula and the Perija Mountains. In Brazil a record from the ecotone between Cerrado and Gallery Forest, and another in an upland remnant of Atlantic Rainforest, expands the range towards central and southeastern Brazil, and to the Northeast, old records could expand the Atlantic Rainforest distribution towards the interior. KEY-WORDS: Conservation, Falconiformes, Neotropics, Raptor. Included in the order Accipitriformes, the Crested Eagle, between soybean fields and forest fragments (Lees et al. Morphnus guianensis, and Harpy Eagle, Harpia harpyja, 2013), and also has been found in forest mosaics within are the Neotropical representatives of the subfamily the Gran Sabana, Venezuela (Crease & Tepedino, 2013). Harpiinae (CBRO 2014). The members of Harpiinae In Brazil, the Crested Eagle is known as “Uiraçu- can be distinguished from other Accipitridae by large falso” or “Gavião-real-falso” [=False Harpy Eagle] (CBRO sizes and weight, length and wingspan, being traditional 2014). According to the literature, adults reach up to 89 inhabitants of humid tropical forests (Ferguson-Lees & cm in total length, wingspan up to 154 cm and weight up Christie 2001), preying on mid-sized mammals such as to 3 kg; females are larger and more robust (Bierregaard sloths, monkeys, and rodents (Ferguson-Lees & Christie 1994; Ferguson-Lees & Christie 2001). The head is 2001; Aguiar-Silva et al. 2014. grayish with a crest tipped with a single larger medial The species occurs in low density, and is deemed rare black feather. In general the color pattern resembles that to very rare in all areas of distribution, mainly inhabiting of Harpy Eagle, however the latter always has a black chest Neotropical dense humid forest, mountain slopes, band (Sick 1997; Ferguson-Lees & Christie 2001). Adults coastal forest, from sea level to 2200 m; it is considered most commonly are pale-morph, but may occur in two resident (Brown & Amadon 1968; Hilty & Brown 1986; melanistic forms, dark-morph and extreme-dark-morph. Bierregaard 1994; Howell & Webb 1995; Ridgely & During its 4-year sequence to attain adult plumage, birds Greenfield 2001; Ferguson-Lees & Christie 2001; Hilty become darker over time (Bierregaard 1994; Ferguson- 2003; Hennessey et al. 2003; Jones & Komar 2007). It Lees & Christie 2001). can also occur in forest patches and has been recorded Mauduyt (1782), described the Aigle (petit) de nesting in a Brazilian forest fragment, located in a mosaic La Guiane in a systematic and comparative way, with Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti specimens coming from Cayenne [=French Guiana]. Estadual do Amazonas”. Records were subdivided into Based on this work, in 1800 Daudin described Falco New (after 2000), Old (prior to 2000), Nests, and Rescued guianensis using Linnean nomenclature. Later, Falco individuals by IBAMA overlaid with distribution limits was made a synonym of Morphnus by Dumont (1816), provided in the IUCN map (IUCN 2014). For published giving rise to the monotypic species Morphnus guianensis. records, whenever possible, we used the exact date, and In 1879, Gurney described Morphnus taeniatus as a full when the article did not provide this information, we species, later synonymized because it was just a dark- used the publication date. Not all records had accurate morph (Lehmann 1943). locations. When this information was available, the exact The Crested Eagle has a wide distribution over locality was included on the map, following the exact Central and South America (Ferguson-Lees & Christie geographical coordinates. For those records with no exact 2001), however records are generally casual or by chance, geographic coordinates, we used coordinates associated being considered rarer than the Harpy Eagle in some with the geographical center of the municipality where regions where they coexist (Jones & Komar 2006). they were obtained. Seven museum specimens without More than 250 years after its description, few collecting dates were assumed as Old records on the surveys include the species in their lists, and studies of map (prior to 2000). All records are presented in the its biology and ecology are rare, therefore understanding Appendices, but some were not included on the map its distribution is the goal of this review. The Crested because they overlapped, or had little accuracy. Eagle is a top predator, occurring in low densities, and is considered a Vulnerable (IBAMA 2014) and Near- Collections and Museums threatened (IUCN 2014) species, due to habitat loss and hunting. The knowledge of its current distribution and Since 2005, the “Programa de Conservação do Gavião- ecological requirements could contribute as a basis for real” PCGR-INPA [=Brazilian Harpy Eagle Conservation further conservation policies. Program; http://gaviaoreal.inpa.gov.br] visited collections Currently, the most widely used distribution maps as researching specimens of Harpy Eagle, Crested Eagle, and a basis for conservation plans and determining the threat Hawk-Eagles, to build a distributional database. Eight status of the vast majority of organisms are provided by the Brazilian collections housed specimens of Crested Eagle: International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi (Belém, Pará – MPEG), 2014). However, recent records, very old ones, and those Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazôonia – Coleção from gray literature or from birdwatchers, photographers Ornitólogica (Manaus, Amazonas – INPA), Museu de or videographers are lacking consideration. Our goal is Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (São Paulo, São to review the distribution of the Crested Eagle, including Paulo – MZUSP), Museu de História Natural de Taubaté new records, particularly for Brazil, which holds the (Taubaté, São Paulo – MHNT), Universidade Federal de largest continuous forests in the continent, and produce Santa Catarina – Coleção Ornitológica (Florianópolis, an updated map of its occurrence. Santa Catarina – UFSC), Museu Frei Miguel (Luzerna, Santa Catarina), Museu de Biologia Prof. Mello Leitão (Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo – MBML), as well as small MATERIAL AND METHODS private collections as tourist exhibits, such as Museu do Índio (Florianópolis, Santa Catarina). Data from two The review follows the format of the database of the collections, Museu Sete Quedas (Pato Bragado, Paraná) Global Raptor Information Network - GRIN (2013) for and Museu da Fauna (Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, closed all countries. It is augmented with more details for the in 1983 and its collection tranferred to Museu Nacional states of Brazil, old published records, information from in 1993), were taken only from literature describing their the Brazilian Harpy Eagle Conservation Program (PCGR) holdings. Twelve collections outside Brazil had Crested database and online databases such as ORNIS, IBC and Eagle specimens, and data were accessed directly from AVECOL, gray literature (such as Instituto Brasileiro the institution`s website or from websites that replicate de Meio Ambiente de Rescursos Naturais Renovaveis information from different collections, such as ORNIS, (IBAMA) [=Brazilian Environmental Agency] reports), where we accessed the collections of the Academy birdwatcher reports, lodge lists, unpublished reports, of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, photographs, and recently published studies.Those sources Pennsylvania – ANSP); the United States National where the indication of the distribution of the species was Musem (Washington, D. C. – USNM); Field Museum very broad and poorly defined (for example, no specific of Natural History (University of Chicago, Chicago, localities mentioned) were not used in our final map. Illinois – FMNH); Louisiana State University Museum of The final map was created using the ArcGIS software Zoology (Baton Rouge, Louisiana – LSUMZ); Museum of at the “Laboratório de Agrimensura da Universidade Comparative Zoology (Harvard University, Cambridge, Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti Massachusetts – MCZ); American Museum of Natural obtained for Brazil and 140 records for Mexico, Central History (New York, New York – AMNH); Royal Ontario America and other South American countries. From the Museum (Toronto, Canada – ROM); Carnegie Museum total, 45 records did not meet criteria and were rejected of Natural History (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania – CM); from our map when they did not have known origin (zoo Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History (Los or museum specimens), were repetitive (different years Angeles, California – LACM); Western Foundation of at the same point), or the literature listed only “general Vertebrate Zoology (Camarillo, California – WFVZ), occurrence” (Appendices 1 and 2). and the Oklahoma Natural History Museum (Oklahoma Listed by source, 156 records are from published City, Oklahoma – OMNH). Specimens with imprecise literature in articles and books, 45 are records from information about the collection site were not included museums and collections (ORNIS database), and 17 on the map (Appendices 1 and 2). are records from our PCGR Database. The remaining 51 records were obtained from online photo and sound Rescued and Captive Birds in Brazil websites and personal communications (Appendices 1 and 2). For the location of individuals rescued by wildlife Listed by date, the records spanned 18982014. authorities in Brazil (IBAMA), one point for the location One hundred and thirty records are Old (before 2000), of each bird’s origin was plotted on the map, with the 113 are New (after 2000), and 26 records have no precise date of rescue included only in the text. For individuals date (Appendices 1 and 2). A total of 37 records were at conservation centers and zoos, we inserted a point placed outside the IUCN map, and are highlighted in on the map only if they had information on the origin/ bold in the appendices (Appendices 1 and 2). capture. Current or past individuals of Crested Eagle were at: Zoológico de São Paulo – São Paulo; Zoológico Review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle do Centro de Instrução e Guerra na Selva – CIGS, outside Brazil Manaus, Amazonas; Zooparque de Itatiba – Itatiba, São Paulo; Zoológico Municipal Dois Irmãos – Recife, Of the 140 records obtained for Crested Eagle in Mexico, Pernambuco; and Criadouro Conservacionista – CRAX Central and South America, excluding Brazil, 96 were in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Appendix 1). sourced from published literature in books or articles, 27 came from records in museums and collections, and Online Databases 17 were obtained from online databases, recordings of vocalizations and photos from personal archives. From Open access online databases were also consulted. Photo those records, 30 are located outside the distribution and sound fi les and videos were obtained from the map provided by IUCN (Figure 1), enlarging the area of following websites providing both records and accession occurrence to southern Mexico, to the north of Nicaragua numbers: www.wikiaves.com.br (WA), www.xeno-canto. and to its southern border, and in Colombia, to include org (XC), and Macaulay Library (MAC) Cornell Lab. of the region between Darien Peninsula and the Perija Ornithology, Ithaca, New York (http://macaulaylibrary. Mountains, and all are highlighted in bold in Appendix 2. org); or less scientific sites, such as the Internet Bir d Collection (IBC), and stock photos at the Visual Resources North America for Ornithology (VIREO) at the Academy of Natural Mexico – The first visual recor d in the country (a Sciences, Philadelphia (http://vireo.acnatsci.org). Some soaring adult), occurred in 1992 in Campeche (J. Sutter records came from private photo collections (Flickr); and J. M. Diaz cited in Whitacre et al. 2012). However the authors were asked for permission to use the records the first documented recor d was a photo from 2004, and in some cases provided additional data. Despite at the Biosphere Reserve of Montes Azules, in Chiapas the chance of mistaken indetifications between Crested (Grosselet & Gutierrez-Carbonel, 2007). Whitacre et al. and Harpy eagles, some unpublished sight records and (2012) mentioned the probable occurrence in Chiapas sound recordings of Brazilian professional and amateaur and Quintana Roo. ornithologists alike were included in the distribution map (Appendices 1 and 2). Central America Crested Eagle can be considered rarer than the Harpy Eagle in regions where they coexist, according to RESULTS Jones & Komar (2006). Belize – The first recor d occurred in 1995, at Orange A total of 269 Crested Eagle records were found from Walk (Hall 1995), and is rarely seen in Toledo and Orange Mexico to Argentina. Listed by locality, 129 records were Walk, Cayo (Jones et al. 2000). A probable record was Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti FIGURE 1. Localities where the Crested Eagle (Morphnus guianensis) has been recorded until 