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A brief introduction to new discoveries and research in Chinese archaeology in 2015

A brief introduction to new discoveries and research in Chinese archaeology in 2015 This article introduces archaeological excavations, discoveries, and research in China from 2015. The author reviews some major papers published in 2015, in the chronological order of their subject time period, using the periodization commonly used in Chinese archaeology: Paleolithic; Neolithic; Xia, Shang, Western and Eastern Zhou Dynasties; Qin and Han Dynasties; the Three Kingdoms period to Qing Dynasty. . . Keywords Chinese archaeology New discoveries and research in 2015 Brief introduction The annual selection of China’s Top 10 Archaeological some of them. Here, we present information related to archae- Discoveries has always attracted a great deal of attention from ological remains and new research according to the standard both archaeological circles and the public, and the public’s periodization used in Chinese archaeology, namely Paleolithic interest in archaeology has been gradually increasing over Age, Neolithic Age, Xia 夏,Shang商, Western Zhou西周 and the years. On May 16, 2016, the Chinese Cultural Relics Eastern Zhou 东周 Dynasties, Qin 秦 and Han 汉 Dynasties, Newspaper and the Chinese Society of Archaeology held a and the Three-Kingdoms 三国 to Qing 清 Dynasty period. joint press conference announcing the top ten major discover- ies for the year 2015. These had been chosen from more than 700 archaeological excavation programs after many rounds of 1 Paleolithic age selection. The selected sites’ time periods range from the Early Paleolithic through the Qing 清 Dynasty and they are found In 2015, archaeologists discovered Paleolithic remains and widely distributed across 10 provinces, including in the presented research papers on both southern and northern Central Plains and frontier areas. These top ten discoveries China. cover a rich variety of sites, including not only prehistoric The Gantangqing 甘棠箐 site is about 1.5 km to the south- settlement, cemetery, and city sites, but also types of sites that west of Longtan 龙潭 Village of Luju 路居 Town in have rarely been discovered in the past, including mining and Jiangchuan 江川 County, Yunnan 云南 Province. From metallurgy sites, a water conservancy system, and shipwreck October 2014 to February 2015, the Yunnan Provincial remains. These discoveries offer new information and per- Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology carried out the spectives to solve some of the major academic issues in excavation of the site. In the revealed area of 50 sq. m they Chinese archaeology, and they fully display the achievements discovered remains of fire usage, 25,153 stone artifacts, 28 and significant breakthroughs from fieldwork in 2015 (Guo bone artifacts, and more than 10 wood artifacts. Moreover, Xiaorong 2015). rich faunal and floral remains were unearthed. The geological Since over 1000 excavation reports and research articles age of the site could belong to the early Pleistocene, but the were published in 2015, the present paper can only introduce absolute age determination is still being carried out. Like the Yuanmou 元谋 site, the Gantangqing site is another very im- portant Early Paleolithic site in Yunnan Province, as it pro- * Zhongwei Jing vides new evidence for the theory of the local origin of ancient jingzw@jlu.edu.cn human beings in East Asia, and it demonstrates again that the central Yunnan Plateau is a key region for human origins (Liu The Research Center for Chinese Frontier Archaeology of Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Ave, Changchun 130012, China Jianhui 2015). 130 J. Zhongwei Paleolithic archaeologists in China have also been looking main deposits extend over 2 ha and belong to the Neolithic at lithic technologies found outside of the country. Chen Liangzhu 良渚 Culture. From October 2011 to December Youcheng and Qu Tongli (2015) point out that Levallois tech- 2015, the Archaeological Institute of the Nanjing Museum nology is a milestone in the prehistoric period, and its devel- carried out a number of archaeological excavations, mainly opment can divided into four phases: 1. the incipient phase, in the western area, with a total area of 3500 sq. m, revealing from 500 to 250 ka BP, characterized by the production of a settlement of the Liangzhu Culture thought to date ca. 5300– Bpreferential^ Levallois flakes and large Levallois flakes; 2. 