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A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil)

A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest... Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 1-21 ARTICLE March 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme Universidade Federal do Acre, Museu Universitário, Laboratório de Ornitologia. Campus Universitário - BR 364, Km 04, Distrito industrial, Rio Branco - Acre, Brazil. CEP: 69.920-900. E-mail: guilherme@ufac.br Received 23 November 2012. Accepted 2 February 2014. ABSTRACT: Amana National Forest (FLONA Amana) is located on the left bank of the middle Tapajós River, in the interfluve of the Tapajós and Madeira Rivers, state of Pará, Brazil. I performed a “Rapid Ecological Assessment” (REA) on the bird communities of the park to identify important areas for avian conservation and areas where activities could impact bird communities. Field surveys were carried out at the end of the rainy season and at the beginning of the dry season. Nine points distributed among five sites were sampled within Amana or very close to its borders. Three approaches were used to survey the avifauna of each point: (a) a quantitative approach using mist nets, (b) a qualitative approach using field observations with binoculars, and (c) interviews with local residents. With a sampling effort of 3,320 net hours, interviews with local residents, and approximately 60 additional hours of visual observations, 247 species of birds were recorded belonging to 51 families. Eight taxa are considered endemic to the interfluve of the Tapajós/Madeira Rivers. Two species are on IUCN’s Red List of endangered birds (Penelope pileata and Guaruba guarouba), and the known distribution of two species (Topaza pella and Discosura longicaudus) is extended by our surveys. Two activities within Amana were detected to have possible negative impacts on avifauna, specifically hunting and gold and cassiterite mining. KEYWORDS: birds, Amana National Forest, Amazon, conservation. INTRODUCTION (Epinecrophylla dentei); Alta Floresta Antpitta (Hylopezus whittakeri); Chico’s Tyrannulet (Zimmerius chicomendesi); Although the Brazilian Amazon has been subject to and Sucunduri Yellow-margined Flycatcher (Tolmomyias scientific study for many decades, due to its large expanse, sucunduri) (Gaban-Lima et al. 2002; Whitney et al. 2013a; Carneiro et al. 2012; Whitney et al. 2013b; it is still considered under studied by ornithologists (Oren & Albuquerque 1991). For example, the region between Whitney et al. 2013c). the lower and middle Tapajós River in Pará State has been Amana National Forest was created by the Brazilian visited and studied for over 100 years by Brazilian and Government by an unnumbered decree on 13 February foreign ornithologists (Snethlage 1908; Oren & Parker 2006, and has an area of 540,417.17 ha (DOU 2009). Amana was created to promote sustainable multiple- 1997; Pacheco & Olmos 2005; Santos et al. 2011; Lees et al. 2013a). It is estimated that more than 2,000 specimens use management of forest resources; maintain and have been collected from the lower and middle Tapajós protect water resources and biodiversity; and support River, the area that contains Amazonia National Park development of methods for the sustainable use of natural (Parque Nacional da Amazônia) and Amana National resources (DOU 2009). The goal of this study was to conduct a preliminary Forest (Floresta Nacional do Amana). The study of birds in this region over the past 100 years has resulted in the survey of the local avifauna to identify potential description of 16 new species and records for over 400 anthropogenic impacts on and important areas for bird species in the area between the city of Itaituba and the conservation of bird communities within Amana. I southern boundary of Amazonia National Park (Oren & performed a “Rapid Ecological Assessment” (REA; Sayre et al. 2003) of Amana. The REA is an integrated Parker 1997). Even recently, new bird species have been described to the interfluve of the Madeira and Tapajós methodology used to direct the efforts of conservation Rivers, the most recent ones being the Bald Parrot (Pyrilia planning sites and contributes to the inventories of aurantiocephala); Roosevelt Stipple-throated Antwren biodiversity (Sayre et al. 2003). Together with information A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme from other taxa, this survey will enable the creation of a beginning of the dry season from 21 July to 8 August management plan for Amana National Forest. 2008. Nine points distributed among five sites were sampled within Amana (Table 1, Figure 1). Four sampled sites were visited during both sampling periods, and one METHODS (Site 5 - Igarapé Preto) during only the second sampling period (Table 1). Two additional locations along the Location of Sites and Sampling Period Transamazonian Highway were also partially sampled during the sampling period (Sites 6 and 7; Table 1, Figure Field surveys were performed at the end of the 1). General information is shown in Table 1, including rainy season, from 24 April to 6 May 2008 and at the habitat present at every studied point. FIGURE 1. Location of the Amana National Forest and sampling sites. 1 - Igarapé Montanha (Montanha stream); 2 - JML Gold Mining; 3 – Maranhense Landing Strip; 4 - São Pedro Landing Strip; 5 – Igarapé Preto (Preto stream); 6 - Amana surrounding area (Km 180); 7 - Amana surrounding area (Km 275, Rabelo). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme TABLE 1. Sites and points of observation and collection of birds during the two campaigns of Rapid Ecological Assessment in Amana National Forest, Pará, Brazil. Coordinates Site Point Sampling Days Habitat WS 1 - Montanha Stream 01 56°58'10.1"W 04°52'58,7"S 25-27 April 2008 Plateau of terra-firme forest 02 56°58'07.0"W 04°52'55.9"S 22-24 July 2008 Lowland alluvial forest 2 - JML Gold Mining 03 57°32'14.9"W 05°06'35.7"S 29-30 April 2008 Terra-firme forest with palm trees 04 57°32'07.8"W 05°06'28.3"S 30 July to Secondary forest with bamboo 01 August 2008 3 - Maranhense 05 57°28'32.0"W 05°21'10.7S 01-03 May 2008 Terra-firme forest with palm trees 06 57°28'27.0"W 05°21'04.7S 02-04 August 2008 Submontane forest with palm trees 4 - São Pedro 07 04°46'41.1"S 05-06 May 2008 Vegetation on white sand soil 57°28'24.7"W (campina) 08 57°28'28.4"W 04°46'43.4"S 26-29 April 2008 Edge of floodplain forest, sandy beaches, and campina 5 - Southern Portion of 09 57°42'29,1"W 05°54'31,9"S 06-08 August 2008 Edge of terra-firme forest FLONA (Igarapé Preto) 6 - FLONA 56°55'29.0" 04°58'32.7 24 April 2008 and Km 180 - anthropogenically Surrounding 21 July 2008 influenced area (open area) 7 - FLONA 57°18'10.8" 05°35'07.1" 05 August 2008 Km 275 – Rabelo - Surrounding anthropogenically influenced area (open area) Species Survey (a) Mist-net surveys: Eighteen mist nets were used, 12 x 2 m in length with 36-mm mesh (Rosaminas®). Three approaches were used to survey the avifauna of The nets were placed in pre-existing transects at each each point: (a) quantitative, with mist nets, (b) qualitative, point where they remained on average for two days. through field observations with binoculars, and (c) The opening of nets took place soon after sunrise, from interviews with local residents. Scientific nomenclature 0530 to approximately 1600 h in order to maximize is in accordance with the Comitê Brasileiro de Registros catches. Individuals were identified, photographed, and Ornitológicos (CBRO 2014). released. To monitor recaptures during each campaign, Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme individuals released were marked by cutting the tip of two index was calculated based on the presence and absence rectrices. Some individuals were collected and prepared of species at each site (Magurran 1988). Cluster analysis as specimens to document occurrence at the study area. was performed using the MVSP 3.1 software package Voucher specimens were taken with the permission of (Kovach 2003). Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis-IBAMA (Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources). All RESULTS collected specimens are currently deposited for further studies at the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Two hundred forty-seven species of birds belonging Pará. to 51 families were recorded (Appendix). The capture (b) Observations: Observations were performed effort consisted of 3,320 hours/net and approximately daily with binoculars (Eagle Optics, 8 x 42) from 0600- 60 additional hours of visual observation. The most representative families were Thraupidae, Thamnophilidae, 0900 h. Trails inside the forest, roads, and open areas around the main localities were censused. Occasionally, Tyrannidae and Psittacidae, with 21, 20, 18, and I made boat trips along rivers and streams near the sites 14 species, respectively (Appendix). More than 300 to maximize the observation of riverside species. Since individuals were captured by mist net and 130 specimens I did not use recording devices, I was unable to identify were collected for further study. all vocalizations heard during censuses. I report our observations of the portion of the avain community I was Similarity Analysis among Sampling Sites able to positively identify. (c) Interviews: Some local residents, mostly miners, All sites located within the FLONA had an average were interviewed about which bird species are best similarity above 0.3 (30%), making them more similar to each other when compared to sites located outside known in the region. In order to minimize the confusion generated by common bird names (which vary from the National Forest (Table 2, Figure 2). The dendrogram one region to another), books containing photos of (Figure 2) resulting from hierarchical cluster analysis Amazonian birds with their species names were shown. showed the formation of two distinct groups: the first This methodology allowed us to check in loco whether group was formed by sites 6 and 7, and the second one by the other sites. the species mentioned in the interviews were expected to occur in this region of study. Endemic Species Data Analysis We recorded eight interfluve endemics taxa (Cracraft 1985) in Amana, including Red-throated Piping- Aiming to understand the degree of similarity among bird communities at different sites surveyed in Guan (Aburria cujubi nattereri), Bar-breasted Piculet this study, similarity analysis was performed. A Jaccard (Picumnus aurifrons borbae), Hoffmanns’s Woodcreeper FIGURE 2. Hierarchical clustering analysis for avian survey sites in Amana National Forest using Jaccard similarity distances. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme TABLE 2. Similarity matrix of Jaccard coefficients among sites surveyed in Amana National Forest. Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Site 4 Site 5 Site 6 Site 7 Site 1 1 Site 2 0.427 1 Site 3 0.373 0.427 1 Site 4 0.391 0.408 0.356 1 Site 5 0.357 0.415 0.39 0.374 1 Site 6 0.184 0.279 0.252 0.262 0.351 1 Site 7 0.193 0.254 0.237 0.25 0.388 0.66 1 (Dendrocolaptes hoffmannsi), Ferruginous-backed Antbird Species of Regional Relevance (Myrmoderus ferrugineus elatus), Long-winged Antwren (Myrmotherula longipennis ochrogyna), White-eyed During this Rapid Ecological Assessment of Amana Antwren (Epinecrophylla leucophthalma phaeonota), National Forest, three important records were made: Harlequin Antbird (Rhegmatorhina berlepschi), and Pale- Bald Parrot (Pyrilia aurantiocephala), Crimson Topaz faced Antbird (Phlegopsis borbae). (Topaza pella), and Racket-tailed Coquette (Discosura longicaudus). Crimson Topaz and Racket-tailed records Threatened Species represent an extension of their known geographic ranges; Bald Parrot was only recently described and is poorly Among the species observed within the FLONA, at known. least two deserve special attention because they are on red Bald Parrot (Pyrilia aurantiocephala): These parrots lists of threatened birds. with a bare and orange head were for many years White-crested Guan (Penelope pileata): Although considered to be the young of the Vulturine Parrot (Pyrilia this species is not included by IBAMA on the list of vulturina; Sick 1997). Now recognized as its own species threatened birds in Brazil, White-crested Guan is on the (Gaban-Lima et al. 2002), it is endemic to the Brazilian IUCN’s Red List in the Vulnerable category (Birdlife Amazon, with its entire geographical distribution International 2014a). Due to the prospects of future restricted to a narrow band of the southeastern Amazon deforestation in the Amazon region, where this species within interfluves of the Madeira, Tapajós, and Xingu occurs, and its sensitivity to hunting and fragmentation, Rivers (InfoNatura 2007; del Hoyo et al. 2013). Because the conservation status of this species has received it was only described a few years ago, virtually nothing is considerable attention. This species, as well as other known about its biology. It is highly recommended that cracids, is used as a source of protein by traditional a study be made on its populations including preferential residents (Brooks et al. 2006). During the survey, a single habitat, feeding, and reproductive biology. Gaban-Lima individual of P. pileata (Appendix) was observed and et al. (2002) suggest that the preferential habitat of this photographed on 31 July 2008 (Guilherme 2008). species is “campinarana.” Based on our observations in