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A review of flocking behavior by Hook-billed Kite, Chondrohierax uncinatus, in South America

A review of flocking behavior by Hook-billed Kite, Chondrohierax uncinatus, in South America Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 26(1): 9–11. SHORT-COMMUNIC EDITORI ATION AL March 2018 A review of flocking behavior by Hook-billed Kite, Chondrohierax uncinatus, in South America 1,6 2,3 4 5 Sidnei de Melo Dantas , Carlos Eduardo Bustamante Portes , Eleonora Pinheiro & Guy M. Kirwan Curso de Pós-Doutorado em Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Pará/Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Caixa Postal 399, 66040-170, Belém, PA, Brazil. Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, MZUSP, 04263-000, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, MPEG, Caixa Postal 399, 66040-170, Belém, PA, Brazil. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. Av. Bem Te Vi 8-406, 69067-001, Petrópolis, Manaus, AM, Brazil. Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Quinta da Boa Vista s/n, Quinta da Boa Vista, 20940-040, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Corresponding author: smdantas@yahoo.com Received on 14 September 2017. Accepted on 19 February 2018. ABSTRACT: The Hook-billed Kite (Chondrohierax uncinatus) is a diurnal raptor species that is widely distributed across the Neotropics, but some aspects of its social and ecological behavior are poorly understood. Here, we review and report records of flocking behavior of this species at various locations in South America, mainly in Brazil. We report eight new observations of such behavior, mainly in northern Brazil. It is possible that flocking behavior in this species is more common in northern South America than in the southern part of the continent, but it is perhaps overlooked or goes unreported by observers in these places. KEY-WORDS: Accipitridae, Brazil, flocks, migration, raptor. Hook-billed Kite Chondrohierax uncinatus is widely (Olmos et al. 2006, Rego et al. 2011). The species is distributed in the Neotropics (Ferguson-Lees & Christie reported to migrate in flocks in the Andes (Fjeldså & 2001). It is a mid-sized polymorphic diurnal raptor Krabbe 1990) and to be a partial migrant in Argentina as distributed from the southernmost USA (southern well (Contreras et al. 1990, di Giacomo 2005). Texas) and western Mexico south through Central Flocking is a well-known behavior for some New and South America to southern and eastern Brazil, World hawks, like Red-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis, and northern Argentina, as well as on Trinidad and Swainson's Hawk B. swainsoni and Snail Kite Rosthramus on Grenada (Ferguson-Lees & Christie 2001). Cuban sociabilis (Hilty & Brown 1986, Ferguson-Lees & Christie Kite C. wilsonii, which is endemic to the mountains of 2001). In many cases, flocking by raptors is related to eastern Cuba, is sometimes considered conspecific with their migrations, and this has been suggested in the case Hook-billed Kite but is now frequently regarded as a of C. uncinatus (Hilty 1999). Here we report additional separate species, whereas C. u. mirus, which is endemic observations of this intriguing behavior, registered mainly to Grenada, is generally considered to be a subspecies of in northern Brazil. Our objective is to verify geographic Hook-billed Kite (del Hoyo & Collar 2014). Hook-billed and seasonal patterns of flocking migratory behavior of Kite is usually considered solitary and sedentary, but C. uncinatus in South America based on the literature and there have been recent reports of flocking behavior and additional observations reported herein. migratory movements, mainly in Central America and In Amazonas state, four birds were seen together o o northern South America (Bildstein & Zalles 2001, Jones at Itacoatiara (03 08'31''S; 58 26'33''W), in 1999 in 2003, Porras-Peñaranda & McCarty 2005, Eisermann & the dry season (Mario Cohn-Haft, pers. comm.). In Avendaño 2006, Jones & Komar 2006, 2008, 2011), and Belém, the capital of Pará state, a flock of c. 30 birds was the species is considered a partial migrant in part of its observed in Parque do Utinga, near the Museu Paraense range in South America (Juhant 2011). In Venezuela, it Emílio Goeldi (MPEG), in