2014 (see Appendices 1 and 2). White circles represent recent records, after the year 2000; black circles represent records prior to 2000; red circles represent nests; yellow circles represent individuals rescued by IBAMA. The white water mark denotes the range contained in the IUCN (2014) map. made in December 2006 in the southeast at Hickatee in Quebrada Kahkatingni, Patuca River, in June 1999 Lodge, Punta Gorda, Toledo (Jones & Komar 2007). (GRIN 2013). Bonta & Anderson (2002) consider it a Guatemala – The first recor d occurred in 1978, rare and resident species. The MCZ listed a skin from La reported by Ellis & Whaley (1981), in Flores (Petén). Ceiba collected in 1902. Between 1994 and 1995 an active nest was found in Nicaragua – An individual was seen in March Tikal National Park, also Petén (Whitacre et al. 2012) 2001, near the community of Hormigero, Cerro Sasiaya, and observations of a young bird were made in the same in the Bosawas Biosphere Reserve (GRIN 2013). Two place, with a juvenile reported (Grijalva & Eisermann other individuals were seen in May 1994 and May 1999 2006). Eisermann & Avendaño (2007) considered the (Múnera-Roldán et al., 2007) in the south, at Bartola species resident and restricted to low-lying areas in the Reserve; another individual was seen in 2001 in the “North Atlantic region. The AMNH has a specimen collected in Atlantic region” of the country, in the Alamikangban 1978 in Flores, Petén, and ROM has a specimen collected community, Prinzapolka, by Kjeldsen (2005). in 1966, in the same location. Costa Rica – Birds were seen in the regions of Honduras – Bangs (1903) reported collection Sarapiquí and Osa Peninsula (Stiles & Skutch 1989). of a young male at La Ceiba, and Monroe (1968) of There is a recor d of Carriker (1910) in Cuabre, near the another individual in San Pedro Sula. A juvenile was Sacsola River (probably Sixaola). Slud (1964) recorded photographed by Russell Thorstrom in flooded forest an individual at Cañas Gordas, near Panama. There were Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti also records at Finca La Selva and Rara Avis Jungle Lodge, least four specimens collected in Leticia, Caquetá and around Braulio Carrillo National Park (Jones 2004). An Chocó (Salaqui River and Juradó River). ANSP has a adult dark-morph was photographed in 29 April 2011, specimen listed from Morelia, Caquetá, undated. USNM in Crucitas, Curtis de San Carlos, Alajuela (photo by R. maintains three complete specimens preserved in alcohol: Vargas; P. Camacho, pers. comm.) There is a photograph one from Truandó, one from the Sinu River, in Rescues, of a subadult pale-morph in 2005 from Tortuguero near Córdoba, 1949, and one from Uraba Gulf in Acandi, the Nicaraguan border (Jones & Komar 2006), including Chocó, 1949. FMNH maintains two specimens collected a pale and a dark-morph pair photographed in 2005 (G. in Chocó in 1940, from Jampavado River and from Ocklind, pers. file); besides there are two recent records, Jurado River, plus one from Cuturu, Antioquia, in 1947. one from March 2013 (in the park, photo and record by Ecuador – Very rare, but has been recorded in the R. Osborne and E. Miranda) and January 2014 (Caño Pichincha region and at the base of the Andes (Ridgely Harold, photo by C. C. Obando), both from Tortuguero & Greenfield 2001). Muñiz-Lópes et al. (2007) cite National Park (P. Camacho pers. comm., Fundacíon its occurrence in Esmeraldas Province. In 2007, a Rapaces de Costa Rica Database). The CM has a specimen pale-morph individual was seen preying on a snake collected in Cuabre, Límon, in 1904. (Spilotes pullatus) in Cuyabeno, Sucumbios Province (L. Panama – It is considered very rare, occuring in Vaincenbacher, IBC, 2007). In the Wildlife Center of continuous forest and on the Caribbean slope, from Napo, the species has been seen by birdwatchers and is southeast to east (Wetmore 1965; Ridgely & Gwynne listed for the region (http://www.napowildlifecenter.com), 1989). There are occasional recor ds from the southwestern plus a photographic record of an individual dark-morph Azuero Peninsula (Cerro Hoya region), in the provinces in 2008 (T. Cloudman http://www.hargrove.org/2008/ of Panama (eastern region) and Darién; those from images/2008crestedEagle-edited-jpg). In 2014 a nest was Chiriquí and Coiba Island are unsubstantiated; there is a found in the Cuyabeno Reserve (R. Muniz-Lopes pers. photographic record near Achiote Road in January 1975 comm.). In the Quito Zoo there is a female dark-morph (reported by W. Cornwell) (Ridgely & Gwynne 1989). of unknown origin (Montalvo & Montalvo 2012). Kiff et al. (1989) notes an egg obtained in the wild from Bolivia – Pearman (1994 In GRIN 2013) records a nest located on the Chiquita River, central Panama, the species for the first time in Beni. Then it was seen and passed to the CEPEPE [=Center for Propagation of in Noel Kempff National Park (Bates et al. 1998) and Endangered Panamanian Species]. Vargas et al. (2009) subsequently in La Paz and Santa Cruz de la Sierra reported an adult Crested Eagle feeding a nestling Harpy (Hennessey et al. 2003). In 2005 it was seen in Caparú Eagle in Quintin Darién. A young Crested Eagle was Biological Station (Vidoz et al. 2010). reported from San Lorenzo National Park, Colón, in Peru – Considered rare, it occurs in the eastern March 2007 by Jones & Komar (2007). Two records region of the Andes (Clements & Shany 2001). Kiff et were made in Darién National Park: an adult dark- al. (1989) cite the capture of a female from a nest in morph was filmed at the Cana Camp in May 2010 (E. Amazonas Department in 1978 (this individual became Groenewoud, IBC), and a female was sound-recorded part of the breeding stock at the Oklahoma City Zoo). by A. Spencer near her nest in March 2013, in Rancho It is listed from the Tambopata-Candamo Reserve Frio. The MAC has a sound recor ding made in 1981, of (Parker et al. 1994), where they have recorded breeding a dark-morph female perched in a tree, next to Pipeline activity since 2002 (Raine 2007). In 1977 and 2006, Rd., northwest of Gamboa, in the Canal Zone (van den two different nests with nestlings were photographed Berg 1981). The MCZ holds four old specimens from in Madre de Dios, near Manu Lodge (R. Fabbri, pers. Panama: Changuinola (1928), Perme, in Darién (1929), comm.). In 2001 it was seen preying on small primates, Banana River (1928) and Puerto Obaldia (1930). The at the Quebrada Blanco Biological Station (Vasquez & FMNH has a pair collected in San Blas, Puerto Obaldia, Heymann 2001), and in June 2012, a young on the in 1935. The AMNH has one specimen from Barro ground was seen and photographed (Flickr) in National Colorado Island from 1936, and two from Tapalisa, Park Pacaya-Samiria, Loreto (A. Morales, personal fi le). eastern Panama, from 1915. The species is listed by Foss & Huanaquiri on a birdlist at a forest reserve in Loreto (Tahuayo River – http:// South America thinkjungle.com/amazon-jungle-tours/tahuayo-lodge). Colombia – Considered rare by Hilty & Brown The Centro de Reproducion Huayco, in Lima, owned (1986), these authors cite localities of Chocó, Baudó by Jose Antonio Otero, housed six individuals with no mountains, Achicayá and Sinu valleys, Córdoba and Perijá record of origin. LSUMZ maintains two specimens mountains, Guajíra (Carraipia), the eastern region of the collected from Amazonas Department, two specimens Andes, and west of Meta (Villavivencio) and Caquetá. from Loreto Department, and a feather from the same Márquez et al. (2005) provides records in museums, at location, all without exact dates. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti Venezuela – Rarely sighted, occurs widely over Park, of an individual in flight in December 2003 (N. lowland forests and mountains, with records from Lopes, In Del Castillo & Clay 2004). Northern Orinoco, Caura River, Maracaibo Basin, Perijá Mts., Zulia, Mérida, Lara, Amazonas, Bolívar, and Review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle Margarita Island (Hilty 2003). In 2006 it was recorded in in Brazil Obispos, Barinas (Vargas et al. 2009), and in 2011, a nest was found and monitored in the Gran Sabana, Bolivar, Of the 130 records obtained for Crested Eagle from with documenting photos by Crease & Tepedino (2013). Brazil, 60 were sourced from published literature in Guyana – Considered resident and scarce, occupying books or articles, 18 came from records in museums and lowland forest environments (Braun et al. 2000). Pickles et collections, and 34 were obtained from online databases, al. (2011) recorded the species in the Chief Rewa Reserve, recordings of vocalizations and photos from personal in Rupununí, in the south. Two specimens housed at archives, and 18 came from the PCGR Database. From ROM are from this same region, upper Takutu and upper these, seven records are located outside the distribution Essequibos, Kwitara River, Rupununi, both from 1964. map provided by IUCN (Figure 1), enlarging the area of AMNH keeps a specimen from Kalacoon, undated. occurrence to the northeast, southeast and south, and are French Guiana – It is widely distributed in highlighted in bold in Appendix 1. forest areas, and is more common than Harpy Eagle in The majority of the records (70%) were outside disturbed forests, however, it is not significantly more conservation units, 27 records (21%) were from National common in primary forest (Thiollay 2007). Julliot (1994) Conservation Reserves and 12 (8%) were from County, reports predation by the Crested Eagle on a young spider Municipal or Private Reserves. monkey (Atteles paniscus), at Nouragues Station, which For each state we include the Brazilian region (South, took place in 1992. In August 2011, an extreme-dark- Southeastern, Northeastern, Central and Northern morph individual was photographed on the banks of Brazil) and abbreviations for the biome occupied (ARF- the Approuague River (J. Tascon, pers. comm.). The Atlantic Rainforest, AMZ-Amazonian Rainforest, and Macouria Zoo in Guyana maintains a live specimen, ECO – Ecotone Biome Cerrado/Gallery Forest). dark-morph, possibly a male, with unknown origin Rio Grande do Sul (South-ARF) – There are only (Maxcobigo, In IBC). three historical records. The oldest comes from I hering Suriname – Apparently a rare bird in primary (1899), near the municipality of Taquara; its occurrence forest, sometimes seen wandering into areas of the coast is also suggested at the Turvo River Reserve (Belton (Haverschmidt & Mees 1994). Possibly a resident, but 1984). Bencke (1997) provides the last record from Santa no reproductive activity has been noted in the country. Cruz do Sul in 1920. Considered very rare in the state by On the list of birds from Raleigh Falls-Voltzberg Sick (1997), it is currently classified as ‘Pro bably Extinct’ Nature Reserve, Sipaliwini District, where it was seen (Marques et al. 2002). in a predation attempt on Guianan Cock-of-the-rock Santa Catarina (South-ARF) – There are five (Rupicola rupicola) (Trail 1987). records of the species: in 1977 it was seen in Jordão Baixo Argentina – Species considered to be resident (Siderópolis) by Albuquerque (1983); Rosário (1996) (Mazar-Barnett & Pearman 2001). Pearman (2001) provides a record in Siderópolis; and another record in considers the species a casual visitor to Missiones, 2005, in Aiúre, in the municipality of Grão-Pará, in and reports the observation of an adult in El Piñalito the foothills of Serra Geral (Albuquerque et al. 2006). Provincial Park. There are earlier recor ds in Santa Ana Records from museums in Santa Catarina are unreliable, (Bertoni 1913) and at Iguazú National Park, a pair since they come from private collections, without displaying, recorded in September 1980 by Rumboll & scientific identification of locality. There is a specimen Straneck (In Olrog 1985). in Frei Miguel Museum, in Luzerna, from the locality of Paraguay – Del Castillo & Clay (2004) consider Joinville, prepared in 1926 (Favretto 2008). Recently a the species rare, but reproductively active in Alto Paraná. specimen at the Universidade de Santa Catarina (UFSC) There are two visual recor ds during a survey conducted was analyzed, which had been previously classified as a in the San Rafael del Parana National Park, in Itapúa Harpy Eagle. We confirmed t hat it was a Crested Eagle. (Madroño-Nieto et al. 1997). The first confirmed recor d This specimen was collected between 1965-1970 in occured in 2002, at the same place, where a specimen the municipality of Lontras, by G. Knolle, also for his was captured and donated to the Itaipu Binacional Zoo, private collection, and was subsequently donated to the which survived until 2002 (Del Castillo & Clay 2004, Ornithological Collection of UFSC. There is an adult Museum of Natural History of Itaipu Binational). mounted specimen, pale-morph, sex undetermined, Another record also occurred near the Aurora Colony, in unknown origin, in the private collection of Museu do the same region of the San Rafael del Parana National Índio, in Florianópolis. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti Paraná (South-ARF) – The occurrence of the The remaining Brazilian Northeastern states species was registered only at Marechal Cândido Rondon generally do not have records of the species, whether in 1964. This is a mounted specimen, housed in the Sete historical or recent ones; however, Dois Irmãos Zoo in Quedas Museum, and similar to the previous cases, it was Recife, Pernambuco, exhibits an adult pale-morph, of from a private collection (Straube & Urben-Filho 2010). unknown origin. The species possibly occurs at Iguaçu National Park, Mato Grosso do Sul (Central Brazil-ECO) - P. where well-preserved forest still remains (Forrester 1993). Scherer and C. Ribas report the species in April 2001, São Paulo (Southeastern-ARF) – The first citation flying over a road near the Private Natural Reserve found was Ihering (1898), which dealt with the collecting (RPPN) Buraco das Araras, in the municipality of Jardim a Harpy Eagle and likely (but not confirmed) occurrence (In Pivatto et al. 2006). This region is savanna (Cerrado) of the Crested Eagle in the state. More recently, it with Gallery Forest. was recorded in large reserves protected by the State Mato Grosso (Central Brazil-AMZ) – There are government, known as State Parks (P. E.): twice in nine records for the species. The oldest recor d comes from Jacupiranga P.E. (1990 and 1992), once in the Morro do Chapada dos Parecis, in Juruena (Sick 1997). In 2005, an Diabo P.E. (1992) and, once in Intervales P.E. (1995). In individual was photographed along the Cristalino River the first two recor ds the birds were soaring, and in the (A. Lees, pers. file), and in 2006, two individuals were last, landing (Galetti et al. 1997). In both cases only visual seen and photographed on the CEPLAC Farm (Executive records were made. At the MZUSP Collection, there is Board of the Cocoa Crop Plan), both in Alta Floresta a specimen from Apiaí, collected in 1900. MHNT has (A. Lees, pers. comm.). In 2011 one individual was a mounted specimen displayed, however of unknown photographed at the Jardins da Amazonia Inn, in São José procedence. In the Itatiba Zooparque, there is a pale and do Rio Claro (E. Endrigo, pers. comm.), and in 2012, dark-morph pair on display, both with unknown origin. a pair was recorded responding aggressively to playback, Rio de Janeiro (Southeastern-ARF) – There is only in the same locality, where possibly there was a nest (M. one historical record, from Pinto (1964) for the locality of Pádua, pers. comm.); in October 2012 in the Cristalino Cantagalo, and from this same location, there is a skin in RPPN, an adult was drying itself in the canopy, after a the collection of Johann Natterer (Hellmayr & Conover heavy rain (J. Silveira, pers. comm.). In addition to these, 1949). At the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro there are photographic records were also made in 2012 in the five specimens listed, however all are of unknown origin. municipality of Comodoro, (D. Mota and V. Castro, pers. Espírito Santo (Southeastern-ARF) - There are two comm.). In September 2012, a nest with a nestling (45 records: an observation at Sooretama Biological Reserve, months old) was located in the municipality of Paranaíta, Sooretama, by Parker & Goerck (1997) and another in at the Ouro Reunido Farm (P. Bernardo, pers. comm. and Itaúnas State Park (Petroff 2001). At the Museu Biológico D. Oliveira, pers. comm.). At MZUSP, one specimen is Mello Leitão, Santa Teresa (MBML) there is one mounted listed from the Ipê Farm, in Vila Rica. CETAS-IBAMA specimen of unknown origin and without registration pre-release facility in Guarantã do Norte is housing a live number. young female pale-morph from the municipality of Novo Minas Gerais (Southeastern-ARF) – There are two Progresso, PA, currently still being held. records. The first recor d is listed on the state list (Mattos et Rondonia (North-AMZ) – There are nine recor ds. al. 1993), as having been seen in Mata Escura Biological Between 1987 and 1988, the Crested Eagle has been Reserve, in Jequitinhonha (T. Mattos, pers. comm). The registered at the Cachoeira Nazaré, close to the Ji- second record occurred in the Caparaó National Park, in Paraná River by Stotz et al. (1997). In 2003, Olmos Alto Caparaó, in 1997, in which two individuals were et al. (2011) recorded three individuals in Serra Cutia, seen flying, which was probably a pair (Zorzin et al. 2006). between the municipalities of Guajará-Mirim and Costa CRAX maintains a live female dark-morph, previously Marques, besides having verified t he existence of native paired with a male pale-morph borrowed from the São craftsmanship using feathers of the bird. In January 2010 Paulo Zoo, but which died later (individual donated to an adult individual was seen in Chupinguaia (K. Okada, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-UFMG, however pers. com.); at the same locality, in September 2010, a it has not yet been taxidermized), both of unknown nest was found close to the previous record, with an active origin. Recently CRAX received another dark-morph pair and a nestling (M. Canuto, pers. file). The nest was female, from Pará (ICMBio). visited in October by the PCGR Team, who found it on Bahia (Northeastern-ARF) – There are two recor ds: the ground, because the tree had fallen. In January 2012, Willis & Oniki (2003) comment on an aural record in at the same locality, an adult was seen during an avifauna Porto Seguro, in 1974. There is also a visual recor d in the inventory (R. Hippolito, pers. comm.), possibly one of the municipality of Barrolândia, municipality of Belmonte, members of the resident pair. In 2011, next to the Ramal 1995 (Galetti et al. 1997). do Rio das Garças, in Porto Velho, an individual was Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti photographed (F. Pereira). In March 2012, in Guaporé forest (S. V. Wilson, pers. comm. and photo), and in June Biological Reserve, between São Francisco do Guaporé 2012, at the same location, a pair was seen carrying prey, and Alta Floresta D’Oeste, an individual dark-morph probably for a nest (A. Whittaker, pers. comm.); however was recorded calling next to a group of small primates (S. on a visit in 2013 the nest was not found (FBRG). On Alves, ICMBio/ReBio Guaporé, pers. comm. and file). the banks of the Roosevelt River in Novo Aripuanã, on 2 Acre (North-AMZ) – There are seven recor ds. The July 2007, a pale-morph adult was seen in the canopy of first citation comes from Catuaba Experimental Farm – a tree (B. Whitney, video IBC & pers. comm.), and on Universidade Federal do Acre-UFAC, near Rio Branco, 12 September 2007 a pair and 17 September a subadult. between 1994 and 2004 (Rasmussen et al. 2005). The Whittaker (in 2009) recorded an individual on the banks second record comes from the Alto Juruá Extractive of the same river, and another around the lodging. In Reserve, in Marechal Thaumaturgo (Whittaker et al. 2008, it was seen on the Urucu River, and also a nest 2002). In 2008, DeLuca (2012) registers, through (not studied by PCGR) (Whittaker et al. 2008). In 2011, interviews with the locals, the presence of Harpy Eagle an individual was photographed in Tapauá, in Nascentes and Crested Eagle at the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve do Lago Jari National Park (L. Condrati, pers. comm., and environs, comprising Assis Brazil, Brasiléia and ICMBio). In April 2013, a sub-adult pale-morph was Xapuri municipalities. In addition to this, and confirmed seen on ZF-2 Road, 10 km from the Cuieiras Reserve with a photograph, an adult dark-morph was seen in Rio nest known in the locality, interacting aggressively with Croa Community, municipality of Cruzeiro do Sul, in a flock of Red-throated Caracaras (Ibyc ter americanus). August 2012 (J. Filho), and Guilherme (2012) cites the Possibly this is a nestling from this nest, which has species as resident for the whole State, using bamboo dispersed for two or three years (whitish general plumage, forests and rainforests with palm trees. In April 2013, a with wing coverts still grayish) (FBRG). In Amazonas, young pale-morph was seen flying in the municipality of PCGR monitors four nests of this species, one in Manaus Porto Acre (L. Rondini and T. Nascimento, pers. comm.). and three in the nearby town of Manacapuru. In Manaus, In 2009 a young specimen was rescued near Rio Branco, the nest is located in the Cuieiras Reserve (INPA), and and forwarded to CETAS-IBAMA of Rio Branco, and was found by members of the TEAM Project – INPA in later transferred to permanent capitivity, but we were not 2006, and has been monitored by PCGR since then (In able to determine if it is still alive. Soares et al. 2008). The nests in Manacapuru, located on Amazonas (North-AMZ) – There are 16 recognized Cururu Lake, in a rural area of the municipality, were records/locations. The first recor d cites the occurrence found and reported by local residents, and have been of species in “Barra do Rio Negro” [=Manaus] and monitored since 2007. Recently a nest was discovered in Manaqueri [=Manaquiri] Lake (Manacapuru in August 2013, which is being monitored in Amanã municipality) (Von Pelzeln, 1871), localities also RDS (Sustainable Development Reserve), under the replicated by Pinto (1964). In this same state one of the auspices of the Mamirauá Sustainable Development best-known papers about the species, Bierregaard (1984) Institute (IDSM). In addition to these in vivo records, described nesting of a pair, the male being pale-morph the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia INPA) and the female, dark-morph, at the ZF-3 Reserve, 60 - Ornithological Collection, holds a 1982 pale-morph km north of Manaus (Gavião Camp-PDBFF Biological female specimen, from the ZF-3 Reserve. Listed in Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project) but the pair has MZUSP are a female, from October 1902, and a male, not been registered subsequently. In 2004 an adult was from January 1937, from the Juruá River (for our map observed at the Mamirauá Sustainable Development assumed as near Carauarí), and another female from Reserve (RDS), in Tefé, Amazonas state, in a varzea forest Manacapuru, dated October 1936. FMNH holds two (Cintra et al. 2007 and R. Cintra, pers. comm.). Olmos skins of females: one from Lábrea, on the Purus River, et al. (2006) also cite seeing two individuals resting and 1935, and another from Lago do Baptista, in Itacoatiara, feeding, in the municipality of Alvarães. Cohn-Haft et al. 1937. CM maintains a mounted specimen, collected in (1997) cites its occurrence in large forest fragments of the Tonantins, on the left bank of the Solimões River, in PDBFF Project (Esteio, Dimona and Porto Alegre Farms) 1923. The CIGS Zoo (Manaus), kept a pale-morph male, near Manaus. In the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, however it died 17 July 2012 and was not preserved. Manaus, in 2005, an individual was spotted (J. Valsko, Roraima (North-AMZ) – The species was recor ded pers. comm.) and recorded vocalizing (W. Magnusson, at the Maracá Ecological Station by Moskovits et al. pers. comm. and fi le at PCGR Database). There is also (1985). In 2004, an adult was photographed in the Viruá a record of the species in the Juami-Jupará Ecological National Park, in Caracaraí (R. Czaban, IBAMA). In Station, in 2006 (T.M.S. In Soares et al. 2008: 76). In 2011, during a MZUSP expedition, an adult pale-morph July 2009 an adult pale-morph was photographed in the was recorded, near the community of Caicubí, in the Anavilhanas National Park, perched on treetops in flooded Jufari River, near Caracaraí (L. F. Silveira, pers. comm.). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti Pará (North-AMZ) – There are 28 recognized located in the municipality of Oriximiná during mining localities/records for the species. The first reference is activities of Mineração Rio Norte. This nest is located in prior to the date of its description, Daudin (1800). In an area of bauxite ore extraction within Porto Trombetas “Memórias de Dom Lourenço Álvares Roxo de Potflis”, National Forest and following the recommendations from 1752, translated and analyzed by Teixeira et al. of the PCGR and IBAMA-Oriximiná, the area will be (2010), the author makes a detailed description of the maintained and protected. The Museu Paraense Em ilio Harpy Eagle, and then describes the “ouyrà ouassù merì ou Goeldi holds a primary feather collected in 2000, from ouassù peua” a very similar bird to the Harpy Eagle, except Altamira, Xingu River, and the skin of a female pale- for its more slender appearance (Teixeira et al. 2010). In morph adult from 2008, collected in Almeirim, in the the description, he is obviously describing the Crested Maicuru Biological Reserve, besides two skins of young Eagle however the “Memories” is not a scientific paper. males without provenance; and two specimens from the In our most recent records, the species was seen in 2000, collection of the Museu Goeldi Zoo Botanical Park, one Taboca Island, Xingu River, and in 2008, in an Aquatic from 1916 and another from 1975. The FMNH keeps Bird Survey, Xingu River, both in forest (Henriques et al. two skins of Piquiatuba in Belterra, collected in 1937: a 2008 and L. M. P. Henriques, pers. comm.); in September female and a male with enlarged gonads, possibly being a 2013, an adult pale-morph was photographed in Vitória pair in reproductive condition. do Xingu (V. Castro, pers. comm.). In February 2014 an Amapá (North-AMZ) – There are four different adult pale-morph was observed on the left bank of the records. The first two, in 1994 and 2000, individuals were Xingu River, in Brasil Novo, near Altamira (TMS, PCGR alone, resting and feeding, in the municipality of Serra Database). In Tapajós National Forest, by Henriques et do Navio (Olmos et al. 2006). The other two recor ds al. (2003); in the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve, by were provided by Schunck et al. (2011), one in 2008 Peres et al. (2003) and, in the municipality of Tailândia and another in 2010. These are in the Carajaí Extractive (Soares et al. 2008). Between 1998 and 2005, individuals Reserve, in the municipality of Laranjal do Jari, western were recorded in Tailândia, at the Agropalma Forest Amapá. CM maintains a skin of a specimen collected in Reserve; between 2004 and 2006, in the municipality of 1918, in the upper Arucaua River, a tributary of Uaca Tomé-Açu, on the Cauaxi Farm; and between 2005 and River, in Oiapoque. 2007, also in Tailândia, on the Capim Farm (Portes et Maranhão (North-AMZ) – The oldest recor d is that al. 2011). Throughout 2008, individuals were recor ded of a male from the mouth of the Flores River, Mearim in several forest reserves, Trombetas, Grão-Pará, Maicuru River, municipality of Pedreiras, listed in the collection (female pale-morph collected) and in Faro State Forest of birds of the Museu da Fauna (No. 1576), from 1956 (Aleixo et al. 2011). In Santana do Araguaia, at the (Aguirre & Aldrighi 1983, same specimen under Rio de Fartura Farm, the species was recorded between 2009 and Janeiro). A slightly more recent record is of a nest found 2010 (Somenzari et al. 2011). Between 2010 and 2011, and monitored for a few days in November 1997, in the the species was also recorded in Paragominas by Lees et municipality of Buriticupu (Martínez 2008). Recently, in al. (2012). In mid-2012 an adult was seen on the banks 2009, during the movement of mobbing by a mixed bird of the Tapajós River, in the municipality of Itaituba (G. species flock, after tape playback of Amazonian Pygmy- Leite, pers. comm.); In mid-2012, a nestling female, Owl (Glaucidium hardyi), a young Crested Eagle was dark-morph was rescued by IBAMA-Marabá, from the attracted and registered in the municipality of Açailandia municipality of Tucuruí, and delivered to the Parque Zoo (F. Olmos and B. Lima, pers. comm.). Botanico VALE in Parauapebas-Carajás, and from there transferred to recovery at the CRAX Conservation Center (F. Martins, pers. comm. ICMBio, PCGR). In the same DISCUSSION year, a second nestling, also female from an unknown nest Up to 2006 M. guianensis was recorded at nine Brazilian in the municipality of Novo Progresso, is still being held in the IBAMA-CETAS pre-release facility from Guarantã National and State Reserves (ESEC, RESEX, FLONA, do Norte. In 2010 a nest was recorded in Belterra REBIO, PARNA, State Park) (Soares et al. 2008). Based municipality. It was found during an inventory of birds in on the compilation presented herein, the number of the region, and reported to PCGR, which we monitored conservation areas of the same category as above harboring stocks of M. guanensis increased to 27, three times the for a few months, since the nestling was approximately four months old and out of the nest (C. Andretti, pers. previous study. Besides this increase, we also added 11 comm.); the record was subsequently published with private reserve localities. details by Lees et al. (2013). In 2011 there was a record From 37 New records outside the IUCN map, 16 in Jacareacanga, near the Teles Pires River (C. Borges, were recorded close to the border of the known range (up to 40 km); of those, 13 records were Old records and pers. comm.). In 2012, another nest of the species was Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti three were New, and do not expand or contribute to the another collected in 1899 by Ihering (cited by Belton distribution map, and could be an artefact of the border 1984 for Taquara, without details of the record). between our datapoints and the IUCN map, or were provided as only general occurrence in the literature, and Final Remarks therefore will not be discussed in detail. Far from the border of the IUCN map (> 40 km), The most commonly cited publications for studying birds we found 21 records, contributing to an expansion of the of prey, Ferguson-Lees & Christie (2001) and Amadon known range; of these, 10 are New records and 11 are & Bull (1988), and more recently Whitacre et al. (2012), Old, and noted in bold face in the Appendices. indicate the distribution of Crested Eagle in parts of North Mexico, at the northernmost extreme of distribution, and Central America, and throughout South America, the range was extended north to Southern Mexico, however the most commonly used tool for conservation at Montes Azules, in 2004 with a photo (Grosselet & strategies, the IUCN map, presents this distribution Gutierrez-Carbonel (2007), confirming the recor d (No. in a far more conservative form. Here it is possible to 132, Appendix 2). add the southernmost part of North America (Chiapas Nicaragua, in 2001 a visual record in Prinzapolka and Campeche), in southern Mexico to the range of the (Kjeldsen 2005: 39) extended the range farther south Crested Eagle, as well as three records in between the than the IUCN map (No. 155, Appendix 2). In addition, Amazon and Atlantic Rainforests, and one record in a there are currently two records at the southern border with forest patch within the Gran Sabana, Venezuela. Costa Rica, in 1994 and 1999 (Old records), published Our review suggests new data to be added in the only in 2007 (Munera-Roldan 2007: 155), which extends compilation of the IUCN map, which from now on the distribution of the Crested Eagle to Reserva Bartola, provides a database for the production of an updated (Nos. 153 and 154, Appendix 2). species distribution map, extending known area of Costa Rica, an Old record not considered on the occurrence of the Crested Eagle. In southeastern Brazil, IUCN map was a visual record of Slud (1964) at Cañas there are records previously not considered in the States Gordas (No. 159, Appendix 2), located between the of Minas Gerais and Bahia, in the central State of Mato Sirena Biological Station (Corcovado N. P.) on the Osa Grosso do Sul and to the North, new habitat records in Peninsula (No. 157, Appendix 2) and the Caribbean Roraima, Maranhão and Mato Grosso. Understanding lowland distribution. the distribution of the Crested Eagle is indispensable for Colombia, an Old record not considered on the the efficient development of conservation strategies for IUCN map is a skin from Cuturu (FMNH 190728; No. the species and the ideal determination of the risk the 212, Appendix 2) from 1947, located between Darien species runs of extinction. Peninsula and Perija Mountains. The Amazon is one of the current strongholds where Brazil, there is a New overhead visual record at large vertebrate populations find conditions to persist for Buraco das Araras Private Natural Reserve, Mato Grosso ongoing generations (Reed et al. 2003). The prospect is do Sul (No. 63, Appendix 1) in Pivatto et al. (2006), an of a future ideal for the conservation of large forest eagles ecotone between Cerrado Biome and Gallery Forests, and (Crested Eagle, Harpy Eagle and Hawk-Eagle spp.). could have been an individual dispersing, or transient, from Predictive modelling scenarios for the next decades, Bodoquena Forest, where there are Harpy Eagles recorded, according to current development policies, indicate an and which could possibly also support populations of increase in the “arc of deforestation”, the reduction of Crested Eagle (PCGR Database). Bodoquena Forest is forest cover together with climate change (Laurance et al. a upland remnant of Atlantic Rainforest on the ecotone 2001; Salazar et al. 2007), which could seriously reduce with Semideciduous Forest, previously connected with its distribution. Morro do Diabo, São Paulo (Galetti et al. 1997) (No. 125, Brazilian law requires preservation of forest on Appendix 1), an Old record not included on the IUCN private land (called Legal Forest Reserve) in the Amazon map. In Minas Gerais, there are two records far from the rainforest to be 80% of the propriety (“Lei N° 12.651, border of IUCN, but near the Atlantic Rainforest, and de 25 de maio de 2012”). Landowners who cut beyond the IUCN distribution could incorporate these records, the allowed percentage are supposed to replant with trees. which are two visual records, in Mata Escura Reserve The majority of Brazilian records come from private land, before 1993 (Mattos et al. 1993) (No. 65, Appendix 1), therefore a large effort should be carried out to maintain and Caparaó Park in 1997 (Zorzin et al. 2006) (No. 64, Legal Forest Reserves, areas which are not protected in Appendix 1). In southern Brazil, in Rio Grande do Sul, conservation reserves. The Crested Eagle is listed as Near- there is a confirmed O ld record, a specimen collected Threatened (NT) b y the IUCN (2014) and has already in 1920 from Santa Cruz do Sul, housed in a private been proposed for the status of “Endangered” for the collection (Bencke 1997) (No. 101, Appendix 1), and Brazilian List of Species threatened with Extinction, Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti under review (PCGR and ICMBio), since the habitat REFERENCES that holds the largest populations is also under great risk, Aguiar-Silva, F. H.; Sanaiotti, T. M. & Luz, B. B. 2014. Food habits particularly in the future. Owing to the current scarcity of of the Harpy Eagle, a top predator from the Amazonian rainforest knowledge on the distribution and ecology of the Crested canopy. Journal of Raptor Research 48(1): 24-35. Eagle, it is possible that populations living in poorly Aguirre, A. C. & Aldrighi, A. D. 1983. Catálogo das Aves do Museu sampled or little known areas could go extinct even da Fauna, primeira parte. Delegacia Estadual do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Instituto Brasileiro de Desenvolvimento Florestal. p. 49. before conservation programs or policies for the species’s Albuquerque, J. L. B. 1983. On the presence of Harpyhaliaetus preservation are devised. coronatus and Morphnus guianensis in southeast Brazil and We believe that the greatest impact on populations recommendations for the conservation of the species by means of of Crested Eagle is habitat loss and destruction, hunting maintaining their natural habitat. Hornero Numero Especial: 70-73. pressure and consequently, pressure on their prey and Albuquerque, J. L. B.; Ghizoni, Jr. I. R.; Silva, E. S.; Trannini, G.; Franz, I.; Barcellos, A.; Hassdenteufel, C. B.; Rend, F. nesting areas, mainly on the southern edges of the L. & Martins-Ferreira, C. 2006. Crowned Solitary-Eagle Amazon Rainforest and in the Southeast region of Brazil, (Harpyhaliaetus coronatus) and Crested Eagle (Morphnus in the remnants of Atlantic Rainforest. guianensis) in Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul: priorities and challenges for their conservation. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 14: 411-415. Aleixo, A.; Poletto, F.; Lima, M. F. C.; Castro, M.; Portes, E. & ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Miranda, L. S. 2011. Note on the Vertebrates of Northern Pará, Brazil: a forgotten part of the Guiana Region, II. Avifauna. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Ciências Naturais, Belém, 6(1): We are grateful to all researchers, students, photographers 11-65. and birdwatchers that shared and allowed us to use their Amadon D. & Bull, J. 1988. Hawks and Owls of the World. records of Crested Eagle in this work, or who helped us Proceedings of the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology 3: with bibliography and discussion about literature: José 295-357. Bangs, O. 1903. Birds and Mammals from Honduras. Bulletin of F. Pacheco, Vitor Piacentini, Ricardo Gagliardi, Carlos the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy. Vol. 39. Cambridge, Mass., E. Carvalho, Marcos Canuto, Alexander Zaidan, Tomaz U.S.A. M. Nascimento, Rodolfo C. Souza, Pedro Scherer- Bates, J. M.; Stotz, D. F. & Schulenberg, T. S. 1998. Avifauna of Neto, Cassiano F. Ribas, Marcelo Pádua, Luis F. Silveira, Parque Nacional Noel Kempff Mercado. Pp. 112-128 In: Killeen, T. J. and Schulenberg, T. S. (Eds.). A Biological Assessment of Alexander Lees, Juliano Mafra, Paulo V. Bernardo, Parque Nacional Noel Kempff Mercado, Bo livia. Conservation Alexandre P. T. Moreira, Raphael Hipólito, Juliano Neves, International, Washington, DC. Sandro Alves, Andrew Whittaker, Bret Whitney, Bianca Belton, W. 1984. Birds of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Pt. 1 – Rheidae P. Vieira, Theodoro Mattos, Ed son Endrigo, Danilo through Furnariidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural Mota, Vitor Castro, Christopher Borges, Dalci Oliveira, History, New York, 178(4): 369-636. Bencke, G. A. 1997. Sobre a coleção de aves do Museu do Colégio Douglas Fernandes, Kurazo Okada, Frederico Pereira, Mauá, Santa Cruz do Sul (RS). Biociências 5(1): 143-164. Julio Silveira, João D. Filho, Luis Rondini, Jefferson Bertoni, A. D. 1913. Contribución para un catálogo de aves Valsko, William E. Magnusson, Luiz H. Condrati, argentinas. Anales de la Sociedad. Científica Ar gentina 75: 64-102. Robson Czaban, Gabriel Leite, Marcelo Barreiros, Bierregaard, R. O. 1994. Family Accipitridae – Neotropical Species Account. Pp. 108-205. In del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. and Sargatal, J. Frederico Martins, Christian Andretti, Aquila Oliveira, (Eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol 2. Lynx Ediciones, Fábio Olmos, Bruno Lima, Aureo Banhos, Luiza Magalli Barcelona. P. Henriques, Sergio Borges, Renato Cintra, Carlos Calvo, Bierregaard, R. O. Jr. 1984. Observations on the nesting biology of Ron Osborn, Erick Miranda, Rodolfo V. Leiton, Pablo the Guiana Crested Eagle (Morphnus guianensis). Wilson Bulletin Camacho (Fundacion Rapaces de Costa Rica), TEAM, 96: 1-5. Bonta, M. & Anderson, D. L. 2002. Birding Honduras: a checklist PDBFF and LBA Projects developed at INPA, and special and guide. EcoArte S. de R.L. Tegucigalpa, Honduras. thanks to Fernando Straube (literature and discussion),S. Braun, M. J.; Finch, D. W.; Robbins, M. B. & Schmidt, B. K. V. Wilson (English revision and suggestions) and A. 2000. A Field Checklist to the Birds of Guyana. Biological Diversity Aleixo for editing a final version of this manuscript. We Institute of the Guianas Program, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, DC. are grateful to all Institutions and Museum Curators Brown, L. & Amadon, D. 1968. Eagles, Hawks, and Falcons of the consulted on the ORNIS site. INPA-CBIO and the World. McGraw Hill, New York. Research Group in Amazonian Phytogeography and Biota Carriker, M. A., Jr. 1910. An annotated list of the birds of Costa Rica, Conservation provided support for monitoring nests. The including Cocos Island. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 6: 314-915. Brazilian Harpy Eagle Conservation Program-PCGR was CBRO – Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos. 2011. Lista das aves do Brasil. 10ª ed., http://www.cbro.org.br/CBRO/pdf/ funded by VALE S.A./INPA/FDB. FBRG thanks Renata AvesBrasil2011.pdf (Accessed on 19 February 2012). de Lima-Gomes for help during this study, CNPq for his Cintra, R.; Dos Santos, P. M. R. S. & C. Banks-Leite. 2007. Ph.D. fellowship (#145304/2009-4), and Atend Ltda. Composition and Structure of the Lacustrine Bird Communities for financial research support. This is the Contribution of Seasonally Flooded Wetlands of Western Brazilian Amazonia at Number 4 of the PCGR. High Water. Waterbirds 30(4): 521-540 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti Clements, J. F. & Shany, N. 2001. A Field Guide to the Birds of Henriques, L. M. P.; Dantas, S. M.; Sardelli, C. H.; Carneiro, L. Peru. Ibis Publishing Company, Temecula, CA, USA. S.; Batista, R. S. S.; Almeida, C. C. A.; Torres, M. F.; Silva, M. Cloudman, T. 2008. List of species and photo of dark morph C.; Laranjeiras, T. O. & J. C. Mello Filho. 2008. Diagnóstico Morphnus guianensis. In_ http://www.hargrove.org/2008/ Avifaunístico da Área de Influência do AHE Be lo Monte Como DisplayPhotos.php?PresentationID=133 Subsídio ao Estudo de Impacto Ambiental (EIA/RIMA) – Cohn-Haft, M.; Whittaker, A. & Stouffer , P. C. 1997. A new look at RELATÓRIO FINAL. Avaiable In: http://philip.inpa.gov.br/ the “species-poor” Central Amazon: the avifauna north of Manaus, publ_livres/Dossie/BM/DocsOf/EIA-09/Vol%2018/TEXTO/ Brazil. Pp. 205-235. In: J.V. Remsen, Jr. (Ed.), Studies in Neotropical AVIFAUNA/Relat%C3%B3rio_Final_Avifauna.pdf Ornithology honoring Ted Parker. American Ornithologists’ Union Henriques, L. M. P .; Wunderle, J. M. Jr. & Willig, M. R. 2003. Birds Ornithological Monographs, No. 48, Washington, DC. of the Tapajos National Forest, Brazilian Amazon: a preliminary Crease, A. & Tepedino, I. 2013. Observations at a nest of Crested assessment. Ornitologia Neotropical, 14: 307-338. Eagle Morphnus guianensis in the southern Gran Sabana, Hilty, S. L. & Brown, W. L. 1986. A Guide to the Birds of Colombia. Venezuela. Cotinga 35: 90-93. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. Daudin, F. M. 1800. Traité élémentaire et complet d’Ornithologie, Ou, Hilty, S. L. 2003. Birds of Venezuela. 2nd ed. Princeton University Histoire Naturelle des oiseaux. V. 2, Bertrandet: Paris, 473 pp. Press, Princeton, NJ. Del Castillo, H. & Clay, R. P. 2004. Annotated Checklist of the Birds Howell, S. N. G. & Webb, S. 1995. A Guide to the Birds of Mexico of Paraguay. Asociación Guyra Paraguay, Asunción, Paraguay. and northern Central America. Oxford University Press, New DeLuca, J. J. 2012. Birds of conservation concern in eastern Acre, York. Brazil: distributional records, occupancy estimates, human-caused IBAMA. 2014. Lista Nacional Oficial de Espécies da F auna mortality, and opportunities for ecotourism. Tropical Conservation Ameaçadas de Extinção. www.icmbio.gov.br/portal/ Science5 (3): 301-319. biodiversidade/fauna-brasileira/2741-lista-de-especies-ameacadas- Dumont, C. H. F. 1816. Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, dans lequel saiba-mais.html (Accessed 22 April 2015). on traite methodiquement des differens etres de la nature, consideres IBC - The I nternet Bird Collection. 2013. Accessed 16 October soit en eux-memes, d’apres l’etat actuel de nos connoissances, soit 2013. www.ibc.lynxeds.com relativement a l’utilite qu’en peuvent retirer la medecine, l’agriculture, Ihering, H. V. 1898. As aves do Estado de São Paulo. Revista Museu le commerce et les arts. F.G. Levrault, Paris. Tome I, 369-370 Paulista 3: 113-500. Eisermann, K. & Avendaño, C. 2007. Annotated Checklist of the Birds Ihering, H. V. 1899. As Aves do Rio Grande do Sul. In Anuário do of Guatemala. Lynx Ediciones, Barcelona, Spain. Estado do Rio Grande do Sul para o ano de 1900. Editora Krahe, Ellis, D. H. & Whaley, W. H. 1981. Three Crested Eagle records for Porto Alegre. Guatemala. Wilson Bulletin 93: 284-285. IUCN 2014. Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. www. Favretto, M. A. 2008. As Aves do Museu Frei Miguel, Luzerna, Santa iucnredlist.org. (Accessed 1 December 2014). Catarina. Atualidades Ornitologicas Online www.ao.com.br 146, Jones, H. L. & Komar, O. 2006. Central America. North American 43:44. Birds 60: 152-156. Ferguson-Lees, J. & Christie, D.A. 2001. Raptors of the World. Jones, H. L. & Komar, O. 2007. Central America. North American Christopher Helm, London. Birds 61: 340-344. Forrester, B. C. 1993. Birding Brazil, A checklist and site guide. John Jones, H. L. 2004. Central America. North American Birds 58: Gedds (Printers) Irvine, Scotland. 254 p. 155-157. Foss, C. R. & Huanaquiri, J. T. 2014. List of species of rio Tahuayo, Jones, H. L.; E. McRae; M. Meadows & N. G. Howell 2000. Status in Loreto, Pero. In_ www.perujungle.com/BirdList.pdf. Accessed updates for selected bird species in Belize, including several species 14 January 2014. previously undocumented from the country. Cotinga 13 (2000): Galetti, M.; Martuscelli P.; Pizo M. A. & Simao I. 1997. Records of 17-31. Harpy and Crested Eagles in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Bulletin Julliot, C. 1994. Predation of a young Spider Monkey (Ateles paniscus) of the British Ornithologists’ Club 117: 27-31. by a Crested Eagle (Morphnus guianensis). Folia Primatologica 63: Grijalva, B. & Eisermann, K. 2006. Observacíon de um Inmaturo 75-77. de Morphnus guianensis em Tikal, Petén, Guatemala. Boletín de La Kiff, L. F .; Wallace, M. P. & Gale, N. B. 1989. Eggs of captive Sociedad Guatemalteca de Ornitologia 3: 26-29. Crested Eagles (Morphnus guianensis). Journal of Raptor Research GRIN - Global Raptor Information Network. 2013. Species 23: 107-108. account: Crested Eagle Morphnus guianensis. http://www. Kjeldsen, J. P. 2005. Aves del municipio Rio Prinzapolka, un globalraptors.org (Accessed 24 Jun 2013). inventarío de base. Wani Revista Caribe Nicaragüense 41: 31-64. Grosselet, M. & Gutierres-Carbonell, D. 2007. Primera Laurance, W. F.; Cochrane, M. A.; Bergen, S.; Fearnside, P. M.; observación confirm ada del Águila crestada Morphnus guianensis Delamônica, P.; Barber, C.; D’Angelo, S. & Fernandes, T. para México. Cotinga 28: 74-75. 2001. The Future of the Brazilian Amazon. Science 291: 438. Guilherme, E. 2012. Birds of the Brazilian state of Acre: diversity, Lees, A. C.; Moura, N. G.; Silva, A. S.; Aleixo, A. L. P.; Barlow, J.; zoogeography, and conservation. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia Berenguer, E.; Ferreira, J. & Gardner, T. A. 2012. Paragominas: 20(4): 393-442. a quantitative baseline inventory of an Eastern Amazonian Gurney, J. H. 1879. Notes on a “Catalogue of the Accipitres in the avifauna. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 20: 93-118. British Museum”. Ibis 21(4): 464-470. Lees, A. C.; Moura, N. M.; Andretti, C. B.; Davis, B. J. W.; Lopes, Hall, J. 1995. Lucky Shot. Living Bird 14:8-9. E. V.; Henriques, M. P.; Aleixo, A.; Barlow, J.; Ferreira, J. Haverschmidt, F. & Mees, G. F. 1994. Birds of Suriname. VACO, & Gardner, T. A. 2013. One hundred and thirty-five years of Paramaribo, Suriname. avifaunal surveys around Santarém, central Brazilian Amazon. Hellmayr, C. E. & Conover, B. 1949. Catalogue of birds of the Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 21(1): 16-57. Americas. Part I, number 4. Field Museum of Natural History Lehmann, V. F. C. 1943. El genero Morphnus. Caldasia: 179: 165- Zoological Series, vol. 13. 179. Hennessey, B.; Herzog, S. K. & Sagot, F. 2003. Annotated List of Macaulay Library. 2013. Morphnus guianensis, www.macaulaylibrary. the Birds of Bolivia. Asociación Armonia, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, org. Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology (Accessed 25 October Bolivia. 2013). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti Madroño-Nieto, A.; Clay, R. P.; Robbins, M. B.; Rice, N.H.; Pickles, R. S. A.; McCann, N. P. & Holland, A. P. 2011. Mammalian Faucett, R. C. & Lowen, J. C. 1997. An avifaunal survey of and avian diversity of the Rewa Head, Rupununi, Southern the vanishing interior Atlantic forest of San Rafael National Park, Guyana. Biota Neotropica 11(3): 237-251. Departments Itapúa/Caazapá, Paraguay. Cotinga 7: 45-53. Pinto, O. M. O. 1964. Ornitologia Brasiliense. Catálogo descritivo e Marques, A. A. B.; Fontana, C. S.; Vélez, E.; Bencke, G.A.; ilustrado das aves do Brasil. Primeiro volume – Parte Introdutória Schneider, M. & Reis, R. E. 2002. Lista de referência da fauna e famílias Rheidae a Cuculidae. Departamento de Zool. da ameaçada de extinção no Rio Grande do Sul. Porto Alegre, FZB/ Secretaria de Agricultura do Estado de São Paulo – SP. Composto MCT, PUCRS/PANGEA, Publicações Avulsas FZB 11 52 p. e impresso na Imprensa Oficial do Estado. 183 p., São Paulo. Márquez, C.; Gast, F.; Vanegas, V. H. & Bechard, M. 2005. Diurnal Pivatto, M. A. C.; Manço, D. G.; Straube, F. C.; Urben-Filho, A. raptors of Colombia, 1st ed. Instituto Investigación de Recursos & Milano, M. 2006. Aves do Planalto da Bodoquena, Estado do Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia. Mato Grosso do Sul (Brasil). Atualidades Ornitológicas 129. Martínez, C. 2008. Um Ninho de Morphnus guianensis no Maranhão. Portes, C. E. B.; Carneiro, L. S.; Schunck, F.; Silva, M. S. S.; Livro de Resumos da Conferência Amazônia em Perspectiva LBA/ Zimmer, K. J.; Whittaker, A.; Poletto, F.; Silveira, L. F. & GEOMA/PPBio 2008, Conferência Amazônia em Perspectiva Aleixo. A. 2011. Annotated checklist of birds recorded between LBA/GEOMA/PPBio. Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. 1998 and 2009 at nine areas in the Belém area of endemism, with Mattos, G. T.; Andrade, M. A. & Freitas, M. V. 1993. Nova lista de notes on some range extensions and the conservation status of Aves do Estado de Minas Gerais. Fundação Acangú. Belo Horizonte, endangered species. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 19: 167-184. Brazil. 20 p. Raine, A. F. 2007. Breeding bird records from the Tambopata- Mauduyt, M. 1782. Encyclopédie Méthodique. Histoire Naturelle. Candamo Reserve Zone, Madre de Dios, south-east Peru. Cotinga Oiseaux. Tome Second. p. 475. A Paris: Chez Panckoucke, libraire, 28: 53-58. hôtel de Thou, rue des Poitevins ; A Liège : Chez P lomteux, Rasmussen, D. T.; Rehg, J. A. & Guilherme, E. 2005. Avifauna da imprimeur des Etats, MDCCLXXXII-MDCCCXXV. Fazenda Experimental Catuaba: Uma Pequena Reserva Florestal Mazar Barnett, J. and Pearman, M. 2001. Lista comentada de las no Leste do Estado do Acre, Brasil. In Drumond, P. M. (Ed.) aves argentinas / Annotated checklist of Argentina. Barcelona: Fauna do Acre. Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre, Rio Lynx Edicions. Branco, AC. Monroe, B. L., Jr. 1968. A distributional survey of the birds of Reed, D. H.; Lowe, E.; Briscoe, D. A. & Frankham, R. 2003. Honduras. Ornithological Monographs 7: 1-458. Estimates of minimum viable population sizes for vertebrates Montalvo, L. D. & Montalvo, E. 2012. Aspectos comportamentales and factors influencing those estimates. Conservation Genetic en cautiverio de Morphnus guianensis en el zoológico de Quito, 4: 405-410. Guayllabamba, Ecuador. Revista Politécnica 30(3): 33-41. Ridgely, R. S. & Greenfield, P. J. 2001. The bir ds of Ecuador: status, Moskovits, D.; Fitzpatrick, J. W. & Willard, D. E. 1985. Lista distribution, and taxonomy. Comstock Publishing Associates, preliminar das aves da Estação Ecológica de Maracá, Território Ithaca, NY. de Roraima, Brasil, e áreas adjacentes. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia Ridgely, R. S. & Gwynne, J. A., Jr. 1989. A Guide to the Birds of 36: 51-68. Panama with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Honduras, 2nd ed. Múnera-Roldán, C.; Cody, M. L.; Schiele-Zavala, R. H.; Sigel, B. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. J.; Woltmann, S. & Kjeldsen, J. P. 2007. New and noteworthy Rosário, L. A. 1996. As aves em Santa Catarina: distribuição geográfica records of birds from south-eastern Nicaragua. Bulletin of the e meio ambiente. FATMA, Florianópolis. British Ornithologists’ Club 127: 152-161. Salazar, L. F.; Nobre, C. A. & Oyama, M. D. 2007. Climate Muñiz-López, R.; Criollo, O. & Mendúa, A. 2007. Results of five change consequences on the biome distribution in tropical South years of the “Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) Research Program” in America. Geophysical Research Letters 34: L09708. the Ecuadorian tropical forest. Pages 23-32. In Bildstein, K.L.;, Schunck, F.; De Luca, A. C.; Piacentini, V. Q.; Rego, M. A.; Rennó, Barber, D. R. and Zimmerman, A. [Eds.], Neotropical Raptors. B. & Corrêa, A. H. 2011. Avifauna of two localities in the Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, Orwigsburg, PA, U.S.A. south of Amapá, Brazil, with comments on the distribution and Olmos, F.; Pacheco, J. F. & Silveira, L. F. 2006. Notes on Brazilian taxonomy of some species. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 19 (2): birds of prey (Cathartidae, Accipitridae, and Falconidae). Revista 93-107 Brasileira de Ornitologia 14: 401-404. Sick, H. 1997. Ornitologia Brasileira. Editora Nova Fronteira, Rio de Olmos, F.; Silveira, L. F. & Benedicto, G. A. 2011. A Contribution Janeiro, 912 pp. to the Ornithology of Rondônia, Southwest of the Brazilian Slud, P. 1964. The bir ds of Costa Rica: distribution and ecology. Amazon. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 19(2): 200-229. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 128: 1-430. Olrog, C. C. 1985. Status of wet forest raptors in northern Argentina. Soares, E. S.; Amaral, F. S. R.; Carvalho-Filho, E. P. M.; Granzinolli, ICBP Technical Publication, No. 5: 191-198. M. A.; Albuquerque, J. L. B.; Lisboa, J. S.; Azevedo, M. A. G.; Parker, T. A., III; Donahue, P. K. & Schulenberg, T. S. 1994. Moraes, W.; Sanaiotti, T. & Guimarães, I. G. 2008. Plano de Birds of the Tambopata-Reserve (Explorer’s Inn Reserve). In: Ação Nacional para a Conservação de Aves de Rapina. Instituto Rapid Assessment Program – The T ambopata-Candamo Reserve Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade, Brasília. 136 pp. Zone of Southeastern Peru: A Biological Assessment. Conservation Somenzari, M.; Silveira, L. F.; Piacentini, V. Q.; Rego, M. A.; International RAP Working Papers 6. Schunck, F. & Cavarzere, V. 2011. Birds of an Amazonia- Parker,T. A., III & Goerck, J. M. 1997. The i mportance of National Cerrado ecotone in southern Pará, Brazil, and the efficiency of Parks and Biological Reserves to bird conservation in the Atlantic associating multiple methods in avifaunal inventories Revista Forest region of Brazil. Ornithological Monographs 48: 527-541. Brasileira de Ornitologia 19(2): 260-275. Pearman, M. 2001. Notes and range extensions of some poorly Stiles, F. G. & Skutch, A. F. 1989. A Guide to the Birds of Costa Rica. known birds of northern Argentina. Cotinga 16: 76-80. Comstock/Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. Peres, C. A.; Barlow, J. & Haugaasen, T. 2003. Vertebrate responses Stotz, D. F.; Lanon, S. M.; Schulenberg, T. S.; Willard, D. E.; to surface wildfires in a central A mazonian forest. Oryx 37: Peterson, A. T. Y. & Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1997. An avifaunal 97-109. survey of two tropical forest localities on the middle Rio Jiparaná, Petroff, M. A. D. S. 2001. Rapinantes ameaçados de extinção atuando Rondônia, Brazil, p 763-781. In: Remsen Jr., J. V (Ed.). Studies no Parque Estadual de Itaúnas. Boletim ABFPAR 4(2):12-14. in Neotropical Ornithology honoring Ted Parker. The American Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti Ornithologists’ Union (Ornithological Monographs, No. 48). Wetmore, A. 1965. The bir ds of the Republic of Panama. Part I. Washington, DC. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 150: 1-483. Straube, F. C. and Urbem-Filho, A. 2010. Comentários e retificações Whitacre, D. F .; J. López & G. López. 2012. Crested Eagle. Pp. 164-184 In sobre o único registro de Morphnus guianensis (Accipitriformes: D. F . Whitacre (Ed.), Neotropical Birds of Prey: Biology and ecolog y of a Accipitridae) para o Paraná”. Atualidade Ornitológicas 157: 4-6. forest raptor community. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. Teixeira, D. M.; Papavero, N. & Kury, L. B. 2010. As Aves do Pará Whittaker, A. 2009. Pousada Rio Roosevelt: a provisional avifaunal segundo “Memórias” de Dom Lourenço Álvares Roxo de Potflis inventory in south-western Amazonian Brazil, with information (1752). Arquivos de Zoologia do Museu de Zoologia da Universidade on life history, new distributional data and comments on de São Paulo 41(2): 97-131. taxonomy. Cotinga 31: 23-46. Thiollay, J. M. 2007. Raptor communities in French Guiana: Whittaker, A.; Aleixo, A. & Poletto, F. 2008. Corrections and distribution, habitat selection, and conservation. Journal of Raptor additions to an annotated checklist of birds of the upper Rio Research 41: 90-105. Urucu, Amazonas, Brazil. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Trail, P. W. 1987. Predation and antipredator behavior at Guianan Club 128(2): 114-125. Cock-of-the-rock leks. Auk 104: 496-507. Whittaker, A.; Oren, D. C.; Pacheco, J. F.; Parrini, R. & Minns, Vargas, G. J.; Ríos-Uzcátegui, G.; Vargas-González, J. J.; Canelón- J. C. 2002. Aves registradas na Reserva Extrativista do Alto Arias, M. J.; Serrano-Marín, J. J.; Briceño-David, E. J. 2009. Juruá. P. 81-103. In: Carneiro da Cunha, M. M.; Almeida, M. Primer registro de Águila Crestada (Morphnus guianensis) em lós W. B. (Orgs). A Enciclopédia da floresta. O A lto Juruá: prática e Llanos Occidentales de Venezuela. Caderno de Resumos I Congreso conhecimentos das populações.Cia. das Letras. São Paulo. Venezolano De Ornitología, poster C-01. Wikiaves - A Enciclopédia das Aves Brasileiras. Morphnus guianensis. Vargas-González, J. J.; Mosquera, R. & Watson, M. 2006. Acessed on 26 October 2013 In: www.wikiaves.com.br. Crested Eagle Morphnus guianensis feeding a postfledged young Willis, E. O. & Oniki, Y. 2003. Aves do Estado de São Paulo. Ed. Harpy Eagle Harpia harpyja in Panama. Ornitologia Neotropical Divisa, Rio Claro. São Paulo. 398 p. 17: 581-584. Xeno-canto - Sharing bird sounds from around the world. Accessed Vasquez, M. R. O. & Heymann, E. W. 2001. Crested Eagle (Morphnus on 26 October 2013. In www.xeno-canto.org guianensis) predation on infant tamarins (Saguinus mystax Zorzin, G.; Carvalho, E. A.; Carvalho Filho, E. P. M. & Canuto, and Saguinus fuscicollis, Callitrichinae). Folia Primatologica M. 2006. New records of rare and threatened Falconiformes for 72: 301-303. the State of Minas Gerais. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 14: Vidoz, J. Q.; Jahn, A. E. & Mamani, A. M. 2010. The avifauna of 416-421. Estacion Biológica Caparú, Bolivia. Cotinga 32: 51-68. Von Pelzeln, A. 1871. Zur Ornithologie Brasiliens. Resultate von Johann Natterers Reisen in der Jahren 1817 bis 1835. Vienna, A. Pichler’s Witwe und Sohn, 462 p. Associate Editor: Caio Graco Machado Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 APPENDIX 1 Databases, museums and personal communications of Crested Eagle records from Brazil were cited using the following nomenclatures. State: (M. G. do Sul) – Mato Grosso do Sul; (R. G. do Sul) – Rio Grande do Sul. Locality: RESEX – Extractive Reserve; ESEC – Ecological Station; ARIE – Relevant Interest Ecological Area; PARNA – National Park; RDS – Sustainable Development Reserve; RPPN – Private Natural Reserve; REBIO – Biological Reserve; FLONA – National Forest; CEPLAC – Executive Board of the Cocoa Crop Plan; CIGS – Jungle Instruction Army Center; CETAS – Wildlife Center of Ibama – IBAMA – Brazilian Environment Agency; CRAX – Criadouro Conservacionista Center; PCGR – Harpy Eagle Conservation Program - Brazil. Museums and Collections: MZUSP – Zoology Museum of the University of São Paulo; MNRJ –National Museum of Rio de Janeiro; UFSC – Federal University of Santa Catarina; MHNT – Taubaté Natural History Museum; ORNIS – Online database of Ornithological Collections; CM – Carnegie Museum of Natural history; FMNH – Field Museum of Natural History; MPEG – Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi; INPA – Intituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia Collections; WA – www.wikiaves.com data; IBC – The Internet Bir d Collection. Record Type: Occu – general region of occurrence cited in literature, without specific recor ds, number of sights, number or data on individuals, Ind. – one specimen record, 2ind – two specimen records. Sex/ Age/Plumage: n.a. – not available, Ppale – pale-morph plumage, Pdark – dark- morph plumage. No. Collection / Sex / Age / No. State Municipality Locality Date Record Source Record type Museum/Source Plumage/Nest 1 Acre Rio Branco Catuaba Farm 1999-2004 Rasmussem et al. 2013 Literature occurence n.a. 2 Acre Marechal Thaumaturgo Alto Juruá RESEX 2002 Whittaker et al. 2002 Literature occurence n.a. Assis Brasil, Brasileia 3 Acre Chico Mendes RESEX 2008 De Luca 2012 Literature occurence n.a. and Xapuri IBAMA Report - Rio 4 Acre Rio Branco 2009 PCGR Database report young Branco, AC L. Rondini (photo); T. 5 Acre Porto Acre 2013 WA 959961 photo young Nascimento (visual) Bamboo and Palm forest - 6 Acre n.a. Guilherme 2012 Literature occurence n.a. occurrence in the state not on map 7 Acre Cruzeiro do Sul Rio Croa Community 2012 João D. Filho pers. comm. WA 722798 photo adult/Pdark 8 Amapá Oiapoque Uaca River 1918 CM CM P68846 skin n.a. 9 Amapá Serra do Navio 1994 Olmos et. al. 2006 Literature visual n.a. 10 Amapá Serra do Navio 2000 Olmos et. al. 2007 Literature visual n.a. 11 Amapá Laranjal do Jari Rio Carají RESEX 2008 Schunck et al. 2011 Literature occurence n.a. 12 Amapá Laranjal do Jari Rio Carají RESEX 2010 Schunck et al. 2012 Literature occurence n.a. Soares et al. 2008, Sanaiotti visual/ 13 Amazonas Japurá Juami-Jupará ESEC 2005 PCGR Database adult per.obs. predation Cuieiras and Manacapuru - not Soares et al. 2008, Sanaiotti 14 Amazonas 2006, 2007 PCGR Database nest nest on map per.obs. 15 Amazonas Novo Aripuanã Rio Roosevelt Lodge 1988 Whittaker 2009 Literature occurence pair A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 No. Collection / Sex / Age / No. State Municipality Locality Date Record Source Record type Museum/Source Plumage/Nest 16 Amazonas Manacapuru 1936 MZUSP MZUSP 16442 skin 17 Amazonas Lábrea Purús River 1935 FMNH FMNH 100819 skin female 18 Amazonas Itacoatiara Baptista Lake 1937 FMNH FMNH 101835 skin female mounted 19 Amazonas Tonatins Solimões River 1923 CM CM P97629 n.a. specimen 20 Amazonas Rio Preto da Eva Reserve ZF3 - ARIE 1982 INPA INPA 590 skin n.a. 21 Amazonas assumed near Carauari Juruá River 1902 MZUSP MZUSP 2593 skin female 22 Amazonas assumed near Carauari Juruá River 1937 MZUSP MZUSP 18113 skin male 23 Amazonas Novo Aripuanã Roosevelt River 2007 Bret Whitney pers. comm. IBC Video adult/Ppale pair/young/ 24 Amazonas Coari Urucu River 2008 Whittaker et. al. 2008 Literature visual nest 25 Amazonas Alvarães 1993 Olmos et al. 2006 Literature visual 2 individuals 26 Amazonas Citation von Pelzeln - not on map n.a. Pinto, 1964 Literature occurence n.a. Barra do rio Negro 27 Amazonas not on map n.a. Von Pelzeln 1871 Literature occurence n.a. [= presently Manaus] Manaqueri [=Manaquiri] Lake - 28 Amazonas Manacapuru n.a. Von Pelzeln 1872 Literature occurence n.a. not on map ZF3 Reserve, Gavião camp - literature/ 29 Amazonas Rio Preto da Eva 1980 Bierregaard 1984 Literature pair/nest