Amana National Forest, the species seems to occur in Golden Parakeet (Guaruba guarouba): This psittacid the canopy of the floodplain forests, where an individual has been recently reclassified as Vulnerable by Birdlife was collected at site 2 (Figure 4; Appendix). This International (2014b). The threat to this species lies habitat has been one of the most impacted by mining mainly in its habitat loss and offspring capture by illegal in Amana National Forest. As this species occurs only bird traders (Oren & Novaes 1986; Laranjeiras & Cohn- in a very restricted area that has been suffering intense Haft 2009). In Amana, I observed several flocks of 18 anthropogenic pressure, the Bald Parrot was recently to 22 individuals, flying daily over the camps of sites 3, included on the IUCN’s Red List in the Near Threatened 4, 5, 6, and 7. Fortunately, residents raising individuals category (Birdlife International 2014c). of this species as pets were not detected in Amana or its Crimson Topaz (Topaza pella): This magnificent surroundings. Therefore, in a preliminary assessment, hummingbird is well known from the northeastern it seems that populations of this species are in good Amazon (from Guyana to the region around Belém, condition within Amana. Brazil; Schuchmann 1999). Until recently, only two Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme records of Crimson Topaz had been made in the southern Surely, this species must be quite rare in the region, which basin of the middle and lower Amazon River, between would explain the fact that no record of it has been made the cities of Parintins in Amazonas and Santarém in Pará until now. (Hu et al. 2000). Davis & Olmstead (2010) reported a Black-bellied Thorntail (Discosura langsdorffi): This compilation of scattered records of this species made in little hummingbird was known only from the western the southern basin of the Amazon River, including the Amazon (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil) states of Pará, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, and Rondônia. and the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Schuchmann 1999). The few records of this species from the southern bank The first records of this species in the southern portion of the Amazon River indicate that it appears to be rare of the eastern Amazon were made in Alta Floresta, Mato at least in this region. The female specimen of Crimson Grosso (Zimmer et al. 1997). More recently the Black- Topaz collected during this study in Site 3 (Appendix) bellied Thorntail was recorded in the Carajás region extends this species’ distribution a few kilometers west of (Pacheco et al. 2007) and Parauapebas, southeastern the “Trairão” locality, the previous southernmost record of Pará (Endrigo 2011). It seems to be a rare species whose this species from state of Pará (Pacheco & Olmos 2005). populations in the Atlantic Forest (states of Bahia, Espírito Racket-tailed Coquette (Discosura longicaudus): Santo, and Rio de Janeiro) are endangered, mainly due In Amazonia, the occurrence of this species is restricted to deforestation (IBAMA 2003; Olmos 2005). There is to a portion of the northeastern basin and the mouth no information on the conservation status of this species of the Amazon River (Venezuela, Guyana, states of in the eastern portion of the Amazon, a region that has Amazonas, Amapá, and Pará, in Brazil; Schuchmann suffered enormous anthropogenic pressures (Capobianco 1999; Daffonseca 2010). There are also a few records of et al. 2001). There is urgent need to carry out a study this species in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Schuchmann on the distribution and abundance of this taxon within 1999, InfoNatura 2007, Albano 2012). During the first Amana National Forest. During the two field campaigns, field campaign at Site 3, one individual of this species this species was only seen and photographed (Figure 3) was photographed at the forest edge (Figure 5). We at forest edge in Site 3 (Maranhese; Appendix, Figure observed the species and collected one individual in the 3). Further study of this species should work to identify same place three months later (Appendix). These records its preferred habitats in the region, so that they can be considerably extend the geographical distribution of this protected within Amana. species, so that it reaches the southern Brazilian Amazon. FIGURE 3. Black-bellied Thorntail (Discosura langsdorffi). Species recorded in secondary forest edge within Amana National Forest. Besides being a species of interest for conservation, this record extends its known geographical distribution in the Brazilian Amazon. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme FIGURE 4. Bald Parrot (Pyrilia aurantiocephala). Species present in Amana National Forest; still little known regarding its geographical distribution and ecological requirements. This record adds important information for this species. FIGURE 5. Racket-tailed Coquette (Discosura longicaudus). The record of this species in Amana National Forest extends its distribution in the Brazilian Amazon. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme Species Associated with Specific Habitats (Polleto & Aleixo 2005). It was observed on the banks of Igarapé Porquinho at Site 3 and Igarapé Preto at Site 5. Besides terra-firme and floodplain forests, in Amana One individual was collected in a campina spot at Site 4 National Forest there is a vegetation type known as campina, (Appendix). which is found on white sand soil. Campina vegetation has White-bearded Manakin (Manacus manacus): a low height, with a high density of small and thin trees, Although this species is found in many types of and scarcity of emergent trees. Campina shelters a number environments within the Amazon, including terra-firme of species that are closely associated with this habitat (Oren forest and secondary vegetation, referred to as capoeira, 1981; Borges 2004; Guilherme & Borges 2011). Even (Sick 1997), its abundance seems to increase significantly after obtaining information by local residents regarding the in campina (pers. obs.). Throughout the field campaign, presence of several spots of campina and campinarana in 12 individuals of White-bearded Manakin were captured. Amana National Forest, it was only possible to inventory a All observed and captured individuals were along the small portion of this habitat at site 4. stretch of campina at Site 4. Below are comments on some recorded species associated with this vegetation type: Environmental Impacts Red-shouldered Tanager (Tachyphonus phoenicius): This species is associated with campina and campinarana Two types of impacts on the environment of Amana throughout the Amazon (Oren 1981; Borges 2004). One were identified: one that affects the ecosystem as a whole individual was collected in April 2008 (Appendix) during (mining), and another that directly affects the populations the first field campaign. of game birds (hunting). Flame-crowned Manakin (Heterocercus linteatus): Mining - Environmental changes caused by mining, This is an uncommon species associated with sandy soil either gold or cassiterite, were detected at all sites (Figure vegetation, mostly near black water rivers and streams 6) except for Site 1. FIGURE 6. Washing soil to extract gold within Amana National Forest. Note the crater formed in the woods due to soil leaching. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme Evidence of Hunting - Bird hunting activity, nearby. The bird families most affected appear to be especially for food, was detected at all surveyed points Cracidae (Curassows and Guans) and Anatidae (Table 3; within Amana, except Site 1, which had no homes Figure 7). TABLE 3. Evidence of hunting at surveyed sites. Location Hunted Species Evidence Site 2 (JML Gold Mining) Crestless Curassow (Pauxi tuberosa) feathers Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) feathers Site 3 (Maranhense) Crestless Curassow (Pauxi tuberosa) feathers Red-throated Piping-Guan (Aburria cujubi) carcass Site 4 (São Pedro) Ornate Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus ornatus) carcass Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis) carcass (Figure 7) Site 5 (Igarapé Preto) Gray Tinamou (Tinamus tao) Witnessed eggs collected for consumption by Amana National Forest, it is plausible that many species found in this park are also present within Amana. Because the sampling effort of this Rapid Ecological Assessment was much smaller than the effort used in Amazonia National Park (Oren & Parker 1997), many species will be added to this preliminary list (Appendix) as more surveys are accomplished in Amana. Similarity Analysis among Sampling Sites The two distinct groups shown in the dendrogram (Figure 2) were expected. The separation of Sites 6 (Km 180) and 7 (Km 275; Figure 2) were expected since these sites were located in an open area and quite anthropogenically influenced. At these sites, most bird species are associated with open environments and/or forest edges, differentiating these communities from ones located in sites within Amana. The second group formed by sites 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 have in common the fact that they are located in a predominantly forest-based habitat of Amana. Three subdivisions within this group can be noted. The first subdivision includes Sites 5 (southern portion of Amana) and 3 (Maranhense), in which the relative proximity and likeness among explored habitats explain similarities among their avian communities. The FIGURE 7. Black-bellied Whistling-duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis) hunted by a local resident. second subdivision groups Sites 1 (Montanha stream) and 2 (JML Gold Mining), which are highly similar to each DISCUSSION other (Table 2). This resemblance can be explained due to the presence of terra-firme forest with plateaus and well- The number of species reported during this study is marked shallows. The third subdivision is formed only about 45% less than the number of expected species for by Site 4 (São Pedro), located at an intermediate position the total area of Amana National Forest. Oren & Parker between the first and second groups of sites (Figure 2). (1997) recorded 448 bird species in Amazonia National The most plausible explanation for this separation seems Park. As Amazonia National Park is limited to the south to be the presence of two types of environments within Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme the site, which were not sampled at other points. The Environmental impacts first habitat type refers to the floodplain forest and sandy beaches along the Amana River passing through this site. Mining -- When gold mining is performed manually, The presence of this medium-sized river with a range of the impacts are minimal. Mechanized operation, on micro-aquatic habitats allowed observation of some species other hand, causes huge changes in the environment. The that were not detected at other sites (Appendix). However, problem lies in the fact that miners dissolve the forest the largest contributor to the separation of this site from floor with water jets as they search for small fragments of the others was the presence of the white-sand “campina” gold mixed with underground argillaceous rock (Figure forest (sensu, Anderson 1981; Guilherme & Borges 2011). 6). As a result of this procedure, damage is caused to fauna I dedicated special attention to the campina spot in Site 4, and flora on various levels: the first and most harmful is and recorded some species typical of campina that were forest destruction (in general, the floodplain forest) in not found at other sampled sites (Appendix). the operation area (Figure 6); the second is the transport of large amounts of sediment into rivers and streams, Endemic Species forming craters without vegetation at places of operation (Figure 6); third is the use of chemicals (e.g., mercury and According to Cracraft (1985), 21 taxa are considered diesel), the waste of which often remains in the area and endemic to the interfluve of the Tapajós and Madeira is not disposed of properly. Mining, besides destroying Rivers. Eight (38.0%) of these taxa were recorded in the main habitats of shorebird species, can also cause the Amana. White-crested Guan (Penelope pileata), Crimson- death of the birds, due to harmful, but commonly used, bellied Parakeet (Pyrrhura perlata) and Snow-capped chemicals being released into the environment through Manakin (Lepidothrix nattereri) are cited in the list by seepage or accidents. Cracraft (1985) as endemic in this interfluve and were Hunting – Hunting, even for subsistence, may recorded in this work (Appendix). However, later studies reduce the abundance of game species in the Amazon forest showed that White-crested Guan occur in almost the (Thiollay 2005). Avian species hunted as game are often entire southern bank of the middle and lower Amazon naturally rare in tropical forests (Pizo 2001), exacerbating River (InfoNatura 2007, Brooks et al. 2006) and hunting’s effects on their populations. If hunting is Crimson-bellied Parakeet and Snow-capped Manakin associated with deforestation or any other type human- have been recorded out of the interfluve of the Tapajos/ caused habitat modification, populations of these species Madeira Rivers in Rondônia and Mato Grosso States can be drastically reduced and become extinct at certain (Cordasso 2014; Lees et al. 2013b; Zanon 