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A new location in Peru for the poorly-known Acre Antshrike Thamnophilus divisorius endemic of Serra do Divisor

A new location in Peru for the poorly-known Acre Antshrike Thamnophilus divisorius endemic of... Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(2): 137 7 7–139. SHORT-COMMUNIC ARA TICLE TION June 2017 A new location in Peru for the poorly-known Acre Antshrike Thamnophilus divisorius endemic o f Serra do Divisor 1,2,3,4 3 Oscar Gonzalez & Magaly Acuy y y Tropical Ecology and Conservation Lab, Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida. Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Department of Natural Sciences, Emmanuel College. Franklin Springs, GA 30332, USA. Grupo Aves del Peru. Gomez del Carpio 135, Lima 34, Peru. Corresponding author: pajarologo@ufl.edu Received on 24 March 2017. Accepted on 31 August 2017. ABSTRACT: We provide a documented record for the Acre Antshrike Th amnophilus divisorius, an endemic species of Serra do Divisor, in the Amazon Forest of Peru. Four birds responded to playback and a female was captured in mist-nets. Th is is the fourth documented record of this species in the world, 28 km north of the nearest previous record. We comment on the current distribution of this species between Peru and Brazil and the possible threats that it might face in the near future. KEY-WORDS: Amazon Forest, conservation, distribution, endemic species, new records, Thamnophilidae. o o Th e Acre Antshrike Thamnophilus divisorius s is a (73 52'0.48"W; 6 57'29.02"S; 393 m a.s.l.; Fig. 1). passeriform bird of the antbird family (Th amnophilidae). Th is was a remote and unexplored place only accessible It is endemic of Serra do Divisor, a mountain chain in by helicopter. Th e mountain summit is covered by the western Amazon located in the border between Peru stunted forest with steep slopes, similar to the location (south of department of Loreto and north of department of where this species was fi rst discovered (Whitney et al. Ucayali) and Brazil (west of state of Acre). Th is mountain 2004, Vriesendorp et al. 2006). Th is place showed little chain (200–600 m a.s.l) is protected in both Peru and perturbation in comparison with the lowlands, where we Brazil, as National Parks in each country (Fig. 1) because found areas that suffered the impact of ille gal logging of its high biodiversity and endemism (Vriesendorp et al. activities. Th e vegetation composition of this stunted forest 2006). Th e Acre Antshrike was fi rst discovered in Brazil was made of small trees (less than 10 m) and the common in 1996 (Whitney et al. 2004) in the southeast part of species were Anaueria brasiliensis (Lecythidaceae), Parkia the mountain chain and in Peru in 2005, almost 100 km nitida (Fabaceae), Cecropia membranaceae (Cecropiaceae) west of its discovery location (Tovar et al. 2009). A third and Anaxagorea brachicarpa (Anonaceae). There were also record was located in the Contaya Mountains, also in several bushes that mostly belong to the families Ericaceae, Peru, which is 80 km west of this other place. Th ese three Piperaceae and Rubiaceae, as well as epiphytes covering locations were the only records for this species until now. their trunks - mainly Bromeliaceae and Orchidaceae. BirdLife International (2017) categorizes Acre Antshrike We carried out our bird evaluation through fi ve as “Least Concern” (LC). point counts, setting 14 mist nets of different sizes, and Vriesendorp et al. (2006) and Tovar et al. (2009) playback. We achieved a total of 189 net-h from 17–18 stated that most of Acre Antshrike's population is to be March 2009 in a 4 km-transect area; from dawn to dusk. found in Peru because it was found in two locations. Th e nets were closed ~3 h each day due to rain. Th e Therefore, it was ex pected that this species would be song of the Acre Antshrike was taken from the Xeno- also located in North Sierra do Divisor. In 2009, during canto database (Rojas 2005). In 17 March 2009 we a biodiversity evaluation in the province of Requena in detected four individuals of this species responding to the Loreto department, Peru, we recorded a new location for playback. We captured an adult female in one of the mist Acre Antshrike in a mountain ridge at the headwaters nets (Fig. 2). Th ere was a singing male close-by, however of Rio Blanco, inside Sierra del Divisor National Park it was undistinguishable by sight from Th amnophilus Acre Antshrike Th amnophilus divisorius in Peru Gonzalez & Acuy Figure 1. Serra do Divisor mountains and recorded locations for the Acre Antshrike Tamnophilus divisorius: 1 - Type locality in Brazil; 2 - record at Ojo de Contaya (Vriesendorp et al. 2006); 3 - record at Divisor (Vriesendorp et al. 2006); 4 - Th is study. Th is report confi rms the presence of T. divisorius s in the north part of the mountain chains of Serra do Divisor, as it was predicted by its discoverers (Whitney et alll. 2004). Th e nearest record of this species is 28 km south; from a total of fourth confi rmed records. Its range thus extends northward from the map presented by BirdLife International (2017) and provides a biogeographical record that will be useful for conservation planning and future research. Th is new location gives ornithologists an opportunity to plan research on this species, such as how competition is modeling the distribution of Thamnophilus s antshrikes (Brunfield & Edwards 2007 ). Although T. divisorius s is not considered a threatened species, we assume that any impact on the forest close to the summits would be highly detrimental. Due to its Figure 2. Female Acre Atnshrike Th amnophilus divisorius mist- netted at Sierra del Divisor National Park, Loreto, Peru, on 17 small range and specificity to the summits of the Serra March 2009. Photo author: M. Acuy. do Divisor Mountains, human perturbations would cause strong negative effects in its populations. aethiops, which was also registered in the same location. Th is species, as well as other threatened and endemic Individuals observed showed an insectivorous feeding species that live in the Serra do Divisor Mountains, justify behavior (Fjeldså å 2017), foraging on small bees abundant the existence of National Parks in Peru and Brazil. We in this forest. strongly recommend to reinforce the protection of the We detected other Thamnophilus s Antshrikes during mountain chain of Serra do Divisor by the National Park our biodiversity evaluation, namely y T. doliatus, T. murinus authorities of both countries, preventing deforestation and T. schistaceus, but all of them were in the lowlands. It that would threaten the species. is also known that, besides these species, T. amazonicus s is present in the flooded forest nearby (Tovar et al. 2009). However, we did not record it during our fi eldtrip. All ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thamnophilus s species we recorded during our trip are known to occur in the Brazilian side (Guilherme 2012). Th e biodiversity evaluation in this sector of Serra do Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(2): 2017 Acre Antshrike Thamno philus divisorius in Peru Gonzalez & Acuy Brumfi eld R.T. & Edwards S.V. 2007. Evolution into and out of Divisor was funded by Pacific Rubiales S.A. as part of the the Andes: a Bayesian analysis of historical diversification in environmental impact assessment study in plot 135 in the Th amnophilus antshrikes. Evolution 61: 346–367. Peruvian Amazon. This study had the permit No. 38 C/C Fjeldså J. 2017. Acre Antshrike (Thamnophilus divisorius s s). In: del -2008-INRENA-IANP to O.G. and M.A. We thank the Hoyo J., Elliott A., Sargatal J., Christie D.A. & de Juana E. team of biologists, nurses and field assistants that were (eds.). Handbook of the birds of the world alive. Barcelona: Lynx Editions. http://www.hbw.com/node/204346 (access on 17 part of this expedition; O.G. acknowledges their great January 2017). effort to evaluate the sampling point where we found Guilherme E. 2012. Birds of the Brazilian state of Acre: diversity, the Acre Antshrike, as it was not planned to get there. zoogeography, and conservation. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia We thank BirdLife International for providing the shapes 20: 393–442. for the Acre Antshrike distribution, Marisa Ocrospoma Rojas P. 2005. [XC23430, Thamnophilus divisorius s s]. www.xeno-canto. for providing the botanical information for the sampling org/23430 (access on 1 February 2009). Tovar A., Arnillas C.A., Eckhardt K., Regal F. & Véliz C. 2009. Sierra point, and Carolina Tovar for making the map and giving del Divisor: una sierra al este del Ucayali. Lima: CONCYTEC. useful comments on the manuscript. Vriesendorp C., Schulenberg T.S., Alverson W.S., Moskovits D.K. & Moscoso J.-I.R. (eds.). 2006. Perú: Sierra del Divisor. Rapid Biological Inventories Report No. 17 7 7. Chicago: The Field Museum. REFERENCES Whitney B.M., Oren D.C & Brumfield R.T. 2004. A new s pecies of Thamnophilus s antshrike (Aves: Thamno philidae) from the Serra BirdLife International. 2017. Species factsheet: Th amnophilus divisorius. do Divisor, Acre, Brazil. Auk k 121: 1031–1039. h ttp:// d ataz one. b ir dl i f e.org/species/ f acts h eet/A cr e- Antshrike (access on 27 September 2017). Associate Editor: Marcos P. Dantas. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(2): 2017 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Ornithology Research Springer Journals