PDBFF Project - ARIE photo PDBFF Project Forest Fragments 30 Amazonas Rio Preto da Eva n.a. Cohn-Haft et al. 1997 Literature occurence n.a. - ARIE Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke J. Valsko; W. Magnusson, Database/pers. visual/call 31 Amazonas Manaus 2005 young - ARIE PCGR comm. record 32 Amazonas Novo Airão Anavilhanas PARNA 11,22/6/2012 Whittaker 2012 WA 735004 photo pair 33 Amazonas Novo Airão Anavilhanas PARNA 2009 S.Wilson, PCGR Database photo 1 adult nest - nest - 34 Amazonas Manacapuru Cururu Lake, Solimões River 2007 PCGR Database Teixeirinha Teixeirinha 35 Amazonas Manacapuru Cururu Lake, Solimões River 2008 PCGR Database nest - Bracelo nest - Bracelo 36 Amazonas Manacapuru Cururu Lake, Solimões River 2008 PCGR Database nest - Erivan nest - Erivan nest - 37 Amazonas Manaus Cuieiras Reserve - ARIE 2006 PCGR Database nest - Cuieiras Cuieiras Luiz Henrique Condrati 38 Amazonas Tapaua Nascentes do Lago Jari PARNA 2011 WA 414010 photo adult/Ppale pers. comm. 39 Amazonas Manaus Cuieiras Reserve, Km 9 - ARIE 2013 F. B. R. Gomes WA 1025169 photo subadult A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 No. Collection / Sex / Age / No. State Municipality Locality Date Record Source Record type Museum/Source Plumage/Nest WA 1067156; pair/young/ 40 Amazonas Amanã Amanã RDS 2013 A. Jaskulski pers. comm. 1067159; photo nest CIGS Army Zoo, unknown 41 Amazonas died 2012 F. B. R. Gomes Pers. Archive photo male/Ppale procedence Alvarães, Uarini, Fonte Ressaca do Panelão - Mamirauá Lit. and pers. 42 Amazonas Boa, Tonatins, Maraã 2004 Cintra et al. 2007 visual n.a. RDS comm. and Japurá 43 Bahia Belmonte Barrolândia 1995 Galetti et al. 1997 Literature visual adult occurrence/ 44 Bahia Porto Seguro 1974 Willis & Oniki 2003 Literature n.a. call Espírito Sooretama, Linhares, occurence/ 45 Sooretama REBIO 1997 Parker III & Goerck 1997 Literature n.a. Santo Jaguaré and Vila Valério visual Espírito occurence/ 46 Conceição da Barra Itaúnas State Park n.a. Petroff 2001 Literature n.a. Santo visual Espírito Museu de Biologia Mello Leitão - 47 n.a. PCGR visited 2006 Database skin Ppale Santo unknown procedence Museu da Fauna 48 Maranhão Pedreiras Flores River 1956 Aguirre & Aldrighi 1983 skin male N.1576 adult/young/ 49 Maranhão Buriticupu Southeastern Buriticupu 1997 Martinéz 1997 Literature nest nest Fábio Olmos and Bruno Visual record and 50 Maranhão Açailandia 2009 visual young Lima pers. comm 51 Mato Grosso Alta Floresta Cristalino River 2005 Alexander Lees pers. arch.Photo pers photo young 52 Mato Grosso Juruena Chapada dos Parecis n.a. Sick, 1997 Literature occurence n.a. 53 Mato Grosso Alta Floresta CEPLAC 2006 Alexander Lees Visual record visual adult 54 Mato Grosso Alta Floresta CEPLAC 2006 Alexander Lees WA 349411 photo adult 55 Mato Grosso São José do Rio Claro Jardim da Amazônia Lodge 2011 Edson Endrigo WA 368198 adultadult 56 Mato Grosso São José do Rio Claro Jardim da Amazônia Lodge 2012 Marcelo Pádua Call recorded call recorded pair/adult 57 Mato Grosso Mundo Novo Cristalino RPPN 2012 Júlio Silveira WA 804572 photo adult 58 Mato Grosso Comodoro 2012 Vitor Castro WA 581114 photo 1 adult 59 Mato Grosso Comodoro 2012 Danilo Mota WA 669576 photo 1 adult Dalci Oliveira and P. WA 879011 and 60 Mato Grosso Paranaíta 2012 photo nest Bernardo pers. comm. 61 Mato Grosso Vila Rica Ipê Farm n.a. MZUSP MZUSP 78122 skin n.a. A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 No. Collection / Sex / Age / No. State Municipality Locality Date Record Source Record type Museum/Source Plumage/Nest 62 Mato Grosso adult/Ppale/ 63 M. G. do Sul Jardim Buraco das Araras RPPN 2001 Pivatto et al. 2006 Literature visual flying 64 Minas Gerais Caparaó Caparaó PARNA 1997 Zorzin et al. 2006 Literature visual pair flying 65 Minas Gerais Jequitinhonha Mata Escura REBIO n.a. Mattos et al. 1993 Literature occurence n.a. CRAX - Conservationist Center - 66 Minas Gerais n.a. CRAX PCGR Database female/Pdark unknown procedence Dois Irmãos Zoo - unknown 67 Parnambuco n.a. PCGR Database PCGR Database adult/Ppale procedence Ilha da Taboca “Area 2”, Xingu Lit. and pers. 68 Pará Vitória do Xingu 2000 Henriques et al. 2008 visual adult River comm. Transect 6, Area 2, Aquatic Survey, Lit. and pers. 69 Pará Vitória do Xingu 2008 Henriques et al. 2008 visual adult Xingu River comm. Christian Andretti and WA 522322 and 70 Pará Belterra Paraíso das Abelhas sem Ferrão 2010 photo nest/young Lees et al. 2013 Literature 71 Pará Vitória do Xingu 2013 Vitor Castro WA 1091697 photo n.a. 72 Pará Itaituba Right bank of Tapajos River 2012 Gabriel Leite WA 1036295 photo n.a. 73 Pará Jacareacanga Near Teles Pires River 2011 Christopher Borges WA 844120 photo adult 74 Pará Faro Faro State Park 15_28/1/2008 Aleixo et al. 2011 Literature occurence n.a. 75 Pará Oriximiná Trombetas State Park 16_28/4/2008 Aleixo et al. 2011 Literature occurence n.a. Óbidos, Alenquer, 76 Pará Oriximiná and Monte Grão-Pará ESEC 28/8_10/9/2008 Aleixo et al. 2011 Literature occurence n.a. Alegre IBAMA Report - 77 Pará Oriximiná Trombetas State Park 2012 PCGR Database nest Oriximiná, PA 78 Pará Altamira Ilha da Taboca - Xingu River 2000 MPEGMPEG 55570 remige n.a. Aleixo et al. 2011 and 79 Pará Almeirim Maicuru REBIO 2/10_5/11/2008 MPEG 66390 skin female/Ppale MPEG Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi - 80 Pará 1916 MPEGMPEG 1287 skin young/male unknown procedence Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi - 81 Pará 1975 MPEGMPEG 30888 skin young/male unknown procedence male enlarged 82 Pará Belterra Piquiatuba 1937FMNH FMNH 101507 skin gonads A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 No. Collection / Sex / Age / No. State Municipality Locality Date Record Source Record type Museum/Source Plumage/Nest female 83 Pará Belterra Piquiatuba 1937FMNH FMNH 101506 skin enlarged gonads 84 Pará Belterra Tapajós FLONA 2003 Henriques et al. 2003 Literature occurence n.a. 85 Pará Santarém Tapajós Arapiuns RESEX 2003 Peres et al. 2003 Literature occurence n.a. 86 Pará Tailândia 2008 Soares et al. 2008 Literature occurence n.a. CETAS IBAMA Guarantã 87 Pará Novo Progresso 2012 do Norte, MT, without PCGR Database rescued young/Pdark destination 88 Pará Para State - not on map historical Teixeira et al. 2010 Literature occurence n.a. 89 Pará Tomé Açu Cauaxi Farm 2004, 2006 Portes et al. 2011 Literature occurence n.a. 90 Pará Tailândia Group Agropalma Reserve 1998, 2005 Portes et al. 2011 Literature occurence n.a. 91 Pará Tailândia Rio Capim Farm 2005, 2007 Portes et al. 2011 Literature occurence n.a. 92 Pará Santana do Araguaia Fartura Farm 2009-2010 Somenzari et al. 2007 Literature occurence n.a. Frederico Martins - ICMBio - pers. 93 Pará Tucuruí 2012 rescued young ICMBio; housed at CRAX comm. 94 Pará Paragominas 2010-2011 Lees et al. 2012 Literature occurence n.a. 95 Pará Brasil Novo Xingu River left bank 2014 T. M. Sanaiotti, PCGR Database visual adult/Ppale Marechal Cândido Straube & Urben-Filho mounted 96 Paraná Sete Quedas Museum 1964 Literature n.a. Rondon 2010 specimen Rio de 97 Cantagalo n.a. Pinto,1964: 82-83 Literature n.a. Janeiro skin, Johann Rio de 98 Cantagalo n.a. Hellmayr & Conover 1949 Literature Natterer n.a. Janeiro collection MNRJ 889, 8552, Rio de Rio de Janeiro Nacional Museum 99 n.a. MNRJ 21645, 44312, 5 specimens n.a. Janeiro - without procedence 100 R. G. do Sul Taquara 1899 Von Ihering 1899 Literature occurence n.a. mounted 101 R. G. do Sul Santa Cruz do Sul 1920 Bencke 1996 Literature Ppale specimen Derrubadas - 102 R. G. do Sul Rio Turvo State Park 1984 Belton 1984 Literature occurence n.a. occurrence suggested 103 R. G. do Sul Foz do Iguaçu Iguaçu PARNA 1993 Forrester 1993 Literature occurence n.a. 104 R. G. do Sul Very rare in the State n.a. Sick 1997 Literature n.a. A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 No. Collection / Sex / Age / No. State Municipality Locality Date Record Source Record type Museum/Source Plumage/Nest Probably Extinct in the 105 R. G. do Sul n.a. Marques et al. 2002 Literature n.a. State Guajará Mirim and 106 Rondônia Serra Cutia 2003 Olmos et al. 2011 Literature visual 1 adult/Ppale Costa Marques Guajará Mirim and 107 Rondônia Serra Cutia 2003 Olmos et al. 2011 Literature visual 2 adult/Ppale Costa Marques 108 Rondônia Ji-Paraná Cachoeira Nazaré, Ji-Paraná River 1987-1988 Stotz et al. 1997 Literature occurence n.a. Pers. comm. and 109 Rondônia Chupinguáia Boa Esperança Village 25/08/2011 S.O.S. Falconiformes photo young photos São Francisco do Video pers. 110 Rondônia Guaporé and Alta Guaporé REBIO mar/12 Sandro Alves video adult/Pdark archive Floresta D’Oeste 111 Rondônia Chupinguáia Boa Esperança Village 2010 Kurazo Okada Aguiar WA 10942 photo 1 adult Pers. comm. and 112 Rondônia Chupinguáia Boa Esperança Village set/12 S.O.S. Falconiformes photo pair/nest photos Boa Esperança Village- not on 113 Rondônia Chupinguáia 2012 Raphael Hipólito Pers. comm.photo 1 adult/Ppale map 114 Rondônia Porto VelhoRamal Rio das Garças 12/09/2011 F. Pereira WA 674776 photo 1 adult/Ppale 115 Roraima Caracaraí Viruá PARNA 2004 Robson Czaban WA 88548 photo 1 adult/Ppale 116 Roraima Caracaraí Jufari River, Caicubí Village 2011 L. F. Silveira Pers. comm. visual adult 117 Roraima Boas Vista Maracá ESEC 1985 Moskovits et al. 1985 Literature occurence n.a. Santa 118 Siderópolis Jordão Baixo 1977 Albuquerque 1983 Literature visual adult Catarina Santa 119 Grão Pará Aiúre 2005 Albuquerque et al. 2006 Literature visual 2 visual Catarina Santa mounted 120 Joinville Frei Miguel Museum 1926 Favretto, 2008 Literature adult/Ppale Catarina specimen Santa mounted 121 Lontras 1965/70 PCGR Database UFSC 362 adult/Ppale Catarina specimen Santa 122 Siderópolis 1997 Rosário 1997 Literature occurence n.a. Catarina Jacupiranga, Barra do Turvo, 123 São Paulo Jacupiranga State Park 25/05/1990 Galetti et al. 1997 Literature visual 1 adult Cananéia,Iporanga, Eldorada and Cajatí A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 No. Collection / Sex / Age / No. State Municipality Locality Date Record Source Record type Museum/Source Plumage/Nest Jacupiranga, Barra do Turvo, 124 São Paulo Jacupiranga State Park 14/12/1992 Galetti et al. 1997 Literature visual 1 adult Cananéia,Iporanga, Eldorada and Cajatí 125 São PauloTeodoro Sampaio Morro do Diabo State Park 14/12/1992 Galetti et al. 1997 Literature visual 1 adult Ribeirão Grande, 126 São Paulo Guapiara, Sete Barras, Intervales State Park 24/02/1995 Galetti et al. 1997 Literature visual 1 adult Eldorado and Iporanga 127 São Paulo Apiaí 1900 MZUSP MZUSP 2417 n.a. Occurrence in the State possible 128 São Paulo 1898 Ihering 1898 Literature n.a. - not on map occurence Zooparque Itatiba at Itatiba, 129 São Paulo n.a. PCGR PCGR captive pair without procedence Museu de Historia Natural de mounted 130 São Paulo n.a. MHNT n.a. adult/Ppale Taubaté - without procedence specimen A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 APPENDIX 2 Databases, museums and personal communications of Crested Eagle records from outside Brazil used the following nomenclatures. Museums and Collections accessed with ORNIS – Online database of Ornithological Collections: (AMNH) American Museum of Natural History; (ROM) Royal Ontario Museum; (MCZ) Museum of Comparative Zoology; (CM) Carnegie Museum of Natural History; (FMNH) Field Museum of Natural History; (ANSP) Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia; (USNM) United Sates National Musem; (LSUMZ) Louisiana State University Museum of Natural Science; (MHNIB) Museum of Natural History Itaipu Binacional; (XC) Xeno-canto Online Sound Collection; (MAC) Macaulay Library Collection; and (CEPEPE) Center for Propagation of Endangered Panamanian Species. Record Type: Occurrence: general region of occurrence cited in literature, without specific recor d details, number of sights, number or data on individuals; Plumage: Ppale – pale- morph, Pdark – dark-morph plumage, Pextdark – extreme dark-morph. Source/ Sex/Age/ No. Country County Locality Year Citation Record Collection number Plumage/Nest Sutter & Diaz in Whitacre et al. 131 Mexico CampecheCalakmul Ruins 1992 Literature visual adult soaring Montes Azules Biosphere Grosselet & Gutierrez-Carbonel 132 Mexico Chiapas 2004 Literature photo adult Reserve 2007 133 Mexico Chiapas Chiapas n.a. Whitacre et al. 2012 Literature occurence n.a. 134 Mexico Quintana Roo Quintana Roo n.a. Whitacre et al. 2012 Literature occurence n.a. 135 Belize Orange WalkChan Chich Lodge 1995 Hall 1995 Literature occurence n.a. 136 Belize ToledoToledo 1995 Howell et al. 2000 Literature occurence n.a. 137 Belize Cayo Cayo 1995 Howell et al. 2001 Literature occurence n.a. 138 Belize Orange Walk Orange 1995 Howell et al. 2002 Literature occurence n.a. 139 Belize Southeastern Region 2006 Jones & Komar 2006 Literature occurence n.a. 140 Guatemala Petén Flores 1981 Ellis & Whaley 1981 Literature occurence n.a. 141 Guatemala Petén Tikal National Park 1994 Whitacre et al. 2012 Literature nest 142 Guatemala Petén Tikal National Park 1995 Whitacre et al. 2012 Literature nest 143 Guatemala Petén Tikal National