2013). sites within a few years. Hunting in the FLONA is not yet considered as serious a problem as mining. However, Species Associated with Specific Habitats it is necessary to conduct an awareness campaign with local residents. A good awareness campaign could prevent The detection of species closely associated with populations of the most persecuted species from being campina and species with higher abundance in this reduced to unsustainable levels. In combination, habitat habitat is a clear indication of its importance for the management tactics like selective logging are essential maintenance of local biodiversity. It is necessary to to ensure persistence of game species’ populations. An find strategies for preserving this ecosystem against investigation into the combined effects of this type anthropogenic alteration. It is important that biological of forest management as well as hunting pressures on studies be undertaken at these campinas, which likely populations of game birds is recommended to understand hold other rare or geographically restricted species whose how best to maintain game species’ populations in the survival depends solely on maintaining this habitat intact. long term. Despite not being as rich in species as other Amazonian environments (Oren 1981; Borges 2004), they contribute Final Considerations significantly to the increase of  (local) and  (regional) diversity because some species are restricted only to this Although I remained only four days (on average) habitat (Oren 1981; Stotz et. al. 1996; Guilherme & at each point, and census methods did not sample the Borges 2011). In the case of Amana National Forest, it was entire avian community, our results are useful. More than only possible to sample a small portion of campina located half (54.9%) of the expected species for the study area at Site 4. It is essential that the other areas of campina were detected, considering all 448 species recorded in within Amana be identified, studied, and preserved. It is Amazonia National Park and its vicinity (Oren & Parker, important not only to preserve the campinas intact, but 1997). These data were sufficient for performing a Rapid also to maintain the matrix of trees around them. This Ecological Assessment (Sayre et al. 2003). The survey maintenance may contribute significantly to the health of conducted was preliminary — just enough to compile the environment. the REA and identify important areas for biodiversity Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme Brooks, D. M. (Ed.). 2006. Conserving cracids: the most threatened conservation in Amana National Forest. Detection of family of birds in the Americas. Houston: Miscellaneous Publication bird species in the Amazon demands an enormous effort of Houston Museum of Natural Science, No. 6. of fieldwork. However, this effort is not normally used in Carneiro, L. S.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Rêgo, P. S.; Sampaio, I.; Schneider rapid studies aimed at implementing Management Plans H.; & Aleixo, A. 2012. Systematic revision of the Spotted (Vasconcelos 2006). Antpitta (Grallariidae: Hylopezus macularius), with description of a cryptic new species from Brazilian Amazonia. Auk, 129: Despite problems related to mining and hunting, 338−351. the general state of Amana National Forest conservation Capobianco, J. P. R.; Veríssimo, A.; Moreira, A.; Sawyer, D.; Santos, is still satisfactory. The complications seem to be I.; & Pinto, L. P. 2001. Biodiversidade na Amazônia brasileira: concentrated along major rivers and streams in Amana, avaliação e ações prioritárias para conservação, uso sustentável e repartição de benefícios. São Paulo: Estação Liberdade. which somehow has protected the terra-firme (upland) CBRO. 2014. Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos. Lista das forests in interfluves. The terra-firme forests that are aves do Brasil, 11ª edição. www.cbro.org.br/ CBRO/listabr.htm. distant from areas where mining is more intense are (access on 20 January 2014). well preserved and meet all the conditions to maintain Cordasso, V. 2014. [WA1247778, Lepidothrix nattereri (Sclater, viable populations of large birds, such as the Razor- 1865)]. www.wikiaves.com/1247778 (access on: 13 March 2014). Cracraft, J. 1985. Historical biogeography and patterns of billed Curassow (Pauxi tuberosa), as well as large birds differentiation within the South American avifauna: areas of of prey. In fact, several curassow flocks within Amana endemism. Ornithological Monographs, 36:49-84. were observed, indicating no significant hunting activity DOU. 2009. Diário oficial da união. Number 91, 15 May 2009, in areas where there is no mining. Additionally, local Section 1, p. 88. Federal Government of Brazil. Daffonseca, J. A. 2010. [WA217099, Discosura longicaudus (Gmelin, residents have confirmed the presence of Harpy Eagle 1788)]. www.wikiaves.com/217099 (access on 30 October 2012). at almost all sampling points. The presence of the above Davis, B. J. W & Olmstead, S. T. 2010. Aves, Apodiformes, listed species, coupled with the occurrence of other cracids Trochilidae, Topaza pella (Linnaeus, 1758): a range reinforcement such as the Red-throated Piping-Guan (Aburria cujubi) in Amazonian Brazil. Check List, 6: 397-399. del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., & Christie, D. A. 2013. and guans (Penelope sp.), trumpeters (Psophia viridis), Handbook of the birds of the world. Special volume: new species large Psittacidae (parrots), and Ramphastidae (toucans), and global index. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. indicate good environmental health of much of Amana. Endrigo, E. 2011. [WA419216, Discosura langsdorffi (Temminck, 1821)]. www.wikiaves.com/419216 (access on: 30 October 2012). Gaban-Lima, R.; Raposo, M. A.; & Höfling, E. 2002. Description of a new species of Pionopsitta (Aves: Psittacidae) endemic to ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Brazil. Auk,119:815-819. Guilherme, E. & Borges, S. H. 2011. Ornithological records from a campina/campinarana enclave on the upper Juruá river, Acre, Special thanks to Sérgio Morato and Michela Brazil. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 123:24-32. Cavilha, representatives of STCP - Engenharia de Guilherme, E. 2008. [WA436254, Penelope pileata Wagler, 1830]. Projetos Ltda. (Engineering Projects Ltd.), for inviting www.wikiaves.com/436254 (access on: 09 November 2012). Hu, D. S.; Joseph, L.; & Agro, D. 2000. Distribution, variation, me to join the wildlife survey team for the preparation of and taxonomy of Topaza hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae). a management plan of Amana National Forest. Thanks to Ornitologia Neotropical, 11:123-142. the renowned technician in taxidermy, Mr. Manoel Santa IBAMA 2003. Lista nacional das espécies brasileiras ameaçadas de Brígida, for patience during the preparation of specimens extinção. http://www.mma.gov.br/port/sbf/fauna/index.cfm. in the field. I also thank Alexandre Aleixo and Fátima (access on 23 August 2008). InfoNatura. 2007. Animals and ecosystems of Latin America, v. 5.0. Lima of the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi for receiving, Arlington: NatureServe. http://www.natureserve.org/infonatura. cataloging, and housing the collected specimens. (access on 23 August 2008). Laranjeiras, T. O. & Cohn-Haft, M. 2009. Where is the symbol of Brazilian Ornithology? The geographic distribution of the Golden Parakeet (Guaruba guarouba – Psittacidae). Revista Brasileira de REFERENCES Ornitologia, 17:1-19. Lees, A. C., Moura; N. G., Andretti, C. B.; Davis, B. J. W.; Lopes, E. V.; Henriques, L. M. P.; Aleixo, A.; Barlow, J.; Ferreira, Albano, C. 2012. [WA681177, Discosura longicaudus (Gmelin, J.; & Gardner, T. A. 2013a. 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Barcelona: Lynx in Neotropical ornithology honoring Ted Parker. Ornithological Edicions. Monographs 48. Sick, H. 1997. Ornitologia Brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Nova Fronteira. Associate Editor: Alexander C. Lees Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme APPENDIX: List of bird species recorded in Amana National Forest and its surroundings, with information on habitat. Sites: 1 - Right bank of Montanha Stream; 2 - JMS Gold Mining, right bank of Porquinho Stream; 3 - Maranhense; 4 - São Pedro, on the right bank of Amana River; 5 – Igarapé Preto, Southern FLONA point; 6 - FLONA surrounding area, km 180, at the banks of Transamazon Highway; and 7 - FLONA surrounding area, km 275, Rabelo Location. Record Type: I – interview, O - observation, P - photo published on WikiAves (www.wikiaves.org), S - specimen collected and deposited in the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, V - recognized vocalization. Habitats: A - anthropogenic area; AE - aerial environment, ETF - edge of terra-firme rainforest; EFR - edge of floodplain rainforest, ESR - edge of second-growth forest, FR - floodplain rainforest, O - open area, R – banks of rivers and lakes, P - ponds of water along roads and highways, Pa – pasture, S - sandy soil vegetation, TF – terra-firme rainforest. Family and Species English Name Habitat Records Type Sites TINAMIDAE V Recorded evidence Tinamus tao Gray Tinamou TF 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (egg) Tinamus major Great Tinamou TF I 2, 3, 4 Crypturellus cinereus Cinereous Tinamou TF O, V 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Crypturellus soui Little Tinamou TF O, V 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Crypturellus variegatus Variegated Tinamou TF S (MPEG 65102) 1 ANATIDAE Dendrocygna autumnalis Black-bellied Whistling-Duck R O 1, 4 Cairina moschata Muscovy Duck R O 1, 5 CRACIDAE O, I , Recorded evidence Pauxi tuberosa Razor-billed Curassow TF 1, 2, 3, 4 (feathers) Penelope pileata White-crested Guan TF O, P(WA436254) Aburria cujubi Red-throated Piping-Guan TF O, S (MPEG 65593) 1, 3 PHALACROCORACIDAE Phalacrocorax brasilianus Neotropic Cormorant R O 4 ANHINGIDAE Anhinga anhinga Anhinga R O 1, 4 ARDEIDAE R Tigrisoma lineatum Rufescent Tiger-Heron R O 1, 4 Cochlearius cochlearius Boat-billed Heron R I 4 Butorides striata Striated Heron R O 1, 3, 4, 5 Pilherodius pileatus Capped Heron R O 1, 5 Bubulcus ibis Cattle Egret O, Pa O, S (MPEG 65103) 3, 4 Ardea alba Great Egret R O 2, 4 Egretta thula Snowy Egret R O 2, 4 Ardea cocoi Cocoi Heron R O 1, 4 CATHARTIDAE Cathartes aura Turkey Vulture ETF, O O 2, 3, 4, 6 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme Family and Species English Name Habitat Records Type Sites Cathartes burrovianus Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture ETF, O O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Coragyps atratus Black Vulture O O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Sarcoramphus papa King Vulture TF, O O 1, 3 ACCIPITRIDAE Elanoides forficatus Swallow-tailed Kite TF, O O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 Ictinia plumbea Plumbeous Kite EFR O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Geranospiza caerulescens Crane Hawk TF O 4 Urubitinga urubitinga Great Black-Hawk EFR O 4 Rupornis magnirostris Roadside Hawk ETF,FR, O O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Buteo nitidus Gray Hawk EFR, O O 4 Buteo brachyurus Short-tailed Hawk O O 6 Harpia harpyja Harpy Eagle TF O 4 Spizaetus tyrannus Black Hawk-Eagle EFR O 2 Spizaetus ornatus Ornate Hawk-Eagle TF I 4 PSOPHIIDAE Psophia viridis Green-winged Trumpeter TF O 1, 3, 4 RALLIDAE Aramides cajaneus Gray-necked Wood-Rail TF O 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 EURYPYGIDAE Eurypyga helias Sunbittern R I 1, 2, 4, 5 CHARADRIIDAE Vanellus cayanus Pied Lapwing R O, S (MPEG 65595) 4 Vanellus chilensis Southern Lapwing O O 4, 6, 5 Charadrius collaris Collared Plover P O 6 JACANIDAE Jacana jacana Wattled Jacana R O 4, 5 STERNIDAE Sternula superciliaris Yellow-billed Tern R O 4 COLUMBIDAE Columbina passerina Common Ground-Dove O O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Columba livia Rock Pigeon A O 6 Patagioenas speciosa Scaled Pigeon ETF O 3, 4, 5 Patagioenas cayennensis Pale-vented Pigeon TF O 2, 3, 4, 5 Leptotila verreauxi White-tipped Dove TF S (MPEG 65596) 4, 5 Leptotila rufaxilla Gray-fronted Dove TF O 2, 3 Geotrygon montana Ruddy Quail-Dove TF S (MPEG 65597) 1, 4, 5 OPISTHOCOMIDAE Opisthocomus hoazin Hoatzin R O 1, 2, 4 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme Family and Species English Name Habitat Records Type Sites CUCULIDAE Piaya cayana Squirrel Cuckoo TF O 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Crotophaga major Greater Ani R O 1, 2, 4 Crotophaga ani Smooth-billed Ani ESR, O O 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Neomorphus squamiger Scaled Ground-Cuckoo TF O 1 STRIGIDAE Megascops choliba Tropical Screech-Owl ETF V, O 1, 3 Athene cunicularia Burrowing Owl O O 7 NYCTIBIIDAE Nyctibius griseus Common Potoo TF V, O 1, 5 CAPRIMULGIDAE Chordeiles nacunda Nacunda Nighthawk O O 6 Hydropsalis albicollis Pauraque ETF V, O 1,2,3,4,6,5,7 Hydropsalis nigrescens Blackish Nightjar S S (MPEG 65600) 4 Hydropsalis torquata Scissor-tailed Nightjar R S (MPEG 65106) 2 APODIDAE Chaetura brachyura Short-tailed Swift AE O 2, 3 Tachornis squamata Fork-tailed Palm-Swift AE O 2, 3, 4, 5 Cypseloides senex Great Dusky Swift AE O 4 TROCHILIDAE Threnetes leucurus Pale-tailed Barbthroat TF S (MPEG 65604) 3 Phaethornis ruber Reddish Hermit TF O, V 2, 5 S (MPEG 65104, 65605, Phaethornis