4500 BP. 280 tombs, 8 house foundations, more than 110 ash the developing phase, from 250 to 130 ka BP, when the recur- pits, wells, ditches, and some other important features were rent method was used and Levallois points of generally more unearthed, from which nearly 1200 artifacts of different ma- than 10 cm in length were the typical artifact; and 3. the terials, including jade, stone, pottery, and bone, were recov- flourishing phase (ca.130–50 ka BP), when the Mousterian ered. It is the first time archaeologists discovered a large scale Industry, including Levallois flakes, Levallois points, settlement with elite tombs containing jade cong 琮 tubes, bi Levallois blades, as well as side scrapers, notches, denticu- 璧 disks, and other jade objects of the Liangzhu Culture to the lates, etc., developed, flake sizes were reduced, and the toolkit north of the Yangtze River. Moreover, the discoveries have appears diversified. During the fourth and last phase, from 50 disproved the previous academic view about the distribution to 30 ka BP, identified as the declining phase of Levallois of the Liangzhu Culture as being limited to south of the technology, Levallois and other technologies, including blade Yangtze River. This site is far from the Liangzhu core area, and simple core-flake industries, co-exist in some sites, and and the many forms of pottery ding 鼎 tripods found show the Levallois technology did not play a major role. The chang- distinctive characteristics that are the product of the integra- es in Levallois technology and its products may indicate tion of the Liangzhu and the local culture. Jiangzhuang has changes in the functions of the stone tools and in human be- particular significance for constructing the prehistoric archae- havior (Chen Youcheng and Qu Tongli 2015). ological cultural lineage in the eastern Jianghuai 江淮 region Liu Yang, Hou Yamei, and Yang Zemeng (2015) study the and for studying the relationship between the Liangzhu core flaking technique of the Wulanmulun 乌兰木伦site in Culture and the local culture, thought to be a regional phase Ordos 鄂尔多斯 City, Inner Mongolia. The site is believed to of the Dawenkou 大汶口 Culture (Lin Liugen 2015). date to the Late Pleistocene period. Their results show that the The Liangzhu Ancient City 良渚古城 is located in Pingyao core flaking technique in this site can be divided into two 瓶窑 town in the Yuhang 余杭 District of Hangzhou 杭州 City, stages: primary core reduction and continued core reduction, Zhejiang浙江 Province. From 1987 through 2013, survey and and they identify at least 17 flaking sequences. The different other research on ancient water control engineering on the flaking sequences exhibit choices made concerning the origi- periphery of the Liangzhu Ancient City generally revealed nal shapes of the stone core blanks and the raw material. The an entire water system. An entire dam system was identified, diversity of the utilization of the original stone blanks and the found to be composed of many sections of artificial dams and methods, techniques, and sequences of the flaking reflect how natural hill bodies, that can be divided into upper and lower the inhabitants of this site had not only superb knapping skills sectors. Radiocarbon dates show that the dam system dates to but also rather strong planning and organizational abilities. the early and middle Liangzhu Culture period, or about 3300– Some special sequences (such as the one containing the 2900 BC. The consistency of the structure of the dams, and C3.2.2 method) reflect the intentional production of flakes their building techniques with typical remains of the Liangzhu with special technical features by the hominin inhabitants of Culture, also provide evidence for their dating to the Liangzhu the site (Liu Yang, Hou Yamei and Yang Zemeng 2015). Culture. The water control engineering might have multiple functions, including flood control, transportation, domestic water supply, irrigation, etc. As such, it also has a direct rela- 2 Neolithic age tionship with the economic and social development of the societies of the Liangzhu Culture and the emergence of the In 2015, archaeologists discovered important new Neolithic Liangzhu Ancient City (Liangzhu 2015a). The Zhejiang sites in both southern and northern China, while some scholars Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology exca- discussed issues concerning cultural chronology, sequences, vated dike features belonging to the water control system at and communication and put forward some new views. Laohu 老虎 Hill, Liyu 鲤鱼 Mountain, Shizi 狮子 Mountain, The Jiangzhuang 蒋庄 site is located at the