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A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil

A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an... Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 75-94 ARTICLE June 2014 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil 1 2,3 Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti Deceased. Centro de Estudos Ornitológicos. Rua Álvaro Rodrigues 139, sala 4, CEP 04582-000, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Corresponding author: dante@dantebuzzetti.com.br Received on 23 September 2013. Accepted on 21 May 2014. urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:5BE6C9E6-0E54-497E-84B8-90766A7A5A54, June 2014 ABSTRACT: A new species of treehunter, Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti sp. nov., is described from a specimen that for many years had been confused with Philydor novaesi. The morphology of this specimen, collected in 1986 at Pedra Branca, Murici, Alagoas, at 550 m elevation (currently the Murici Ecological Station), suggests its allocation in the genus Cichlocolaptes. The new species differs from P. novaesi by its considerably larger size, heavier body-mass, darker and more uniform forehead and crown, absence of buffy periocular- feathers, and a pale orange-rufous tail that contrasts with the rump and the rest of the dorsal plumage. It also has a flat-crowned appearance and a larger, deeper-based, and generally stouter bill. Behavioral specialization on bromeliads and vocal repertoire also suggest that the new species belongs in the genus Cichlocolaptes. The song of this species is markedly different from that of P. novaesi, and it closely matches that of Cichlocolaptes leucophrus. The new species is endemic to the ‘Pernambuco Center’ of endemism, where it inhabits dense, humid forests in hilly terrain. It is known from only two localities in northeastern Brazil, one each in the states of Alagoas and Pernambuco. Taken together, these areas contain less than 3,000 ha of suitable habitat for the species, where we estimate the population during our studies to have numbered no more than 10 individuals. We propose that this species should be categorized as Critically Endangered at a national and global level, and we consider the situation of its conservation to be critical in that it will require urgent action to avoid its global extinction. KEY WORDS: Atlantic Forest, Conservation, Ovenbirds, Philydor, Taxonomy, Treehunter. INTRODUCTION Alagoas Foliage-gleaner Philydor novaesi (Teixeira & Gonzaga 1983a), Orange-bellied Antwren Terenura Northeastern Brazil was the first area in the country sicki (Teixeira & Gonzaga 1983b), Alagoas Antwren to be settled by Europeans, when the Dutch arrived Myrmotherula snowi (Teixeira & Gonzaga 1985), and and established a colony that thrived along the coast Alagoas Tyrannulet Phylloscartes ceciliae (Teixeira 1987). Even by the 1970s, forested areas throughout northeastern between Maranhão and Sergipe in the period 1630-1654 (Rodrigues 1949, Cascudo 1956). The area that had Brazil had already been much reduced, and they were been covered by extensive forests soon gave way to sugar- found mostly on remote mountaintops (Teixeira & cane plantations, a habitat modification that is now five Gonzaga 1983a, Teixeira 1987). The present situation centuries old, and which may perhaps represent one of is even more desperate, in that only 1,907 km , or less than 2% of the original forests, remain (Silva & Tabarelli the oldest, large-scale habitat modifications produced by European colonies in South America. Despite its early 2001). Despite the near total removal of natural habitats economic exploitation, northeastern Brazil has been one in this region, the forests still support undescribed bird of the most neglected areas in the country for biological taxa, as demonstrated by the recent description of a new exploration. Ornithological attention was drawn to this pygmy-owl (Silva et al. 2002). Recent fieldwork at the Murici Ecological Station (hereafter Murici) by field region, perhaps too late, as recently as the 1970s, when expeditions by the Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro ornithologists supported the extreme rarity of P. novaesi (MN hereafter) resulted in the description of four new, (Roda 2011; IUCN, 2012), which has been by far the endemic taxa in the state of Alagoas, from Fazenda Serra rarest and most difficult to find element of the endemic Branca (currently part of the Murici Ecological Station): avifauna of Murici, and which, until recently, was known 76 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti exclusively from this one locality. During fieldwork at conditions were obtained from specimen labels. Remiges Murici on 12 October 2002, we observed and tape- and rectrices were counted. Color names used in the recorded a bird that largely fit the plumage description description follow Smithe (1981) and Munsell (1994). of P. novaesi. This bird, however, differed from P. novaesi Field observations were made using Zeiss and Swarovski (or at least from P. atricapillus, its supposedly closely 10 × 40 binoculars and a 15-45× spotting scope. allied sister-taxon (Teixeira & Gonzaga 1983a, Remsen Photographs of the specimens at MN were taken under 2003) and with which we were familiar) in its behavior, natural light. general morphology and, most strikingly, in its voice. In fact, these characteristics suggested instead affinities Vocalizations with the genus Cichlocolaptes. These similarities were so striking that we quickly became convinced that P. novaesi We recorded vocalizations with Sony TCM 5000EV had been wrongly described in the genus Philydor, and tape-recorders using Sennheiser ME66 and ME67 that it belonged instead in the genus Cichlocolaptes. microphones. Original recordings are in the Arquivo We later learned that several colleagues had already Sonoro Dante Buzzetti (ASDCB), maintained by the reached this same conclusion some time before us (e.g., second author. These recordings have been deposited at Andrew Whittaker and Kevin Zimmer). Nevertheless, in xeno-canto (www.xeno-canto.org). Additional recordings February 2003, we found P. novaesi in montane forests are available at other online collections, IBC/Lynx of the state of Pernambuco, at the Reserva Particular do (http://ibc.lynxeds.com), the Macaulay Library (http:// Patrimônio Natural Frei Caneca (hereafter Frei Caneca) macaulaylibrary.org), and on Minns et al. (2009). Other (Mazar Barnett et al. 2003, 2004), along with the other recordings made by colleagues are listed in Appendix 2. three endemic species of the ‘Pernambuco Center’ of Tape-recordings were digitized at 44.1 kHz with a 16 endemism (Roda 2003). The behavior, morphology, bit word-size. Spectrograms were produced in Cool Edit and vocalizations of this bird were reminiscent of P. 2000 using a Blackman window with a resolution of 512 atricapillus, yet they contrasted strikingly with the bands. Vocal variables were measured using screen cursors ovenbird we had seen and heard at Murici. We realized from the fundamental signals of the spectrograms. The that the bird seen in Pernambuco may represent the true variables measured were: total phrase duration, duration P. novaesi, described by Teixeira & Gonzaga (1983a), and of intervals between notes, note length and frequency that the ovenbird we observed at Murici represented an (defined as frequency at the point of highest amplitude) undescribed species. Teixeira et al. (1987) mentioned a (sensu Isler et al. 1998). Note shape descriptions were particularly large and heavy female specimen of P. novaesi made from spectrograms at the same scale as those in the secured at Murici, and our subsequent examination of figures. The name applied to each vocalization type in the series of P. novaesi at MN further confirmed our the repertoire of suboscines is not standardized, but we hypothesis, as we found that the particularly large female always attempted to compare homologous vocalizations specimen mentioned above represented an undescribed (as indicated by their overall similarity) regardless of taxon distinct from P. novaesi. the name applied. Digitized recordings used to make sonograms and additional recordings are available at the second author’s website: www.dantebuzzetti.com.br. MATERIAL AND METHODS Morphology RESULTS We examined all specimens of Philydor novaesi at MN, We propose to name the new species: which represents the entire available collection of the species, 35 specimens of the morphologically similar P. Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti sp. nov. atricapillus, and 30 specimens of Cichlocolaptes leucophrus Cryptic Treehunter at MN, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZUSP), and Museo Argentino de Ciencias gritador-do-nordeste Naturales (MACN) (Appendix 1). We measured the exposed culmen, wing chord, tail, and tarsus length of the specimens examined using a dial caliper to the Holotype: Specimen N 34530, study skin of an nearest 0.1 mm. We took additional measurements on adult female deposited at the Museu Nacional do Rio de specimens of P. novaesi: distance from the commissure Janeiro (MN), collected on 16 January 1986 by Dante to the external nares, distance from the commissure to M. Teixeira at Serra Branca, Murici (currently Murici th the bill tip, and the length of the 10 primary. Body Ecological Station), 09° 15' S, 35° 50' W, 550 m above mass, total length, bill coloration, wingspan, and gonad sea level, Alagoas State, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti Diagnosis: Differs from Philydor novaesi in its the brown rump (upper-tail coverts are rufous like the considerably heavier and longer body (Figure 1, Table rectrices in P. novaesi, Figure 4) and have rounded tips 1), uniformly blackish crown, forehead and lores (mucronate in P. novaesi); larger, deeper-based, and more (speckled with light brown in P. novaesi, Figure 2); dark heavily built bill; a flat-crowned appearance (smaller bill periocular-feathers (buffy eyering in P. novaesi); buffy and rounded head in P. novaesi, Figure 3). Differs from supraloral-stripe (indistinct in P. novaesi, Figure 3); dark Cichlocolaptes leucophrus in having a uniform plumage patches on sides of neck (absent in P. novaesi); longer that lacks buffy stripes on the ventral and dorsal regions and paler orange-rufous rectrices that contrast with of the body (Figure 5). FIGURE 1. Adult female Philydor novaesi (MN 33873, left) and Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti (MN 34530, right). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 78 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti FIGURE 2. Upper view of the heads of adult female Philydor novaesi (MN 33873, left) and Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti (MN 34530, right), showing differences in bill length and the coloration of the crown, forehead and lores. FIGURE 3. Lateral view of the heads of adult female Philydor novaesi (MN 33873, left) and Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti (MN 34530, right), showing differences in the eyering, extension of the supercilium, head shape, and bill length and shape. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti FIGURE 4. From left to right male and female Philydor novaesi (MN 33872 and 33873), female Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti at the center (MN 34530), and two male Philydor novaesi at right (MN 32028 and 32029, the latter the holotype), showing the differences in contrast between tail and rump color. FIGURE 5. From left to right Philydor atricapillus (MN 39355), P. novaesi (MN 33873), Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti (MN 34530) and C. leucophrus leucophrus (MN 9021). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 80 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti TABLE 1: Measurements of specimens of Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti and Philydor novaesi housed at MN. The values are presented in millimeters, with the exception of body mass, which was measured in grams. Philydor novaesi Cichlocolaptes Cichlocolaptes Philydor novaesi Males mazarbarnetti mazarbarnetti Measurements Female** MN 32028 Female * Juvenile MN 33873 MN 32029 MN 34530 MN 34531 MN 33872 body mass 48.0 30.0 32.0-34.0 36.0 exposed culmen 15.5 12.9 12.3-13.0 12.8 bill depth 6.8 6.3 6.3-6.7 6.6 bill width 5.0 4.7 4.0-4.3 4.6 nares to commissure 14.9 9.8 10.1-11.4 - commissure to tip 28.9 22.6 22.2-22.7 - wing chord 96.5 83.5 91.4-94.9 90.1 wingspan 320.0 280.0 - 305.0 length of 10th primary 80.2 64.5 72.6-75.4 73.8 tail 82.0 76.1 80.0-84.8 83.9 tarsus 22.9 20.7 22.2-22.6 22.6 total length 221.0 195.0 193.0-205.0 207.0 * The female C. mazarbarnetti had an ossified skull and a globulous ovary with one ovum > 2 mm (based on the specimen tags). We therefore treat it as an adult. ** The female P. novaesi had an ossified skull and a granular ovary (based on the specimen tags), and is thus treated as an adult. Description of the Holotype: Crown and forehead and colleague who suddenly passed away before this Jet-Black (3.2PB 1.6/0.5). Back of the neck, back, and manuscript was finished, in recognition of his important rump Cinnamon-Brown (7.0YR 4.0/4.0). Tail Pale contributions to the conservation of the Atlantic Forest Orange-Rufous (2.5YR 5.0/8.0), with the central rectrices in northeastern Brazil and its declining avifauna. For the darker dorsally. Throat, sides of head, supercilium and English name we propose Cryptic Treehunter because supraloral-stripe Pinkish-Buff (0.4Y 7.5/4.3). Auriculars it is difficult to find and, particularly, to separate from and moustachial region Pinkish-Buff, with dusky Philydor novaesi in the field. We propose naming this streaking. Lower throat and sides of neck Cinnamon- species gritador-do-nordeste in Portuguese. ‘Gritador’ Brown (7.0YR 4.0/4.0). Breast, belly, and underwing (meaning ‘screamer’) is an apt name given the loudness of coverts Cinnamon (8.7YR 5.0/6.0). Thighs, flanks its vocalizations, but it also represents a figure in Brazilian and undertail coverts Prout’s Brown (6.5YR 3.5/3.0). folklore. The story of the ‘Gritador’ is that of two brothers Remiges Vandyke Brown (5.0YR 3.5/2.5), with Cream- who went hunting and one accidentally shot the other. In colored (3.5Y 8.5/5.5) fringes, wing-coverts darker than desperation, he shot himself, and now his soul sometimes the remiges. Irides brown (from specimen label). Tarsi can be heard as it wanders through the forest in the top and toes in the dried skin Grayish-Olive (5.0 Y 4.8/2.5). of the hills, screaming in pain while searching for his Upper mandible black, lower mandible paler, and both brother. A parallel can be drawn with the story of the with sides grayish in the dried skin. Total length 221.0 ‘Gritador’, as C. mazarbarnetti can be heard ‘screaming’ mm (from specimen label), exposed culmen 15.5 mm, while wandering through the hilltop forest searching in wing chord 96.5 mm, tail 82.0 mm (but R1 and R2 were vain for his ‘brothers’, in this case due to the scarcity of still growing), tarsus 23.2 mm, and body mass 48.0 g the species. (from specimen label). Additional specimen: Immature female MN Etymolog y: The second author dedicates the name 34531 collected on 20 January 1986. This specimen of the new species to the first author, a good friend is larger than P. novaesi, even the males, though it does Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti not approach the size and body mass of MN 34530 (see D’Anta (08º 39' S, 35º 53' W), comprising together about Table 1). It measured 207 mm in total length and 36 1,000 ha of forest (SAVE Brasil 2013). We did not find g. Like the holotype of C. mazarbarnetti, this specimen the species at various other highland localities, or at two has the rump and sides of neck browner, the plumage lowland sites, in the states of Alagoas and Pernambuco more orange than any P. novaesi, and the crown and (Appendix 3). lores unmarked and blackish, and it lacks the buffy eyering (Figure 6). Although collected four days later, HABITAT AND BEHAVIOR this specimen was presumed to be the same bird seen accompanying the holotype when it was collected (Dante M. Teixeira pers. com., 2004). Therefore, it is The Cryptic Treehunter is endemic to the ‘Pernambuco possible that MN 34531 represents the offspring of MN Center’ of endemism, where it inhabits dense, humid 34530. forests in hilly terrain with rainfall higher than at nearby lowland sites. The areas at Fazenda Bananeiras and Frei Caneca where the species and its co-endemics have been GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION found are forests near the hilltops, and especially those in deep, forested ravines. The steep slopes and ravines Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti is known from only two sites, present taller and better-preserved forest, where a few the type locality at Murici in the state of Alagoas, and Frei emergent trees reach over 25 m. These forests have been Caneca (08º 43' S, 35º 51' W), Jaqueira, in the state of selectively logged, but some areas have suffered from Pernambuco. The 6,116 ha of Murici presently has less more severe logging. Most of these areas were not logged, than a 2,000 ha covered by forests that are suitable for and have recovered some of the original structure with this species. In recent years, C. mazarbarnetti has been multiple strata and a relatively open understory. The found at this site only in the vicinity of an area known as best-preserved patches have a profusion of vine tangles Poço d’Anta, at Fazenda Bananeiras (09º 12' S, 35º 52' and they are densely laden with bromeliads, mosses, and W, 500–600 m). The species could potentially occur in orchids (Figure 7). A great number of these epiphytes, the forests of the nearby Fazenda São José (09º 13' S, 35º mainly bromeliads, are also restricted to the ‘Pernambuco 54' W) and perhaps in certain tracts of forest at Serra do Center’ of endemism (Siqueira-Filho & Leme 2006). Ouro (09º 14' S, 35º 50' W). Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti can be found alone or in has been found at Frei Caneca, and it could potentially pairs, sometimes on their own, but usually in association be present in the forests of the contiguous Fazenda Pedra with large, mixed-species flocks. They move between the FIGURE 6. Juvenile Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti (MN 34531), showing the dark crown, the absence of a buffy eyering, and browner sides of neck. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 82 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti mid-levels and the subcanopy (mostly 8–20 m). A bird 2002 was in a flock with Veniliornis affinis, Picumnus exilis, seen by the authors on 12 October 2002 was foraging Automolus lammi, Xiphorhynchus atlanticus, Thamnophilus actively in the lower part of an open tree-crown. It visited aethiops, Thamnomanes caesius, Myrmotherula axillaris, bromeliads exclusively, searching deeply within them. Myrmotherula snowi, Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus, On one occasion, a bird was seen entering and almost Terenura sicki, Myrmoderus ruficaudus, Conopophaga disappearing into one large bromeliad, leaving only its melanops, Myiopagis gaimardii, Rhynchocyclus olivaceus, upward pointing tail visible. This bird removed and threw Hemitriccus griseipectus, Caryothraustes canadensis, and away dead leaves from the bromeliad’s interior while Saltator maximus. The mixed-species flock joined by searching for food. Another individual was observed on the individual observed on 21 January 1998 included 21 January 1998 foraging at 12–15 m in the subcanopy X. atlanticus, T. caesius, M. snowi, T. sicki, and Myiobius and again inside a large bromeliad cluster on a canopy atricaudus. This bird was in heavy wing and tail molt, branch off the main trunk (A. Whittaker in litt. 2004). A including both the primaries and secondaries (A. bird seen in January 1999 was foraging 12–15 m up in the Whittaker in litt. 2004). sub-canopy by ‘rummaging around in bromeliads, with just its tail and hind-parts sticking out’ (K. Zimmer and VOCAL REPERTOIRE A. Whittaker in litt. 2004). A bird was also seen foraging about 15 m up in a bromeliad on 23 February 2003 (W. Vocalizations of birds that match the morphological Silva in litt. 2004). The pair seen and tape-recorded by characteristics of the type of C. mazarbarnetti were DCB at Frei Caneca on 3 October 2003 was searching recorded at Murici and Frei Caneca. Most of the songs a large bromeliad 15 m up. A bird observed on 19 April analyzed were spontaneous, and from recordings made 2007 at Murici was attracted with playback after natural between March 2001 and April 2007, in the months of vocalizations were heard. It flew through the subcanopy January, February, March, April and October, by four 18 m up and then stopped at a branch covered by moss different recordists on five occasions. Given that all of 15 m up, where it started to sing again for a few minutes these recordings were made at Fazenda Bananeiras and before flying away. Probably the same bird was heard and Frei Caneca, it is also possible that only five or six tape-recorded in the same area on 20 April 2007 at dawn, individuals are represented. In the following description, when it gave non-stop songs for at least 12 minutes from we compare C. mazarbarnetti’s vocalizations with those a large concentration of bromeliads 8 m above the ground of C. leucophrus, Philydor novaesi, and P. atricapillus, on the top of a hill. One individual seen on 12 October FIGURE 7. Detail of primary forest at Frei Caneca, showing the profusion of epiphytes (and in particular bromeliads) in the canopy. Photo by DCB. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti showing their differences and homologies. Examination 21.1–24.7 notes/s in spontaneous songs, but it is faster of the complete vocal repertoire of C. mazarbarnetti following playback. This initial rattle maintains a would be necessary for a thorough analysis, yet we feel constant frequency throughout and it may escape that the available material is sufficient to document our detection if the bird is distant. Sometimes the song assertion that C. mazarbarnetti and Philydor novaesi includes a shorter rattle after the series of harsh notes, represent different species. What we regard as Song Type and this occurs mostly when the number of harsh notes 1 of C. mazarbarnetti is a fast, dry rattle of 0.38–2.81 s is fewer. In response to playback, and spontaneously at followed closely by a series of 4–8 loud, raspy notes dawn, we observed a modified version of Song Type 1 delivered at a regular pace (Figure 8A). Each of these that we refer to as Song Type 2: the initial rattle increases raspy notes, lasting 0.12-0.23 s, increases slightly in to 1.8–3.2 s and the number of following notes is reduced frequency before decreasing suddenly at the end. The to 1–3; the first note is lower pitched than the second, initial rattle is a rapid series of 9–62 notes at a pace of and the second is lower than the third (if present) (Figure FIGURE 8. A. Song Type 1 of Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti recorded on 20 April 2007 at Murici Ecological Station, municipality of Murici, Alagoas (DCB, XC180893). B. Song Type 2 of Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti, recorded in same take as A. C. Song of Cichlocolaptes leucophrus leucophrus recorded on 3 May 1997 in the municipality of Vargem Alta, Espírito Santo (Ricardo Parrini). D. Song of Cichlocolaptes leucophrus holti, recorded on 28 June 2003 at Rio Vermelho, municipality of Bananal, São Paulo (DCB, XC180863). E. Song of Philydor novaesi recorded on 15 February 2003 at Frei Caneca, municipality of Jaqueira, Pernambuco (JMB, XC181063). F. Song of Philydor atricapillus recorded on 16 October 1993 in the municipality of Ubatuba, São Paulo (Andrew Whittaker). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 84 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti 8B). On one occasion, we recorded a spontaneous end. Sometimes two notes were delivered after the raspy vocalization at dawn that was delivered for 12½ minutes, note, and sometimes only the raspy notes were delivered and that comprised 10 phrases of the first song-type, 64 (Figure 10A). The song of C. leucophrus leucophrus phrases of the second song-type, and one isolated rattle. consists of a fast, dry rattle of 2.2-3.6 s followed closely The interval between songs was shorter at dawn, when by a series of 5-8 loud, short notes delivered at a regular the number of phrases of Song Type 2 was greater than pace (Figure 8C). The structure of the song is similar to that of Song Type 1, but most spontaneous songs made that of C. mazarbarnetti, but the timbre and shape of the throughout the day matched Song Type 1, and Song short notes are different. Like C. mazarbarnetti, C. l. Type 2 was given almost exclusively in response to leucophrus sometimes delivers a faster rattle of about 1.0 playback. Analysis of 123 phrases of song (including s at the end of the phrase, and sometimes in response to both types 1 and 2) shows only limited variation. In playback, isolated rattles at a rate of 19.5–22.2 notes/s, addition to songs, birds may deliver a fast rattle without with the rattle lasting up to 9.2 s (Figure 11C). The song the following notes, at a rate of 21.7–24.0 notes/s, and of C. leucophrus holti is similar in pattern to that of C. l. lasting up to 8.5 s (Figure 11A). Isolated rattles may be leucophrus and C. mazarbarnetti, in that it is a fast, dry delivered among songs, as was heard at dawn, or after rattle of 0.5-4.3 s followed closely by a series of 4-8 loud, playback, when the bird is excited, but it is unusual to short notes delivered at a regular pace (Figure 8D). Each hear them given spontaneously during the day. Calls of the short notes begins by increasing in frequency, but recorded in response to playback are a fast, staccato series unlike the songs of C. mazarbarnetti and C. l. leucophrus, of three dry notes that have an ascending and then a the decrease at the end is not so evident. The initial rattle descending shape, and which are delivered at 2.0–2.4 maintains a constant frequency throughout. Like C. kHz (Figure 9A; Table 2). Single-note calls are reminiscent mazarbarnetti and C. l. leucophrus, C. l. holti sometimes of the raspy notes of the song, but without the upward delivers a shorter (0.3 s) and more rapid rattle at the end and downward inflections, and they are delivered at 1.7- of the phrase. Possibly because of its smaller body size, all 2.7 kHz (see Table 2). A presumed alarm-call was notes in the song of C. l. holti are given at a higher recorded once, and possibly related to an agonistic frequency than those of the other taxa (see Table 2). The behavior, given that two birds were involved. It consisted song of C. mazarbarnetti is closer to that of C. l. leucophrus of 1-3 notes, the first a fast and sharply descending than C. l. holti in the range and frequency of the initial modulation, followed by a fast upward and slow rattle and raspy notes. Some homologies in the calls and downward modulation, and finally, a raspy note at the rattles were also noted between C. mazarbarnetti and C. FIGURE 9. A. Three-note calls of Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti recorded on 5 March 2001 at Murici, Alagoas. (Curtis Marantz, LNS/Macaulay Library #128035). B. Calls of Philydor novaesi recorded on 3 October 2003 at Frei Caneca, Jaqueira, Pernambuco (DCB, XC181036). C. Calls of Philydor atricapillus recorded on 17 July 1994 at Serra da Cantareira, municipality of Guarulhos, São Paulo (DCB, XC180995). FIGURE 10. A. Alarm calls of Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti recorded on 3 October 2003 at Frei Caneca, municipality of Jaqueira, Pernambuco (DCB, XC180906). B. Alarm calls of Cichlocolaptes leucophrus leucophrus recorded on 11 May 1999 in the municipality of Boa Nova, Bahia (Ricardo Parrini). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti l. leucophrus, these mainly in the rattle and alarm calls. likewise varies based on the bird’s level of excitement. Alarm calls of C. mazarbarnetti and C. l. leucophrus have One call of P. novaesi and P. atricapillus is similar in both a similar pattern (Figs. 10A and 10B). Unlike those of structure and pace, and it consists of four, ascending the taxa described above, the song of P. novaesi is a high- notes given in a series (Figs. 9B and 9C). Although the pitched rattle that combines two simultaneous notes as it vocal repertoire of P. novaesi is poorly known, we feel that descends slightly in pitch through the song (Figure 8E). the similarities in the songs and calls of P. novaesi and P. Each component note decreases sharply in pitch, the atricapillus show a clear homology, making a compelling whole rattle is longer than that of C. mazarbarnetti, and case for a close relationship between them. The it is delivered at a slower pace (see Table 2). The length of vocalizations of P. atricapillus tend to be ‘softer’ and the phrases varies relative to the bird’s level of excitement. higher in frequency than those of P. novaesi, which The song is usually delivered at intervals of 5–15 s, but probably reflects its smaller size. By contrast, the fast occasionally at longer intervals. The analysis of 75 phrases rattle that begins the song of C. mazarbarnetti is different of the P. novaesi song, including an abnormal type (see from that of the song of P. novaesi in structure, pace, below), showed only limited variation in frequency and frequency, and duration. It reaches 21.1–24.6 notes/s pace. The songs analyzed were, for most part, spontaneous, versus 12.2–16.3 notes/s and its frequency is 2.5 kHz and they were made between February 2003 and compared to 5.2 kHz. The duration of 1.6 s is also November 2010, in the months of February, March, markedly shorter than the 3.8 s of P. novaesi (see Table 2). June, October, November and December, by six different It is important to note that the initial rattle of C. recordists on nine occasions. Given that all of these mazarbarnetti, C. l. leucophrus, and C. l. holti all maintain recordings were made at Frei Caneca, it is possible that a constant frequency from beginning to end, whereas the only three or four individuals were represented. The song frequency of the songs of P. novaesi and P. atricapillus fall of P. atricapillus is similar to that of P. novaesi, in that it steadily throughout the vocalization. Equally importantly, consists of a high-pitched rattle that descends slowly in the raspy notes are absent in the song of both P. novaesi frequency (Figure 8F). Each note has a simple, descending and P. atricapillus, yet they are present and conspicuous shape that is quite similar to that of the lower frequency in the songs of C. mazarbarnetti, C. l. leucophrus, and C. notes of songs of P. novaesi. Each component note l. holti. Calls of C. mazarbarnetti consist of series of three decreases sharply in pitch as well, and the whole song is rapidly ascending and descending modulations at 2.0– delivered at 18.2–21.6 notes/s, and thus somewhat faster 2.4 kHz (see Figure 9A). Philydor novaesi has a similar than P. novaesi (see Table 2). The duration of the phrases sounding call, but it consists of 3–6 ascending notes FIGURE 11. A. Rattle of Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti recorded on 20 April 2007 at Murici, Alagoas. (DCB, XC 180893). B. Rattle of Philydor novaesi, recorded in response to playback on 12 April 2003 at Frei Caneca, Jaqueira, Pernambuco (JMB, XC181072). C. Rattle of Cichlocolaptes leucophrus leucophrus recorded on 03 May 1997 at Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi, Espírito Santo (Andrew Whittaker). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 86 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti delivered at 4.6-5.6 kHz (see Figure 9B; Table 2). The song or as a stand-alone vocalization, with the song of P. isolated rattle of C. mazarbarnetti is delivered at a rate of novaesi, which is also a rattle. The rattle of C. mazarbarnetti 21.7–24.0 notes/s and with a duration of 1.2-8.5 s, is both quicker (21.1–24.6 notes/s for the initial part of whereas the rattle of P. novaesi is 7.2-13.6 s in length and the song and 21.7-24.0 notes/s for a stand-alone rattle it is delivered at a rate of 13.8-15.8 notes/s (Figure 11B). versus 12.2-16.3 notes/s) and lower in frequency (2.5 These vocalizations also differ in frequency and note kHz versus 5.2 kHz). These vocalizations also differ in shape (Figure 12A). It is interesting to compare the rattle frequency and shape of the notes (Figure 12B). A of C. mazarbarnetti, whether as the initial part of the playback experiment was carried out at Murici to test the TABLE 2: Comparison of songs and calls of Cichlocolaptes leucophrus holti, C. l. leucophrus, C. mazarbarnetti, Philydor novaesi, and P. atricapillus. The values presented are range, mean ± standard deviation (in parentheses) and sample size for songs and calls (in italics). Cichlocolaptes Cichlocolaptes Cichlocolaptes Philydor Philydor Philydor leucophrus leucophrus mazarbarnetti novaesi novaesi* atricapillus holti leucophrus 0.51-4.30 2.25-3.65 0.38-2.81 2.45-5.64 2.64-4.76 Rattle/Song (2.35 ± 1.17) (2.95 ± 0.70) (1.62 ± 0.35) (3.83 ± 0.63) 2.8 (3.64 ± 0.55) length (s) n = 14 n = 3 n = 27 n = 35 n = 15 10-89 50-77 9-62 32-76 56-103 number of notes (47.07 ± 23.08) (63.66 ± 13.50) (38.03 ± 14.49) (53.60 ± 9.9) 45 (71.93 ± 12.19) n = 14 n = 3 n = 27 n = 35 n = 15 16.94-21.78 21.10-22.22 21.11-24.66 12.28-16.34 18.28-21.64 notes per second (20.09 ± 1.22) (21.62 ± 0.56) (23.44 ± 0.83) (13.98 ± 1.16) 16.07 (19.77 ± 1.24) n = 14 n = 3 n = 27 n = 35 n = 15 3.55-4.10 2.87-3.13 2.34-2.98 4.82-5.52 2.48-3.07 frequency (kHz) (3.72 ± 0.13) (2.98 ± 0.13) (2.53 ± 0.15) (5.29 ± 0.16) 3.83 (2.76 ± 0.18) n = 14 n = 3 n = 27 n = 35 n = 15 0.12-0.23 0.19-0.37 0.12-0.23 0.18-0.20 Raspy notes (0.20 ± 0.02) (0.25 ± 0.05) (0.35 ± 0.05) - (0.18 ± 0.01) - length of note (s) n = 101 n = 18 n = 129 n = 4 4-8 5-8 4-8 number of notes (6.31 ± 1.01) (6.00 ± 1.73) (3.55 ± 1.63) -4 - n = 16 n = 3 n = 31 3.50-4.31 2.87-3.58 1.13-2.64 1.62-1.95 frequency (kHz) (3.80 ± 0.16) (3.07 ± 0.23) (2.07 ± 0.29) - (1.83 ± 0.14) - n = 88 n = 18 n = 129 n = 4 3.82-5.50 2.93-3.48 1.75-2.72 3.54-4.23 3.31-5.00 Calls with one note (4.53 ± 0.31) (3.24 ± 0.18) (2.29 ± 0.19) (3.75 ± 0.22) - (4.41 ± 0.57) frequency (kHz) n = 71 n = 68 n = 84 n = 13 n = 34 2.09-2.47 4.68-5.69 3.87-5.73 Calls with 3-6 notes -- (2.28 ± 0.10) (5.26 ± 0.31) - (4.61 ± 0.51) frequency (kHz) n = 33 n = 25 n = 14 *abnormal song of P. novaesi after playback of C. mazarbarnetti’s song (n = 1 phrase) Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti FIGURE 12. A. Comparison between the rattles of C. mazarbarnetti and P. novaesi, showing differences in frequency, pace, and shape of the notes. B. Comparison between the rattle of C. mazarbarnetti and the song of P. novaesi, showing differences in frequency, pace, and shape of the notes. reaction of C. mazarbarnetti to the song of P. novaesi. The different. In the recording, the abnormal song is followed individual of C. mazarbarnetti recorded on 20 April by three typical songs of P. novaesi, which are closely 2007 at dawn (see Habitat and Behavior) had sung similar to the initial rattle of the abnormal song. We spontaneously for at least 12 minutes. Immediately after therefore conclude that this phrase was delivered by an it stopped singing, we played a single song of P. novaesi excited P. novaesi during an unusual behavioral context, several times, at intervals of one or two minutes. No as opposed to by C. mazarbarnetti. vocal or