philippii Needle-billed Hermit S, TF, ETF 1, 2, 4, 5 65606, 65607, 65110) Phaethornis superciliosus Long-tailed Hermit TF S (65609, 65610) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Phaethornis malaris Great-billed Hermit TF S (MPEG 65111) 3 Campylopterus largipennis Gray-breasted Sabrewing ESR S (MPEG 65112) 3 Florisuga mellivora White-necked Jacobin ESR O 3, 5 Anthracothorax nigricollis Black-throated Mango ETF O 4 Topaza pella Crimson Topaz TF S (MPEG 65603) 3 Discosura langsdorffi Black-bellied Thorntail ESR O, P(WA784190) 3 S (MPEG 65602), Discosura longicaudus Racket-tailed Coquette ESR 3 P(WA784194) Thalurania furcata Fork-tailed Woodnymph TF S (MPEG 65611, 65612) 1, 2, 3, 5 S (MPEG 65601) Hylocharis sapphirina Rufous-throated Sapphire ESR 3 P(WA453732) Heliothryx auritus Black-eared Fairy ETF S (MPEG 65608) 5 TROGONIDAE Trogon viridis White-tailed Trogon EFR O 2 Trogon curucui Blue-crowned Trogon EFR O 1, 2 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme Family and Species English Name Habitat Records Type Sites Trogon violaceus Violaceous Trogon TF O 1, 4 Trogon collaris Collared Trogon TF O 3 Trogon rufus Black-throated Trogon TF O 2 Trogon melanurus Black-tailed Trogon TF O 1 ALCEDINIDAE Megaceryle torquata Ringed Kingfisher R O 1, 2, 4 Chloroceryle amazona Amazon Kingfisher R O 1, 2, 4 Chloroceryle aenea American Pygmy Kingfisher R O 1, 2, 4 Chloroceryle americana Green Kingfisher R O 1, 2, 4 Chloroceryle inda Green-and-rufous Kingfisher TF O 1 MOMOTIDAE Electron platyrhynchum Broad-billed Motmot EFR O 1 Baryphthengus martii Rufous Motmot TF S (MPEG 65594) 1, 3, 5 Momotus momota Amazonian Motmot TF O 1 GALBULIDAE Galbula dea Paradise Jacamar FR O 1, 2 BUCCONIDAE Bucco tamatia Spotted Puffbird TF O, P (WA785084) 1 Malacoptila rufa Rufous-necked Puffbird TF S (MPEG 65613) 1, 2, 5 Monasa nigrifrons Black-fronted Nunbird TF, FR O 1, 2, 3, 4 Monasa morphoeus White-fronted Nunbird ETF O 1, 3 Chelidoptera tenebrosa Swallow-winged Puffbird EFR O 1, 2, 4, 6, 5, 7 RAMPHASTIDAE Ramphastos tucanus White-throated Toucan TF O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Ramphastos vitellinus Channel-billed Toucan TF O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Pteroglossus inscriptus Lettered Aracari EFR O 4 Pteroglossus aracari Black-necked Aracari TF O 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 PICIDAE Picumnus aurifrons Bar-breasted Piculet TF S (MPEG 65113) 3 Melanerpes cruentatus Yellow-tufted Woodpecker ETF O 1, 2, 3, 4 Piculus flavigula Yellow-throated Woodpecker TF O 1 Celeus grammicus Scaly-breasted Woodpecker EFR O 1 Dryocopus lineatus Lineated Woodpecker EFR O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Campephilus rubricollis Red-necked Woodpecker ETF O 2 FALCONIDAE Daptrius ater Black Caracara ETF, FR O 2, 4, 6 Ibycter americanus Red-throated Caracara EFR O 1, 4 Milvago chimachima Yellow-headed Caracara ETF, O O 1 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme Family and Species English Name Habitat Records Type Sites Herpetotheres cachinnans Laughing Falcon ETF, O O 1, 3, 4, 5 Falco rufigularis Bat Falcon EFR O 1, 4, 5 PSITTACIDAE Ara ararauna Blue-and-yellow Macaw TF I 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Ara macao Scarlet Macaw TF O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Ara chloropterus Red-and-green Macaw TF I 4 Orthopsittaca manilatus Red-bellied Macaw TF O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Guaruba guarouba Golden Parakeet TF, FR O 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Psittacara leucophthalmus White-eyed Parakeet TF, FR O 6, 5 Pyrrhura perlata Crimson-bellied Parakeet EFR O 1, 4 Brotogeris versicolurus Canary-winged Parakeet EFR O 1, 4 Brotogeris chrysoptera Golden-winged Parakeet ETF O 1, 4, 5 Pyrilia aurantiocephala Bald Parrot EFR S (MPEG 65599) 2 Amazona ochrocephala Yellow-crowned Parrot EFR O 4 Amazona kawalli Kawall’s Parrot EFR O 4 Amazona amazonica Orange-winged Parrot ESR O 1, 4, 6, 5, 7 Deroptyus accipitrinus Red-fan Parrot EFR I 4 THAMNOPHILIDAE Epinecrophylla leucophthalma White-eyed Antwren FR S (MPEG 65127, 65128) 1 Myrmotherula multostriata Amazonian Streaked-Antwren TF O, S (MPEG 65135) 2, 3 Myrmotherula axillaris White-flanked Antwren TF S (MPEG 65625) 3 Myrmotherula longipennis Long-winged Antwren TF S (MPEG 65622) 3 Isleria hauxwelli Plain-throated Antwren FR O 1 O, S (MPEG 65125, Thamnomanes saturninus Saturnine Antshrike TF 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 65126) Thamnomanes caesius Cinereous Antshrike TF O, S (MPEG 65124) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Thamnophilus doliatus Barred Antshrike ESR O 2, 5 Thamnophilus schistaceus Plain-winged Antshrike TF S (MPEG 65123) 2 Thamnophilus aethiops White-shouldered Antshrike TF O 3 Thamnophilus stictocephalus Natterer’s Slaty-Antshrike TF O 1 Thamnophilus amazonicus Amazonian Antshrike TF S (MPEG 65626) 1 Myrmoderus ferrugineus Ferruginous-backed Antbird TF O, S (MPEG 65130) 1, 2, 5 Hylophylax naevius Spot-backed Antbird FR O 1 Myrmoborus myotherinus Black-faced Antbird TF O, S (MPEG 65129) 1, 2 Hypocnemis striata Spix’s Warbling-Antbird TF O, S (MPEG 65628) 1, 3, 5 Willisornis poecilinotus Scale-backed Antbird TF S (MPEG 65132) 1, 2, 3, 5 Phlegopsis nigromaculata Black-spotted Bare-eye TF O, S (MPEG 65133) 1, 2, 3, 5 Phlegopsis borbae Pale-faced Antbird TF S (MPEG 65631, 65632) 3 Rhegmatorhina berlepschi Harlequin Antbird TF S (MPEG 65131, 65134) 1, 2, 3, 5 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme Family and Species English Name Habitat Records Type Sites FORMICARIIDAE Formicarius analis Black-faced Antthrush TF O 1, 2, 3, 5 DENDROCOLAPTIDAE S (MPEG 65115, 65116, Dendrocincla fuliginosa Plain-brown Woodcreeper TF 1, 4 65615) Dendrocincla merula White-chinned Woodcreeper TF S (MPEG 65614) 3 Deconychura longicauda Long-tailed Woodcreeper TF S (MPEG 65616) 1 Certhiasomus stictolaemus Spot-throated Woodcreeper TF S (MPEG 65617) 1, 3 Glyphorynchus spirurus Wedge-billed Woodcreeper TF S (MPEG 65121) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Dendrocolaptes hoffmannsi Hoffmanns’s Woodcreeper TF S (MPEG 65117) 1, 3 Xiphorhynchus ocellatus Ocellated Woodcreeper FR S (MPEG 65119) 1 Xiphorhynchus elegans Elegant Woodcreeper TF S (MPEG 65120) 1, 2 Xiphorhynchus guttatus Buff-throated Woodcreeper FR S (MPEG 65118) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 XENOPIDAE Xenops tenuirostris Slender-billed Xenops FR O 1 Xenops minutus Plain Xenops FR O 1 FURNARIIDAE Philydor pyrrhodes Cinnamon-rumped Foliage-gleaner FR S (MPEG 65122) 1, 2 Philydor erythropterum Chestnut-winged Foliage-gleaner FR O 1 Automolus paraensis Para Foliage-gleaner FR S (MPEG 65620) 1, 2, 3 Automolus ochrolaemus Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner FR O 2 Synallaxis gujanensis Plain-crowned Spinetail EFR S (MPEG 65621) 4 PIPRIDAE Pipra fasciicauda Band-tailed Manakin FR S (MPEG 65152) 2, 3 O, S (MPEG 65645, Ceratopipra rubrocapilla Red-headed Manakin FR 1, 2, 3, 4 65153) S (MPEG 65149, 65150, Lepidothrix nattereri Snow-capped Manakin FR 1, 3, 4 65151) Manacus manacus White-bearded Manakin S, S (MPEG 65148) 4 O, S (MPEG 65158), Heterocercus linteatus Flame-crowned Manakin FR, S 2, 4, 6 P(WA784186) Chiroxiphia pareola Blue-backed Manakin FR S (MPEG 65644) 1 ONYCHORHYNCHIDAE Onychorhynchus coronatus Royal Flycatcher FR O 2, 5 Myiobius barbatus Whiskered Flycatcher FR S (MPEG 65634) 3, 4 TITYRIDAE Laniocera hypopyrra Cinereous Mourner FR S (MPEG 65154) 4 Tityra inquisitor Black-crowned Tityra S S (MPEG 65642) 4 Tityra cayana Black-tailed Tityra TF, S O, S (MPEG 65641) 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5. 7 Tityra semifasciata Masked Tityra EFR O 4 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme Family and Species English Name Habitat Records Type Sites COTINGIDAE Lipaugus vociferans Screaming Piha TF,FR O, V 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Xipholena lamellipennis White-tailed Cotinga FR O 3 Gymnoderus foetidus Bare-necked Fruitcrow FR O 2 TYRANNIDAE Mionectes oleagineus Ochre-bellied Flycatcher FR O, S (MPEG 65146) 1, 2, 3, 4 Mionectes macconnelli McConnell’s Flycatcher S S (MPEG 65638, 65639) 4 Hemitriccus minor Snethlage’s Tody-Tyrant FR S (MPEG 65145) 1 Myiopagis gaimardii Forest Elaenia ESR S (MPEG 65635) 3, 5 Elaenia parvirostris Small-billed Elaenia EFR S (MPEG 65139) 4 Elaenia spectabilis Large Elaenia ESR S (MPEG 65142) 3 S (MPEG 65636, 65637, Tolmomyias flaviventris Yellow-breasted Flycatcher ESR 3, 4 65140, 65141) Tolmomyias poliocephalus Gray-crowned Flycatcher ESR S (MPEG 65633) 3 Lathrotriccus euleri Euler’s Flycatcher ESR O 6 Legatus leucophaius Piratic Flycatcher ESR O, S (MPEG 65144) 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 Myiozetetes cayanensis Rusty-margined Flycatcher ETF O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Pitangus sulphuratus Great Kiskadee ETF O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Myiodynastes maculatus Streaked Flycatcher ETF O 2, 6 Megarynchus pitangua Boat-billed Flycatcher EFR O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Empidonomus varius Variegated Flycatcher EFR O, P(WA454249) 3, 6 Tyrannus melancholicus Tropical Kingbird EFR O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Myiarchus ferox Short-crested Flycatcher EFR O, S (MPEG 65640) 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Attila spadiceus Bright-rumped Attila FR O, S (MPEG 65137) 2, 3 VIREONIDAE Cyclarhis gujanensis Rufous-browed Peppershrike EFR O, V 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 Vireo olivaceus Red-eyed Vireo ESR S (MPEG 65647) 6 Hylophilus semicinereus Gray-chested Greenlet ESR S (MPEG 65648) 6 Hylophilus ochraceiceps Tawny-crowned Greenlet FR S (MPEG 65160) 1 HIRUNDINIDAE Tachycineta albiventer White-winged Swallow R O 1, 2, 4 Progne tapera Brown-chested Martin O O 4, 6 Progne chalybea Gray-breasted Martin O, A O 4, 6, 5, 7 Atticora fasciata White-banded Swallow R O, S (MPEG 65162) 1, 2, 4, 5 TROGLODYTIDAE Microcerculus marginatus Scaly-breasted Wren TF S (MPEG 65155) 1 Troglodytes musculus Southern House Wren A, O O 2, 6 Campylorhynchus turdinus Thrush-like Wren EFR O 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Pheugopedius genibarbis Moustached Wren ESR O, S (MPEG 65156) 2, 5 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme Family and Species English Name Habitat Records Type Sites Cantorchilus leucotis Buff-breasted Wren S S (MPEG 65157) 4 TURDIDAE Turdus fumigatus Cocoa Thrush EFR S (MPEG 65654) 1, 4 Turdus lawrencii Lawrence’s Thrush FR O, V 1 Turdus albicollis White-necked Thrush TF S (MPEG 65655) 3, 5 PASSERELLIDAE Ammodramus aurifrons Yellow-browed Sparrow O O 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Arremon taciturnus Pectoral Sparrow S S (MPEG 65168, 65656) 3, 4 PARULIDAE Myiothlypis rivularis Neotropical River Warbler FR S (MPEG 65161) 1 ICTERIDAE Psarocolius viridis Green Oropendola EFR, FR O 3, 4 Icterus cayanensis Epaulet Oriole EFR, FR O 5 Cacicus cela Yellow-rumped Cacique EFR O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Molothrus oryzivorus Bobolink R O 4 Molothrus bonariensis Shiny Cowbird EFR S (MPEG 65662) 2, 4 Sturnella militaris Red-breasted Blackbird O S (MPEG 65169) 4, 5, 7 THRAUPIDAE Saltator grossus Slate-colored Grosbeak ESR O 2 Saltator maximus Buff-throated Saltator EFR O 2, 3, 4 Habia rubica Red-crowned Ant-Tanager TF S (MPEG 65657) 1 Lanio cristatus Flame-crested Tanager TF S (MPEG 65653) 1 Lanio surinamus Fulvous-crested Tanager EFR O 3 O, S (MPEG 65164, Tachyphonus rufus White-lined Tanager EFR 2, 4, 6, 5, 7 65165, 65166) Tachyphonus phoenicius Red-shouldered Tanager S S (MPEG 65159) 4 Ramphocelus carbo Silver-beaked Tanager EFR O, S (MPEG 65658) 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Tangara episcopus Blue-gray Tanager EFR O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Tangara palmarum Palm Tanager EFR O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Tangara chilensis Paradise Tanager TF O 3 Tangara schrankii Green-and-gold Tanager FR O, P(WA784182) 2 Dacnis lineata Black-faced Dacnis TF, ESR S (MPEG 65178, 65179) 3 Dacnis cayana Blue Dacnis TF, ESR S (MPEG 65177) 3 S (MPEG 65170, 65171, Cyanerpes nitidus Short-billed Honeycreeper TF, ESR 3 65172, 65173, 65174) Cyanerpes caeruleus Purple Honeycreeper TF, ESR S (MPEG 65175, 65176) 3 Volatinia jacarina Blue-black Grassquit ESR O 4, 6, 5, 7 S (MPEG 65167, 65663), Sporophila americana Wing-barred Seedeater O 4 P(WA453727) Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme Family and Species English Name Habitat Records Type Sites O, S (MPEG 65664, Sporophila nigricollis Yellow-bellied Seedeater ESR 3, 6 65666) Sporophila castaneiventris Chestnut-bellied Seedeater O O 4, 6, 5, 7 Sporophila angolensis Chestnut-bellied Seed-Finch O O, S (MPEG 65665) 2, 3 , 4 Paroaria gularis Red-capped Cardinal R O 1, 2, 4, 5 CARDINALIDAE Caryothraustes canadensis Yellow-green Grosbeak S S (MPEG 65660) 4 Cyanoloxia rothschildii Rothschild’s Blue Grosbeak TF O 1, 3, 4 FRINGILIDAE Euphonia xanthogaster Orange-bellied Euphonia TF S (MPEG 65667) 3 - Refers to interviews with local residents (at each sampling point) on the occurrence of some bird species in the Amana National Forest. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Ornithology Research Springer Journals

A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil)

Ornithology Research , Volume 22 (1) – Mar 1, 2014