border of and other locations from July 2015 to January 2016, providing Xinghua 兴化 and Dongtai 东台 counties in Jiangsu 江苏 better understand of the structure of the dikes and more strat- Province. With the Taidong 泰东 River as the boundary, the igraphic information. These excavations, confirmed that the site is divided into eastern and western areas. In the eastern Liangzhu water control engineering system is composed of 11 area, the main deposits, covering an area of 45 ha, are dated to artificial dikes connecting valleys and hills, and it was a part of the Tang 唐 and Song 宋 dynasties. In the western area, the a construction plan for the outside of the city from its A brief introduction to Chinese Archaeology 131 beginning ca. 5000 years ago. It has been confirmed that the culture and could roughly be divided into two stages, early Liangzhu Ancient City consisted of palaces, inner city and and late. The Songze Culture remains could be divided into outer city walls, and the water control engineering around its three phases and six sub-phases, the dates of which were periphery. It is thought to be among the best preserved early 6000–5200 BP. The high-ranking burials of the Songze capital structure systems found throughout the world Culture found at the Dongshancun site provide valuable infor- (Liangzhu 2015b). The water control engineering of the city, mation previously lacking on high-ranking burials of the in the form of dams functioning for flood control, is obviously Songze Culture and also show the origins of the highly devel- different from the water control engineering of the early civ- oped Liangzhu civilization. They thus, allow new understand- ilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia, which consisted of ca- ing of the comprehensive features of the Songze Culture in the nals and holding facilities with the main purpose of bringing circum-Lake Tai region and its level of social development in river water to the cities. These differences between Eastern and productivity. The separate areas for the large versus small and Western civilizations are of great value in research on the burials and the emergence of the large house foundations in history of world civilizations (Wang Ningyuan 2015). the early and middle Songze Culture show that at least by Beginning in 2012, the Institute of Archaeology of the 5800 BP, there is clear social polarization, and social stratifi- Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and the Hainan 海南 cation has appeared. Dongshancun provides new archaeolog- Provincial Museum jointly carried out a series of field surveys ical data on the emergence of civilization in the lower Yangtze and excavations in the southeastern coastal area of Hainan River, and these are also significantly meaningful for research Province and found more than 30 prehistoric sites, including on the origin of Chinese civilization (Dongshancun 2015a, b). Gangshan 岗山 and Zoufeng 走风 in Lingshui 陵水 County. The seventh season of excavations, in 2011, at the Xipo 西 Meanwhile, they excavated the Yingdun 英墩 site in Sanya 三 坡site in Lingbao 灵宝 City, Henan Province, exposed two 亚 City, and the Lianziwan 莲子湾 and Qiaoshan 桥山 sites in large-sized, semi-subterranean house foundations, F107 and Lingshui 陵水 County. These allowed the establishment of the F108, with F108 superimposed on F107. These houses belong basic chronological framework for prehistoric cultures along to the Miaodigou 庙底沟 Culture and are thought to date about the southeastern coast of Hainan, and the discoveries have 3900 BC. The internal area of F107 is about 169sq m, and its filled in many blanks in the prehistoric archaeology of this doorway is oriented to 198°. The construction process of F107 area. The stratigraphic evidence and artifacts in the Yingdun, involved the trimming of the semi-subterranean house Lianziwan, and Qiaoshan sites reveal three new kinds of body, digging post ditches, erecting posts, ramming the Neolithic cultures with different cultural implications. With walls, building the hearth, paving the living floor, etc. the Yingdun site and Qiaoshan site as the fulcrum, the chro- The size of F108 was similar to F107, while its door- nology of the prehistoric culture lineage of the coastal area of way was oriented to 295° and thus facing toward the southeastern Hainan has been established. The first unearthed central plaza of the settlement (earlier excavated houses prehistoric tomb in Hainan was found at the Qiaoshan site and F105 and F106 also faced the plaza). Pottery, stone provides material for research on