visual reaction by C. mazarbarnetti was observed. This was probably the same individual that was recorded DISCUSSION in the same area on the previous afternoon, when it was attracted immediately by playback of its own song, Evidence for a new species clearly demonstrating territorial defense behavior. The bird recorded on 12 October 2002 at Murici also showed strong territorial defense behavior after playback of its The differences between C. mazarbarnetti and P. novaesi own song, first flying back-and-forth overhead several in morphology and plumage noted on museum skins, times and then singing for some minutes. The same combined with vocalizations and observations of foraging behavior was noted by Curtis Marantz when he recorded behavior made in the field, provide strong evidence that C. mazarbarnetti at Murici in March 2001 (http:// two different species are involved. These differences are at macaulaylibrary.org/audio/128037). Cichlocolaptes odds with variation within a single population (see also mazarbarnetti’s behavior on these occasions led us to Claramunt [2014] regarding morphometric evidence). conclude that it did not recognize the song of P. novaesi Aspects of the plumage that aided our diagnosis of the as part of its own species’ repertoire. An abnormal song new species from P. novaesi in the field were noted, most of P. novaesi was recorded at Frei Caneca on November notably characters of the facial pattern and color of the 2010 (www.xeno-canto.org/65550) with simultaneous upper-tail coverts. There is a photo available at Lees et al. photos and observations made following extended (2014), where the buffy eyering and the rufous upper- playback of the song of both C. mazarbarnetti and P. tail coverts of P. novaesi are shown simultaneously, and novaesi (Ciro Albano in litt. 2010). This vocalization we can see at Figure 4 the different facial pattern and consisted of an initial rattle followed by four short notes, the dark rump color of C. mazarbarnetti. A video made and in this respect if superficially resembled a song by C. at Frei Caneca on 11 October 2008, available at http:// mazarbarnetti. This song has been considered by some ibc.lynxeds.com/video/alagoas-foliage-gleaner-philydor- colleagues to be the same as the song of C. mazarbarnetti, novaesi/bird-tree-singing-several-times-flying-away, thus leading them to conclude, based on this recording shows a singing bird with a buffy eyering. The four and the concomitant observation of a bird that visually phrases of the song presented in this video have the same matches P. novaesi, that only one species is involved. We pattern of the song of P. novaesi shown in Figure 8E in therefore analyzed this recording and compared it with duration, pace, number and shape of the notes, and the the songs of both P. novaesi and C. mazarbarnetti. The descending frequency. The facial pattern and the domed initial rattle of the abnormal song is similar to the song of head of this bird match the four unambiguous skins of P. novaesi in length, pace, and in the number and shape P. novaesi by comparison (see Figs. 3 and 5). Another of the notes, and it descends in frequency throughout. It video made at Frei Caneca on 5 November 2010, differs from the song of C. mazarbarnetti in all these available at http://ibc.lynxeds.com/video/alagoas-foliage- parameters (see Table 2). The four terminal notes of the gleaner-philydor-novaesi/one-adult-bird-singing, shows abnormal song are softer than the loud and raspy notes of a singing bird with a bill that appears both larger and C. mazarbarnetti, and their shape and timbre are quite stouter than that of the bird in the first video. The large Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 88 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti bill in particular suggests C. mazarbarnetti. Although 2004; see also Philydor novaesi photos #6-8 in Minns et we noted little variation in bill size in the type series of al. [2009]). Despite the paucity of data on the foraging P. novaesi, representing one female and three males (see behavior of P. novaesi, similarities with P. atricapillus Table 1), individual variation in bill size in ovenbirds and were noted by us and by other researchers (Gussoni et sexual dimorphism in Philydor are both expected (see al. 2011), yet consistent and marked differences were Claramunt 2014). The bird recorded on 5 November noted between P. novaesi and C. mazarbarnetti. Philydor 2010 does have a buffy eyering, and the six phrases of atricapillus has been regarded as a dead-leaf-searching the song heard in this video have the same pattern as specialist (Remsen & Parker 1984, Parrini et al. 2010) those in the first video, and they are again like that shown that frequently assumes acrobatic postures, such as in Figure 8E. We therefore conclude that this bird also hanging upside-down vertically. It also uses substrates represents P. novaesi, and that the most important features such as bits of rotten wood, hanging debris, vine tangles, to separate P. novaesi from C. mazarbarnetti in the field living foliage and epiphytes (especially bromeliads), are the facial pattern, in particular the presence versus though more often these birds inspect clusters of dead absence of buffy eyering, respectively, rufous upper-tail leaves (Mallet-Rodrigues 2001). Philydor atricapillus has coverts versus brown rump, and a song that represents also been seen foraging in a Xenops-like manner (Fontana a long, descending rattle in P. novaesi versus a rattle that et al. 2003), as described above for P. novaesi. We have maintains a constant frequency throughout followed by noted in P. atricapillus the typical and characteristic some raspy notes in C. mazarbarnetti. There are many movement of the fanned tail, identical to that described other cases in which vocalizations provided the first above for P. novaesi. The behavior of C. mazarbarnetti is insight that a new species was present, to be corroborated notably different from that described above for P. novaesi only later by morphological or molecular evidence (such and P. atricapillus as a result of its clear preference for as, for a few recent examples, Herpsilochmus sellowi foraging at bromeliads, and by inhabiting the middle (Whitney et al. 2000), Suiriri islerorum (Zimmer et al. to upper strata of the forest (see Habitat and Behavior). 2001), and Formicivora grantsaui (Gonzaga et al. 2007)). In these respects, the behavior noted closely matches Our observations suggest that foraging behavior differs that of C. leucophrus. It is also important to note that in C. mazarbarnetti and P. novaesi. The Philydor forages the holotype of C. mazarbarnetti (MN 34530) was shot in the lower strata, up into the canopies of mid-sized near the canopy and that it was searching a bromeliad at trees, where it forages along branches and in tangles. the time (based on the specimen label; D. M. Teixeira Of the four unambiguous specimens of P. novaesi, two pers. comm. 2004). Our requests for permission to X-ray were mist-netted in the understory and one was shot in skulls and take samples for molecular analysis from the the mid-levels (based on information contained on the specimens of C. mazarbarnetti and P. novaesi at MN specimen labels). It also adopts a variety of postures when were denied in September 2004, November 2008, and foraging, with its head down, or hanging with the belly June 2013. Our conclusions, based on morphology, upwards, even from suspended branches, or perching on plumage, vocalizations, and foraging behavior, could be vertical branches. These birds search the edges of green corroborated in the future using molecular methods. leaves, they inspect dead leaves that have fallen or those that have accumulated in clusters, they rummage in balls Affinities of C. mazarbarnetti of detritus, they creep along surfaces of trunks, and they even lift bark. These birds also hammer thick and rotten Morphometric features that link C. mazarbarnetti to branches in the manner of a Xenops (Teixeira & Gonzaga Cichlocolaptes were presented by Claramunt (2014). What 1983a). Birds seen at Frei Caneca in February 2003 little is known of the behavior of the new species also links and in September–October 2003 (Mazar Barnett et al. it to Cichlocolaptes. The tendency of C. mazarbarnetti to 2004) moved along thin horizontal branches in the lower remain in the subcanopy or higher strata is shared with to middle levels among the crowns of small trees (ca. 4 C. leucophrus, even though both species do frequent lower m). P. novaesi was also seen foraging on bromeliads in strata on occasion. Cichlocolaptes leucophrus is known to the mid-levels, searching mainly the edges of the leaves be highly dependent on bromeliads, and while foraging, and clusters, but not ‘entering’ bromeliads leaving only it searches deep within leaf clusters, sometimes almost its tail visible, as does C. mazarbarnetti when foraging. disappearing altogether (Pizo 1994, Ridgely & Tudor Philydor novaesi fanned their tails, as described by Teixeira 1994, Fontana et al. 2003). We have noticed a similar & Gonzaga (1983a), which resulted in the tail appearing foraging behavior and dependency on bromeliads for C. broad and rounded, and thus much like P. atricapillus. mazarbarnetti, and our data are supported by observations Foraging maneuvers observed included a bird pecking at by others (e.g., K. Zimmer and A. Whittaker in litt. a dead leaf that was hanging from a small clump of mosses 2004). The rather slow and deliberate movements of C. in a fork, and another bird that systematically investigated mazarbarnetti while foraging also recalled those of C. clumps of hanging, dead leaves (Mazar Barnett et al. leucophrus to A. Whittaker (in litt. 2004). Above all, we Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti think that the undeniable similarity of the vocalizations novaesi at Frei Caneca (Mazar Barnett et al. 2003, 2004), of C. mazarbarnetti and C. leucophrus suggests better the species was seen frequently there until September than anything else that the two are closely related. The 2011 (Carlos Gussoni in litt. 2014), but there have been differences in plumage between C. mazarbarnetti and no subsequent reports, and its conservations status in the C. leucophrus are considerable; however, there are other area is considered critical (Pedro Develey, SAVE Brasil, in examples of sister species of foliage-gleaners in which one litt. 2014, Lees et al. 2014). There is only one record of has a plain plumage and the other has a strongly streaked P. novaesi at the contiguous area Fazenda Pedra D’Anta, one: Simoxenops ucayalae and S. striatus, Syndactyla municipality of Lagoa dos Gatos, close to the border of rufosuperciliata and S. dimidiata, and Automolus subulatus Frei Caneca (Roda 2011). Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti, and A. cervicalis (Remsen 2003, Robbins & Zimmer like P. novaesi, is certainly one of the rarest birds in the 2005, Derryberry et al. 2011, Claramunt et al. 2013). world. It is known from only two localities. At Murici, The difference in plumage pattern and color between C. less than 3,000 ha remain forested (Goerck 2001a), and mazarbarnetti and the southern forms C. l. leucophrus and probably no more than 1,500–2,000 ha are suitable C. l. holti could indicate that the latter two heavily streaked for the species. Frei Caneca and Fazenda Pedra D’Anta taxa are more closely related to each other. The extent comprise together about 1,000 ha of contiguous forest to which these plumage features indicate relationships is (SAVE Brasil, 2013). We propose that C. mazarbarnetti hard to determine, and as such, a molecular analysis of should be categorized as Critically Endangered at both Cichlocolaptes will likely be necessary to determine the national and global levels. Criteria for such categorization true affinities of the new species. are the small range (Extent of Occurrence estimated at <100 km , in only two localities), and a population of Biogeography <50 individuals (BirdLife International 2000, IUCN 2012). We suspect that no more than two pairs each The forests of northeastern Brazil, north of the São survive at sites from which all recent reports have been Francisco River, have long been recognized as a center made. Based on intensive fieldwork at Murici by JMB of endemism. The ‘Pernambuco Center’ (Prance 1982, and W. Silva as part of the conservation project of Coimbra-Filho & Câmara 1996, Silva & Casteleti 2005) BirdLife International Brazil Programme, we estimated is well-known to harbor endemic plants (Prance 1987, that a maximum of 5-10 pairs may have existed in the Tabarelli & Santos 2004), butterflies (Brown 1987), entire reserve in 2004; however, the number of birds and birds (Cracraft 1985, Stattersfield et al. 1998, Roda remaining is likely lower. At Frei Caneca, we estimate 2003). The endemic avifauna of this area is composed that no more than one or two pairs survive. Murici has of two sets of taxa with different biogeographical been a mythical spot among birdwatchers because of the affinities. One set has affinities with the Atlantic Forest, presence of several range- restricted species. It is likewise and the other is related to Amazonian taxa (Teixeira a key place for conservationists, due to the difficulty of 1986, Roda 2003). Taxa with Atlantic Forest affinities implementing measures to protect its remaining bits of include Philydor novaesi, Automolus lammi, Dendrocincla natural habitat (e.g., BirdLife International 2000: 357). taunayi, Xiphorhynchus atlanticus, Synallaxis infuscata, Ironically, Teixeira & Gonzaga (1983a) argued for the Myrmotherula snowi, Terenura sicki, Phylloscartes ceciliae, declaration of an ecological station in the forests of and Tangara fastuosa (Roda et al. 2011). Treatments of Murici when they described the first endemic bird from these taxa as either species or subspecies reflect uneven the site, 18 years before its designation as such. Goerck taxonomic studies of the region’s birds. (2001b) stated that the official designation of Murici’s protected area status ‘should ensure the survival of its many threatened species.’ Sadly, we doubt that this CONSERVATION is the case, as most land is still in private hands, and troubling levels of small to medium-scale deforestation The existence of a cryptic taxon resembling P. novaesi were detected during September–October 2002-2007. render past records of this species uncertain if not Most unsettling then was the felling of much of the accompanied by a recording or detailed morphological forest on the entire slope opposite the ravine that holds or behavioral data. There are no recent observations all recent records of C. mazarbarnetti, with evidence of P. novaesi at Murici. It went unrecorded September of further logging occurring between visits during the 2002-October 2003 despite the near constant presence above period. This area appeared to be ideal habitat for of a resident ornithologist. DCB searched for P. novaesi C. mazarbarnetti, given the profusion of bromeliads and in April and December 2007 at Murici, but found only other epiphytes that remained in the now broken and Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti. We have searched for both very open canopy. Most of the cleared land on steep C. mazarbarnetti and P. novaesi at many other sites (see slopes is being converted into grazing areas for cattle. Appendix 3), and failed to find it. Since the discovery of P. The lower slopes, valley bottoms, and adjacent lowlands Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 90 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti were long ago converted to sugarcane plantations, their preservation. The story of this discovery is unique, though some fields are now used for cattle grazing. The and it provides a crude testimony of how such remarkable specialization of C. mazarbarnetti on bromeliads, as is phenomena can be missed, even when right before our known for Cichlocolaptes leucophrus (Pizo 1994), is a very eyes. Vocalizations once again provided the main lead in important aspect of its conservation. Secondary forests solving a twisted riddle in Neotropical ornithology. It was have lower densities of epiphytes, including bromeliads only after additional fieldwork that C. mazarbarnetti was (Dettke et al. 2008, Mania & Monteiro 2010). We ‘discovered’, and the ‘true’ P. novaesi was rediscovered. suspect that C. mazarbarnetti can survive only in If all the factors of this complicated case had not taken primary or mature secondary forests where bromeliads place the way they did, C. mazarbarnetti could have are abundant. This habitat is disappearing from the remained forever overlooked. remnant forests in Alagoas and Pernambuco. We have searched unsuccessfully for the species at both Fazenda ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Riachão da Serra and Fazenda Branca dos Tavares, on patches of mature secondary forest with tracts of primary forest at the neighborhood of Murici. The more Fieldwork at Murici during September–October 2002 by inaccessible forests of Fazenda São José and the remnant JMB was part of a conservation project by the BirdLife forest at Serra do Ouro, on the lands of the University of International Brazil Programme in association with Sociedade Nordestina de Ecologia. We thank Jaqueline Alagoas, both at Murici, should also be surveyed. Usina Serra Grande, with ca. 3,500 ha of forests, is situated Goerck and Fabio Olmos for allowing us to be part of this almost directly between Murici and Frei Caneca (Mazar project and for constant assistance and encouragement. Barnett et al. 2004). Although the species has never been The Sociedade Nordestina de Ecologia, and especially Dora recorded there (Roda in litt. 2004, Roda et al. 2008, Melo, provided assistance and support during all phases of fieldwork. Beneficia Foundation financed BirdLife’s