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Abstract

Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 1-21 ARTICLE March 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme Universidade Federal do Acre, Museu Universitário, Laboratório de Ornitologia. Campus Universitário - BR 364, Km 04, Distrito industrial, Rio Branco - Acre, Brazil. CEP: 69.920-900. E-mail: guilherme@ufac.br Received 23 November 2012. Accepted 2 February 2014. ABSTRACT: Amana National Forest (FLONA Amana) is located on the left bank of the middle Tapajós River, in the interfluve of the Tapajós and Madeira Rivers, state of Pará, Brazil. I performed a “Rapid Ecological Assessment” (REA) on the bird communities of the park to identify important areas for avian conservation and areas where activities could impact bird communities. Field surveys were carried out at the end of the rainy season and at the beginning of the dry season. Nine points distributed among five sites were sampled within Amana or very close to its borders. Three approaches were used to survey the avifauna of each point: (a) a quantitative approach using mist nets, (b) a qualitative approach using field observations with binoculars, and (c) interviews with local residents. With a sampling effort of 3,320 net hours, interviews with local residents, and approximately 60 additional hours of visual observations, 247 species of birds were recorded belonging to 51 families. Eight taxa are considered endemic to the interfluve of the Tapajós/Madeira Rivers. Two species are on IUCN’s Red List of endangered birds (Penelope pileata and Guaruba guarouba), and the known distribution of two species (Topaza pella and Discosura longicaudus) is extended by our surveys. Two activities within Amana were detected to have possible negative impacts on avifauna, specifically hunting and gold and cassiterite mining. KEYWORDS: birds, Amana National Forest, Amazon, conservation. INTRODUCTION (Epinecrophylla dentei); Alta Floresta Antpitta (Hylopezus whittakeri); Chico’s Tyrannulet (Zimmerius chicomendesi); Although the Brazilian Amazon has been subject to and Sucunduri Yellow-margined Flycatcher (Tolmomyias scientific study for many decades, due to its large expanse, sucunduri) (Gaban-Lima et al. 2002; Whitney et al. 2013a; Carneiro et al. 2012; Whitney et al. 2013b; it is still considered under studied by ornithologists (Oren & Albuquerque 1991). For example, the region between Whitney et al. 2013c). the lower and middle Tapajós River in Pará State has been Amana National Forest was created by the Brazilian visited and studied for over 100 years by Brazilian and Government by an unnumbered decree on 13 February foreign ornithologists (Snethlage 1908; Oren & Parker 2006, and has an area of 540,417.17 ha (DOU 2009). Amana was created to promote sustainable multiple- 1997; Pacheco & Olmos 2005; Santos et al. 2011; Lees et al. 2013a). It is estimated that more than 2,000 specimens use management of forest resources; maintain and have been collected from the lower and middle Tapajós protect water resources and biodiversity; and support River, the area that contains Amazonia National Park development of methods for the sustainable use of natural (Parque Nacional da Amazônia) and Amana National resources (DOU 2009). The goal of this study was to conduct a preliminary Forest (Floresta Nacional do Amana). The study of birds in this region over the past 100 years has resulted in the survey of the local avifauna to identify potential description of 16 new species and records for over 400 anthropogenic impacts on and important areas for bird species in the area between the city of Itaituba and the conservation of bird communities within Amana. I southern boundary of Amazonia National Park (Oren & performed a “Rapid Ecological Assessment” (REA; Sayre et al. 2003) of Amana. The REA is an integrated Parker 1997). Even recently, new bird species have been described to the interfluve of the Madeira and Tapajós methodology used to direct the efforts of conservation Rivers, the most recent ones being the Bald Parrot (Pyrilia planning sites and contributes to the inventories of aurantiocephala); Roosevelt Stipple-throated Antwren biodiversity (Sayre et al. 2003). Together with information A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme from other taxa, this survey will enable the creation of a beginning of the dry season from 21 July to 8 August management plan for Amana National Forest. 2008. Nine points distributed among five sites were sampled within Amana (Table 1, Figure 1). Four sampled sites were visited during both sampling periods, and one METHODS (Site 5 - Igarapé Preto) during only the second sampling period (Table 1). Two additional locations along the Location of Sites and Sampling Period Transamazonian Highway were also partially sampled during the sampling period (Sites 6 and 7; Table 1, Figure Field surveys were performed at the end of the 1). General information is shown in Table 1, including rainy season, from 24 April to 6 May 2008 and at the habitat present at every studied point. FIGURE 1. Location of the Amana National Forest and sampling sites. 1 - Igarapé Montanha (Montanha stream); 2 - JML Gold Mining; 3 – Maranhense Landing Strip; 4 - São Pedro Landing Strip; 5 – Igarapé Preto (Preto stream); 6 - Amana surrounding area (Km 180); 7 - Amana surrounding area (Km 275, Rabelo). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme TABLE 1. Sites and points of observation and collection of birds during the two campaigns of Rapid Ecological Assessment in Amana National Forest, Pará, Brazil. Coordinates Site Point Sampling Days Habitat WS 1 - Montanha Stream 01 56°58'10.1"W 04°52'58,7"S 25-27 April 2008 Plateau of terra-firme forest 02 56°58'07.0"W 04°52'55.9"S 22-24 July 2008 Lowland alluvial forest 2 - JML Gold Mining 03 57°32'14.9"W 05°06'35.7"S 29-30 April 2008 Terra-firme forest with palm trees 04 57°32'07.8"W 05°06'28.3"S 30 July to Secondary forest with bamboo 01 August 2008 3 - Maranhense 05 57°28'32.0"W 05°21'10.7S 01-03 May 2008 Terra-firme forest with palm trees 06 57°28'27.0"W 05°21'04.7S 02-04 August 2008 Submontane forest with palm trees 4 - São Pedro 07 04°46'41.1"S 05-06 May 2008 Vegetation on white sand soil 57°28'24.7"W (campina) 08 57°28'28.4"W 04°46'43.4"S 26-29 April 2008 Edge of floodplain forest, sandy beaches, and campina 5 - Southern Portion of 09 57°42'29,1"W 05°54'31,9"S 06-08 August 2008 Edge of terra-firme forest FLONA (Igarapé Preto) 6 - FLONA 56°55'29.0" 04°58'32.7 24 April 2008 and Km 180 - anthropogenically Surrounding 21 July 2008 influenced area (open area) 7 - FLONA 57°18'10.8" 05°35'07.1" 05 August 2008 Km 275 – Rabelo - Surrounding anthropogenically influenced area (open area) Species Survey (a) Mist-net surveys: Eighteen mist nets were used, 12 x 2 m in length with 36-mm mesh (Rosaminas®). Three approaches were used to survey the avifauna of The nets were placed in pre-existing transects at each each point: (a) quantitative, with mist nets, (b) qualitative, point where they remained on average for two days. through field observations with binoculars, and (c) The opening of nets took place soon after sunrise, from interviews with local residents. Scientific nomenclature 0530 to approximately 1600 h in order to maximize is in accordance with the Comitê Brasileiro de Registros catches. Individuals were identified, photographed, and Ornitológicos (CBRO 2014). released. To monitor recaptures during each campaign, Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme individuals released were marked by cutting the tip of two index was calculated based on the presence and absence rectrices. Some individuals were collected and prepared of species at each site (Magurran 1988). Cluster analysis as specimens to document occurrence at the study area. was performed using the MVSP 3.1 software package Voucher specimens were taken with the permission of (Kovach 2003). Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis-IBAMA (Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources). All RESULTS collected specimens are currently deposited for further studies at the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Two hundred forty-seven species of birds belonging Pará. to 51 families were recorded (Appendix). The capture (b) Observations: Observations were performed effort consisted of 3,320 hours/net and approximately daily with binoculars (Eagle Optics, 8 x 42) from 0600- 60 additional hours of visual observation. The most representative families were Thraupidae, Thamnophilidae, 0900 h. Trails inside the forest, roads, and open areas around the main localities were censused. Occasionally, Tyrannidae and Psittacidae, with 21, 20, 18, and I made boat trips along rivers and streams near the sites 14 species, respectively (Appendix). More than 300 to maximize the observation of riverside species. Since individuals were captured by mist net and 130 specimens I did not use recording devices, I was unable to identify were collected for further study. all vocalizations heard during censuses. I report our observations of the portion of the avain community I was Similarity Analysis among Sampling Sites able to positively identify. (c) Interviews: Some local residents, mostly miners, All sites located within the FLONA had an average were interviewed about which bird species are best similarity above 0.3 (30%), making them more similar to each other when compared to sites located outside known in the region. In order to minimize the confusion generated by common bird names (which vary from the National Forest (Table 2, Figure 2). The dendrogram one region to another), books containing photos of (Figure 2) resulting from hierarchical cluster analysis Amazonian birds with their species names were shown. showed the formation of two distinct groups: the first This methodology allowed us to check in loco whether group was formed by sites 6 and 7, and the second one by the other sites. the species mentioned in the interviews were expected to occur in this region of study. Endemic Species Data Analysis We recorded eight interfluve endemics taxa (Cracraft 1985) in Amana, including Red-throated Piping- Aiming to understand the degree of similarity among bird communities at different sites surveyed in Guan (Aburria cujubi nattereri), Bar-breasted Piculet this study, similarity analysis was performed. A Jaccard (Picumnus aurifrons borbae), Hoffmanns’s Woodcreeper FIGURE 2. Hierarchical clustering analysis for avian survey sites in Amana National Forest using Jaccard similarity distances. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme TABLE 2. Similarity matrix of Jaccard coefficients among sites surveyed in Amana National Forest. Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Site 4 Site 5 Site 6 Site 7 Site 1 1 Site 2 0.427 1 Site 3 0.373 0.427 1 Site 4 0.391 0.408 0.356 1 Site 5 0.357 0.415 0.39 0.374 1 Site 6 0.184 0.279 0.252 0.262 0.351 1 Site 7 0.193 0.254 0.237 0.25 0.388 0.66 1 (Dendrocolaptes hoffmannsi), Ferruginous-backed Antbird Species of Regional Relevance (Myrmoderus ferrugineus elatus), Long-winged Antwren (Myrmotherula longipennis ochrogyna), White-eyed During this Rapid Ecological Assessment of Amana Antwren (Epinecrophylla leucophthalma phaeonota), National Forest, three important records were made: Harlequin Antbird (Rhegmatorhina berlepschi), and Pale- Bald Parrot (Pyrilia aurantiocephala), Crimson Topaz faced Antbird (Phlegopsis borbae). (Topaza pella), and Racket-tailed Coquette (Discosura longicaudus). Crimson Topaz and Racket-tailed records Threatened Species represent an extension of their known geographic ranges; Bald Parrot was only recently described and is poorly Among the species observed within the FLONA, at known. least two deserve special attention because they are on red Bald Parrot (Pyrilia aurantiocephala): These parrots lists of threatened birds. with a bare and orange head were for many years White-crested Guan (Penelope pileata): Although considered to be the young of the Vulturine Parrot (Pyrilia this species is not included by IBAMA on the list of vulturina; Sick 1997). Now recognized as its own species threatened birds in Brazil, White-crested Guan is on the (Gaban-Lima et al. 2002), it is endemic to the Brazilian IUCN’s Red List in the Vulnerable category (Birdlife Amazon, with its entire geographical distribution International 2014a). Due to the prospects of future restricted to a narrow band of the southeastern Amazon deforestation in the Amazon region, where this species within interfluves of the Madeira, Tapajós, and Xingu occurs, and its sensitivity to hunting and fragmentation, Rivers (InfoNatura 2007; del Hoyo et al. 2013). Because the conservation status of this species has received it was only described a few years ago, virtually nothing is considerable attention. This species, as well as other known about its biology. It is highly recommended that cracids, is used as a source of protein by traditional a study be made on its populations including preferential residents (Brooks et al. 2006). During the survey, a single habitat, feeding, and reproductive biology. Gaban-Lima individual of P. pileata (Appendix) was observed and et al. (2002) suggest that the preferential habitat of this photographed on 31 July 2008 (Guilherme 2008). species is “campinarana.” Based on our observations in Amana National Forest, the species seems to occur in Golden Parakeet (Guaruba guarouba): This psittacid the canopy of the floodplain