A new location in Peru for the poorly-known Acre Antshrike Thamnophilus divisorius endemic of Serra do Divisor

Ornithology Research , Volume 25 (2) – Jun 1, 2017

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References (7)

Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © Sociedade Brasileira de Ornitologia 2017
eISSN
2178-7875
DOI
10.1007/bf03544390
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Abstract

Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(2): 137 7 7–139. SHORT-COMMUNIC ARA TICLE TION June 2017 A new location in Peru for the poorly-known Acre Antshrike Thamnophilus divisorius endemic o f Serra do Divisor 1,2,3,4 3 Oscar Gonzalez & Magaly Acuy y y Tropical Ecology and Conservation Lab, Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida. Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Department of Natural Sciences, Emmanuel College. Franklin Springs, GA 30332, USA. Grupo Aves del Peru. Gomez del Carpio 135, Lima 34, Peru. Corresponding author: pajarologo@ufl.edu Received on 24 March 2017. Accepted on 31 August 2017. ABSTRACT: We provide a documented record for the Acre Antshrike Th amnophilus divisorius, an endemic species of Serra do Divisor, in the Amazon Forest of Peru. Four birds responded to playback and a female was captured in mist-nets. Th is is the fourth documented record of this species in the world, 28 km north of the nearest previous record. We comment on the current distribution of this species between Peru and Brazil and the possible threats that it might face in the near future. KEY-WORDS: Amazon Forest, conservation, distribution, endemic species, new records, Thamnophilidae. o o Th e Acre Antshrike Thamnophilus divisorius s is a (73 52'0.48"W; 6 57'29.02"S; 393 m a.s.l.; Fig. 1). passeriform bird of the antbird family (Th amnophilidae). Th is was a remote and unexplored place only accessible It is endemic of Serra do Divisor, a mountain chain in by helicopter. Th e mountain summit is covered by the western Amazon located in the border between Peru stunted forest with steep slopes, similar to the location (south of department of Loreto and north of department of where this species was fi rst discovered (Whitney et al. Ucayali) and Brazil (west of state of Acre). Th is mountain 2004, Vriesendorp et al. 2006). Th is place showed little chain (200–600 m a.s.l) is protected in both Peru and perturbation in comparison with the lowlands, where we Brazil, as National Parks in each country (Fig. 1) because found areas that suffered the impact of ille gal logging of its high biodiversity and endemism (Vriesendorp et al. activities. Th e vegetation composition of this stunted forest 2006). Th e Acre Antshrike was fi rst discovered in Brazil was made of small trees (less than 10 m) and the common in 1996 (Whitney et al. 2004) in the southeast part of species were Anaueria brasiliensis (Lecythidaceae), Parkia the mountain chain and in Peru in 2005, almost 100 km nitida (Fabaceae), Cecropia membranaceae (Cecropiaceae) west of its discovery location (Tovar et al. 2009). A third and Anaxagorea brachicarpa (Anonaceae). There were also record was located in the Contaya Mountains, also in several bushes that mostly belong to the families Ericaceae, Peru, which is 80 km west of this other place. Th ese three Piperaceae and Rubiaceae, as well as epiphytes covering locations were the only records for this species until now. their trunks - mainly Bromeliaceae and Orchidaceae. BirdLife International (2017) categorizes Acre Antshrike We carried out our bird evaluation through fi ve as “Least Concern” (LC). point counts, setting 14 mist nets of different sizes, and Vriesendorp et al. (2006) and Tovar et al. (2009) playback. We achieved a total of 189 net-h from 17–18 stated that most of Acre Antshrike's population is to be March 2009 in a 4 km-transect area; from dawn to dusk. found in Peru because it was found in two locations. Th e nets were closed ~3 h each day due to rain. Th e Therefore, it was ex pected that this species would be song of the Acre Antshrike was taken from the Xeno- also located in North Sierra do Divisor. In 2009, during canto database (Rojas 2005). In 17 March 2009 we a biodiversity evaluation in the province of Requena in detected four individuals of this species responding to the Loreto department, Peru, we recorded a new location for playback. We captured an adult female in one of the mist Acre Antshrike in a mountain ridge at the headwaters nets (Fig. 2). Th ere was a singing male close-by, however of Rio Blanco, inside Sierra del Divisor National Park it was undistinguishable by sight from Th amnophilus Acre Antshrike Th amnophilus divisorius in Peru Gonzalez & Acuy Figure 1. Serra do Divisor mountains and recorded locations for the Acre Antshrike Tamnophilus divisorius: 1 - Type locality in Brazil; 2 - record at Ojo de Contaya (Vriesendorp et al. 2006); 