Marantz in litt. 2014), specific searches in the area of Engenheiro Coimbra should be undertaken. Similar project in Murici. ICMBio is thanked for permits to patches of forest at the complex of mountains known as work in the area. Our specific searches for this bird in ‘Serra Grande’, or ‘Complexo Catende’ (Ministério do northeastern Brazil were funded partly through a Charles Meio Ambiente 2000) should be identified and surveyed. Blake Fund Grant from the Nuttall Ornithological Club. We are also grateful to Robert Ridgely for his assistance Searches for C. mazarbarnetti should be undertaken in the most humid tracts of primary or mature secondary in securing funds for this work and for general assistance forests, which is where the forests have a high density in other respects. DCB thanks Maria Flávia Nunes, of bromeliads. Searches should be undertaken between Andrei L. Roos, and CEMAVE for allowing him to be March and October, when the birds are most vocal. part of their project at Murici on 2007. At MN we thank Dante M. Teixeira, Marcos Raposo, Carlos Rodrigo M. Sadly our expectations for the long-term survival of this species are not high, and we may now be witnessing its Abreu, and Jorge B. Nacinovic for assistance during our passage through the temporal window representing the visits to the collection. Weber Silva joined us during our time-lag between deforestation and extinction (Brooks visits to Murici, and he shared his data from over one & Balmford 1996). Conservation efforts at Murici have year of field experience in the area. Edilson Dias Barbosa drove us to the most inaccessible places. We are grateful been undermined by political and bureaucratic problems since the ornithological discovery of the area. Without to Fernando Pinto, for his generous assistance in Alagoas, the political will to design and implement environmental arranging for our visits to some of the remaining forest policies and the commitment of private interests and patches. We thank the owners of the usinas (sugar-mills) stakeholders in Murici, little will be achieved for the and fazendas (ranches) whose properties we visited to conduct our fieldwork. Luiz A. P. Gonzaga and Andrew conservation of its damaged forests (Mazar Barnett et al. 2004). An educational program targeting local Whittaker were constant source of encouragement and communities is also essential. Such a program should advice from the beginning of this work. Special thanks focus on the biological uniqueness of the region’s forests, are due to Curtis A. Marantz, Santiago Claramunt, their value, and the results of habitat deterioration by Roberto Antonelli Filho, Kevin J. Zimmer, José Fernando Pacheco, and Bret Whitney, who provided much insight human activities. The current popularity of Murici with birders, which we now expect will increase, makes the for our work. Ricardo Parrini, Mark Pearman, Tom choice of an ecotourism enterprise a valuable option Schulenberg, Dave Willis, Pedro Develey, and Carlos to develop in the area. Murici and Frei Caneca are of Gussoni also provided information about their records. maximum priority for the conservation of birds in the Jeremy Minns prepared the sonograms for publication with the help of Phyllis Isler and revised the English Atlantic Forest (see Goerck 2001a), and continent-wide (Collar et al. 1992, Goerck 2002), and the presence of of the finished text. Nigel Collar and David Wege at this new species is a renewed reason to take actions for BirdLife International discussed issues of our work. We Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti Nordeste’ mystery, with comments on bromeliad specialization in thank Rolf Grantsau for preparing the photoart and for Furnariidae” RBO in press discussing important morphological aspects. At MZUSP Coimbra-Filho, A. F. & Câmara, I. G. 1996. Os limites originais do we thank Guilherme R. Rocha Brito and Luís Fábio Bioma Mata Atlântica na região Nordeste do Brasil. FBCN, Rio de Silveira for assistance during our visits. Greg Budney and Janeiro. Viviana Caro provided material archived at the Macaulay Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N. K.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A. & Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened Library of Natural Sounds (Cornell Laboratory of birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Ornithology). We thank José Alves Siqueira Filho Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K. for obtaining permission and support for our work at Cracraft, J. 1985. Historical biogeography and patterns of Frei Caneca, and for information about sites where differentiation within the South American avifauna: areas of endemisms. Ornithological Monographs 36: 49-84. bromeliads are abundant at Alagoas and Pernambuco. Derryberry, E. P.; Claramunt, S.; Derryberry, G.; Chesser, R. T.; Ciro Albano supplied photos and tape-recordings of Crcraft, J.; Aleixo, A.; Pérez-Eman, J.; Remsen Jr., J. V. & Philydor novaesi, and we also thank the other recordists Brumfield, R. 2001. Lineage diversification and morphological whose material we used in this work. Santiago Claramunt evolution in a large-scale continental radiation: The neotropical supplied morphological information and Braulio Carlos Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers (Aves:Furnariidae). Evolution 65- 10:2973-2986. supplied important recordings of C. mazarbarnetti made Dettke, G. A.; Orfrini, A. C. & Milaneze-Gutierre, M. A. 2008. at Frei Caneca. Mary LeCroy provided copies of obscure Composição Florística e distribuição de epífitas vasculares em references that we would have been unable to obtain um remanescente de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual no Paraná, without her help. Christian Henschke translated some Brasil. Rodriguésia 59: 859-872. Fontana, C. S.; Bencke, G. A. & Reis, R. E. (eds.). 2003. Livro text from German. Dick Banks enlightened us on issues vermelho da fauna ameaçada de extinção no Rio Grande do Sul. of nomenclature. Sonia A. Roda made it possible for us EDIPUCRS, Porto Alegre. to visit some localities in the region, and she assisted with Goerck, J. M. 2001a. Programa de áreas importantes para a data from her own work. Ignacio Roesler joined JMB conservação das aves (IBAs) – uma estratégia global da BirdLife International. Pp. 231–238 in Albuquerque, J. L. B., Cândido Jr., during part of the fieldwork, and he provided comments J. F., Straube, F. C. & Roos, A .L. (eds.) Ornitologia e Conservação: on a draft of the manuscript. Wandir Ribeiro helped da Ciência às Estratégias. Edisul, Tubarão. with additional references and botanical information. Goerck, J. M. 2001b. The creation of Murici Ecological Station. Hernán Casañas, Fernando Straube, Giovanni Maurício, World Birdwatch 23: 21–23. Martha Argel, Fernando M. D’Horta, Jeremy Minns, Goerck, J. M. 2002. Murici protected. Cotinga 17: 9. Gonzaga, L. P.; Carvalhaes, A. M. P. & Buzzetti, D. R. C. 2007. A Renata Stopiglia, Frank Lambert, Paul Salaman, Luís new species of Formicivora antwren from the Chapada Diamantina, Fábio Silveira, and Guy Kirwan all discussed with us eastern Brazil (Aves: Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae). Zootaxa various aspects of our work. Pablo Tubaro is thanked 1473:25-44. for assistance to JMB at MACN. Martino Buzzetti Gonzaga, L. P. & Castiglioni, G. 2001. Aves das montanhas do Júnior and Roberta Buzzetti helped with the English, sudeste do Brasil. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro. (CD-ROM). and Ana Carolina Canavese edited the final version of Gussoni, C. O. A.; Pongiluppi, T. & Develey, P. F. 2011. Population the manuscript. We also thank Alexandre Aleixo, Curtis estimates and foraging behavior of the Critically Endangered Marantz, and Santiago Claramunt for reviewing several Alagoas Foliage-gleaner (Philydor novaesi) IX Congreso de versions of this manuscritpt. DCB would like to thank Ornitología Neotropical – Libro de Resúmenes. 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Historiografia e bibliografia do Domínio Holandês no Brasil. Imprensa Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. Associate Editor: Luciano N. Naka Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti APPENDIX 1: Specimens examined: Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti: Brazil, Alagoas: Murici, Serra (=Pedra) Branca, one female (MN 34530, holotype) and one juvenile (MN 34531). Cichlocolaptes leucophrus leucophrus: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro: Teresópolis, two males and two females (MZUSP 20263, 20438, 20196, and MN 38390); Fazenda Campestre, Nova Friburgo, one male (MN 36129). Brazil, Minas Gerais: Rio Doce, two males (MZUSP 25609, 25610). Brazil, Espírito Santo: Cupido, one male (MN 27152); Água Boa, Santa Cruz, one female (MN 19197); Chaves, one male and one female (MZUSP 28507, 28506); Pau Gigante, one female (MZUSP 9358); Rio São José, one male (MZUSP 28508); Itaúnas, one male (MZUSP 34530). Cichlocolaptes leucophrus holti: Brazil, São Paulo: Iporanga, one male and one female (MZUSP 2864, 49761); São Paulo, Rio Ipiranga, one male (MZUSP 47838); Quadro Penteado, one male (MZUSP 49762); Rio das Corujas, one male (MZUSP 56751); Salesópolis, one male and one female (MZUSP 64439, 64591); Estação Engenheiro Ferraz, one male and two females (MZUSP 60716, 54949, 60714); Rocha, two males (MZUSP 49690, 49760); Boracéia, three males (MZUSP 31491, 31665, 31667); Juquiá, one female (MZUSP 32147). Brazil, Paraná: Guaratuba, one male (MZUSP 35397). Cichlocolaptes leucophrus (intermediate specimens): Brazil, Rio de Janeiro: Visconde de Mauá, Rio Maromba, one male (MZUSP 36443). Brazil, São Paulo: Serra da Bocaina, two males and one unsexed bird (MZUSP 27132, 29544, 11048). Philydor novaesi: Brazil, Alagoas: Murici, Serra (=Pedra) Branca, three males (MN 32028 paratype, 32029 holotype and 33872) and one female (MN 33873). Philydor atricapillus: Brazil, Bahia: Cachoeira Grande do Sul, Rio Jacurucú, one male (MZUSP 14188). Brazil, Espírito Santo, one male (MZUSP 6327); Rio São José, one female (MZUSP 28525); Conceição da Barra, Rio Itaúnas, four females (MZUSP 34526–34529). Brazil, São Paulo, Iguape, two males and one female (MZUSP 62815, 62821, 62818); Iguape, Icapara da Serra, one female (MZUSP 62817); Iguape, Rio Ribeira, one female (MZUSP 66935); Iguape, Barra do Icapava, three males and two females (MZUSP 64951, 66933, 68303, 54940, 66934); Primeiro Morro, three males (MZUSP 49763, 49764, 49784); Rio Ipiranga, one female (MZUSP 47869); Campo Grande, one female (MZUSP 51141); Estação Engenheiro Ferraz, two males and three females (MZUSP 60684, 60686, 54938, 60687, 60688). Argentina, Misiones: Departamento Frontera, Refugio Piñalitos, nine males and six females (MACN 36748– 36762). APPENDIX 2: Sound recordings examined For each set of recordings, general localities are followed by the name of municipalities. Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti – Brazil, Alagoas: Murici Ecological Station, municipality of Murici: Song Type 1 and 2 (n = 35), isolated rattles (n = 24), calls with three notes (n = 11), recorded by Curtis A. Marantz (LNS/ML #128025, 128032, 128034-128037); same locality: Song Type1 and 2 (n = 8), calls with 3 notes (n = 42), angry-calls (n = 147), recorded by Andrew Whittaker (Minns et. al 2009: Philydor novaesi recordings #1-4 and 10-11); same locality: Song Type1 (n = 7), recorded by JMB (XC180942 and 181076); same locality: Song Type 1 and 2 (n = 71), isolated rattle (n = 1), spontaneous calls with one note (n = 59), recorded by DCB (XC 180893,180902, 180909 and 181080). Brazil, Pernambuco: Frei Caneca, municipality of Jaqueira: calls with two and three notes (n = 8), calls with one note (n = 5) recorded by Andrew Whittaker (Minns et. al 2009: Philydor novaesi recording #11); same locality: calls with three notes (n = 1), calls with one note (n = 57), recorded by DCB (XC180906); same locality: Song Type 2 (n = 2), recorded by Braulio Carlos (XC180936). Cichlocolaptes lecucophrus leucophrus – Brazil, Bahia: Municipality of Boa Nova. song (n = 1), calls (n = 7), recorded by Luiz P. Gonzaga (Gonzaga & Castiglioni 2001: Cichlocolaptes leucophrus recording #89); Fazenda Farofa, municipality of Boa Nova, calls (n = 11), alarm call (n = 1), recorded by Ricardo Parrini (Minns et. al 2009: Cichlocolaptes leucophrus recording #7; same locality, song (n = 5), calls (n = 32) recorded by Jeremy Minns (XC80778, XC80781); same locality, song (n = 1), recorded by Ciro Albano (Minns et. al 2009: Cichlocolaptes leucophrus recording #2). Brazil, Espírito Santo: Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi, municipality of Santa Teresa, rattle (n = 4), song (n = 3), recorded by Andrew Whittaker (Minns et. al 2009: Cichlocolaptes leucophrus recording #3); municipality of Vargem Alta, song (n = 3), calls (n = 4), recorded by Ricardo Parrini (Minns et. al 2009: Cichlocolaptes leucophrus recording #4). Brazil, Rio de Janeiro: Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 94 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti Municipality of Guapimirim, angry calls (n = 1), calls (n = 9), recorded by Jeremy Minns (XC180430). Cichlocolaptes leucophrus holti – Brazil, São Paulo. Bananal Ecological Station, municipality of Bananal, calls (n = 23) recorded by DCB (XC 180870, 180871, 180874 and 180879); Rio Vermelho, municipality of Bananal, song (n = 10) recorded by DCB (XC180863 and 180866); municipality of Ubatuba, song (n = 1), calls (n = 4) recorded by Jeremy Minns (XC180433); Corcovado, municipality of Ubatuba, song (n = 9) recorded by DCB (XC180865); Fazenda Lavrinhas, municipality of Campos do Jordão, calls (n = 19) recorded by DCB (XC180868); Carlos Botelho State Park, municipality of São Miguel Arcanjo, calls (n = 11) recorded by DCB (XC180878). Brazil, Santa Catarina: Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Volta Velha, municipality of Itapoá, song variant (n = 2), calls (n = 7), recorded by DCB (XC180867 and 180880); Aparados da Serra National Park, municipality of Jacinto Machado, alarm-calls (n = 3), recorded by DCB (XC180881). Philydor novaesi – Brazil, Pernambuco: Frei Caneca, municipality of Jaqueira: song (n = 10), calls with 4-6 notes (n = 17), recorded by Ciro Albano (XC16447, 65550); same locality: song (n = 14), calls with one note (n = 2), recorded by Jeremy Minns XC80732; same locality: calls with one note (n = 15), call with four notes (n = 6) recorded by Andrew Whittaker (Minns et. al 2009: Philydor novaesi recordings #9 and 11); same locality: rattle (n = 4), song (n = 11), recorded by JMB (XC181063, 181068 and 181072); same locality: song (n = 26), calls with four notes (n = 35), recorded by DCB (XC181036, 181054, 181056 and 181059); same locality: song (n = 8) recorded by Josep del Hoyo (http://ibc.lynxeds. com/video/alagoas-foliage-gleaner-philydor-novaesi/bird-tree-singing-several-times-flying-away); same locality: song (n = 6), recorded by Carlos Gussoni (XC77752). Philydor atricapillus – Brazil, Bahia: Una Biological Reserve, municipality of Una: calls with one note (n = 4), recorded by Andrew Whittaker (Minns et. al 2009: Philydor atricapillus recording #5). Brazil, Espírito Santo: Municipality of Santa Teresa: calls with one note (n = 8), recorded by Jeremy Minns (XC180436). Brazil, Rio de Janeiro: Ilha Grande, municipality of Angra dos Reis: song (n = 3), recorded by DCB (XC180950); Serra dos Órgãos National Park, municipality of Guapimirim: scolding-calls (n = 16), recorded by Jeremy Minns (XC80733). Brazil, São Paulo: Fazenda Angelim, municipality of Ubatuba: song (n = 3), calls with one note (n = 1), recorded by Andrew Whittaker (Minns et. al 2009: Philydor atricapillus recording #1); Corcovado, municipality of Ubatuba: song (n = 3), recorded by Andrew Whittaker (Minns et. al 2009: Philydor atricapillus recording #2); Folha Seca, municipality of Ubatuba: song (n = 3), calls with one note (n = 7), recorded by Jeremy Minns (XC80922); Cantareira State Park, municipality of Guarulhos: calls with four notes (n = 11), recorded by DCB (XC180995); Rio Mococa, municipality of Caraguatatuba: scolding-calls (n = 8), recorded by Jeremy Minns (XC80847); Bopiranga, municipality of Itanhaém, scolding-calls (n = 21), calls with one note (n = 7), recorded by DCB (XC181034, 181001 and 181030); Córrego do Engano, municipality of Miracatú, song (n = 14), recorded by DCB (XC181125). Brazil, Santa Catarina: Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Volta Velha, municipality of Itapoá: calls with three notes (n = 4) recorded by Andrew Whittaker (Minns et. al 2009: Philydor atricapillus recording #9); same locality: calls with one note (n = 12), recorded by Jeremy Minns (XC180442); Canyon Fortaleza, municipality of Jacinto Machado: calls with 2-3 notes (n = 19), recorded by DCB (XC180992). APPENDIX 3: Fieldwork by one or both authors in search of C. mazarbarnetti and later P. novaesi was undertaken during the periods: 10 September 2002–15 October 2002 (Murici); 19 January 2003–9 February 2003 (with 19–23 January spent at Murici); 23 September–4 October 2003 (with 23–26 September spent at Murici and 28 September–04 October spent at Frei Caneca); 12-15 November 2003 at Usina Serra Grande, Ibateguara, Alagoas (08º 59' S, 35º 51' W); 18-22 November 2003 at Usina Trapiche, Pernambuco (08º 38' S, 35º 12' W);10-13 March 2004 (Murici); 14 March 2004 at Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Senador Carlos Lyra, Maceió, Alagoas (09° 25' S, 36° 02' W); 17-18 March 2004 at Fazenda Riachão da Serra, União dos Palmares, Alagoas (09° 10' S, 35° 56' W); 19-21 March 2004 at Fazenda Recanto, Chã Preta, Alagoas (09º 17' S, 36º 14' W); 14–15 July 2004 (Murici); 16-22 April 2007 (Murici); 6-10 December 2007 (Murici). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Ornithology Research Springer Journals

A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil

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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 75-94 ARTICLE June 2014 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil 1 2,3 Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti Deceased. Centro de Estudos Ornitológicos. Rua Álvaro Rodrigues 139, sala 4, CEP 04582-000, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Corresponding author: dante@dantebuzzetti.com.br Received on 23 September 2013. Accepted on 21 May 2014. urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:5BE6C9E6-0E54-497E-84B8-90766A7A5A54, June 2014 ABSTRACT: A new species of treehunter, Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti sp. nov., is described from a specimen that for many years had been confused with Philydor novaesi. The morphology of this specimen, collected in 1986 at Pedra Branca, Murici, Alagoas, at 550 m elevation (currently the Murici Ecological Station), suggests its allocation in the genus Cichlocolaptes. The new species differs from P. novaesi by its considerably larger size, heavier body-mass, darker and more uniform forehead and crown, absence of buffy periocular- feathers, and a pale orange-rufous tail that contrasts with the rump and the rest of the dorsal plumage. It also has a flat-crowned appearance and a larger, deeper-based, and generally stouter bill. Behavioral specialization on bromeliads and vocal repertoire also suggest that the new species belongs in the genus Cichlocolaptes. The song of this species is markedly different from that of P. novaesi, and it closely matches that of Cichlocolaptes leucophrus. The new species is endemic to the ‘Pernambuco Center’ of endemism, where it inhabits dense, humid forests in hilly terrain. It is known from only two localities in northeastern Brazil, one each in the states of Alagoas and Pernambuco. Taken together, these areas contain less than 3,000 ha of suitable habitat for the species, where we estimate the population during our studies to have numbered no more than 10 individuals. We propose that this species should be categorized as Critically Endangered at a national and global level, and we consider the situation of its conservation to be critical in that it will require urgent action to avoid its global extinction. KEY WORDS: Atlantic Forest, Conservation, Ovenbirds, Philydor, Taxonomy, Treehunter. INTRODUCTION Alagoas Foliage-gleaner Philydor novaesi (Teixeira & Gonzaga 1983a), Orange-bellied Antwren Terenura Northeastern Brazil was the first area in the country sicki (Teixeira & Gonzaga 1983b), Alagoas Antwren to be settled by Europeans, when the Dutch arrived Myrmotherula snowi (Teixeira & Gonzaga 1985), and and established a colony that thrived along the coast Alagoas Tyrannulet Phylloscartes ceciliae (Teixeira 1987). Even by the 1970s, forested areas throughout northeastern between Maranhão and Sergipe in the period 1630-1654 (Rodrigues 1949, Cascudo 1956). The area that had Brazil had already been much reduced, and they were been covered by extensive forests soon gave way to sugar- found mostly on remote mountaintops (Teixeira & cane plantations, a habitat modification that is now five Gonzaga 1983a, Teixeira 1987). The present situation centuries old, and which may perhaps represent one of is even more desperate, in that only 1,907 km , or less than 2% of the original forests, remain (Silva & Tabarelli the oldest, large-scale habitat modifications produced by European colonies in South America. Despite its early 2001). Despite the near total removal of natural habitats economic exploitation, northeastern Brazil has been one in this region, the forests still support undescribed bird of the most neglected areas in the country for biological taxa, as demonstrated by the recent description of a new exploration. Ornithological attention was drawn to this pygmy-owl (Silva et al. 2002). Recent fieldwork at the Murici Ecological Station (hereafter Murici) by field region, perhaps too late, as recently as the 1970s, when expeditions by the Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro ornithologists supported the extreme rarity of P. novaesi (MN hereafter) resulted in the description of four new, (Roda 2011; IUCN, 2012), which has been by far the endemic taxa in the state of Alagoas, from Fazenda Serra rarest and most difficult to find element of the endemic Branca (currently part of the Murici Ecological Station): avifauna of Murici, and which, until recently, was known 76 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti exclusively from this one locality. During fieldwork at conditions were obtained from specimen labels. Remiges Murici on 12 October 2002, we observed and tape- and rectrices were counted. Color names used in the recorded a bird that largely fit the plumage description description follow Smithe (1981) and Munsell (1994). of P. novaesi. This bird, however, differed from P. novaesi Field observations were made using Zeiss and Swarovski (or at least from P. atricapillus, its supposedly closely 10 × 40 binoculars and a 15-45× spotting scope. allied sister-taxon (Teixeira & Gonzaga 1983a, Remsen Photographs of the specimens at MN were taken under 2003) and with which we were familiar) in its behavior, natural light. general morphology and, most strikingly, in its voice. In fact, these characteristics suggested instead affinities Vocalizations with the genus Cichlocolaptes. These similarities were so striking that we quickly became convinced that P. novaesi We recorded vocalizations with Sony TCM 5000EV had been wrongly described in the genus Philydor, and tape-recorders using Sennheiser ME66 and ME67 that it belonged instead in the genus Cichlocolaptes. microphones. Original recordings are in the Arquivo We later learned that several colleagues had already Sonoro Dante Buzzetti (ASDCB), maintained by the reached this same conclusion some time before us (e.g., second author. These recordings have been deposited at Andrew Whittaker and Kevin Zimmer). Nevertheless, in xeno-canto (www.xeno-canto.org). Additional recordings February 2003, we found P. novaesi in montane forests are available at other online collections, IBC/Lynx of the state of Pernambuco, at the Reserva Particular do (http://ibc.lynxeds.com), the Macaulay Library (http:// Patrimônio Natural Frei Caneca (hereafter Frei Caneca) macaulaylibrary.org), and on Minns et al. (2009). Other (Mazar Barnett et al. 2003, 2004), along with the other recordings made by colleagues are listed in Appendix 2. three endemic species of the ‘Pernambuco Center’ of Tape-recordings were digitized at 44.1 kHz with a 16 endemism (Roda 2003). The behavior, morphology, bit word-size. Spectrograms were produced in Cool Edit and vocalizations of this bird were reminiscent of P. 2000 using a Blackman window with a resolution of 512 atricapillus, yet they contrasted strikingly with the bands. Vocal variables were measured using screen cursors ovenbird we had seen and heard at Murici. We realized from the fundamental signals of the spectrograms. The that the bird seen in Pernambuco may represent the true variables measured were: total phrase duration, duration P. novaesi, described by Teixeira & Gonzaga (1983a), and of intervals between notes, note length and frequency that the ovenbird we observed at Murici represented an (defined as frequency at the point of highest amplitude) undescribed species. Teixeira et al. (1987) mentioned a (sensu Isler et al. 1998). Note shape descriptions were particularly large and heavy female specimen of P. novaesi made from spectrograms at the same scale as those in the secured at Murici, and our subsequent examination of figures. The name applied to each vocalization type in the series of P. novaesi at MN further confirmed our the repertoire of suboscines is not standardized, but we hypothesis, as we found that the particularly large female always attempted to compare homologous vocalizations specimen mentioned above represented an undescribed (as indicated by their overall similarity) regardless of taxon distinct from P. novaesi. the name applied. Digitized recordings used to make sonograms and additional recordings are available at the second author’s website: www.dantebuzzetti.com.br. MATERIAL AND METHODS Morphology RESULTS We examined all specimens of Philydor novaesi at MN, We propose to name the new species: which represents the entire available collection of the species, 35 specimens of the morphologically similar P. Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti sp. nov. atricapillus, and 30 specimens of Cichlocolaptes leucophrus Cryptic Treehunter at MN, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZUSP), and Museo Argentino de Ciencias gritador-do-nordeste Naturales (MACN) (Appendix 1). We measured the exposed culmen, wing chord, tail, and tarsus length of the specimens examined using a dial caliper to the Holotype: Specimen N 34530, study skin of an nearest 0.1 mm. We took additional measurements on adult female deposited at the Museu Nacional do Rio de specimens of P. novaesi: distance from the commissure Janeiro (MN), collected on 16 January 1986 by Dante to the external nares, distance from the commissure to M. Teixeira at Serra Branca, Murici (currently Murici th the bill tip, and the length of the 10 primary. Body Ecological Station), 09° 15' S, 35° 50' W, 550 m above mass, total length, bill coloration, wingspan, and gonad sea level, Alagoas State, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti Diagnosis: Differs from Philydor novaesi in its the brown rump (upper-tail coverts are rufous like the considerably heavier and longer body (Figure 1, Table rectrices in P. novaesi, Figure 4) and have rounded tips 1), uniformly blackish crown, forehead and lores (mucronate in P. novaesi); larger, deeper-based, and more (speckled with light brown in P. novaesi, Figure 2); dark heavily built bill; a flat-crowned appearance (smaller bill periocular-feathers (buffy eyering in P. novaesi); buffy and rounded head in P. novaesi, Figure 3). Differs from supraloral-stripe (indistinct in P. novaesi, Figure 3); dark Cichlocolaptes leucophrus in having a uniform plumage patches on sides of neck (absent in P. novaesi); longer that lacks buffy stripes on the ventral and dorsal regions and paler orange-rufous rectrices that contrast with of the body (Figure 5). FIGURE 1. Adult female Philydor novaesi (MN 33873, left) and Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti (MN 34530, right). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 78 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti FIGURE 2. Upper view of the heads of adult female Philydor novaesi (MN 33873, left) and Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti (MN 34530, right), showing differences in bill length and the coloration of the crown, forehead and lores. FIGURE 3. Lateral view of the heads of adult female Philydor novaesi (MN 33873, left) and Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti (MN 34530, right), showing differences in the eyering, extension of the supercilium, head shape, and bill length and shape. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti FIGURE 4. From left to right male and female Philydor novaesi (MN 33872 and 33873), female Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti at the center (MN 34530), and two male Philydor novaesi at right (MN 32028 and 32029, the latter the holotype), showing the differences in contrast between tail and rump color. FIGURE 5. From left to right Philydor atricapillus (MN 39355), P. novaesi (MN 33873), Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti (MN 34530) and C. leucophrus leucophrus (MN 9021). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 80 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti TABLE 1: Measurements of specimens of Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti and Philydor novaesi housed at MN. The values are presented in millimeters, with the exception of body mass, which was measured in grams. Philydor novaesi Cichlocolaptes Cichlocolaptes Philydor novaesi Males mazarbarnetti mazarbarnetti Measurements Female** MN 32028 Female * Juvenile MN 33873 MN 32029 MN 34530 MN 34531 MN 33872 body mass 48.0 30.0 32.0-34.0 36.0 exposed culmen 15.5 12.9 12.3-13.0 12.8 bill depth 6.8 6.3 6.3-6.7 6.6 bill width 5.0 4.7 4.0-4.3 4.6 nares to commissure 14.9 9.8 10.1-11.4 - commissure to tip 28.9 22.6 22.2-22.7 - wing chord 96.5 83.5 91.4-94.9 90.1 wingspan 320.0 280.0 - 305.0 length of 10th primary 80.2 64.5 72.6-75.4 73.8 tail 82.0 76.1 80.0-84.8 83.9 tarsus 22.9 20.7 22.2-22.6 22.6 total length 221.0 195.0 193.0-205.0 207.0 * The female C. mazarbarnetti had an ossified skull and a globulous ovary with one ovum > 2 mm (based on the specimen tags). We therefore treat it as an adult. ** The female P. novaesi had an ossified skull and a granular ovary (based on the specimen tags), and is thus treated as an adult. Description of the Holotype: Crown and forehead and colleague who suddenly passed away before this Jet-Black (3.2PB 1.6/0.5). Back of the neck, back, and manuscript was finished, in recognition of his important rump Cinnamon-Brown (7.0YR 4.0/4.0). Tail Pale contributions to the conservation of the Atlantic Forest Orange-Rufous (2.5YR 5.0/8.0), with the central rectrices in northeastern Brazil and its declining avifauna. For the darker dorsally. Throat, sides of head, supercilium and English name we propose Cryptic Treehunter because supraloral-stripe Pinkish-Buff (0.4Y 7.5/4.3). Auriculars it is difficult to find and, particularly, to separate from and moustachial region Pinkish-Buff, with dusky Philydor novaesi in the field. We propose naming this streaking. Lower throat and sides of neck Cinnamon- species gritador-do-nordeste in Portuguese. ‘Gritador’ Brown (7.0YR 4.0/4.0). Breast, belly, and underwing (meaning ‘screamer’) is an apt name given the loudness of coverts Cinnamon (8.7YR 5.0/6.0). Thighs, flanks its vocalizations, but it also represents a figure in Brazilian and undertail coverts Prout’s Brown (6.5YR 3.5/3.0). folklore. The story of the ‘Gritador’ is that of two brothers Remiges Vandyke Brown (5.0YR 3.5/2.5), with Cream- who went hunting and one accidentally shot the other. In colored (3.5Y 8.5/5.5) fringes, wing-coverts darker than desperation, he shot himself, and now his soul sometimes the remiges. Irides brown (from specimen label). Tarsi can be heard as it wanders through the forest in the top and toes in the dried skin Grayish-Olive (5.0 Y 4.8/2.5). of the hills, screaming in pain while searching for his Upper mandible black, lower mandible paler, and both brother. A parallel can be drawn with the story of the with sides grayish in the dried skin. Total length 221.0 ‘Gritador’, as C. mazarbarnetti can be heard ‘screaming’ mm (from specimen label), exposed culmen 15.5 mm, while wandering through the hilltop forest searching in wing chord 96.5 mm, tail 82.0 mm (but R1 and R2 were vain for his ‘brothers’, in this case due to the scarcity of still growing), tarsus 23.2 mm, and body mass 48.0 g the species. (from specimen label). Additional specimen: Immature female MN Etymolog y: The second author dedicates the name 34531 collected on 20 January 1986. This specimen of the new species to the first author, a good friend is larger than P. novaesi, even the males, though it does Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti not approach the size and body mass of MN 34530 (see D’Anta (08º 39' S, 35º 53' W), comprising together about Table 1). It measured 207 mm in total length and 36 1,000 ha of forest (SAVE Brasil 2013). We did not find g. Like the holotype of C. mazarbarnetti, this specimen the species at various other highland localities, or at two has the rump and sides of neck browner, the plumage lowland sites, in the states of Alagoas and Pernambuco more orange than any P. novaesi, and the crown and (Appendix 3). lores unmarked and blackish, and it lacks the buffy eyering (Figure 6). Although collected four days later, HABITAT AND BEHAVIOR this specimen was presumed to be the same bird seen accompanying the holotype when it was collected (Dante M. Teixeira pers. com., 2004). Therefore, it is The Cryptic Treehunter is endemic to the ‘Pernambuco possible that MN 34531 represents the offspring of MN Center’ of endemism, where it inhabits dense, humid 34530. forests in hilly terrain with rainfall higher than at nearby lowland sites. The areas at Fazenda Bananeiras and Frei Caneca where the species and its co-endemics have been GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION found are forests near the hilltops, and especially those in deep, forested ravines. The steep slopes and ravines Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti is known from only two sites, present taller and better-preserved forest, where a few the type locality at Murici in the state of Alagoas, and Frei emergent trees reach over 25 m. These forests have been Caneca (08º 43' S, 35º 51' W), Jaqueira, in the state of selectively logged, but some areas have suffered from Pernambuco. The 6,116 ha of Murici presently has less more severe logging. Most of these areas were not logged, than a 2,000 ha covered by forests that are suitable for and have recovered some of the original structure with this species. In recent years, C. mazarbarnetti has been multiple strata and a relatively open understory. The found at this site only in the vicinity of an area known as best-preserved patches have a profusion of vine tangles Poço d’Anta, at Fazenda Bananeiras (09º 12' S, 35º 52' and they are densely laden with bromeliads, mosses, and W, 500–600 m). The species could potentially occur in orchids (Figure 7). A great number of these epiphytes, the forests of the nearby Fazenda São José (09º 13' S, 35º mainly bromeliads, are also restricted to the ‘Pernambuco 54' W) and perhaps in certain tracts of forest at Serra do Center’ of endemism (Siqueira-Filho & Leme 2006). Ouro (09º 14' S, 35º 50' W). Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti can be found alone or in has been found at Frei Caneca, and it could potentially pairs, sometimes on their own, but usually in association be present in the forests of the contiguous Fazenda Pedra with large, mixed-species flocks. They move between the FIGURE 6. Juvenile Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti (MN 34531), showing the dark crown, the absence of a buffy eyering, and browner sides of neck. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 82 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti mid-levels and the subcanopy (mostly 8–20 m). A bird 2002 was in a flock with Veniliornis affinis, Picumnus exilis, seen by the authors on 12 October 2002 was foraging Automolus lammi, Xiphorhynchus atlanticus, Thamnophilus actively in the lower part of an open tree-crown. It visited aethiops, Thamnomanes caesius, Myrmotherula axillaris, bromeliads exclusively, searching deeply within them. Myrmotherula snowi, Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus, On one occasion, a bird was seen entering and almost Terenura sicki, Myrmoderus ruficaudus, Conopophaga disappearing into one large bromeliad, leaving only its melanops, Myiopagis gaimardii, Rhynchocyclus olivaceus, upward pointing tail visible. This bird removed and threw Hemitriccus griseipectus, Caryothraustes canadensis, and away dead leaves from the bromeliad’s interior while Saltator maximus. The mixed-species flock joined by searching for food. Another individual was observed on the individual observed on 21 January 1998 included 21 January 1998 foraging at 12–15 m in the subcanopy X. atlanticus, T. caesius, M. snowi, T. sicki, and Myiobius and again inside a large bromeliad cluster on a canopy atricaudus. This bird was in heavy wing and tail molt, branch off the main trunk (A. Whittaker in litt. 2004). A including both the primaries and secondaries (A. bird seen in January 1999 was foraging 12–15 m up in the Whittaker in litt. 2004). sub-canopy by ‘rummaging around in bromeliads, with just its tail and hind-parts sticking out’ (K. Zimmer and VOCAL REPERTOIRE A. Whittaker in litt. 2004). A bird was also seen foraging about 15 m up in a bromeliad on 23 February 2003 (W. Vocalizations of birds that match the morphological Silva in litt. 2004). The pair seen and tape-recorded by characteristics of the type of C. mazarbarnetti were DCB at Frei Caneca on 3 October 2003 was searching recorded at Murici and Frei Caneca. Most of the songs a large bromeliad 15 m up. A bird observed on 19 April analyzed were spontaneous, and from recordings made 2007 at Murici was attracted with playback after natural between March 2001 and April 2007, in the months of vocalizations were heard. It flew through the subcanopy January, February, March, April and October, by four 18 m up and then stopped at a branch covered by moss different recordists on five occasions. Given that all of 15 m up, where it started to sing again for a few minutes these recordings were made at Fazenda Bananeiras and before flying away. Probably the same bird was heard and Frei Caneca, it is also possible that only five or six tape-recorded in the same area on 20 April 2007 at dawn, individuals are represented. In the following description, when it gave non-stop songs for at least 12 minutes from we compare C. mazarbarnetti’s vocalizations with those a large concentration of bromeliads 8 m above the ground of C. leucophrus, Philydor novaesi, and P. atricapillus, on the top of a hill. One individual seen on 12 October FIGURE 7. Detail of primary forest at Frei Caneca, showing the profusion of epiphytes (and in particular bromeliads) in the canopy. Photo by DCB. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti showing their differences and homologies. Examination 21.1–24.7 notes/s in spontaneous songs, but it is faster of the complete vocal repertoire of C. mazarbarnetti following playback. This initial rattle maintains a would be necessary for a thorough analysis, yet we feel constant frequency throughout and it may escape that the available material is sufficient to document our detection if the bird is distant. Sometimes the song assertion that C. mazarbarnetti and Philydor novaesi includes a shorter rattle after the series of harsh notes, represent different species. What we regard as Song Type and this occurs mostly when the number of harsh notes 1 of C. mazarbarnetti is a fast, dry rattle of 0.38–2.81 s is fewer. In response to playback, and spontaneously at followed closely by a series of 4–8 loud, raspy notes dawn, we observed a modified version of Song Type 1 delivered at a regular pace (Figure 8A). Each of these that we refer to as Song Type 2: the initial rattle increases raspy notes, lasting 0.12-0.23 s, increases slightly in to 1.8–3.2 s and the number of following notes is reduced frequency before decreasing suddenly at the end. The to 1–3; the first note is lower pitched than the second, initial rattle is a rapid series of 9–62 notes at a pace of and the second is lower than the third (if present) (Figure FIGURE 8. A. Song Type 1 of Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti recorded on 20 April 2007 at Murici Ecological Station, municipality of Murici, Alagoas (DCB, XC180893). B. Song Type 2 of Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti, recorded in same take as A. C. Song of Cichlocolaptes leucophrus leucophrus recorded on 3 May 1997 in the municipality of Vargem Alta, Espírito Santo (Ricardo Parrini). D. Song of Cichlocolaptes leucophrus holti, recorded on 28 June 2003 at Rio Vermelho, municipality of Bananal, São Paulo (DCB, XC180863). E. Song of Philydor novaesi recorded on 15 February 2003 at Frei Caneca, municipality of Jaqueira, Pernambuco (JMB, XC181063). F. Song of Philydor atricapillus recorded on 16 October 1993 in the municipality of Ubatuba, São Paulo (Andrew Whittaker). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 84 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti 8B). On one occasion, we recorded a spontaneous end. Sometimes two notes were delivered after the raspy vocalization at dawn that was delivered for 12½ minutes, note, and sometimes only the raspy notes were delivered and that comprised 10 phrases of the first song-type, 64 (Figure 10A). The song of C. leucophrus leucophrus phrases of the second song-type, and one isolated rattle. consists of a fast, dry rattle of 2.2-3.6 s followed closely The interval between songs was shorter at dawn, when by a series of 5-8 loud, short notes delivered at a regular the number of phrases of Song Type 2 was greater than pace (Figure 8C). The structure of the song is similar to that of Song Type 1, but most spontaneous songs made that of C. mazarbarnetti, but the timbre and shape of the throughout the day matched Song Type 1, and Song short notes are different. Like C. mazarbarnetti, C. l. Type 2 was given almost exclusively in response to leucophrus sometimes delivers a faster rattle of about 1.0 playback. Analysis of 123 phrases of song (including s at the end of the phrase, and sometimes in response to both types 1 and 2) shows only limited variation. In playback, isolated rattles at a rate of 19.5–22.2 notes/s, addition to songs, birds may deliver a fast rattle without with the rattle lasting up to 9.2 s (Figure 11C). The song the following notes, at a rate of 21.7–24.0 notes/s, and of C. leucophrus holti is similar in pattern to that of C. l. lasting up to 8.5 s (Figure 11A). Isolated rattles may be leucophrus and C. mazarbarnetti, in that it is a fast, dry delivered among songs, as was heard at dawn, or after rattle of 0.5-4.3 s followed closely by a series of 4-8 loud, playback, when the bird is excited, but it is unusual to short notes delivered at a regular pace (Figure 8D). Each hear them given spontaneously during the day. Calls of the short notes begins by increasing in frequency, but recorded in response to playback are a fast, staccato series unlike the songs of C. mazarbarnetti and C. l. leucophrus, of three dry notes that have an ascending and then a the decrease at the end is not so evident. The initial rattle descending shape, and which are delivered at 2.0–2.4 maintains a constant frequency throughout. Like C. kHz (Figure 9A; Table 2). Single-note calls are reminiscent mazarbarnetti and C. l. leucophrus, C. l. holti sometimes of the raspy notes of the song, but without the upward delivers a shorter (0.3 s) and more rapid rattle at the end and downward inflections, and they are delivered at 1.7- of the phrase. Possibly because of its smaller body size, all 2.7 kHz (see Table 2). A presumed alarm-call was notes in the song of C. l. holti are given at a higher recorded once, and possibly related to an agonistic frequency than those of the other taxa (see Table 2). The behavior, given that two birds were involved. It consisted song of C. mazarbarnetti is closer to that of C. l. leucophrus of 1-3 notes, the first a fast and sharply descending than C. l. holti in the range and frequency of the initial modulation, followed by a fast upward and slow rattle and raspy notes. Some homologies in the calls and downward modulation, and finally, a raspy note at the rattles were also noted between C. mazarbarnetti and C. FIGURE 9. A. Three-note calls of Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti recorded on 5 March 2001 at Murici, Alagoas. (Curtis Marantz, LNS/Macaulay Library #128035). B. Calls of Philydor novaesi recorded on 3 October 2003 at Frei Caneca, Jaqueira, Pernambuco (DCB, XC181036). C. Calls of Philydor atricapillus recorded on 17 July 1994 at Serra da Cantareira, municipality of Guarulhos, São Paulo (DCB, XC180995). FIGURE 10. A. Alarm calls of Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti recorded on 3 October 2003 at Frei Caneca, municipality of Jaqueira, Pernambuco (DCB, XC180906). B. Alarm calls of Cichlocolaptes leucophrus leucophrus recorded on 11 May 1999 in the municipality of Boa Nova, Bahia (Ricardo Parrini). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti l. leucophrus, these mainly in the rattle and alarm calls. likewise varies based on the bird’s level of excitement. Alarm calls of C. mazarbarnetti and C. l. leucophrus have One call of P. novaesi and P. atricapillus is similar in both a similar pattern (Figs. 10A and 10B). Unlike those of structure and pace, and it consists of four, ascending the taxa described above, the song of P. novaesi is a high- notes given in a series (Figs. 9B and 9C). Although the pitched rattle that combines two simultaneous notes as it vocal repertoire of P. novaesi is poorly known, we feel that descends slightly in pitch through the song (Figure 8E). the similarities in the songs and calls of P. novaesi and P. Each component note decreases sharply in pitch, the atricapillus show a clear homology, making a compelling whole rattle is longer than that of C. mazarbarnetti, and case for a close relationship between them. The it is delivered at a slower pace (see Table 2). The length of vocalizations of P. atricapillus tend to be ‘softer’ and the phrases varies relative to the bird’s level of excitement. higher in frequency than those of P. novaesi, which The song is usually delivered at intervals of 5–15 s, but probably reflects its smaller size. By contrast, the fast occasionally at longer intervals. The analysis of 75 phrases rattle that begins the song of C. mazarbarnetti is different of the P. novaesi song, including an abnormal type (see from that of the song of P. novaesi in structure, pace, below), showed only limited variation in frequency and frequency, and duration. It reaches 21.1–24.6 notes/s pace. The songs analyzed were, for most part, spontaneous, versus 12.2–16.3 notes/s and its frequency is 2.5 kHz and they were made between February 2003 and compared to 5.2 kHz. The duration of 1.6 s is also November 2010, in the months of February, March, markedly shorter than the 3.8 s of P. novaesi (see Table 2). June, October, November and December, by six different It is important to note that the initial rattle of C. recordists on nine occasions. Given that all of these mazarbarnetti, C. l. leucophrus, and C. l. holti all maintain recordings were made at Frei Caneca, it is possible that a constant frequency from beginning to end, whereas the only three or four individuals were represented. The song frequency of the songs of P. novaesi and P. atricapillus fall of P. atricapillus is similar to that of P. novaesi, in that it steadily throughout the vocalization. Equally importantly, consists of a high-pitched rattle that descends slowly in the raspy notes are absent in the song of both P. novaesi frequency (Figure 8F). Each note has a simple, descending and P. atricapillus, yet they are present and conspicuous shape that is quite similar to that of the lower frequency in the songs of C. mazarbarnetti, C. l. leucophrus, and C. notes of songs of P. novaesi. Each component note l. holti. Calls of C. mazarbarnetti consist of series of three decreases sharply in pitch as well, and the whole song is rapidly ascending and descending modulations at 2.0– delivered at 18.2–21.6 notes/s, and thus somewhat faster 2.4 kHz (see Figure 9A). Philydor novaesi has a similar than P. novaesi (see Table 2). The duration of the phrases sounding call, but it consists of 3–6 ascending notes FIGURE 11. A. Rattle of Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti recorded on 20 April 2007 at Murici, Alagoas. (DCB, XC 180893). B. Rattle of Philydor novaesi, recorded in response to playback on 12 April 2003 at Frei Caneca, Jaqueira, Pernambuco (JMB, XC181072). C. Rattle of Cichlocolaptes leucophrus leucophrus recorded on 03 May 1997 at Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi, Espírito Santo (Andrew Whittaker). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 86 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti delivered at 4.6-5.6 kHz (see Figure 9B; Table 2). The song or as a stand-alone vocalization, with the song of P. isolated rattle of C. mazarbarnetti is delivered at a rate of novaesi, which is also a rattle. The rattle of C. mazarbarnetti 21.7–24.0 notes/s and with a duration of 1.2-8.5 s, is both quicker (21.1–24.6 notes/s for the initial part of whereas the rattle of P. novaesi is 7.2-13.6 s in length and the song and 21.7-24.0 notes/s for a stand-alone rattle it is delivered at a rate of 13.8-15.8 notes/s (Figure 11B). versus 12.2-16.3 notes/s) and lower in frequency (2.5 These vocalizations also differ in frequency and note kHz versus 5.2 kHz). These vocalizations also differ in shape (Figure 12A). It is interesting to compare the rattle frequency and shape of the notes (Figure 12B). A of C. mazarbarnetti, whether as the initial part of the playback experiment was carried out at Murici to test the TABLE 2: Comparison of songs and calls of Cichlocolaptes leucophrus holti, C. l. leucophrus, C. mazarbarnetti, Philydor novaesi, and P. atricapillus. The values presented are range, mean ± standard deviation (in parentheses) and sample size for songs and calls (in italics). Cichlocolaptes Cichlocolaptes Cichlocolaptes Philydor Philydor Philydor leucophrus leucophrus mazarbarnetti novaesi novaesi* atricapillus holti leucophrus 0.51-4.30 2.25-3.65 0.38-2.81 2.45-5.64 2.64-4.76 Rattle/Song (2.35 ± 1.17) (2.95 ± 0.70) (1.62 ± 0.35) (3.83 ± 0.63) 2.8 (3.64 ± 0.55) length (s) n = 14 n = 3 n = 27 n = 35 n = 15 10-89 50-77 9-62 32-76 56-103 number of notes (47.07 ± 23.08) (63.66 ± 13.50) (38.03 ± 14.49) (53.60 ± 9.9) 45 (71.93 ± 12.19) n = 14 n = 3 n = 27 n = 35 n = 15 16.94-21.78 21.10-22.22 21.11-24.66 12.28-16.34 18.28-21.64 notes per second (20.09 ± 1.22) (21.62 ± 0.56) (23.44 ± 0.83) (13.98 ± 1.16) 16.07 (19.77 ± 1.24) n = 14 n = 3 n = 27 n = 35 n = 15 3.55-4.10 2.87-3.13 2.34-2.98 4.82-5.52 2.48-3.07 frequency (kHz) (3.72 ± 0.13) (2.98 ± 0.13) (2.53 ± 0.15) (5.29 ± 0.16) 3.83 (2.76 ± 0.18) n = 14 n = 3 n = 27 n = 35 n = 15 0.12-0.23 0.19-0.37 0.12-0.23 0.18-0.20 Raspy notes (0.20 ± 0.02) (0.25 ± 0.05) (0.35 ± 0.05) - (0.18 ± 0.01) - length of note (s) n = 101 n = 18 n = 129 n = 4 4-8 5-8 4-8 number of notes (6.31 ± 1.01) (6.00 ± 1.73) (3.55 ± 1.63) -4 - n = 16 n = 3 n = 31 3.50-4.31 2.87-3.58 1.13-2.64 1.62-1.95 frequency (kHz) (3.80 ± 0.16) (3.07 ± 0.23) (2.07 ± 0.29) - (1.83 ± 0.14) - n = 88 n = 18 n = 129 n = 4 3.82-5.50 2.93-3.48 1.75-2.72 3.54-4.23 3.31-5.00 Calls with one note (4.53 ± 0.31) (3.24 ± 0.18) (2.29 ± 0.19) (3.75 ± 0.22) - (4.41 ± 0.57) frequency (kHz) n = 71 n = 68 n = 84 n = 13 n = 34 2.09-2.47 4.68-5.69 3.87-5.73 Calls with 3-6 notes -- (2.28 ± 0.10) (5.26 ± 0.31) - (4.61 ± 0.51) frequency (kHz) n = 33 n = 25 n = 14 *abnormal song of P. novaesi after playback of C. mazarbarnetti’s song (n = 1 phrase) Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti FIGURE 12. A. Comparison between the rattles of C. mazarbarnetti and P. novaesi, showing differences in frequency, pace, and shape of the notes. B. Comparison between the rattle of C. mazarbarnetti and the song of P. novaesi, showing differences in frequency, pace, and shape of the notes. reaction of C. mazarbarnetti to the song of P. novaesi. The different. In the recording, the abnormal song is followed individual of C. mazarbarnetti recorded on 20 April by three typical songs of P. novaesi, which are closely 2007 at dawn (see Habitat and Behavior) had sung similar to the initial rattle of the abnormal song. We spontaneously for at least 12 minutes. Immediately after therefore conclude that this phrase was delivered by an it stopped singing, we played a single song of P. novaesi excited P. novaesi during an unusual behavioral context, several times, at intervals of one or two minutes. No as opposed to by C. mazarbarnetti. vocal or visual reaction by C. mazarbarnetti was observed. This was probably the same individual that was recorded DISCUSSION in the