the local inhabitants’ phys- implements, and animal bones were unearthed from ical characteristics and DNA information, etc. The abundant F107. The excavation of these two large-sized house aquatic and land animal remains unearthed from the foundations provides new data for understanding house Lianziwan and Yingdun sites provide important information construction and the design evolution of large-sized ar- on the natural environment and subsistence activities in the chitecture in the Xipo settlement (Xipo 2015). local area (Fu Xianguo 2015). From the autumn of 2011 to the autumn of 2012, the Two seasons of rescue excavations conducted at the Shanxi Archaeological Team of the Institute of Archaeology, Dongshancun 东山村 site in Zhangjiagang 张家港 City, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, and other institutions Jiangsu Province, from August through November 2008 and excavated a large-sized, rammed-earth foundation at the March 2009 through February 2010, uncovered a total area of Longshan 龙山period Taosi 陶寺city site (Xiangfen 襄汾 ca. 2300 sq. m. The excavations revealed a settlement belong- County, Shanxi 山西 Province) within an area suggested to ing to the Songze 崧泽 Culture, which included house foun- be a handicraft zone in the southwest of the site. This archi- dations, ash pits, burials, etc., as well as a set of high-ranking, tectural foundation, thought to date from 2500 through large burials of the early and middle phases of the Songze 1900 BC, was in a circumscribed rectangular, or hui -shaped, Culture for the first time in the circum-Lake Tai 环太湖 area. plan with curved corners, and it consisted of the foundations All of the small burials of the Songze Culture were found in of a central building, west, east, and south surrounding Zone I of the site, all of the house foundations were found in walls, a gate, and a courtyard, covering an area of more Zone II, and all of the high-ranking, large burials were found than 1200 sq. m. The huge scale of this architectural in Zone III. In addition, several dozens of burials of the foundation, its regular layout, and special structure Majiabang 马家浜 Culture were also recovered. The remains might be related to the management and control of of the Majiabang Culture belong to the late phase of this handicraft production at Taosi (Taosi 2015). 132 J. Zhongwei In a recent study of pottery ding-tripods of the Neolithic 3 Xia, Shang, and western and eastern Zhou Age in China, Han Jianye (2015) argues that they belong to dynasties one large tradition that experienced five developmental stages. First, pottery ding originated in the Central Plains around New archaeological discoveries of the Xia and Shang 6200 BC and then extended into the lower reach of the Dynasties were few for 2015 but very important. Scholarly Yellow River and the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze discussions concerned cultural character, evolution, and inter- River around 5000 BC. Around 4200 BC, this tradition dif- action, as well as handicraft production. fused into the Liaodong辽东 Peninsula from the lower reaches From November 2012 through May 2013, the Erlitou of the Yellow River. Around 3500 BC, it expanded into the Archaeological Team of the Institute of Archaeology, northern part of South China, and after 2500 BC, this tradition Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, worked on a rammed- was introduced into most other areas of South China. During earth wall with a roughly north-south orientation (Q7) discov- the entire 4000-year development process, the Central Plains ered in the wall-enclosed workshop zone of the Erlitou 二里头 was always the core area, and the middle and lower reaches of site, as well as hard-packed road surfaces found distributed the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers always remained the main along both sides of the wall. The wall might have been built body of the pottery ding-tripod tradition, despite its continuing in Phase II of the Erlitou Culture, around 1700–1650 BC, and expansion into other regions (Han Jianye 2015). used through the early stage of Phase IV. The roads were in Xu Yongjie (2015) points out that the chronological and use from Phase II to Phase III or the early stage of Phase IV. cultural relationships between the Banpo 半坡 and Miaodigou Referring to previous discoveries, the excavators suggest that 庙底沟 Cultures are important in considerations of the con- this rammed-earth wall should be the west wall of the wall- struction of the cultural-chronological system for the enclosed handicraft workshop zone or the east wall of another Neolithic in China. The chronological relationship between zone to its west, and the roads were auxiliary facilities for the these two cultures can be discussed through observing their wall when it was in use (Erlitou 2015a). In addition, test cor- superimposition and intrusional relationships and the co- ing in 2010 in the palace zone of the Erlitou site revealed a existence of the same cultural elements and same kinds huge pit covering an area of over 2200 sq. m that was almost of artifacts belonging to each of these two cultures. 