forests, where an individual has been recently reclassified as Vulnerable by Birdlife was collected at site 2 (Figure 4; Appendix). This International (2014b). The threat to this species lies habitat has been one of the most impacted by mining mainly in its habitat loss and offspring capture by illegal in Amana National Forest. As this species occurs only bird traders (Oren & Novaes 1986; Laranjeiras & Cohn- in a very restricted area that has been suffering intense Haft 2009). In Amana, I observed several flocks of 18 anthropogenic pressure, the Bald Parrot was recently to 22 individuals, flying daily over the camps of sites 3, included on the IUCN’s Red List in the Near Threatened 4, 5, 6, and 7. Fortunately, residents raising individuals category (Birdlife International 2014c). of this species as pets were not detected in Amana or its Crimson Topaz (Topaza pella): This magnificent surroundings. Therefore, in a preliminary assessment, hummingbird is well known from the northeastern it seems that populations of this species are in good Amazon (from Guyana to the region around Belém, condition within Amana. Brazil; Schuchmann 1999). Until recently, only two Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme records of Crimson Topaz had been made in the southern Surely, this species must be quite rare in the region, which basin of the middle and lower Amazon River, between would explain the fact that no record of it has been made the cities of Parintins in Amazonas and Santarém in Pará until now. (Hu et al. 2000). Davis & Olmstead (2010) reported a Black-bellied Thorntail (Discosura langsdorffi): This compilation of scattered records of this species made in little hummingbird was known only from the western the southern basin of the Amazon River, including the Amazon (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil) states of Pará, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, and Rondônia. and the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Schuchmann 1999). The few records of this species from the southern bank The first records of this species in the southern portion of the Amazon River indicate that it appears to be rare of the eastern Amazon were made in Alta Floresta, Mato at least in this region. The female specimen of Crimson Grosso (Zimmer et al. 1997). More recently the Black- Topaz collected during this study in Site 3 (Appendix) bellied Thorntail was recorded in the Carajás region extends this species’ distribution a few kilometers west of (Pacheco et al. 2007) and Parauapebas, southeastern the “Trairão” locality, the previous southernmost record of Pará (Endrigo 2011). It seems to be a rare species whose this species from state of Pará (Pacheco & Olmos 2005). populations in the Atlantic Forest (states of Bahia, Espírito Racket-tailed Coquette (Discosura longicaudus): Santo, and Rio de Janeiro) are endangered, mainly due In Amazonia, the occurrence of this species is restricted to deforestation (IBAMA 2003; Olmos 2005). There is to a portion of the northeastern basin and the mouth no information on the conservation status of this species of the Amazon River (Venezuela, Guyana, states of in the eastern portion of the Amazon, a region that has Amazonas, Amapá, and Pará, in Brazil; Schuchmann suffered enormous anthropogenic pressures (Capobianco 1999; Daffonseca 2010). There are also a few records of et al. 2001). There is urgent need to carry out a study this species in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Schuchmann on the distribution and abundance of this taxon within 1999, InfoNatura 2007, Albano 2012). During the first Amana National Forest. During the two field campaigns, field campaign at Site 3, one individual of this species this species was only seen and photographed (Figure 3) was photographed at the forest edge (Figure 5). We at forest edge in Site 3 (Maranhese; Appendix, Figure observed the species and collected one individual in the 3). Further study of this species should work to identify same place three months later (Appendix). These records its preferred habitats in the region, so that they can be considerably extend the geographical distribution of this protected within Amana. species, so that it reaches the southern Brazilian Amazon. FIGURE 3. Black-bellied Thorntail (Discosura langsdorffi). Species recorded in secondary forest edge within Amana National Forest. Besides being a species of interest for conservation, this record extends its known geographical distribution in the Brazilian Amazon. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme FIGURE 4. Bald Parrot (Pyrilia aurantiocephala). Species present in Amana National Forest; still little known regarding its geographical distribution and ecological requirements. This record adds important information for this species. FIGURE 5. Racket-tailed Coquette (Discosura longicaudus). The record of this species in Amana National Forest extends its distribution in the Brazilian Amazon. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme Species Associated with Specific Habitats (Polleto & Aleixo 2005). It was observed on the banks of Igarapé Porquinho at Site 3 and Igarapé Preto at Site 5. Besides terra-firme and floodplain forests, in Amana One individual was collected in a campina spot at Site 4 National Forest there is a vegetation type known as campina, (Appendix). which is found on white sand soil. Campina vegetation has White-bearded Manakin (Manacus manacus): a low height, with a high density of small and thin trees, Although this species is found in many types of and scarcity of emergent trees. Campina shelters a number environments within the Amazon, including terra-firme of species that are closely associated with this habitat (Oren forest and secondary vegetation, referred to as capoeira, 1981; Borges 2004; Guilherme & Borges 2011). Even (Sick 1997), its abundance seems to increase significantly after obtaining information by local residents regarding the in campina (pers. obs.). Throughout the field campaign, presence of several spots of campina and campinarana in 12 individuals of White-bearded Manakin were captured. Amana National Forest, it was only possible to inventory a All observed and captured individuals were along the small portion of this habitat at site 4. stretch of campina at Site 4. Below are comments on some recorded species associated with this vegetation type: Environmental Impacts Red-shouldered Tanager (Tachyphonus phoenicius): This species is associated with campina and campinarana Two types of impacts on the environment of Amana throughout the Amazon (Oren 1981; Borges 2004). One were identified: one that affects the ecosystem as a whole individual was collected in April 2008 (Appendix) during (mining), and another that directly affects the populations the first field campaign. of game birds (hunting). Flame-crowned Manakin (Heterocercus linteatus): Mining - Environmental changes caused by mining, This is an uncommon species associated with sandy soil either gold or cassiterite, were detected at all sites (Figure vegetation, mostly near black water rivers and streams 6) except for Site 1. FIGURE 6. Washing soil to extract gold within Amana National Forest. Note the crater formed in the woods due to soil leaching. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme Evidence of Hunting - Bird hunting activity, nearby. The bird families most affected appear to be especially for food, was detected at all surveyed points Cracidae (Curassows and Guans) and Anatidae (Table 3; within Amana, except Site 1, which had no homes Figure 7). TABLE 3. Evidence of hunting at surveyed sites. Location Hunted Species Evidence Site 2 (JML Gold Mining) Crestless Curassow (Pauxi tuberosa) feathers Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) feathers Site 3 (Maranhense) Crestless Curassow (Pauxi tuberosa) feathers Red-throated Piping-Guan (Aburria cujubi) carcass Site 4 (São Pedro) Ornate Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus ornatus) carcass Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis) carcass (Figure 7) Site 5 (Igarapé Preto) Gray Tinamou (Tinamus tao) Witnessed eggs collected for consumption by Amana National Forest, it is plausible that many species found in this park are also present within Amana. Because the sampling effort of this Rapid Ecological Assessment was much smaller than the effort used in Amazonia National Park (Oren & Parker 1997), many species will be added to this preliminary list (Appendix) as more surveys are accomplished in Amana. Similarity Analysis among Sampling Sites The two distinct groups shown in the dendrogram (Figure 2) were expected. The separation of Sites 6 (Km 180) and 7 (Km 275; Figure 2) were expected since these sites were located in an open area and quite anthropogenically influenced. At these sites, most bird species are associated with open environments and/or forest edges, differentiating these communities from ones located in sites within Amana. The second group formed by sites 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 have in common the fact that they are located in a predominantly forest-based habitat of Amana. Three subdivisions within this group can be noted. The first subdivision includes Sites 5 (southern portion of Amana) and 3 (Maranhense), in which the relative proximity and likeness among explored habitats explain similarities among their avian communities. The FIGURE 7. Black-bellied Whistling-duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis) hunted by a local resident. second subdivision groups Sites 1 (Montanha stream) and 2 (JML Gold Mining), which are highly similar to each DISCUSSION other (Table 2). This resemblance can be explained due to the presence of terra-firme forest with plateaus and well- The number of species reported during this study is marked shallows. The third subdivision is formed only about 45% less than the number of expected species for by Site 4 (São Pedro), located at an intermediate position the total area of Amana National Forest. Oren & Parker between the first and second groups of sites (Figure 2). (1997) recorded 448 bird species in Amazonia National The most plausible explanation for this separation seems Park. As Amazonia National Park is limited to the south to be the presence of two types of environments within Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme the site, which were not sampled at other points. The Environmental impacts first habitat type refers to the floodplain forest and sandy beaches along the Amana River passing through this site. Mining -- When gold mining is performed manually, The presence of this medium-sized river with a range of the impacts are minimal. Mechanized operation, on micro-aquatic habitats allowed observation of some species other hand, causes huge changes in the environment. The that were not detected at other sites (Appendix). However, problem lies in the fact that miners dissolve the forest the largest contributor to the separation of this site from floor with water jets as they search for small fragments of the others was the presence of the white-sand “campina” gold mixed with underground argillaceous rock (Figure forest (sensu, Anderson 1981; Guilherme & Borges 2011). 6). As a result of this procedure, damage is caused to fauna I dedicated special attention to the campina spot in Site 4, and flora on various levels: the first and most harmful is and recorded some species typical of campina that were forest destruction (in general, the floodplain forest) in not found at other sampled sites (Appendix). the operation area (Figure 6); the second is the transport of large amounts of sediment into rivers and streams, Endemic Species forming craters without vegetation at places of operation (Figure 6); third is the use of chemicals (e.g., mercury and According to Cracraft (1985), 21 taxa are considered diesel), the waste of which often remains in the area and endemic to the interfluve of the Tapajós and Madeira is not disposed of properly. Mining, besides destroying Rivers. Eight (38.0%) of these taxa were recorded in the main habitats of shorebird species, can also cause the Amana. White-crested Guan (Penelope pileata), Crimson- death of the birds, due to harmful, but commonly used, bellied Parakeet (Pyrrhura perlata) and Snow-capped chemicals being released into the environment through Manakin (Lepidothrix nattereri) are cited in the list by seepage or accidents. Cracraft (1985) as endemic in this interfluve and were Hunting – Hunting, even for subsistence, may recorded in this work (Appendix). However, later studies reduce the abundance of game species in the Amazon forest showed that White-crested Guan occur in almost the (Thiollay 2005). Avian species hunted as game are often entire southern bank of the middle and lower Amazon naturally rare in tropical forests (Pizo 2001), exacerbating River (InfoNatura 2007, Brooks et al. 2006) and hunting’s effects on their populations. If hunting is Crimson-bellied Parakeet and Snow-capped Manakin associated with deforestation or any other type human- have been recorded out of the interfluve of the Tapajos/ caused habitat modification, populations of these species Madeira Rivers in Rondônia and Mato Grosso States can be drastically reduced and become extinct at certain (Cordasso 2014; Lees et al. 2013b; Zanon 2013). sites within a few years. Hunting in the FLONA is not yet considered as serious a problem as mining. However, Species Associated