February or March 2002 has been reported to congregate in small to large flocks of (Bret Whitney, pers. comm.). In September 2003, four 6–12 individuals between June and September (Paulson individuals (none of them dark morph) were observed 1983, Hilty 1999), and in central Brazil, in Tocantins, circling together over the Reserva Biológica Sooretama (c. o o and northeast Brazil, in Sergipe, migratory movements 19 03'S; 40 00'W), near the town of Linhares, Espírito have been recorded between November and February Santo state by G.M.K. Flocking behavior by Hook-billed Kite, Chondrohierax uncinatus Dantas et al. On 29 May 2007, at c. 09:30 h, S.M.D. opposed to the north of the country, it might be expected photographed a flock of about 35 individuals, flying that such behavior would be as frequently registered in over the research campus of the Museu Paraense Emílio southern Brazil if it was as common there as in northern o o Goeldi (MPEG), in Belém (01 27'21''S; 48 30'16''W) South America. Family flocks of up to four individuals (Fig. 1). It was not possible to accurately count the of C. uncinatus have been observed, but cannot be number of individuals of each morph, as no binoculars linked to migration (Bret Whitney, pers. comm.), so were available, but at least ten were pale gray below, with it is possible that the small flocks observed in Espírito three broad white bands and two narrower black bands Santo and Minas Gerais states (the two southernmost in the tail. Some were darker below, with two white and ones) pertained to families rather than migrants. If so, two black bands on the tail, and there was at least one that would leave migration in this species apparently black-morph individual. The flock was observed soaring restricted to northernmost Brazil. Such differences in the for about two minutes before disappearing from sight in behaviour of a diurnal raptor across the continent would a northeasterly direction. not be unique to Chondrohierax, as in many well-known A flock of 6–8 individuals was observed over the city migratory raptors, only part of the population migrates o o of Ipanema, Minas Gerais (19 48'03''S; 41 42'47''W), (Ferguson-Lees & Christie 2001). in October 2009, flying over a mosaic of urban area, Records in Brazil and Venezuela were made mainly forest and grassland, at the edge of the city (Paulo between September and February, and in May–June. Thieres, pers. comm.). On 05 May 2011, a flock of c. This matches well with observations of floc ks in the 25 individuals, also involving multiple morphs, was seen USA and Central America, which have mostly been by CEBP in the municipality of Marabá (05 22'11.59''S; made between September and November, and April 49 11'54.32''W), Pará, at about 10:30 h. The flock was and May (Bildstein & Zalles 2001, Jones 2003, Brush observed very briefly, crossing above the canopy of a 2005, Porras-Peñaranda & McCarty 2005, Eisermann small forest fragment. The very bright sky did not permit & Avendaño 2006, Jones & Komar 2006, 2008, 2011). many differences in morphology among the birds to be Most observations in cis-Andean South America were appreciated, but at least two different plumage patterns made along or near major rivers (the Orinoco, Amazonas, were involved. The flock apparently moved off nort heast. Tocantins, São Francisco, Rio Doce – Fig. 2), which A flock of 11 bir ds was observed near Manaus, Amazonas may merely reflec t the specie preference for humid areas o o (03 06'S; 60 01'W), on 18 September 2011 by E.P. (Fig. with abundant snails. Based on the comparatively small 1), and a similar (or the same?) flock was seen one week number of observations, floc king behavior may be only later, 20 km away. Finally, on 28 May 2016, a flock of occasional in eastern South America, but it is perhaps eight birds was seen by S.M.D. in the municipality of also frequently overlooked or unreported by observers Portel, also in Pará state. unaware of its signific ance. In conclusion, the few Most records of flocking behavior are from northern available observations suggest that C. uncinatus floc ks South America. Hook-billed Kite is distributed over more frequently in northern South America than in the most of South America, and the available records at far southeast of its range, and mainly in the middle of the the internet site