7 m at its deepest place. The ground nearby was paved with Phase I of the Banpo Culture, dating around 6800– calcareous nodules (liao jiang 料礓), showing that it was a 6600 BP, is earlier than the Miaodigou Culture repre- special location. The terminus ad quem of this pit is Phase II sented by the Quanhucun 泉护村 site, which has the of the Erlitou Culture, and the original intention for digging it earliest Miaodigou remains known to date. Phase I of would have been for quarrying earth for the construction of the Miaodigou Culture could be as early as Phase II of the large-scale rammed-earth architectural foundations. the Banpo Culture, ca. 6600–6400 BP; Phase III of the Sectioning of this pit recovered four complete piglet skeletons Banpo Culture and Phases II and III of the Miaodigou lying orderly in the same posture, one small house foundation, Culture are simultaneous in their development, and both one potsherd heap, one potsherd-paved path and many hard- cultures ended roughly at the same time, around 6200 trodden paths, hinting that sacrifices and living activities were BP (Xu Yongjie 2015). conducted after the forming of this huge pit. It gradually silted Wang Weilin (2015) summarizes the records concerning bi and was refilled in later times, with in-filling occurring up to jade discs in transmitted texts and relevant archaeological dis- Phase IVof the Erlitou Culture (Erlitou 2015b). coveries in the Liangzhu Culture and the Hongshan 红山 At the Yanshi Shang City偃师商城site, supplementary ex- Culture in order to shed new light on the concept and origin cavation completely revealed the full-view of Hall Foundation of this type of jade object. According to recent discov- No. 3, located in the southwestern corner of the palace eries of bi,jade cong tubes, and color-painted pottery city. The building could then be recognized as the first with similar iconographies from the Yangguanzhai 杨官 row of the western triple palace complex. The excava- 寨 site in Gaoling 高陵, the Anban 案板 site in Fufeng tions proved that a previous suggestion that the exten- 扶风, and the Quanhucun 泉护村 site in Huaxian 华县,he sion of this hall had been built from east to west was suggests that bi jade discs as ritual paraphernalia might wrong; instead, it became clear that the west corridor of have been developed first in the Central Plains areas the western row was built first and the west corridor of during the Miaodigou period (Wang Weilin 2015). the eastern row was the extension. In the middle of the Lastly, in two other significant research papers, Li Xinwei south corridor, a gatehouse with three gateways was (2015) discusses the long-distance exchange networks of the found, and the settings of the gateways in the early upper-class in prehistoric society and how they formed in and late phases were different. These revisions to our China (Li Xinwei 2015). Zhang Xingde (2015)re-examines understanding of the layout of the palace complexes has the Hongshan Culture during the Hougang Phase I Culture also propelled forward our understanding of the entire (Zhang Xingde 2015). palace city (Yanshi Shang City Site 2015). A brief introduction to Chinese Archaeology 133 Between 2002 to 2008, three seasons of excavations were The Xichengyi 西城驿 site is located in a suburb of conducted on a bone workshop site of the Yinxu 殷墟 Culture Zhangye 张掖 City, Gansu. Archaeological survey results period at Tiesan 铁三 Road in Anyang City, Henan Province. show that the site was a copper smelting site dating 3600– These revealed that the general area of this workshop was 2000 BC. A substantial amount of cultural remains have been about 1.76 ha. The features recovered in the site were mainly collected, including pottery, stone implements, ore, slag, and roads, house foundations, ash pits, and burials, and the arti- copper pieces belonging to the Qijia 齐家 Culture, Siba 四坝 facts unearthed from these included pottery, bronzes, and Culture, and a transitional-type period. The collected remains jades, but the