same area on the previous afternoon, when it was attracted immediately by playback of its own song, Evidence for a new species clearly demonstrating territorial defense behavior. The bird recorded on 12 October 2002 at Murici also showed strong territorial defense behavior after playback of its The differences between C. mazarbarnetti and P. novaesi own song, first flying back-and-forth overhead several in morphology and plumage noted on museum skins, times and then singing for some minutes. The same combined with vocalizations and observations of foraging behavior was noted by Curtis Marantz when he recorded behavior made in the field, provide strong evidence that C. mazarbarnetti at Murici in March 2001 (http:// two different species are involved. These differences are at macaulaylibrary.org/audio/128037). Cichlocolaptes odds with variation within a single population (see also mazarbarnetti’s behavior on these occasions led us to Claramunt [2014] regarding morphometric evidence). conclude that it did not recognize the song of P. novaesi Aspects of the plumage that aided our diagnosis of the as part of its own species’ repertoire. An abnormal song new species from P. novaesi in the field were noted, most of P. novaesi was recorded at Frei Caneca on November notably characters of the facial pattern and color of the 2010 (www.xeno-canto.org/65550) with simultaneous upper-tail coverts. There is a photo available at Lees et al. photos and observations made following extended (2014), where the buffy eyering and the rufous upper- playback of the song of both C. mazarbarnetti and P. tail coverts of P. novaesi are shown simultaneously, and novaesi (Ciro Albano in litt. 2010). This vocalization we can see at Figure 4 the different facial pattern and consisted of an initial rattle followed by four short notes, the dark rump color of C. mazarbarnetti. A video made and in this respect if superficially resembled a song by C. at Frei Caneca on 11 October 2008, available at http:// mazarbarnetti. This song has been considered by some ibc.lynxeds.com/video/alagoas-foliage-gleaner-philydor- colleagues to be the same as the song of C. mazarbarnetti, novaesi/bird-tree-singing-several-times-flying-away, thus leading them to conclude, based on this recording shows a singing bird with a buffy eyering. The four and the concomitant observation of a bird that visually phrases of the song presented in this video have the same matches P. novaesi, that only one species is involved. We pattern of the song of P. novaesi shown in Figure 8E in therefore analyzed this recording and compared it with duration, pace, number and shape of the notes, and the the songs of both P. novaesi and C. mazarbarnetti. The descending frequency. The facial pattern and the domed initial rattle of the abnormal song is similar to the song of head of this bird match the four unambiguous skins of P. novaesi in length, pace, and in the number and shape P. novaesi by comparison (see Figs. 3 and 5). Another of the notes, and it descends in frequency throughout. It video made at Frei Caneca on 5 November 2010, differs from the song of C. mazarbarnetti in all these available at http://ibc.lynxeds.com/video/alagoas-foliage- parameters (see Table 2). The four terminal notes of the gleaner-philydor-novaesi/one-adult-bird-singing, shows abnormal song are softer than the loud and raspy notes of a singing bird with a bill that appears both larger and C. mazarbarnetti, and their shape and timbre are quite stouter than that of the bird in the first video. The large Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 88 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti bill in particular suggests C. mazarbarnetti. Although 2004; see also Philydor novaesi photos #6-8 in Minns et we noted little variation in bill size in the type series of al. [2009]). Despite the paucity of data on the foraging P. novaesi, representing one female and three males (see behavior of P. novaesi, similarities with P. atricapillus Table 1), individual variation in bill size in ovenbirds and were noted by us and by other researchers (Gussoni et sexual dimorphism in Philydor are both expected (see al. 2011), yet consistent and marked differences were Claramunt 2014). The bird recorded on 5 November noted between P. novaesi and C. mazarbarnetti. Philydor 2010 does have a buffy eyering, and the six phrases of atricapillus has been regarded as a dead-leaf-searching the song heard in this video have the same pattern as specialist (Remsen & Parker 1984, Parrini et al. 2010) those in the first video, and they are again like that shown that frequently assumes acrobatic postures, such as in Figure 8E. We therefore conclude that this bird also hanging upside-down vertically. It also uses substrates represents P. novaesi, and that the most important features such as bits of rotten wood, hanging debris, vine tangles, to separate P. novaesi from C. mazarbarnetti in the field living foliage and epiphytes (especially bromeliads), are the facial pattern, in particular the presence versus though more often these birds inspect clusters of dead absence of buffy eyering, respectively, rufous upper-tail leaves (Mallet-Rodrigues 2001). Philydor atricapillus has coverts versus brown rump, and a song that represents also been seen foraging in a Xenops-like manner (Fontana a long, descending rattle in P. novaesi versus a rattle that et al. 2003), as described above for P. novaesi. We have maintains a constant frequency throughout followed by noted in P. atricapillus the typical and characteristic some raspy notes in C. mazarbarnetti. There are many movement of the fanned tail, identical to that described other cases in which vocalizations provided the first above for P. novaesi. The behavior of C. mazarbarnetti is insight that a new species was present, to be corroborated notably different from that described above for P. novaesi only later by morphological or molecular evidence (such and P. atricapillus as a result of its clear preference for as, for a few recent examples, Herpsilochmus sellowi foraging at bromeliads, and by inhabiting the middle (Whitney et al. 2000), Suiriri islerorum (Zimmer et al. to upper strata of the forest (see Habitat and Behavior). 2001), and Formicivora grantsaui (Gonzaga et al. 2007)). In these respects, the behavior noted closely matches Our observations suggest that foraging behavior differs that of C. leucophrus. It is also important to note that in C. mazarbarnetti and P. novaesi. The Philydor forages the holotype of C. mazarbarnetti (MN 34530) was shot in the lower strata, up into the canopies of mid-sized near the canopy and that it was searching a bromeliad at trees, where it forages along branches and in tangles. the time (based on the specimen label; D. M. Teixeira Of the four unambiguous specimens of P. novaesi, two pers. comm. 2004). Our requests for permission to X-ray were mist-netted in the understory and one was shot in skulls and take samples for molecular analysis from the the mid-levels (based on information contained on the specimens of C. mazarbarnetti and P. novaesi at MN specimen labels). It also adopts a variety of postures when were denied in September 2004, November 2008, and foraging, with its head down, or hanging with the belly June 2013. Our conclusions, based on morphology, upwards, even from suspended branches, or perching on plumage, vocalizations, and foraging behavior, could be vertical branches. These birds search the edges of green corroborated in the future using molecular methods. leaves, they inspect dead leaves that have fallen or those that have accumulated in clusters, they rummage in balls Affinities of C. mazarbarnetti of detritus, they creep along surfaces of trunks, and they even lift bark. These birds also hammer thick and rotten Morphometric features that link C. mazarbarnetti to branches in the manner of a Xenops (Teixeira & Gonzaga Cichlocolaptes were presented by Claramunt (2014). What 1983a). Birds seen at Frei Caneca in February 2003 little is known of the behavior of the new species also links and in September–October 2003 (Mazar Barnett et al. it to Cichlocolaptes. The tendency of C. mazarbarnetti to 2004) moved along thin horizontal branches in the lower remain in the subcanopy or higher strata is shared with to middle levels among the crowns of small trees (ca. 4 C. leucophrus, even though both species do frequent lower m). P. novaesi was also seen foraging on bromeliads in strata on occasion. Cichlocolaptes leucophrus is known to the mid-levels, searching mainly the edges of the leaves be highly dependent on bromeliads, and while foraging, and clusters, but not ‘entering’ bromeliads leaving only it searches deep within leaf clusters, sometimes almost its tail visible, as does C. mazarbarnetti when foraging. disappearing altogether (Pizo 1994, Ridgely & Tudor Philydor novaesi fanned their tails, as described by Teixeira 1994, Fontana et al. 2003). We have noticed a similar & Gonzaga (1983a), which resulted in the tail appearing foraging behavior and dependency on bromeliads for C. broad and rounded, and thus much like P. atricapillus. mazarbarnetti, and our data are supported by observations Foraging maneuvers observed included a bird pecking at by others (e.g., K. Zimmer and A. Whittaker in litt. a dead leaf that was hanging from a small clump of mosses 2004). The rather slow and deliberate movements of C. in a fork, and another bird that systematically investigated mazarbarnetti while foraging also recalled those of C. clumps of hanging, dead leaves (Mazar Barnett et al. leucophrus to A. Whittaker (in litt. 2004). Above all, we Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti think that the undeniable similarity of the vocalizations novaesi at Frei Caneca (Mazar Barnett et al. 2003, 2004), of C. mazarbarnetti and C. leucophrus suggests better the species was seen frequently there until September than anything else that the two are closely related. The 2011 (Carlos Gussoni in litt. 2014), but there have been differences in plumage between C. mazarbarnetti and no subsequent reports, and its conservations status in the C. leucophrus are considerable; however, there are other area is considered critical (Pedro Develey, SAVE Brasil, in examples of sister species of foliage-gleaners in which one litt. 2014, Lees et al. 2014). There is only one record of has a plain plumage and the other has a strongly streaked P. novaesi at the contiguous area Fazenda Pedra D’Anta, one: Simoxenops ucayalae and S. striatus, Syndactyla municipality of Lagoa dos Gatos, close to the border of rufosuperciliata and S. dimidiata, and Automolus subulatus Frei Caneca (Roda 2011). Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti, and A. cervicalis (Remsen 2003, Robbins & Zimmer like P. novaesi, is certainly one of the rarest birds in the 2005, Derryberry et al. 2011, Claramunt et al. 2013). world. It is known from only two localities. At Murici, The difference in plumage pattern and color between C. less than 3,000 ha remain forested (Goerck 2001a), and mazarbarnetti and the southern forms C. l. leucophrus and probably no more than 1,500–2,000 ha are suitable C. l. holti could indicate that the latter two heavily streaked for the species. Frei Caneca and Fazenda Pedra D’Anta taxa are more closely related to each other. The extent comprise together about 1,000 ha of contiguous forest to which these plumage features indicate relationships is (SAVE Brasil, 2013). We propose that C. mazarbarnetti hard to determine, and as such, a molecular analysis of should be categorized as Critically Endangered at both Cichlocolaptes will likely be necessary to determine the national and global levels. Criteria for such categorization true affinities of the new species. are the small range (Extent of Occurrence estimated at <100 km , in only two localities), and a population of Biogeography <50 individuals (BirdLife International 2000, IUCN 2012). We suspect that no more than two pairs each The forests of northeastern Brazil, north of the São survive at sites from which all recent reports have been Francisco River, have long been recognized as a center made. Based on intensive fieldwork at Murici by JMB of endemism. The ‘Pernambuco Center’ (Prance 1982, and W. Silva as part of the conservation project of Coimbra-Filho & Câmara 1996, Silva & Casteleti 2005) BirdLife International Brazil Programme, we estimated is well-known to harbor endemic plants (Prance 1987, that a maximum of 5-10 pairs may have existed in the Tabarelli & Santos 2004), butterflies (Brown 1987), entire reserve in 2004; however, the number of birds and birds (Cracraft 1985, Stattersfield et al. 1998, Roda remaining is likely lower. At Frei Caneca, we estimate 2003). The endemic avifauna of this area is composed that no more than one or two pairs survive. Murici has of two sets of taxa with different biogeographical been a mythical spot among birdwatchers because of the affinities. One set has affinities with the Atlantic Forest, presence of several range- restricted species. It is likewise and the other is related to Amazonian taxa (Teixeira a key place for conservationists, due to the difficulty of 1986, Roda 2003). Taxa with Atlantic Forest affinities implementing measures to protect its remaining bits of include Philydor novaesi, Automolus lammi, Dendrocincla natural habitat (e.g., BirdLife International 2000: 357). taunayi, Xiphorhynchus atlanticus, Synallaxis infuscata, Ironically, Teixeira & Gonzaga (1983a) argued for the Myrmotherula snowi, Terenura sicki, Phylloscartes ceciliae, declaration of an ecological station in the forests of and Tangara fastuosa (Roda et al. 2011). Treatments of Murici when they described the first endemic bird from these taxa as either species or subspecies reflect uneven the site, 18 years before its designation as such. Goerck taxonomic studies of the region’s birds. (2001b) stated that the official designation of Murici’s protected area status ‘should ensure the survival of its many threatened species.’ Sadly, we doubt that this CONSERVATION is the case, as most land is still in private hands, and troubling levels of small to medium-scale deforestation The existence of a cryptic taxon resembling P. novaesi were detected during September–October 2002-2007. render past records of this species uncertain if not Most unsettling then was the felling of much of the accompanied by a recording or detailed morphological forest on the entire slope opposite the ravine that holds or behavioral data. There are no recent observations all recent records of C. mazarbarnetti, with evidence of P. novaesi at Murici. It went unrecorded September of further logging occurring between visits during the 2002-October 2003 despite the near constant presence above period. This area appeared to be ideal habitat for of a resident ornithologist. DCB searched for P. novaesi C. mazarbarnetti, given the profusion of bromeliads and in April and December 2007 at Murici, but found only other epiphytes that remained in the now broken and Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti. We have searched for both very open canopy. Most of the cleared land on steep C. mazarbarnetti and P. novaesi at many other sites (see slopes is being converted into grazing areas for cattle. Appendix 3), and failed to find it. Since the discovery of P. The lower slopes, valley bottoms, and adjacent lowlands Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 90 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti were long ago converted to sugarcane plantations, their preservation. The story of this discovery is unique, though some fields are now used for cattle grazing. The and it provides a crude testimony of how such remarkable specialization of C. mazarbarnetti on bromeliads, as is phenomena can be missed, even when right before our known for Cichlocolaptes leucophrus (Pizo 1994), is a very eyes. Vocalizations once again provided the main lead in important aspect of its conservation. Secondary forests solving a twisted riddle in Neotropical ornithology. It was have lower densities of epiphytes, including bromeliads only after additional fieldwork that C. mazarbarnetti was (Dettke et al. 2008, Mania & Monteiro 2010). We ‘discovered’, and the ‘true’ P. novaesi was rediscovered. suspect that C. mazarbarnetti can survive only in If all the factors of this complicated case had not taken primary or mature secondary forests where bromeliads place the way they did, C. mazarbarnetti could have are abundant. This habitat is disappearing from the remained forever overlooked. remnant forests in Alagoas and Pernambuco. We have searched unsuccessfully for the species at both Fazenda ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Riachão da Serra and Fazenda Branca dos Tavares, on patches of mature secondary forest with tracts of primary forest at the neighborhood of Murici. The more Fieldwork at Murici during September–October 2002 by inaccessible forests of Fazenda São José and the remnant JMB was part of a conservation project by the BirdLife forest at Serra do Ouro, on the lands of the University of International Brazil Programme in association with Sociedade Nordestina de Ecologia. We thank Jaqueline Alagoas, both at Murici, should also be surveyed. Usina Serra Grande, with ca. 3,500 ha of forests, is situated Goerck and Fabio Olmos for allowing us to be part of this almost directly between Murici and Frei Caneca (Mazar project and for constant assistance and encouragement. Barnett et al. 2004). Although the species has never been The Sociedade Nordestina de Ecologia, and especially Dora recorded there (Roda in litt. 2004, Roda et al. 2008, Melo, provided assistance and support during all phases of fieldwork. Beneficia Foundation financed BirdLife’s Marantz in litt. 2014), specific searches in the area of Engenheiro Coimbra should be undertaken. Similar project in Murici. ICMBio