with Specific Habitats it is necessary to conduct an awareness campaign with local residents. A good awareness campaign could prevent The detection of species closely associated with populations of the most persecuted species from being campina and species with higher abundance in this reduced to unsustainable levels. In combination, habitat habitat is a clear indication of its importance for the management tactics like selective logging are essential maintenance of local biodiversity. It is necessary to to ensure persistence of game species’ populations. An find strategies for preserving this ecosystem against investigation into the combined effects of this type anthropogenic alteration. It is important that biological of forest management as well as hunting pressures on studies be undertaken at these campinas, which likely populations of game birds is recommended to understand hold other rare or geographically restricted species whose how best to maintain game species’ populations in the survival depends solely on maintaining this habitat intact. long term. Despite not being as rich in species as other Amazonian environments (Oren 1981; Borges 2004), they contribute Final Considerations significantly to the increase of  (local) and  (regional) diversity because some species are restricted only to this Although I remained only four days (on average) habitat (Oren 1981; Stotz et. al. 1996; Guilherme & at each point, and census methods did not sample the Borges 2011). In the case of Amana National Forest, it was entire avian community, our results are useful. More than only possible to sample a small portion of campina located half (54.9%) of the expected species for the study area at Site 4. It is essential that the other areas of campina were detected, considering all 448 species recorded in within Amana be identified, studied, and preserved. It is Amazonia National Park and its vicinity (Oren & Parker, important not only to preserve the campinas intact, but 1997). These data were sufficient for performing a Rapid also to maintain the matrix of trees around them. This Ecological Assessment (Sayre et al. 2003). The survey maintenance may contribute significantly to the health of conducted was preliminary — just enough to compile the environment. the REA and identify important areas for biodiversity Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme Brooks, D. M. (Ed.). 2006. Conserving cracids: the most threatened conservation in Amana National Forest. Detection of family of birds in the Americas. Houston: Miscellaneous Publication bird species in the Amazon demands an enormous effort of Houston Museum of Natural Science, No. 6. of fieldwork. However, this effort is not normally used in Carneiro, L. S.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Rêgo, P. S.; Sampaio, I.; Schneider rapid studies aimed at implementing Management Plans H.; & Aleixo, A. 2012. Systematic revision of the Spotted (Vasconcelos 2006). Antpitta (Grallariidae: Hylopezus macularius), with description of a cryptic new species from Brazilian Amazonia. Auk, 129: Despite problems related to mining and hunting, 338−351. the general state of Amana National Forest conservation Capobianco, J. P. R.; Veríssimo, A.; Moreira, A.; Sawyer, D.; Santos, is still satisfactory. The complications seem to be I.; & Pinto, L. P. 2001. Biodiversidade na Amazônia brasileira: concentrated along major rivers and streams in Amana, avaliação e ações prioritárias para conservação, uso sustentável e repartição de benefícios. São Paulo: Estação Liberdade. which somehow has protected the terra-firme (upland) CBRO. 2014. Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos. Lista das forests in interfluves. The terra-firme forests that are aves do Brasil, 11ª edição. www.cbro.org.br/ CBRO/listabr.htm. distant from areas where mining is more intense are (access on 20 January 2014). well preserved and meet all the conditions to maintain Cordasso, V. 2014. [WA1247778, Lepidothrix nattereri (Sclater, viable populations of large birds, such as the Razor- 1865)]. www.wikiaves.com/1247778 (access on: 13 March 2014). Cracraft, J. 1985. Historical biogeography and patterns of billed Curassow (Pauxi tuberosa), as well as large birds differentiation within the South American avifauna: areas of of prey. In fact, several curassow flocks within Amana endemism. Ornithological Monographs, 36:49-84. were observed, indicating no significant hunting activity DOU. 2009. Diário oficial da união. Number 91, 15 May 2009, in areas where there is no mining. Additionally, local Section 1, p. 88. Federal Government of Brazil. Daffonseca, J. A. 2010. [WA217099, Discosura longicaudus (Gmelin, residents have confirmed the presence of Harpy Eagle 1788)]. www.wikiaves.com/217099 (access on 30 October 2012). at almost all sampling points. The presence of the above Davis, B. J. W & Olmstead, S. T. 2010. Aves, Apodiformes, listed species, coupled with the occurrence of other cracids Trochilidae, Topaza pella (Linnaeus, 1758): a range reinforcement such as the Red-throated Piping-Guan (Aburria cujubi) in Amazonian Brazil. Check List, 6: 397-399. del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., & Christie, D. A. 2013. and guans (Penelope sp.), trumpeters (Psophia viridis), Handbook of the birds of the world. Special volume: new species large Psittacidae (parrots), and Ramphastidae (toucans), and global index. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. indicate good environmental health of much of Amana. Endrigo, E. 2011. [WA419216, Discosura langsdorffi (Temminck, 1821)]. www.wikiaves.com/419216 (access on: 30 October 2012). Gaban-Lima, R.; Raposo, M. A.; & Höfling, E. 2002. Description of a new species of Pionopsitta (Aves: Psittacidae) endemic to ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Brazil. Auk,119:815-819. Guilherme, E. & Borges, S. H. 2011. Ornithological records from a campina/campinarana enclave on the upper Juruá river, Acre, Special thanks to Sérgio Morato and Michela Brazil. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 123:24-32. Cavilha, representatives of STCP - Engenharia de Guilherme, E. 2008. [WA436254, Penelope pileata Wagler, 1830]. Projetos Ltda. (Engineering Projects Ltd.), for inviting www.wikiaves.com/436254 (access on: 09 November 2012). Hu, D. S.; Joseph, L.; & Agro, D. 2000. Distribution, variation, me to join the wildlife survey team for the preparation of and taxonomy of Topaza hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae). a management plan of Amana National Forest. Thanks to Ornitologia Neotropical, 11:123-142. the renowned technician in taxidermy, Mr. Manoel Santa IBAMA 2003. Lista nacional das espécies brasileiras ameaçadas de Brígida, for patience during the preparation of specimens extinção. http://www.mma.gov.br/port/sbf/fauna/index.cfm. in the field. I also thank Alexandre Aleixo and Fátima (access on 23 August 2008). InfoNatura. 2007. Animals and ecosystems of Latin America, v. 5.0. Lima of the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi for receiving, Arlington: NatureServe. http://www.natureserve.org/infonatura. cataloging, and housing the collected specimens. (access on 23 August 2008). Laranjeiras, T. O. & Cohn-Haft, M. 2009. Where is the symbol of Brazilian Ornithology? The geographic distribution of the Golden Parakeet (Guaruba guarouba – Psittacidae). Revista Brasileira de REFERENCES Ornitologia, 17:1-19. Lees, A. C., Moura; N. G., Andretti, C. B.; Davis, B. J. W.; Lopes, E. V.; Henriques, L. M. P.; Aleixo, A.; Barlow, J.; Ferreira, Albano, C. 2012. [WA681177, Discosura longicaudus (Gmelin, J.; & Gardner, T. A. 2013a. 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Barcelona: Lynx in Neotropical ornithology honoring Ted Parker. Ornithological Edicions. Monographs 48. Sick, H. 1997. Ornitologia Brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Nova Fronteira. Associate Editor: Alexander C. Lees Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme APPENDIX: List of bird species recorded in Amana National Forest and its surroundings, with information on habitat. Sites: 1 - Right bank of Montanha Stream; 2 - JMS Gold Mining, right bank of Porquinho Stream; 3 - Maranhense; 4 - São Pedro, on the right bank of Amana River; 5 – Igarapé Preto, Southern FLONA point; 6 - FLONA surrounding area, km 180, at the banks of Transamazon Highway; and 7 - FLONA surrounding area, km 275, Rabelo Location. Record Type: I – interview, O - observation, P - photo published on WikiAves (www.wikiaves.org), S - specimen collected and deposited in the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, V - recognized vocalization. Habitats: A - anthropogenic area; AE - aerial environment, ETF - edge of terra-firme rainforest; EFR - edge of floodplain rainforest, ESR - edge of second-growth forest, FR - floodplain rainforest, O - open area, R – banks of rivers and lakes, P - ponds of water along roads and highways, Pa – pasture, S - sandy soil vegetation, TF – terra-firme rainforest. Family and Species English Name Habitat Records Type Sites TINAMIDAE V Recorded evidence Tinamus tao Gray Tinamou TF 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (egg) Tinamus major Great Tinamou TF I 2, 3, 4 Crypturellus cinereus Cinereous Tinamou TF O, V 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Crypturellus soui Little Tinamou TF O, V 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Crypturellus variegatus Variegated Tinamou TF S (MPEG 65102) 1 ANATIDAE Dendrocygna autumnalis Black-bellied Whistling-Duck R O 1, 4 Cairina moschata Muscovy Duck R O 1, 5 CRACIDAE O, I , Recorded evidence Pauxi tuberosa Razor-billed Curassow TF 1, 2, 3, 4 (feathers) Penelope pileata White-crested Guan TF O, P(WA436254) Aburria cujubi Red-throated Piping-Guan TF O, S (MPEG 65593) 1, 3 PHALACROCORACIDAE Phalacrocorax brasilianus Neotropic Cormorant R O 4 ANHINGIDAE Anhinga anhinga Anhinga R O 1, 4 ARDEIDAE R Tigrisoma lineatum Rufescent Tiger-Heron R O 1, 4 Cochlearius cochlearius Boat-billed Heron R I 4 Butorides striata Striated Heron R O 1, 3, 4, 5 Pilherodius pileatus Capped Heron R O 1, 5 Bubulcus ibis Cattle Egret O, Pa O, S (MPEG 65103) 3, 4 Ardea alba Great Egret R O 2, 4 Egretta thula Snowy Egret R O 2, 4 Ardea cocoi Cocoi Heron R O 1, 4 CATHARTIDAE Cathartes aura Turkey Vulture ETF, O O 2, 3, 4, 6 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme Family and Species English Name Habitat Records Type Sites Cathartes burrovianus Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture ETF, O O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Coragyps atratus Black Vulture O O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Sarcoramphus papa King Vulture TF, O O 1, 3 ACCIPITRIDAE Elanoides forficatus Swallow-tailed Kite TF, O O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 Ictinia plumbea Plumbeous Kite EFR O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Geranospiza caerulescens Crane Hawk TF O 4 Urubitinga urubitinga Great Black-Hawk EFR O 4 Rupornis magnirostris Roadside Hawk ETF,FR, O O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Buteo nitidus Gray Hawk EFR, O O 4 Buteo brachyurus Short-tailed Hawk O O 6 Harpia harpyja Harpy Eagle TF O 4 Spizaetus tyrannus Black Hawk-Eagle EFR O 2 Spizaetus ornatus Ornate Hawk-Eagle TF I 4 PSOPHIIDAE Psophia viridis Green-winged Trumpeter TF O 1, 3, 4 RALLIDAE Aramides cajaneus Gray-necked Wood-Rail TF O 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 EURYPYGIDAE Eurypyga helias Sunbittern R I 1, 2, 4, 5 CHARADRIIDAE Vanellus cayanus Pied Lapwing R O, S (MPEG 65595) 4 Vanellus chilensis Southern Lapwing O O 4, 6, 5 Charadrius collaris Collared Plover P O 6 JACANIDAE Jacana jacana Wattled Jacana R O 4, 5 STERNIDAE Sternula superciliaris Yellow-billed Tern R O 4 COLUMBIDAE Columbina passerina Common Ground-Dove O O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Columba livia Rock Pigeon A O 6 Patagioenas speciosa Scaled Pigeon ETF O 3, 4, 5 Patagioenas cayennensis Pale-vented Pigeon TF O 2, 3, 4, 5 Leptotila verreauxi White-tipped Dove TF S (MPEG 65596) 4, 5 Leptotila rufaxilla Gray-fronted Dove TF O 2, 3 Geotrygon montana Ruddy Quail-Dove TF S (MPEG 65597) 1, 4, 5 OPISTHOCOMIDAE Opisthocomus hoazin Hoatzin R O 1, 2, 4 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme Family and Species English Name Habitat Records Type Sites CUCULIDAE Piaya cayana Squirrel Cuckoo TF O 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Crotophaga major Greater Ani R O 1, 2, 4 Crotophaga ani Smooth-billed Ani ESR, O O 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Neomorphus squamiger Scaled Ground-Cuckoo TF O 1 STRIGIDAE Megascops choliba Tropical Screech-Owl ETF V, O 1, 3 Athene cunicularia Burrowing Owl O O 7 NYCTIBIIDAE Nyctibius griseus Common Potoo TF V, O 1, 5 CAPRIMULGIDAE Chordeiles nacunda Nacunda Nighthawk O O 6 Hydropsalis albicollis Pauraque ETF V, O 1,2,3,4,6,5,7 Hydropsalis nigrescens Blackish Nightjar S S (MPEG 65600) 4 Hydropsalis torquata Scissor-tailed Nightjar R S (MPEG 65106) 2 APODIDAE Chaetura brachyura Short-tailed Swift AE O 2, 3 Tachornis squamata Fork-tailed Palm-Swift AE O 2, 3, 4, 5 Cypseloides senex Great Dusky Swift AE O 4 TROCHILIDAE Threnetes leucurus Pale-tailed Barbthroat TF S (MPEG 65604) 3 Phaethornis ruber Reddish Hermit TF O, V 2, 5 S (MPEG 65104, 65605, Phaethornis philippii Needle-billed Hermit S, TF, ETF 1, 2, 4, 5 65606, 65607, 65110) Phaethornis superciliosus Long-tailed Hermit TF S (65609, 