3 - record at Divisor (Vriesendorp et al. 2006); 4 - Th is study. Th is report confi rms the presence of T. divisorius s in the north part of the mountain chains of Serra do Divisor, as it was predicted by its discoverers (Whitney et alll. 2004). Th e nearest record of this species is 28 km south; from a total of fourth confi rmed records. Its range thus extends northward from the map presented by BirdLife International (2017) and provides a biogeographical record that will be useful for conservation planning and future research. Th is new location gives ornithologists an opportunity to plan research on this species, such as how competition is modeling the distribution of Thamnophilus s antshrikes (Brunfield & Edwards 2007 ). Although T. divisorius s is not considered a threatened species, we assume that any impact on the forest close to the summits would be highly detrimental. Due to its Figure 2. Female Acre Atnshrike Th amnophilus divisorius mist- netted at Sierra del Divisor National Park, Loreto, Peru, on 17 small range and specificity to the summits of the Serra March 2009. Photo author: M. Acuy. do Divisor Mountains, human perturbations would cause strong negative effects in its populations. aethiops, which was also registered in the same location. Th is species, as well as other threatened and endemic Individuals observed showed an insectivorous feeding species that live in the Serra do Divisor Mountains, justify behavior (Fjeldså å 2017), foraging on small bees abundant the existence of National Parks in Peru and Brazil. We in this forest. strongly recommend to reinforce the protection of the We detected other Thamnophilus s Antshrikes during mountain chain of Serra do Divisor by the National Park our biodiversity evaluation, namely y T. doliatus, T. murinus authorities of both countries, preventing deforestation and T. schistaceus, but all of them were in the lowlands. It that would threaten the species. is also known that, besides these species, T. amazonicus s is present in the flooded forest nearby (Tovar et al. 2009). However, we did not record it during our fi eldtrip. All ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thamnophilus s species we recorded during our trip are known to occur in the Brazilian side (Guilherme 2012). Th e biodiversity evaluation in this sector of Serra do Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(2): 2017 Acre Antshrike Thamno philus divisorius in Peru Gonzalez & Acuy Brumfi eld R.T. & Edwards S.V. 2007. Evolution into and out of Divisor was funded by Pacific Rubiales S.A. as part of the the Andes: a Bayesian analysis of historical diversification in environmental impact assessment study in plot 135 in the Th amnophilus antshrikes. Evolution 61: 346–367. Peruvian Amazon. This study had the permit No. 38 C/C Fjeldså J. 2017. Acre Antshrike (Thamnophilus divisorius s s). In: del -2008-INRENA-IANP to O.G. and M.A. We thank the Hoyo J., Elliott A., Sargatal J., Christie D.A. & de Juana E. team of biologists, nurses and field assistants that were (eds.). Handbook of the birds of the world alive. Barcelona: Lynx Editions. http://www.hbw.com/node/204346 (access on 17 part of this expedition; O.G. acknowledges their great January 2017). effort to evaluate the sampling point where we found Guilherme E. 2012. Birds of the Brazilian state of Acre: diversity, the Acre Antshrike, as it was not planned to get there. zoogeography, and conservation. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia We thank BirdLife International for providing the shapes 20: 393–442. for the Acre Antshrike distribution, Marisa Ocrospoma Rojas P. 2005. [XC23430, Thamnophilus divisorius s s]. www.xeno-canto. for providing the botanical information for the sampling org/23430 (access on 1 February 2009). Tovar A., Arnillas C.A., Eckhardt K., Regal F. & Véliz C. 2009. Sierra point, and Carolina Tovar for making the map and giving del Divisor: una sierra al este del Ucayali. Lima: CONCYTEC. useful comments on the manuscript. Vriesendorp C., Schulenberg T.S., Alverson W.S., Moskovits D.K. & Moscoso J.-I.R. (eds.). 2006. Perú: Sierra del Divisor. Rapid Biological Inventories Report No. 17 7 7. Chicago: The Field Museum. REFERENCES Whitney B.M., Oren D.C & Brumfield R.T. 2004. A new s pecies of Thamnophilus s antshrike (Aves: Thamno philidae) from the Serra BirdLife International. 2017. Species factsheet: Th amnophilus divisorius. do Divisor, Acre, Brazil. Auk k 121: 1031–1039. h ttp:// d ataz one. b ir dl i f e.org/species/ f acts h eet/A cr e- Antshrike (access on 27 September 2017). Associate Editor: Marcos P. Dantas. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(2): 2017

Journal

Ornithology ResearchSpringer Journals

Published: Jun 1, 2017

Keywords: Amazon Forest; conservation; distribution; endemic species; new records; Thamnophilidae

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