most prominent artifacts were worked bone are crucial not only for exploring the relationships between the materials. The bone workshop started to operate at the latest above cultures, but also for understanding the development of in Phase II of the Yinxu Culture period and lasted until Phase copper metallurgy in the Hexi Corridor 河西走廊 (Xichengyi IV, or ca. 1250–1046 BC. The large amount of worked bone 2015a). In 2010, the Gansu Provincial Institute of Cultural materials provide important data for research on handicraft Relics and Archaeology and other institutions conducted co- production, animal husbandry economy, and the utilization operative excavations at the site. The excavation uncovered and supply of animal resources during the late Shang 150 sq. m in total, from which house foundations, walls, ash Dynasty (Yinxu 2015a). pits, ash ditches, and burials were found along with more than From 2012 through 2015, the Anyang Archaeological 1000 artifacts. The finds are significant for further re- Team, IA, CASS, recovered a group of remains of the Late search on the origin of the Siba Culture, early copper- Shang period at Dasikong大司空 Village Locus East, which is based metallurgy in the Hexi Corridor, and other rele- located in an area shared by the traditional Yinxu site and the vant issues, and they provide important materials for the Huanbei Shang City洹北商城 site. Recovered remains include exploration of early cultural communication between the house foundations, wells, ash pits, underground storage fea- East and the West (Xichengyi 2015b). tures, and paths. These date mainly to Yinxu Phases III and IV, The Seima-Turbino Culture is an early Bronze Age culture but the earliest could be from the late stage of Phase I. These of the Eurasian Steppe. The representative artifact of this cul- excavation data have significant academic value for under- ture—a socketed bronze spearhead with a side hook—has had standing the distribution of Shang cultural remains in the joint 13 samples found in China. Metal compositional analyses and area of Yinxu and the Huanbei Shang City, as well as for the typological research on these 13 bronze spearheads show that planning of the part of the Shang Yinxu capital to the north of they were mainly made of copper or arsenical copper by cast- the Huan River (Yinxu 2015b). ing, and are later than the copper or arsenical copper objects of Zhang Guoshuo (2015) argues that the so-called Binner- the West made by forging, which date correspondingly to the wall foundation^ and Bouter-wall foundation^ of the Late Neolithic or Early Bronze Age periods in China. These Huanbei Shang City are actually not wall foundations at all. socketed bronze spearheads with side hook found in China are The so-called inner-wall foundation should belong to remains directly related to the Seima-Turbino Culture, and their diffu- from the filling of an early moat, and so the outer-wall foun- sion along the prehistoric Silk Road and their influence on dation would have belonged to the surrounding wall, and only Chinese civilization reveals again that cultural communica- wall, for the entire walled city. In other words, the wall tions between China and the West started on the Eurasian existing during the usage of the site should be the so-called Steppe, and that the history of the development of Chinese outer-wall. This wall, however, was abandoned before it was civilization shows uninterrupted communication between the completely finished. Zhang demonstrates that the city’slayout cultures of China and cultures of other regions of the world embodies various characteristics of urban centers of early (Lin Meicun 2015; Liu Xiang 2015; Liu Rui, Gao Jiangtao China. During the construction process, the structure of the and Kong Deming 2015). capital changed from a palace walled-town with moat to a Wang Lixin and Fu Lin (2015) point out that among the palace walled-town with an outer walled-town (Zhang popular pottery artifacts unearthed at the Xiquegou 喜鹊沟 Guoshuo 2015). copper mine site (Hexigten Banner 克什克腾旗,Inner Tang Jinqiong (2015) notes in his paper that in burials Mongolia), a kind of li-cauldron 鬲 with high neck, bulging yielding bronzes at Yinxu, pottery is also usually unearthed. belly, and lobed rim is generally believed to belong to the Late The usage of this pottery, however, is different from that of the Shang period. The Xiquegou copper mine site is the earliest bronzes associated with it; moreover, the usage of the pottery mining site found north of the Yangtze River to date. Seen vessels themselves also