Wikiaves (http://www.wikiaves.com. year or between September and February. Nevertheless, br/caracoleiro) are as equally concentrated in southeast more information on this interesting behavior will be Brazil as in northernmost parts of the country. Given essential to determine if it is linked to migrations and if the larger number of birdwatchers in southern Brazil as they really are seasonal movements. Figure 1. Large flocks of Hook-billed Kites (soaring over Belém, Pará state (left) and Manaus, Amazonas state (right), both in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 26(1): 2018 Flocking behavior by Hook-billed Kite, Chondrohierax uncinatus Dantas et al. Figure 2. Localities of Hook-billed Kite (Chondrohierax uncinatus) flocks in South America. Numbers indicate bibliographic references: 1 - Paulson (1983); 2 - Hilty & Brown (1999); 3 - Olmos et al. (2006); 4 - Rego et al. (2011); 5 - this study. Rivers depicted in gray. Ferguson-Lees J. & Christie D.A. 2001. Raptors of the world. London: ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Christopher Helm. Fjeldså J. & Krabbe N. 1990. Birds of the high Andes. Svendborg: Apollo Booksellers. We thank Mario Cohn-Haft, Paulo Thieres Pinto and Hilty S.L. 1999. Three bir d species new to Venezuela and notes on Bret Whitney for providing additional records and the behaviour and distribution of other poorly known species. information, and to two anonymous reviewers for their Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 119: 220–235. Hilty S.L. & Brown W.L. 1986. A guide to the birds of Colombia. comments on the submitted manuscript. Chichester: Princeton University Press. Jones H.L. 2003. Birds of Belize. Austin: University of Texas Press. Jones H.L. & Komar O. 2006. The fall migration, August through REFERENCES November 2005: Central America. North American Birds 60: 152–156. Jones H.L. & Komar O. 2008. The fall migration, August through Bildstein K.L. & Zalles J. 2001. Raptor migration along the November 2007: Central America. North American Birds 62: Mesoamerican Land Corridor. p. 119–136. In: Bildstein K.L. 163–170. & Klem-Jr. D. (eds.). Hawk watching in the Americas. Kempton: Jones H.L. & Komar O. 2011. The fall migration, August through Hawk Migration Association of North America. November 2010: Central America. North American Birds 65: Brush T. 2005. Nesting birds of a tropical frontier: the lower Rio Grande 174–180.  Valley of Texas. Kingsville: Texas A & M University Press. Juhant M.A. 2011. Where to watch raptor migration in South Contreras J.R., Berry L.M., Contreras A.O., Bertonatti, C.C. & America. Neotropical Birding 9: 8–16. Utges E.E. 1990. Atlas ornitogeográfico de la Provincia de Chaco. Olmos F., Pacheco J.F. & Silveira L.F. 2006. Notas sobre aves de República Argentina, v. 1 - no Passeriformes. Corrientes: Cuadernos rapina (Cathartidae, Acciptridae e Falconidae) brasileiras. Revista Técnicos Félix de Azara I. Brasileira de Ornitologia 14: 401–404. del Hoyo J. & Collar N.J. 2014. Illustrated checklist of the birds of the Paulson D.R. 1983. Flocking in the Hook-billed Kite. Auk 100: 749– world, v. 1 – non-passerines. Barcelona: Lynx Editions. di Giacomo A.G. 2005. Aves de la Reserva El Bagual, p. 201–465. 750. In: di Giacomo A.G. & Krapovickas S.F. (eds.). Historia natural Porras-Peñaranda P. & McCarty K. 2005. Autumn 2004 raptor y paisaje de la Reserva El Bagual, Provincia de Formosa, Argentina: migration at Talamanca, Costa Rica. International Hawkwatcher inventario de la fauna de vertebrados y de la flora vascular de un área 10: 3–6. protegida del chaco húmedo. Buenos Aires: Asociación Ornitológica Rego M.A., Silveira L.F., Piacentini V.Q., Schunck F., Machado E., del Plata. Pinheiro R.T. & Reis E. 2011. As aves da Estação Ecológica Serra Eisermann K. & Avendaño C. 2006. Diversidad de aves en Guatemala, Geral do Tocantins, centro do Brasil. Biota Neotropica 11: 283– con una lista bibliográfica, p. 525–623.  In:  Cano E.B. (ed.). Biodiversidad de Guatemala, v. 1. Guatemala: Universidad del Valle de Guatemala. Associate Editor: Cristiano S. Azevedo. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 26(1): 2018 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Ornithology Research Springer Journals

A review of flocking behavior by Hook-billed Kite, Chondrohierax uncinatus, in South America