Park 2006 Grijalva & Eisermann 2006 Literature young 144 Guatemala Atlantic Region 2006 Eisermann & Avendaño 2007 Literature n.a. 145 Guatemala Petén Flores 1978ORNIS AMNH812849 skin n.a. complete 146 Guatemala Petén Flores 1966 ORNIS ROM115862 sleleton + n.a. partial skin 147 Honduras La Ceiba La Ceiba 1903 Bangs 1903 Literature collected young 148 Honduras San Pedro Sula San Pedro Sula 1968 Monroe 1968 Literature occurence n.a. A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 Source/ Sex/Age/ No. Country County Locality Year Citation Record Collection number Plumage/Nest Quebrada Kahkatingni - near 149 Honduras 1999 Russell Thorstrom in GRIN 2013 Literature young Patuca River 150 Honduras Occurrence in Honduras 2002 Bonta & Anderson 2002 Literature occurence n.a. 151 Honduras La Ceiba La Ceiba 1902 ORNIS MCZ110535 skin n.a. Hormigero Community, 152 Nicaragua Jinotega Cerro Sasiaya, at Bosawas 2001 GRIN 2013 Literature occurence n.a. Biosphere Reserve 153 Nicaragua San Juan del Nicaragua Bartola Reserve 1994 Múnera-Roldán et al. 2007 Literature adult 154 Nicaragua San Juan del Nicaragua Bartola Reserve 1999 Múnera-Roldán et al. 2007 Literature adult 155 Nicaragua Prinzapolka, Zelaya Alamikangban Community 2005 Kjeldsen 2005 Literature adult La Selva Biological Station, 156 Costa Rica Heredia 1989 Stiles & Skutch 1989 Literature occurence n.a. Sarapiquí region Sirena Biological Station, 157 Costa Rica Sirena Corcovado National Park, 1989 Stiles & Skutch 1989 Literature occurence n.a. Osa Peninsula 158 Costa Rica Límon Cuabre - Sixaola River 1910 Carrier 1910 Literature occurence n.a. 159 Costa Rica Puntarenas Cerro Cañas Gordas 1964 Slud 1964 Literature occurence n.a. La Finca Selva - Braulio 160 Costa Rica San Jose Limon 2004 Jones 2004 Literature occurence n.a. Carrillo National Park Rara Avis Jungle Lodge 161 Costa Rica San Jose Limon -Braulio Carrillo National 2004 Jones 2004 Literature occurence n.a. Park 162 Costa Rica Límon Tortuguero 2006 Jones & Komar 2006 Literature occurence n.a. 163 Costa Rica Límon Tortuguero 2005 G. Ocklind Pers. comm.photo pair Carlos Calvo Obando photo/ 164 Costa Rica Límon Tortuguero National Park 2013 Fundación Rapaces de Costa Rica, PCGR Database photo adult/ Ppale P Camacho Varella pers. comm. Ron Osborne photo/ Fundación Caño Harold - Tortuguero 165 Costa Rica Límon 2014 Rapaces de Costa Rica, P Camacho PCGR Database photo adult/ Ppale National Park Varella pers. comm. Rodolfo Vargas Leiton photo/ Crucitas - Cutris de San 166 Costa Rica Alajuela 2011 Fundación Rapaces de Costa Rica, PCGR Database photo adult/ Pdark Carlos P Camacho Varella pers. comm. 167 Costa Rica Límon Cuabre 1904ORNIS CMP23989 skin n.a. Caribbean slopes, Southeast 168 Panama 1965 Wetmore 1965 Literature occurence n.a. and East Panamá A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 Source/ Sex/Age/ No. Country County Locality Year Citation Record Collection number Plumage/Nest 169 Panama Los Santos Azuero Peninsula 1989 Ridgely & Gwynne 1989 Literature occurence n.a. 170 Panama Los Santos/Mariato Cerro Hoya National Park 1989 Ridgely & Gwynne 1989 Literature occurence n.a. 171 Panama Panamá Province region 1989 Ridgely & Gwynne 1989 Literature occurence n.a. unsubstantiated 172 PanamaChiriqui Province region 1989 Ridgely & Gwynne 1989 Literature n.a. occurence Coiba Island, Gulf of unsubstantiated 173 Panama Veraguás 1989 Ridgely & Gwynne 1989 Literature n.a. Chiriquí occurence 174 Panama Panamá Canal Barro Colorado Island 1989 Ridgely & Gwynne 1989 Literature occurence n.a. 175 PanamaChiriquí Boquete 1989 Ridgely & Gwynne 1989 Literature occurence n.a. 176 Panama Panamá Canal Zone 1989 Ridgely & Gwynne 1989 Literature occurence n.a. egg laying Chiquita River region, 177 Panama Guna Yala 1989 Kiff et al. 1989 Literature by CEPEPE n.a. Central Panamá captive interspecific 178 Panama Dárien Quintín Community 2006 Vargas et al. 2006 Literature n.a. interation 179 PanamaCólon San Lorenzo National Park 2007 Jones & Komar 2007 Literature young Cana Camp - Darién 180 Panama Dárien 2010 E. Groenewoud IBC photo adult/Ppale National Park Rancho Frio Camp - Darién vocalization 181 Panama Dárien 2013 A. Spencer XC127521 nest National Park near nest 182 PanamaGamboa Canal Zone 1981 Van den Berg, A. B. Mac28459 vocalization female/Pdark 183 Panama Changuinola 1928ORNIS MCZ137642 skin n.a. 184 Panama Dárien Perme 1929ORNIS MCZ155152 skin female 185 Panama N.i. Banana River 1928 ORNIS MCZ137127 skin female 186 Panama Kuna Yala “Puerto” Obaldia 1930 ORNIS MCZ156514 skin male 187 Panama Kuna Yala San Blas - Port Obaldia 1935 ORNIS FMNH100685 male of pair male 188 Panama Kuna Yala San Blas - Port Obaldia 1935 ORNIS FMNH100729 female of pair female 189 Panama Panamá Canal Barro Colorado Island 1936ORNIS AMNH300600 skin n.a. Tapalisa, eastern of Panamá - 190 Panama Dárien 1915ORNIS AMNH135352 skin n.a. Tapalisa River Tapalisa, eastern of Panamá - 191 Panama Dárien 1915ORNIS AMNH135353 skin n.a. Tapalisa River 192 Colombia Chocó Region 1986 Hilty & Brown 1986 Literature occurence n.a. A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 Source/ Sex/Age/ No. Country County Locality Year Citation Record Collection number Plumage/Nest 193 Colombia Chocó Baudó Mountains 1986 Hilty & Brown 1986 Literature occurence n.a. Achicaya River Valley 194 Colombia Valle del Cauca 1986 Hilty & Brown 1986 Literature occurence n.a. (Anchicaya) 195 Colombia Cordova Sinú River Valley 1986 Hilty & Brown 1986 Literature occurence n.a. 196 Colombia Cordova Cordova 1986 Hilty & Brown 1986 Literature occurence n.a. 197 Colombia Zúlia Perijá Moutains 1986 Hilty & Brown 1986 Literature occurence n.a. 198 Colombia La Guajira Carraipa 1986 Hilty & Brown 1986 Literature occurence n.a. 199 Colombia East of Andes region 1986 Hilty & Brown 1986 Literature occurence n.a. 200 Colombia Meta Vilavivencio region 1986 Hilty & Brown 1986 Literature occurence n.a. 201 Colombia Caquetá Caquetá 1986 Hilty & Brown 1986 Literature occurence n.a. Museum, no 202 Colombia Amazonas Letícia 1972Márquez et al. 2005 Literature n.a. data Museum, no 203 Colombia Caquetá Belén 1941 Márquez et al. 2005 Literature n.a. data Museum, no 204 Colombia Chocó Salaqui River 1940 Márquez et al. 2005 Literature n.a. data Museum, no 205 Colombia Chocó Juradó River 1940 Márquez et al. 2005 Literature n.a. data 206 Colombia Caquetá Morélia region n.a. ORNIS ANSP153087 skin n.a. Complete 207 Colombia Chocó Truandó River (Truanto) n.a. ORNIS USNM17781 specimen in n.a. alcohol Complete 208 Colombia Cordova Sinú River 1949 ORNIS USNM410536 specimen in n.a. alcohol Complete 209 Colombia Chocó Acandi, Gulf of Uraba 1949 ORNIS USNM425433 specimen in n.a. alcohol 210 Colombia Chocó Jampavado River 1940 ORNIS FMNH102242 skin n.a. 211 Colombia Chocó Juradó River 1940 ORNIS FMNH102243 skin n.a. 212 Colombia Antioquia Cuturu 1947 ORNIS FMNH190728 skin female 213 Ecuador PichinchaPichincha region 2001 Ridgely & Greenfield 2001 Literature recorded n.a. 214 Ecuador Base of Andes region 2001 Ridgely & Greenfield 2001 Literature occurence n.a. 215 Ecuador Esmeraldas Esmeraldas 2007 Muniz-Lopes et al. 2007 Literature occurence n.a. A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 Source/ Sex/Age/ No. Country County Locality Year Citation Record Collection number Plumage/Nest 216 Ecuador Sucumbios Cuyabeno Wildlife Reserve 2007 Libor Vaincenbacher Photo IBC snake predation Ppale adult/chick/ 217 Ecuador Sucumbios Cuyabeno Wildlife Reserve 2014 R. Muniz-Lopes - PCAHE pers. comm visual nest 218 Ecuador Napo Napo Wildlife Center 2008 T. Cloudman list of species adultPdark adult female/ 219 Ecuador Not reported Quito Zoo at Guayllabamba 2011 Montalvo & Montalvo 2011 Literature captive Ppale 220 Bolivia Beni Beni 1994 M. Pearman 1994 in GRIN 2013 Literature occurence n.a. 221 Bolivia Beni Noel Kempff National Park 1998 Bates et al. 1998 Literature occurence n.a. 222 Bolivia La Paz La Paz 2003 Hennessey et al. 2003 Literature occurence n.a. 223 Bolivia Santa Cruz Santa Cruz 2003 Hennessey et al. 2003 Literature occurence n.a. 224 Bolivia Mérida Caparú Biological Station 2005 Vidoz et al. 2010 Literature occurence n.a. Gallery forest, Eastern region 225 Peru n.a. Clements & Shany 2001 Literature occurence n.a. of Andes Donated to Oklahoma City 226 Peru Amazonas Departmet 1978 Kiff et al. 1989 Literature female collected female/nest Zoo Reserva Tambopata - 227 Peru Madre de Dios 1994 Parker III et al. 1994 Literature occurence n.a. Candamo Reserva Tambopata - 228 Peru Madre de Dios 2007 Raine 2007 Literature nest Candamo Photo personal adults/chick/ 229 Peru Madre de Dios Amazon Manu Lodge 1977 R. Fabbri, pers. arch. archive nest Photo personal adults/chick/ 230 Peru Madre de Dios Amazon Manu Lodge 2006 R. Fabbri, pers. arch. archive nest Quebrada Blanco Biological predation on 231 Peru Cuzco 2001 Vazquez & Heymann 2001 Literature n.a. Station monkeys Photo personal 232 Peru Uacayali Pacaya municipally 2012 A. Morales young archive Centro de Reproducion 233 Peru Not reported 2013 J. A. Otero pers. comm. captive 6 individuals Huayco at Lima 234 Peru Iquitos Peru Lodge, Tahuayo River 2013 Peru Lodge list of species occurence n.a. 235 Peru Amazonas Departamento do Amazonas n.a. ORNIS LSUMZ84285 skin n.a. complete in 236 Peru Loreto Departamento de Loreto n.a. ORNIS LSUMZ114339 n.a. alcohol complete in 237 Peru Loreto Departamento de Loreto n.a. ORNIS LSUMZ114589 n.a. alcohol A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 Source/ Sex/Age/ No. Country County Locality Year Citation Record Collection number Plumage/Nest 238 Peru Loreto Departamento de Loreto n.a. ORNIS LSUMZ118952 feathers n.a. 239 Venezuela North of Orinoco River 2003 Hilty 2003 Literature occurence n.a. 240 Venezuela Caura River 2003 Hilty 2003 Literature occurence n.a. 241 Venezuela Maracaibo Basin 2003 Hilty 2003 Literature occurence n.a. 242 Venezuela Sierra Perijá 2003 Hilty 2003 Literature occurence n.a. 243 Venezuela Zulia 2003 Hilty 2003 Literature occurence n.a. 244 Venezuela MeridaAndes 2003Hilty 2003 Literature occurence n.a. 245 Venezuela Lara 2003 Hilty 2003 Literature occurence n.a. 246 VenezuelaAmazonas Amazonas Province 2003 Hilty 2003 Literature occurence n.a. 247 Venezuela Bolivar 2003 Hilty 2003 Literature occurence n.a. 248 Venezuela Margarita Margarita Island 2003 Hilty 2003 Literature occurence n.a. 249 Venezuela Barinas Obispos municipality 2006 Uztcátagui et al. 2010 Literature occurence n.a. 250 VenezuelaBolivar Gran Sabana region 2011 Crease & Tepedino 2013 Literature nest n.a. 251 Guyana Lowland forest environments n.a. Braun et al. 2000 Literature occurence n.a. 252 Guyana Rupununi Chief Rewa Reserve (head) 2011 Pickles et al. 2011 Literature occurence n.a. Upper Takatu - Upper 253 Guyana Rupununi 1964ORNIS ROM94735 skin n.a. Essequibos Upper Takatu - Upper 254 Guyana Rupununi 1964 ORNIS ROM94725 skin n.a. Essequibos 255 Guyana Bartica Kalacoon (Kalakun) n.a. ORNIS AMNH804578 skin n.a. Forest areas, General 256 French Guyana n.a. Thiollay 2007 Literature n.a. occurrence predation on 257 French Guyana Cayenne Nouragues Field Station 1992 Julliot 1994 Literature n.a. monkey Approuague River, Regina 258 French Guyana Cayenne 2011 Johann Tascon Literature adult/Pextdark municipality 259 French Guyana Non reported Guyana Zoo, in Macouria n.a. Maxcobigo IBC photo male/Pdark Forest areas, General 260 Surinam n.a. Haverschimidt & Mees 1994 Literature occurence n.a. occurrence predation Raleigh Falls-Voltz Bergue 261 Surinam Sipaliwini District 1987 Trail 1987 Literature on Rupicola n.a. Nature Reserve rupicola A review of the distribution of the Crested Eagle, Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) (Accipitridae: Harpiinae), including range extensions Felipe Bittioli R. Gomes and Tânia M. Sanaiotti Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(1), 2015 Source/ Sex/Age/ No. Country County Locality Year Citation Record Collection number Plumage/Nest Resident in the country, 262 Argentina n.a. Mazar-Barnett & Pearman 2001 Literature n.a. General occurrence 263 Argentina Missiones El Piñalito Provincial Park 2001 Pearman 2001 Literature adult 264 Argentina Santa Ana Santa Ana 1913 Bertoni 1913 Literature occurence n.a. 265 Argentina Missiones Iguazú National Park 1980 Rumboll & Straneck (In Olrog,1985) Literature pair in display n.a. 266 Paraguay Alto Paraná region 2004 Del Castillo & Clay 2004 Literature occurence n.a. 267 Paraguay Itapúa San Rafael Nacional Park 1997 Madroño 1997 Literature pair displaying n.a. 268 Paraguay Itapúa San Rafael Nacional Park 1997 Madroño 1997 Literature adult adult captured, San Rafael Nacional Park - died 269 Paraguay Itapúa Del Castillo & Clay 2004 MHNIB872 housed in adult collected and donated to Zoo 2002 Museum Colônia Aurora, Region of N. Lopes in Del Castillo & Clay 270 Paraguay Itapúa 2003 Literature adult flying San Rafael Nacional Park 2004
Ornithology Research – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 1, 2015
Keywords: Conservation; Falconiformes; Neotropics; Raptor
Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.