differed according to their vessel from the surrounding ecological environment and terrain and forms and locations in the graves. The different loca- the pattern of the residential remains, Xiquegou could not be a tions of the different pottery reflects not only the differ- settlement with permanent residents, but was instead a season- ent steps of the interment ritual, but also the different al settlement for mining activity. The food resources for the roles of the spaces in the graves during the funeral rites residents (or the miners), derived from animal husbandry or and ceremonies (Tang Jinqiong 2015). fishing and hunting. The discovery of this mining site 134 J. Zhongwei provides important clues for research on copper and tin re- the settlement, and fills lacuna in what we knew about the sources used in the bronze metallurgy of the Central Plains water supply chi yuan 池苑 system in the capital of the Zhou during the Late Shang period (Wang Lixin and Fu Lin Dynasty (Wang Zhankui and Lei Xingshan 2015). 2015). Based on this, the two scholars suggest that the In the Feng 丰 capital and Hao 镐 capital sites of the pattern of archaeological cultures in western Liaoning Fenghao 丰镐 site of the Western Zhou Dynasty, remains of become complicated during the Late Shang and bone workshops were found at Zhangjiapo 张家坡,Xinwang Western Zhou period with the diminishment and 新旺, and Fengcun 冯村 villages. These can be confirmed as vanishing of the Lower Xiajiadian 夏家店 Culture. bone workshops from the evidence for bone implement pro- Through close analyses and summarization of the char- duction, bone processing workflow, and the settlement pat- acteristics of the pottery assemblages and other contexts, terns of the sites. The bone industry in the Fenghao site was they distinguish five artifactual assemblages with differ- rather developed, and this can also provide strong evidence to ent cultural characteristics in western Liaoning existing support that the Fenghao site is the capital site. The settlement between the Lower Xiajiadian Culture and the Upper remains nearby the bone workshop sites show that special Xiajiadian and Linghe 凌河 Cultures: these are Houfen people were assigned to be in charge of the production of 后坟 remains, Weiyingzi 魏营子 burial remains, the bone implements and management of the workshops, Xiangyangling 向阳岭 remains, Xiquegou remains, and and that the concentrated management of different handicraft Liunan 柳南 burial remains. Then, bronze hoards found industries might also exist (Fu Zhongyang 2015). in western Liaoning dating to the Late Shang and Li Feng (2015) proposes a new interpretation for the cast- Western Zhou periods, based on their combinations of ing technique for Western Zhou bronze inscriptions, especial- artifacts and distributions, can be divided into three ly those cast in raised grids. In fuller consideration of the groups. Group A belongs to the Xiquegou remains, various phenomena seen on the bronzes, he suggests a nine- Group B belongs to the Houfen remains, and Group C step workflow in which transitional molds were employed to maybe belongs to the other remains mentioned above produce the real casting core with intaglio grids and raised (Fu Lin and Wang Lixin 2015). characters to be used for the final casting. This new theory The Zhouyuan 周原 site, thought to be the birthplace of the not only fully explains the production of long inscriptions with Zhou Culture, is located at the border of Fufeng 扶风 County intaglio texts and raised grids, but also explains the technical and Qishan 岐山 County in Baoji 宝鸡 City, Shaanxi 陕西 details behind a number of recently discovered special inscrip- Province. The site covers a total area of about 33 sq. km. tions (Li Feng 2015). From September 2014 to December 2015, the Zhouyuan ar- Chen Xiaoshan (2015) points out that a bronze he-pitcher chaeological team, consisting of members from the Shaanxi 盉 presenting typical Wu-Yue 吴越 stylistic features was dis- Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, covered in tomb M85 of the cemetery of the Ying 应 state at School of Archaeology and Museology, Peking University, Pingdingshan 平顶山 City, Henan Province. By comparing and the Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of this vessel with similar bronze vessels and well-dated tombs Social Sciences, carried out a new round of archaeological in the Central Plains, the author could confirm that the date of work at this site. They exposed two rammed earth buildings, this particular bronze he-pitcher cannot be later than the end of one residential