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Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © Sociedade Brasileira de Ornitologia 2018
eISSN
2178-7875
DOI
10.1007/bf03544411
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Abstract

Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 26(1): 9–11. SHORT-COMMUNIC EDITORI ATION AL March 2018 A review of flocking behavior by Hook-billed Kite, Chondrohierax uncinatus, in South America 1,6 2,3 4 5 Sidnei de Melo Dantas , Carlos Eduardo Bustamante Portes , Eleonora Pinheiro & Guy M. Kirwan Curso de Pós-Doutorado em Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Pará/Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Caixa Postal 399, 66040-170, Belém, PA, Brazil. Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, MZUSP, 04263-000, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, MPEG, Caixa Postal 399, 66040-170, Belém, PA, Brazil. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. Av. Bem Te Vi 8-406, 69067-001, Petrópolis, Manaus, AM, Brazil. Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Quinta da Boa Vista s/n, Quinta da Boa Vista, 20940-040, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Corresponding author: smdantas@yahoo.com Received on 14 September 2017. Accepted on 19 February 2018. ABSTRACT: The Hook-billed Kite (Chondrohierax uncinatus) is a diurnal raptor species that is widely distributed across the Neotropics, but some aspects of its social and ecological behavior are poorly understood. Here, we review and report records of flocking behavior of this species at various locations in South America, mainly in Brazil. We report eight new observations of such behavior, mainly in northern Brazil. It is possible that flocking behavior in this species is more common in northern South America than in the southern part of the continent, but it is perhaps overlooked or goes unreported by observers in these places. KEY-WORDS: Accipitridae, Brazil, flocks, migration, raptor. Hook-billed Kite Chondrohierax uncinatus is widely (Olmos et al. 2006, Rego et al. 2011). The species is distributed in the Neotropics (Ferguson-Lees & Christie reported to migrate in flocks in the Andes (Fjeldså & 2001). It is a mid-sized polymorphic diurnal raptor Krabbe 1990) and to be a partial migrant in Argentina as distributed from the southernmost USA (southern well (Contreras et al. 1990, di Giacomo 2005). Texas) and western Mexico south through Central Flocking is a well-known behavior for some New and South America to southern and eastern Brazil, World hawks, like Red-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis, and northern Argentina, as well as on Trinidad and Swainson's Hawk B. swainsoni and Snail Kite Rosthramus on Grenada (Ferguson-Lees & Christie 2001). Cuban sociabilis (Hilty & Brown 1986, Ferguson-Lees & Christie Kite C. wilsonii, which is endemic to the mountains of 2001). In many cases, flocking by raptors is related to eastern Cuba, is sometimes considered conspecific with their migrations, and this has been suggested in the case Hook-billed Kite but is now frequently regarded as a of C. uncinatus (Hilty 1999). Here we report additional separate species, whereas C. u. mirus, which is endemic observations of this intriguing behavior, registered mainly to Grenada, is generally considered to be a subspecies of in northern Brazil. Our objective is to verify geographic Hook-billed Kite (del Hoyo & Collar 2014). Hook-billed and seasonal patterns of flocking migratory behavior of Kite is usually considered solitary and sedentary, but C. uncinatus in South America based on the literature and there have been recent reports of flocking behavior and additional observations reported herein. migratory movements, mainly in Central America and In Amazonas state, four birds were seen together o o northern South America (Bildstein & Zalles 2001, Jones at Itacoatiara (03 08'31''S; 58 26'33''W), in 1999 in 2003, Porras-Peñaranda & McCarty 2005, Eisermann & the dry season (Mario Cohn-Haft, pers. comm.). In Avendaño 2006, Jones & Komar 2006, 2008, 2011), and Belém, the capital of Pará state, a flock of c. 30 birds was the species is considered a partial migrant in part of its observed in Parque do Utinga, near the Museu Paraense range in South America (Juhant 2011). In Venezuela, it Emílio Goeldi (MPEG), in February or March 2002 has been reported to congregate in small to large flocks of (Bret Whitney, pers. comm.). In September 2003, four 6–12 individuals between June and September (Paulson individuals (none of them dark morph) were observed 1983, Hilty 1999), and in central Brazil, in Tocantins, circling together over the Reserva Biológica Sooretama (c. o o and northeast Brazil, in Sergipe, migratory movements 19 03'S; 40 00'W), near the town of Linhares, Espírito have been recorded between November and February Santo state by G.M.K. Flocking behavior by Hook-billed Kite, Chondrohierax uncinatus Dantas et al. On 29 May 2007, at c. 09:30 h, S.M.D. opposed to the north of the country, it might be expected photographed a flock of about 35 individuals, flying that such behavior would be as frequently registered in over the research campus of the Museu Paraense Emílio southern Brazil if it was as common there as in northern o o Goeldi (MPEG), in Belém (01 27'21''S; 48 30'16''W) South America. Family flocks of up to four individuals (Fig. 1). It was not possible to accurately count the of C. uncinatus have been observed, but cannot be number of individuals of each morph, as no binoculars linked to migration (Bret Whitney, pers. comm.), so were available, but at least ten were pale gray below, with it is possible that the small flocks observed in Espírito three broad white bands and two narrower black bands Santo and Minas Gerais states (the two southernmost in the tail. Some were darker below, with two white and ones) pertained to families rather than migrants. If so, two black bands on the tail, and there was at least one that would leave migration in this species apparently black-morph individual. The flock was observed soaring restricted to northernmost Brazil. Such differences in the for about two minutes before disappearing from sight in behaviour of a diurnal raptor across the continent would a northeasterly direction. not be unique to Chondrohierax, as in many well-known A flock of 6–8 individuals was observed over the city migratory raptors, only part of the population migrates o o of Ipanema, Minas Gerais (19 48'03''S; 41 42'47''W), (Ferguson-Lees & Christie 2001). in October 2009, flying over a mosaic of urban area, Records in Brazil and Venezuela were made mainly forest and grassland, at the edge of the city (Paulo between September and February, and in May–June. Thieres, pers. comm.). On 05 May 2011, a flock of c. This matches well with observations of floc ks in the 25 individuals, also involving multiple morphs, was seen USA and Central America, which have mostly been by CEBP in the municipality of Marabá (05 22'11.59''S; made between September and November, and April 49 11'54.32''W), Pará, at about 10:30 h. The flock was and May (Bildstein & Zalles 2001, Jones 2003, Brush observed very briefly, crossing above the canopy of a 2005, Porras-Peñaranda & McCarty 2005, Eisermann small forest fragment. The very bright sky did not permit & Avendaño 2006, Jones & Komar 2006, 2008, 2011). many differences in morphology among the birds to be Most observations in cis-Andean South America were appreciated, but at least two different plumage patterns made along or near major rivers (the Orinoco, Amazonas, were involved. The flock apparently moved off nort heast. Tocantins, São Francisco, Rio Doce – Fig. 2), which A flock of 11 bir ds was observed near Manaus, Amazonas may merely reflec t the specie preference for humid areas o o (03 06'S; 60 01'W), on 18 September 2011 by E.P. (Fig. with abundant snails. Based on the comparatively small 1), and a similar (or the same?) flock was seen one week number of observations, floc king behavior may be only later, 20 km away. Finally, on 28 May 2016, a flock of occasional in eastern South America, but it is perhaps eight birds was seen by S.M.D. in the municipality of also frequently overlooked or unreported by observers Portel, also in Pará state. unaware of its signific ance. In conclusion, the few Most records of flocking behavior are from northern available observations suggest that C. uncinatus floc ks South America. Hook-billed Kite is distributed over more frequently in northern South America than in the most of South America, and the available records at far southeast of its range, and mainly in the middle of the the