is thanked for permits to patches of forest at the complex of mountains known as work in the area. Our specific searches for this bird in ‘Serra Grande’, or ‘Complexo Catende’ (Ministério do northeastern Brazil were funded partly through a Charles Meio Ambiente 2000) should be identified and surveyed. Blake Fund Grant from the Nuttall Ornithological Club. We are also grateful to Robert Ridgely for his assistance Searches for C. mazarbarnetti should be undertaken in the most humid tracts of primary or mature secondary in securing funds for this work and for general assistance forests, which is where the forests have a high density in other respects. DCB thanks Maria Flávia Nunes, of bromeliads. Searches should be undertaken between Andrei L. Roos, and CEMAVE for allowing him to be March and October, when the birds are most vocal. part of their project at Murici on 2007. At MN we thank Dante M. Teixeira, Marcos Raposo, Carlos Rodrigo M. Sadly our expectations for the long-term survival of this species are not high, and we may now be witnessing its Abreu, and Jorge B. Nacinovic for assistance during our passage through the temporal window representing the visits to the collection. Weber Silva joined us during our time-lag between deforestation and extinction (Brooks visits to Murici, and he shared his data from over one & Balmford 1996). Conservation efforts at Murici have year of field experience in the area. Edilson Dias Barbosa drove us to the most inaccessible places. We are grateful been undermined by political and bureaucratic problems since the ornithological discovery of the area. Without to Fernando Pinto, for his generous assistance in Alagoas, the political will to design and implement environmental arranging for our visits to some of the remaining forest policies and the commitment of private interests and patches. We thank the owners of the usinas (sugar-mills) stakeholders in Murici, little will be achieved for the and fazendas (ranches) whose properties we visited to conduct our fieldwork. Luiz A. P. Gonzaga and Andrew conservation of its damaged forests (Mazar Barnett et al. 2004). An educational program targeting local Whittaker were constant source of encouragement and communities is also essential. Such a program should advice from the beginning of this work. Special thanks focus on the biological uniqueness of the region’s forests, are due to Curtis A. Marantz, Santiago Claramunt, their value, and the results of habitat deterioration by Roberto Antonelli Filho, Kevin J. Zimmer, José Fernando Pacheco, and Bret Whitney, who provided much insight human activities. The current popularity of Murici with birders, which we now expect will increase, makes the for our work. Ricardo Parrini, Mark Pearman, Tom choice of an ecotourism enterprise a valuable option Schulenberg, Dave Willis, Pedro Develey, and Carlos to develop in the area. Murici and Frei Caneca are of Gussoni also provided information about their records. maximum priority for the conservation of birds in the Jeremy Minns prepared the sonograms for publication with the help of Phyllis Isler and revised the English Atlantic Forest (see Goerck 2001a), and continent-wide (Collar et al. 1992, Goerck 2002), and the presence of of the finished text. Nigel Collar and David Wege at this new species is a renewed reason to take actions for BirdLife International discussed issues of our work. We Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti Nordeste’ mystery, with comments on bromeliad specialization in thank Rolf Grantsau for preparing the photoart and for Furnariidae” RBO in press discussing important morphological aspects. At MZUSP Coimbra-Filho, A. F. & Câmara, I. G. 1996. Os limites originais do we thank Guilherme R. Rocha Brito and Luís Fábio Bioma Mata Atlântica na região Nordeste do Brasil. FBCN, Rio de Silveira for assistance during our visits. Greg Budney and Janeiro. Viviana Caro provided material archived at the Macaulay Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N. K.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A. & Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened Library of Natural Sounds (Cornell Laboratory of birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Ornithology). We thank José Alves Siqueira Filho Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K. for obtaining permission and support for our work at Cracraft, J. 1985. Historical biogeography and patterns of Frei Caneca, and for information about sites where differentiation within the South American avifauna: areas of endemisms. Ornithological Monographs 36: 49-84. bromeliads are abundant at Alagoas and Pernambuco. Derryberry, E. P.; Claramunt, S.; Derryberry, G.; Chesser, R. T.; Ciro Albano supplied photos and tape-recordings of Crcraft, J.; Aleixo, A.; Pérez-Eman, J.; Remsen Jr., J. V. & Philydor novaesi, and we also thank the other recordists Brumfield, R. 2001. Lineage diversification and morphological whose material we used in this work. Santiago Claramunt evolution in a large-scale continental radiation: The neotropical supplied morphological information and Braulio Carlos Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers (Aves:Furnariidae). Evolution 65- 10:2973-2986. supplied important recordings of C. mazarbarnetti made Dettke, G. A.; Orfrini, A. C. & Milaneze-Gutierre, M. A. 2008. at Frei Caneca. Mary LeCroy provided copies of obscure Composição Florística e distribuição de epífitas vasculares em references that we would have been unable to obtain um remanescente de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual no Paraná, without her help. Christian Henschke translated some Brasil. Rodriguésia 59: 859-872. Fontana, C. S.; Bencke, G. A. & Reis, R. E. (eds.). 2003. Livro text from German. Dick Banks enlightened us on issues vermelho da fauna ameaçada de extinção no Rio Grande do Sul. of nomenclature. Sonia A. Roda made it possible for us EDIPUCRS, Porto Alegre. to visit some localities in the region, and she assisted with Goerck, J. M. 2001a. Programa de áreas importantes para a data from her own work. Ignacio Roesler joined JMB conservação das aves (IBAs) – uma estratégia global da BirdLife International. Pp. 231–238 in Albuquerque, J. L. B., Cândido Jr., during part of the fieldwork, and he provided comments J. F., Straube, F. C. & Roos, A .L. (eds.) Ornitologia e Conservação: on a draft of the manuscript. Wandir Ribeiro helped da Ciência às Estratégias. Edisul, Tubarão. with additional references and botanical information. Goerck, J. M. 2001b. The creation of Murici Ecological Station. Hernán Casañas, Fernando Straube, Giovanni Maurício, World Birdwatch 23: 21–23. Martha Argel, Fernando M. D’Horta, Jeremy Minns, Goerck, J. M. 2002. Murici protected. Cotinga 17: 9. Gonzaga, L. P.; Carvalhaes, A. M. P. & Buzzetti, D. R. C. 2007. A Renata Stopiglia, Frank Lambert, Paul Salaman, Luís new species of Formicivora antwren from the Chapada Diamantina, Fábio Silveira, and Guy Kirwan all discussed with us eastern Brazil (Aves: Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae). Zootaxa various aspects of our work. Pablo Tubaro is thanked 1473:25-44. for assistance to JMB at MACN. Martino Buzzetti Gonzaga, L. P. & Castiglioni, G. 2001. Aves das montanhas do Júnior and Roberta Buzzetti helped with the English, sudeste do Brasil. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro. (CD-ROM). and Ana Carolina Canavese edited the final version of Gussoni, C. O. A.; Pongiluppi, T. & Develey, P. F. 2011. Population the manuscript. We also thank Alexandre Aleixo, Curtis estimates and foraging behavior of the Critically Endangered Marantz, and Santiago Claramunt for reviewing several Alagoas Foliage-gleaner (Philydor novaesi) IX Congreso de versions of this manuscritpt. DCB would like to thank Ornitología Neotropical – Libro de Resúmenes. 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Historiografia e bibliografia do Domínio Holandês no Brasil. Imprensa Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. Associate Editor: Luciano N. Naka Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti APPENDIX 1: Specimens examined: Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti: Brazil, Alagoas: Murici, Serra (=Pedra) Branca, one female (MN 34530, holotype) and one juvenile (MN 34531). Cichlocolaptes leucophrus leucophrus: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro: Teresópolis, two males and two females (MZUSP 20263, 20438, 20196, and MN 38390); Fazenda Campestre, Nova Friburgo, one male (MN 36129). Brazil, Minas Gerais: Rio Doce, two males (MZUSP 25609, 25610). Brazil, Espírito Santo: Cupido, one male (MN 27152); Água Boa, Santa Cruz, one female (MN 19197); Chaves, one male and one female (MZUSP 28507, 28506); Pau Gigante, one female (MZUSP 9358); Rio São José, one male (MZUSP 28508); Itaúnas, one male (MZUSP 34530). Cichlocolaptes leucophrus holti: Brazil, São Paulo: Iporanga, one male and one female (MZUSP 2864, 49761); São Paulo, Rio Ipiranga, one male (MZUSP 47838); Quadro Penteado, one male (MZUSP 49762); Rio das Corujas, one male (MZUSP 56751); Salesópolis, one male and one female (MZUSP 64439, 64591); Estação Engenheiro Ferraz, one male and two females (MZUSP 60716, 54949, 60714); Rocha, two males (MZUSP 49690, 49760); Boracéia, three males (MZUSP 31491, 31665, 31667); Juquiá, one female (MZUSP 32147). Brazil, Paraná: Guaratuba, one male (MZUSP 35397). Cichlocolaptes leucophrus (intermediate specimens): Brazil, Rio de Janeiro: Visconde de Mauá, Rio Maromba, one male (MZUSP 36443). Brazil, São Paulo: Serra da Bocaina, two males and one unsexed bird (MZUSP 27132, 29544, 11048). Philydor novaesi: Brazil, Alagoas: Murici, Serra (=Pedra) Branca, three males (MN 32028 paratype, 32029 holotype and 33872) and one female (MN 33873). Philydor atricapillus: Brazil, Bahia: Cachoeira Grande do Sul, Rio Jacurucú, one male (MZUSP 14188). Brazil, Espírito Santo, one male (MZUSP 6327); Rio São José, one female (MZUSP 28525); Conceição da Barra, Rio Itaúnas, four females (MZUSP 34526–34529). Brazil, São Paulo, Iguape, two males and one female (MZUSP 62815, 62821, 62818); Iguape, Icapara da Serra, one female (MZUSP 62817); Iguape, Rio Ribeira, one female (MZUSP 66935); Iguape, Barra do Icapava, three males and two females (MZUSP 64951, 66933, 68303, 54940, 66934); Primeiro Morro, three males (MZUSP 49763, 49764, 49784); Rio Ipiranga, one female (MZUSP 47869); Campo Grande, one female (MZUSP 51141); Estação Engenheiro Ferraz, two males and three females (MZUSP 60684, 60686, 54938, 60687, 60688). Argentina, Misiones: Departamento Frontera, Refugio Piñalitos, nine males and six females (MACN 36748– 36762). APPENDIX 2: Sound recordings examined For each set of recordings, general localities are followed by the name of municipalities. Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti – Brazil, Alagoas: Murici Ecological Station, municipality of Murici: Song Type 1 and 2 (n = 35), isolated rattles (n = 24), calls with three notes (n = 11), recorded by Curtis A. Marantz (LNS/ML #128025, 128032, 128034-128037); same locality: Song Type1 and 2 (n = 8), calls with 3 notes (n = 42), angry-calls (n = 147), recorded by Andrew Whittaker (Minns et. al 2009: Philydor novaesi recordings #1-4 and 10-11); same locality: Song Type1 (n = 7), recorded by JMB (XC180942 and 181076); same locality: Song Type 1 and 2 (n = 71), isolated rattle (n = 1), spontaneous calls with one note (n = 59), recorded by DCB (XC 180893,180902, 180909 and 181080). Brazil, Pernambuco: Frei Caneca, municipality of Jaqueira: calls with two and three notes (n = 8), calls with one note (n = 5) recorded by Andrew Whittaker (Minns et. al 2009: Philydor novaesi recording #11); same locality: calls with three notes (n = 1), calls with one note (n = 57), recorded by DCB (XC180906); same locality: Song Type 2 (n = 2), recorded by Braulio Carlos (XC180936). Cichlocolaptes lecucophrus leucophrus – Brazil, Bahia: Municipality of Boa Nova. song (n = 1), calls (n = 7), recorded by Luiz P. Gonzaga (Gonzaga & Castiglioni 2001: Cichlocolaptes leucophrus recording #89); Fazenda Farofa, municipality of Boa Nova, calls (n = 11), alarm call (n = 1), recorded by Ricardo Parrini (Minns et. al 2009: Cichlocolaptes leucophrus recording #7; same locality, song (n = 5), calls (n = 32) recorded by Jeremy Minns (XC80778, XC80781); same locality, song (n = 1), recorded by Ciro Albano (Minns et. al 2009: Cichlocolaptes leucophrus recording #2). Brazil, Espírito Santo: Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi, municipality of Santa Teresa, rattle (n = 4), song (n = 3), recorded by Andrew Whittaker (Minns et. al 2009: Cichlocolaptes leucophrus recording #3); municipality of Vargem Alta, song (n = 3), calls (n = 4), recorded by Ricardo Parrini (Minns et. al 2009: Cichlocolaptes leucophrus recording #4). Brazil, Rio de Janeiro: Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014 94 A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste’, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti Municipality of Guapimirim, angry calls (n = 1), calls (n = 9), recorded by Jeremy Minns (XC180430). Cichlocolaptes leucophrus holti – Brazil, São Paulo. Bananal Ecological Station, municipality of Bananal, calls (n = 23) recorded by DCB (XC 180870, 180871, 180874 and 180879); Rio Vermelho, municipality of Bananal, song (n = 10) recorded by DCB (XC180863 and 180866); municipality of Ubatuba, song (n = 1), calls (n = 4) recorded by Jeremy Minns (XC180433); Corcovado, municipality of Ubatuba, song (n = 9) recorded by DCB (XC180865); Fazenda Lavrinhas, municipality of Campos do Jordão, calls (n = 19) recorded by DCB (XC180868); Carlos Botelho State Park, municipality of São Miguel Arcanjo, calls (n = 11) recorded by DCB (XC180878). Brazil, Santa Catarina: Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Volta Velha, municipality of Itapoá, song variant (n = 2), calls (n = 7), recorded by DCB (XC180867 and 180880); Aparados da Serra National Park, municipality of Jacinto Machado, alarm-calls (n = 3), recorded by DCB (XC180881). Philydor novaesi – Brazil, Pernambuco: Frei Caneca, municipality of Jaqueira: song (n = 10), calls with 4-6 notes (n = 17), recorded by Ciro Albano (XC16447, 65550); same locality: song (n = 14), calls with one note (n = 2), recorded by Jeremy Minns XC80732; same locality: calls with one note (n = 15), call with four notes (n = 6) recorded by Andrew Whittaker (Minns et. al 2009: Philydor novaesi recordings #9 and 11); same locality: rattle (n = 4), song (n = 11), recorded by JMB (XC181063, 181068 and 181072); same locality: song (n = 26), calls with four notes (n = 35), recorded by DCB (XC181036, 181054, 181056 and 181059); same locality: song (n = 8) recorded by Josep del Hoyo (http://ibc.lynxeds. com/video/alagoas-foliage-gleaner-philydor-novaesi/bird-tree-singing-several-times-flying-away); same locality: song (n = 6), recorded by Carlos Gussoni (XC77752). Philydor atricapillus – Brazil, Bahia: Una Biological Reserve, municipality of Una: calls with one note (n = 4), recorded by Andrew Whittaker (Minns et. al 2009: Philydor atricapillus recording #5). Brazil, Espírito Santo: Municipality of Santa Teresa: calls with one note (n = 8), recorded by Jeremy Minns (XC180436). Brazil, Rio de Janeiro: Ilha Grande, municipality of Angra dos Reis: song (n = 3), recorded by DCB (XC180950); Serra dos Órgãos National Park, municipality of Guapimirim: scolding-calls (n = 16), recorded by Jeremy Minns (XC80733). Brazil, São Paulo: Fazenda Angelim, municipality of Ubatuba: song (n = 3), calls with one note (n = 1), recorded by Andrew Whittaker (Minns et. al 2009: Philydor atricapillus recording #1); Corcovado, municipality of Ubatuba: song (n = 3), recorded by Andrew Whittaker (Minns et. al 2009: Philydor atricapillus recording #2); Folha Seca, municipality of Ubatuba: song (n = 3), calls with one note (n = 7), recorded by Jeremy Minns (XC80922); Cantareira State Park, municipality of Guarulhos: calls with four notes (n = 11), recorded by DCB (XC180995); Rio Mococa, municipality of Caraguatatuba: scolding-calls (n = 8), recorded by Jeremy Minns (XC80847); Bopiranga, municipality of Itanhaém, scolding-calls (n = 21), calls with one note (n = 7), recorded by DCB (XC181034, 181001 and 181030); Córrego do Engano, municipality of Miracatú, song (n = 14), recorded by DCB (XC181125). Brazil, Santa Catarina: Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Volta Velha, municipality of Itapoá: calls with three notes (n = 4) recorded by Andrew Whittaker (Minns et. al 2009: Philydor atricapillus recording #9); same locality: calls with one note (n = 12), recorded by Jeremy Minns (XC180442); Canyon Fortaleza, municipality of Jacinto Machado: calls with 2-3 notes (n = 19), recorded by DCB (XC180992). APPENDIX 3: Fieldwork by one or both authors in search of C. mazarbarnetti and later P. novaesi was undertaken during the periods: 10 September 2002–15 October 2002 (Murici); 19 January 2003–9 February 2003 (with 19–23 January spent at Murici); 23 September–4 October 2003 (with 23–26 September spent at Murici and 28 September–04 October spent at Frei Caneca); 12-15 November 2003 at Usina Serra Grande, Ibateguara, Alagoas (08º 59' S, 35º 51' W); 18-22 November 2003 at Usina Trapiche, Pernambuco (08º 38' S, 35º 12' W);10-13 March 2004 (Murici); 14 March 2004 at Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Senador Carlos Lyra, Maceió, Alagoas (09° 25' S, 36° 02' W); 17-18 March 2004 at Fazenda Riachão da Serra, União dos Palmares, Alagoas (09° 10' S, 35° 56' W); 19-21 March 2004 at Fazenda Recanto, Chã Preta, Alagoas (09º 17' S, 36º 14' W); 14–15 July 2004 (Murici); 16-22 April 2007 (Murici); 6-10 December 2007 (Murici). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014

Journal

Ornithology ResearchSpringer Journals

Published: Jun 1, 2014

Keywords: Atlantic Forest; Conservation; Ovenbirds; Philydor; Taxonomy; Treehunter

References