65610) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Phaethornis malaris Great-billed Hermit TF S (MPEG 65111) 3 Campylopterus largipennis Gray-breasted Sabrewing ESR S (MPEG 65112) 3 Florisuga mellivora White-necked Jacobin ESR O 3, 5 Anthracothorax nigricollis Black-throated Mango ETF O 4 Topaza pella Crimson Topaz TF S (MPEG 65603) 3 Discosura langsdorffi Black-bellied Thorntail ESR O, P(WA784190) 3 S (MPEG 65602), Discosura longicaudus Racket-tailed Coquette ESR 3 P(WA784194) Thalurania furcata Fork-tailed Woodnymph TF S (MPEG 65611, 65612) 1, 2, 3, 5 S (MPEG 65601) Hylocharis sapphirina Rufous-throated Sapphire ESR 3 P(WA453732) Heliothryx auritus Black-eared Fairy ETF S (MPEG 65608) 5 TROGONIDAE Trogon viridis White-tailed Trogon EFR O 2 Trogon curucui Blue-crowned Trogon EFR O 1, 2 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme Family and Species English Name Habitat Records Type Sites Trogon violaceus Violaceous Trogon TF O 1, 4 Trogon collaris Collared Trogon TF O 3 Trogon rufus Black-throated Trogon TF O 2 Trogon melanurus Black-tailed Trogon TF O 1 ALCEDINIDAE Megaceryle torquata Ringed Kingfisher R O 1, 2, 4 Chloroceryle amazona Amazon Kingfisher R O 1, 2, 4 Chloroceryle aenea American Pygmy Kingfisher R O 1, 2, 4 Chloroceryle americana Green Kingfisher R O 1, 2, 4 Chloroceryle inda Green-and-rufous Kingfisher TF O 1 MOMOTIDAE Electron platyrhynchum Broad-billed Motmot EFR O 1 Baryphthengus martii Rufous Motmot TF S (MPEG 65594) 1, 3, 5 Momotus momota Amazonian Motmot TF O 1 GALBULIDAE Galbula dea Paradise Jacamar FR O 1, 2 BUCCONIDAE Bucco tamatia Spotted Puffbird TF O, P (WA785084) 1 Malacoptila rufa Rufous-necked Puffbird TF S (MPEG 65613) 1, 2, 5 Monasa nigrifrons Black-fronted Nunbird TF, FR O 1, 2, 3, 4 Monasa morphoeus White-fronted Nunbird ETF O 1, 3 Chelidoptera tenebrosa Swallow-winged Puffbird EFR O 1, 2, 4, 6, 5, 7 RAMPHASTIDAE Ramphastos tucanus White-throated Toucan TF O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Ramphastos vitellinus Channel-billed Toucan TF O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Pteroglossus inscriptus Lettered Aracari EFR O 4 Pteroglossus aracari Black-necked Aracari TF O 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 PICIDAE Picumnus aurifrons Bar-breasted Piculet TF S (MPEG 65113) 3 Melanerpes cruentatus Yellow-tufted Woodpecker ETF O 1, 2, 3, 4 Piculus flavigula Yellow-throated Woodpecker TF O 1 Celeus grammicus Scaly-breasted Woodpecker EFR O 1 Dryocopus lineatus Lineated Woodpecker EFR O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Campephilus rubricollis Red-necked Woodpecker ETF O 2 FALCONIDAE Daptrius ater Black Caracara ETF, FR O 2, 4, 6 Ibycter americanus Red-throated Caracara EFR O 1, 4 Milvago chimachima Yellow-headed Caracara ETF, O O 1 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme Family and Species English Name Habitat Records Type Sites Herpetotheres cachinnans Laughing Falcon ETF, O O 1, 3, 4, 5 Falco rufigularis Bat Falcon EFR O 1, 4, 5 PSITTACIDAE Ara ararauna Blue-and-yellow Macaw TF I 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Ara macao Scarlet Macaw TF O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Ara chloropterus Red-and-green Macaw TF I 4 Orthopsittaca manilatus Red-bellied Macaw TF O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Guaruba guarouba Golden Parakeet TF, FR O 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Psittacara leucophthalmus White-eyed Parakeet TF, FR O 6, 5 Pyrrhura perlata Crimson-bellied Parakeet EFR O 1, 4 Brotogeris versicolurus Canary-winged Parakeet EFR O 1, 4 Brotogeris chrysoptera Golden-winged Parakeet ETF O 1, 4, 5 Pyrilia aurantiocephala Bald Parrot EFR S (MPEG 65599) 2 Amazona ochrocephala Yellow-crowned Parrot EFR O 4 Amazona kawalli Kawall’s Parrot EFR O 4 Amazona amazonica Orange-winged Parrot ESR O 1, 4, 6, 5, 7 Deroptyus accipitrinus Red-fan Parrot EFR I 4 THAMNOPHILIDAE Epinecrophylla leucophthalma White-eyed Antwren FR S (MPEG 65127, 65128) 1 Myrmotherula multostriata Amazonian Streaked-Antwren TF O, S (MPEG 65135) 2, 3 Myrmotherula axillaris White-flanked Antwren TF S (MPEG 65625) 3 Myrmotherula longipennis Long-winged Antwren TF S (MPEG 65622) 3 Isleria hauxwelli Plain-throated Antwren FR O 1 O, S (MPEG 65125, Thamnomanes saturninus Saturnine Antshrike TF 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 65126) Thamnomanes caesius Cinereous Antshrike TF O, S (MPEG 65124) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Thamnophilus doliatus Barred Antshrike ESR O 2, 5 Thamnophilus schistaceus Plain-winged Antshrike TF S (MPEG 65123) 2 Thamnophilus aethiops White-shouldered Antshrike TF O 3 Thamnophilus stictocephalus Natterer’s Slaty-Antshrike TF O 1 Thamnophilus amazonicus Amazonian Antshrike TF S (MPEG 65626) 1 Myrmoderus ferrugineus Ferruginous-backed Antbird TF O, S (MPEG 65130) 1, 2, 5 Hylophylax naevius Spot-backed Antbird FR O 1 Myrmoborus myotherinus Black-faced Antbird TF O, S (MPEG 65129) 1, 2 Hypocnemis striata Spix’s Warbling-Antbird TF O, S (MPEG 65628) 1, 3, 5 Willisornis poecilinotus Scale-backed Antbird TF S (MPEG 65132) 1, 2, 3, 5 Phlegopsis nigromaculata Black-spotted Bare-eye TF O, S (MPEG 65133) 1, 2, 3, 5 Phlegopsis borbae Pale-faced Antbird TF S (MPEG 65631, 65632) 3 Rhegmatorhina berlepschi Harlequin Antbird TF S (MPEG 65131, 65134) 1, 2, 3, 5 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme Family and Species English Name Habitat Records Type Sites FORMICARIIDAE Formicarius analis Black-faced Antthrush TF O 1, 2, 3, 5 DENDROCOLAPTIDAE S (MPEG 65115, 65116, Dendrocincla fuliginosa Plain-brown Woodcreeper TF 1, 4 65615) Dendrocincla merula White-chinned Woodcreeper TF S (MPEG 65614) 3 Deconychura longicauda Long-tailed Woodcreeper TF S (MPEG 65616) 1 Certhiasomus stictolaemus Spot-throated Woodcreeper TF S (MPEG 65617) 1, 3 Glyphorynchus spirurus Wedge-billed Woodcreeper TF S (MPEG 65121) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Dendrocolaptes hoffmannsi Hoffmanns’s Woodcreeper TF S (MPEG 65117) 1, 3 Xiphorhynchus ocellatus Ocellated Woodcreeper FR S (MPEG 65119) 1 Xiphorhynchus elegans Elegant Woodcreeper TF S (MPEG 65120) 1, 2 Xiphorhynchus guttatus Buff-throated Woodcreeper FR S (MPEG 65118) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 XENOPIDAE Xenops tenuirostris Slender-billed Xenops FR O 1 Xenops minutus Plain Xenops FR O 1 FURNARIIDAE Philydor pyrrhodes Cinnamon-rumped Foliage-gleaner FR S (MPEG 65122) 1, 2 Philydor erythropterum Chestnut-winged Foliage-gleaner FR O 1 Automolus paraensis Para Foliage-gleaner FR S (MPEG 65620) 1, 2, 3 Automolus ochrolaemus Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner FR O 2 Synallaxis gujanensis Plain-crowned Spinetail EFR S (MPEG 65621) 4 PIPRIDAE Pipra fasciicauda Band-tailed Manakin FR S (MPEG 65152) 2, 3 O, S (MPEG 65645, Ceratopipra rubrocapilla Red-headed Manakin FR 1, 2, 3, 4 65153) S (MPEG 65149, 65150, Lepidothrix nattereri Snow-capped Manakin FR 1, 3, 4 65151) Manacus manacus White-bearded Manakin S, S (MPEG 65148) 4 O, S (MPEG 65158), Heterocercus linteatus Flame-crowned Manakin FR, S 2, 4, 6 P(WA784186) Chiroxiphia pareola Blue-backed Manakin FR S (MPEG 65644) 1 ONYCHORHYNCHIDAE Onychorhynchus coronatus Royal Flycatcher FR O 2, 5 Myiobius barbatus Whiskered Flycatcher FR S (MPEG 65634) 3, 4 TITYRIDAE Laniocera hypopyrra Cinereous Mourner FR S (MPEG 65154) 4 Tityra inquisitor Black-crowned Tityra S S (MPEG 65642) 4 Tityra cayana Black-tailed Tityra TF, S O, S (MPEG 65641) 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5. 7 Tityra semifasciata Masked Tityra EFR O 4 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme Family and Species English Name Habitat Records Type Sites COTINGIDAE Lipaugus vociferans Screaming Piha TF,FR O, V 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Xipholena lamellipennis White-tailed Cotinga FR O 3 Gymnoderus foetidus Bare-necked Fruitcrow FR O 2 TYRANNIDAE Mionectes oleagineus Ochre-bellied Flycatcher FR O, S (MPEG 65146) 1, 2, 3, 4 Mionectes macconnelli McConnell’s Flycatcher S S (MPEG 65638, 65639) 4 Hemitriccus minor Snethlage’s Tody-Tyrant FR S (MPEG 65145) 1 Myiopagis gaimardii Forest Elaenia ESR S (MPEG 65635) 3, 5 Elaenia parvirostris Small-billed Elaenia EFR S (MPEG 65139) 4 Elaenia spectabilis Large Elaenia ESR S (MPEG 65142) 3 S (MPEG 65636, 65637, Tolmomyias flaviventris Yellow-breasted Flycatcher ESR 3, 4 65140, 65141) Tolmomyias poliocephalus Gray-crowned Flycatcher ESR S (MPEG 65633) 3 Lathrotriccus euleri Euler’s Flycatcher ESR O 6 Legatus leucophaius Piratic Flycatcher ESR O, S (MPEG 65144) 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 Myiozetetes cayanensis Rusty-margined Flycatcher ETF O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Pitangus sulphuratus Great Kiskadee ETF O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Myiodynastes maculatus Streaked Flycatcher ETF O 2, 6 Megarynchus pitangua Boat-billed Flycatcher EFR O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Empidonomus varius Variegated Flycatcher EFR O, P(WA454249) 3, 6 Tyrannus melancholicus Tropical Kingbird EFR O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Myiarchus ferox Short-crested Flycatcher EFR O, S (MPEG 65640) 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Attila spadiceus Bright-rumped Attila FR O, S (MPEG 65137) 2, 3 VIREONIDAE Cyclarhis gujanensis Rufous-browed Peppershrike EFR O, V 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 Vireo olivaceus Red-eyed Vireo ESR S (MPEG 65647) 6 Hylophilus semicinereus Gray-chested Greenlet ESR S (MPEG 65648) 6 Hylophilus ochraceiceps Tawny-crowned Greenlet FR S (MPEG 65160) 1 HIRUNDINIDAE Tachycineta albiventer White-winged Swallow R O 1, 2, 4 Progne tapera Brown-chested Martin O O 4, 6 Progne chalybea Gray-breasted Martin O, A O 4, 6, 5, 7 Atticora fasciata White-banded Swallow R O, S (MPEG 65162) 1, 2, 4, 5 TROGLODYTIDAE Microcerculus marginatus Scaly-breasted Wren TF S (MPEG 65155) 1 Troglodytes musculus Southern House Wren A, O O 2, 6 Campylorhynchus turdinus Thrush-like Wren EFR O 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Pheugopedius genibarbis Moustached Wren ESR O, S (MPEG 65156) 2, 5 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme Family and Species English Name Habitat Records Type Sites Cantorchilus leucotis Buff-breasted Wren S S (MPEG 65157) 4 TURDIDAE Turdus fumigatus Cocoa Thrush EFR S (MPEG 65654) 1, 4 Turdus lawrencii Lawrence’s Thrush FR O, V 1 Turdus albicollis White-necked Thrush TF S (MPEG 65655) 3, 5 PASSERELLIDAE Ammodramus aurifrons Yellow-browed Sparrow O O 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Arremon taciturnus Pectoral Sparrow S S (MPEG 65168, 65656) 3, 4 PARULIDAE Myiothlypis rivularis Neotropical River Warbler FR S (MPEG 65161) 1 ICTERIDAE Psarocolius viridis Green Oropendola EFR, FR O 3, 4 Icterus cayanensis Epaulet Oriole EFR, FR O 5 Cacicus cela Yellow-rumped Cacique EFR O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Molothrus oryzivorus Bobolink R O 4 Molothrus bonariensis Shiny Cowbird EFR S (MPEG 65662) 2, 4 Sturnella militaris Red-breasted Blackbird O S (MPEG 65169) 4, 5, 7 THRAUPIDAE Saltator grossus Slate-colored Grosbeak ESR O 2 Saltator maximus Buff-throated Saltator EFR O 2, 3, 4 Habia rubica Red-crowned Ant-Tanager TF S (MPEG 65657) 1 Lanio cristatus Flame-crested Tanager TF S (MPEG 65653) 1 Lanio surinamus Fulvous-crested Tanager EFR O 3 O, S (MPEG 65164, Tachyphonus rufus White-lined Tanager EFR 2, 4, 6, 5, 7 65165, 65166) Tachyphonus phoenicius Red-shouldered Tanager S S (MPEG 65159) 4 Ramphocelus carbo Silver-beaked Tanager EFR O, S (MPEG 65658) 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Tangara episcopus Blue-gray Tanager EFR O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Tangara palmarum Palm Tanager EFR O 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7 Tangara chilensis Paradise Tanager TF O 3 Tangara schrankii Green-and-gold Tanager FR O, P(WA784182) 2 Dacnis lineata Black-faced Dacnis TF, ESR S (MPEG 65178, 65179) 3 Dacnis cayana Blue Dacnis TF, ESR S (MPEG 65177) 3 S (MPEG 65170, 65171, Cyanerpes nitidus Short-billed Honeycreeper TF, ESR 3 65172, 65173, 65174) Cyanerpes caeruleus Purple Honeycreeper TF, ESR S (MPEG 65175, 65176) 3 Volatinia jacarina Blue-black Grassquit ESR O 4, 6, 5, 7 S (MPEG 65167, 65663), Sporophila americana Wing-barred Seedeater O 4 P(WA453727) Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014 A preliminary survey and rapid ecological assessment of the avifauna of Amana National Forest (Itaituba and Jacareacanga, Pará, Brazil) Edson Guilherme Family and Species English Name Habitat Records Type Sites O, S (MPEG 65664, Sporophila nigricollis Yellow-bellied Seedeater ESR 3, 6 65666) Sporophila castaneiventris Chestnut-bellied Seedeater O O 4, 6, 5, 7 Sporophila angolensis Chestnut-bellied Seed-Finch O O, S (MPEG 65665) 2, 3 , 4 Paroaria gularis Red-capped Cardinal R O 1, 2, 4, 5 CARDINALIDAE Caryothraustes canadensis Yellow-green Grosbeak S S (MPEG 65660) 4 Cyanoloxia rothschildii Rothschild’s Blue Grosbeak TF O 1, 3, 4 FRINGILIDAE Euphonia xanthogaster Orange-bellied Euphonia TF S (MPEG 65667) 3 - Refers to interviews with local residents (at each sampling point) on the occurrence of some bird species in the Amana National Forest. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(1), 2014

Journal

Ornithology ResearchSpringer Journals

Published: Mar 1, 2014

Keywords: birds; Amana National Forest; Amazon; conservation

References