internet site Wikiaves (http://www.wikiaves.com. year or between September and February. Nevertheless, br/caracoleiro) are as equally concentrated in southeast more information on this interesting behavior will be Brazil as in northernmost parts of the country. Given essential to determine if it is linked to migrations and if the larger number of birdwatchers in southern Brazil as they really are seasonal movements. Figure 1. Large flocks of Hook-billed Kites (soaring over Belém, Pará state (left) and Manaus, Amazonas state (right), both in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 26(1): 2018 Flocking behavior by Hook-billed Kite, Chondrohierax uncinatus Dantas et al. Figure 2. Localities of Hook-billed Kite (Chondrohierax uncinatus) flocks in South America. Numbers indicate bibliographic references: 1 - Paulson (1983); 2 - Hilty & Brown (1999); 3 - Olmos et al. (2006); 4 - Rego et al. (2011); 5 - this study. Rivers depicted in gray. Ferguson-Lees J. & Christie D.A. 2001. Raptors of the world. London: ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Christopher Helm. Fjeldså J. & Krabbe N. 1990. Birds of the high Andes. Svendborg: Apollo Booksellers. We thank Mario Cohn-Haft, Paulo Thieres Pinto and Hilty S.L. 1999. Three bir d species new to Venezuela and notes on Bret Whitney for providing additional records and the behaviour and distribution of other poorly known species. information, and to two anonymous reviewers for their Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 119: 220–235. Hilty S.L. & Brown W.L. 1986. A guide to the birds of Colombia. comments on the submitted manuscript. Chichester: Princeton University Press. Jones H.L. 2003. Birds of Belize. Austin: University of Texas Press. Jones H.L. & Komar O. 2006. The fall migration, August through REFERENCES November 2005: Central America. North American Birds 60: 152–156. Jones H.L. & Komar O. 2008. The fall migration, August through Bildstein K.L. & Zalles J. 2001. Raptor migration along the November 2007: Central America. North American Birds 62: Mesoamerican Land Corridor. p. 119–136. In: Bildstein K.L. 163–170. & Klem-Jr. D. (eds.). Hawk watching in the Americas. Kempton: Jones H.L. & Komar O. 2011. The fall migration, August through Hawk Migration Association of North America. November 2010: Central America. North American Birds 65: Brush T. 2005. Nesting birds of a tropical frontier: the lower Rio Grande 174–180.  Valley of Texas. Kingsville: Texas A & M University Press. Juhant M.A. 2011. Where to watch raptor migration in South Contreras J.R., Berry L.M., Contreras A.O., Bertonatti, C.C. & America. Neotropical Birding 9: 8–16. Utges E.E. 1990. Atlas ornitogeográfico de la Provincia de Chaco. Olmos F., Pacheco J.F. & Silveira L.F. 2006. Notas sobre aves de República Argentina, v. 1 - no Passeriformes. Corrientes: Cuadernos rapina (Cathartidae, Acciptridae e Falconidae) brasileiras. Revista Técnicos Félix de Azara I. Brasileira de Ornitologia 14: 401–404. del Hoyo J. & Collar N.J. 2014. Illustrated checklist of the birds of the Paulson D.R. 1983. Flocking in the Hook-billed Kite. Auk 100: 749– world, v. 1 – non-passerines. Barcelona: Lynx Editions. di Giacomo A.G. 2005. Aves de la Reserva El Bagual, p. 201–465. 750. In: di Giacomo A.G. & Krapovickas S.F. (eds.). Historia natural Porras-Peñaranda P. & McCarty K. 2005. Autumn 2004 raptor y paisaje de la Reserva El Bagual, Provincia de Formosa, Argentina: migration at Talamanca, Costa Rica. International Hawkwatcher inventario de la fauna de vertebrados y de la flora vascular de un área 10: 3–6. protegida del chaco húmedo. Buenos Aires: Asociación Ornitológica Rego M.A., Silveira L.F., Piacentini V.Q., Schunck F., Machado E., del Plata. Pinheiro R.T. & Reis E. 2011. As aves da Estação Ecológica Serra Eisermann K. & Avendaño C. 2006. Diversidad de aves en Guatemala, Geral do Tocantins, centro do Brasil. Biota Neotropica 11: 283– con una lista bibliográfica, p. 525–623.  In:  Cano E.B. (ed.). Biodiversidad de Guatemala, v. 1. Guatemala: Universidad del Valle de Guatemala. Associate Editor: Cristiano S. Azevedo. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 26(1): 2018

Journal

Ornithology ResearchSpringer Journals

Published: Mar 1, 2018

Keywords: Accipitridae; Brazil; flocks; migration; raptor

There are no references for this article.