and burial area, two chariot-horse pits, and also the Middle Western Zhou period. Following this lead, he com- excavated trenches through five pool and canal related fea- pares its design with six other he-pitchers of similar style in tures. Among the buildings, Fengchu 凤雏 Building No. 3 is order to establish a better chronological sequence and draw the largest building excavated dating to the Western Zhou conclusions about cultural communications between the Dynasty to date and adds further support to the importance Central Plains and the middle and lower reaches of the of the Fengchu building group. The building also is the first to Yangtze River during the Erlitou Period through the Late show the concentric double rectangular layout (or hui 回- Shang period. The author believes that the bronze industry shaped layout) from the Western Zhou Dynasty, and it also of the Wu-Yue region began during the Early Western Zhou provides new material for research on the evolution of period (Chen Xiaoshan 2015). Western Zhou architecture. In the courtyard of Fengchu Jing Zhongwei and He Feifei (2015) analyze two well- Building No. 3, archaeologists unearthed the first stele and preserved elite tombs of the Zhou period excavated at pavement stone traces ever discovered as sacrifice remains Wanggudao 王古道 village in Anyang City, Henan, from of the Western Zhou Dynasty, and these are of great academic August through September 2004. The research results show value. The discovery of the water network system in the that the occupant of tomb No. 2 was the husband while that of Zhouyuan site further strengthens the understanding of many tomb No. 1 was the wife. In other words, the two tombs’ important relics found in the past that can now be seen as owners should be a couple belonging to lower rank elites, or associated with it, deepens the understanding of the process shi 士 of the Wei 卫 state. These two burials should date to of settlement expansion and the nature of the water supply to either the end of the Western Zhou or the early stage of the A brief introduction to Chinese Archaeology 135 Early Spring and Autumn period. They point out that three includes a ding-tripod, dui 敦 tureen, fou 缶 jar, pan 盘 basin, objects in the original report were misnamed by the excava- and yi 匜 pourer: These had traits clearly belonging chrono- tors. For instance, the long, thin bronze sheets unearthed from logically to the late stage of the Early Warring States period to tomb No. 1 should be called sha 翣, which were used as the early stage of the Middle Warring States period. decorations covering the coffin and as ritual paraphernalia Considering all of these features, the date of this cemetery symbolizing an elite’s status. In addition, the rectangular could be also defined to around the late stage of the Early fish-shaped bronze decorative pendants which were stringed Warring States period to the early stage of the Middle and surrounded the coffin of tomb No. 1 indicate that the Warring States period (Fengjiazhong 2015a). From March owner’s rank might correspond to the class of shi yi chi 士一 through May 2013, the Jingzhou Museum excavated nine 池 mentioned in texts (Jing Zhongwei and He Feifei 2015). sacrificial pits near tomb No. 1 in the Fengjiazhong cemetery, The Tonglüshan 铜绿山 site in Daye 大冶 City, Hubei 湖北 andthesepits weredatedtothe Warring States period Province, is a famous Chinese copper mining and smelting (Fengjiazhong 2015b). site. In coordination with the construction of the National Among the states of the Eastern Zhou period, the quantity Archaeological Heritage Park of Tonglüshan and the site se- of bronzes discovered to date from the Chu cultural region, lection for a new museum of copper mining and smelting, the and the completeness of their chronological sequence, are sec- Hubei Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology ond to none. The establishment of the Chu bronze chronolog- established the Archaeological Team of Ancient Copper ical sequence has become the basis for in-depth research on Mining and Smelting in cooperation with other excavation the Chu Culture, as well as a major reference for cross-dating conductors in 2011. The team focused on survey and salvage bronzes from other states in the Eastern Zhou period. Yuan excavations of the area where ore body VII is located, then Yanling and Zhang Wenjie (2015) make a systematic study of discovered and excavated the Yanyinshanjiao 岩阴山脚 site, the bronzes of Chu published before 2013 and show that be- the Sifangtang 四方塘 site, and its cemetery successively. ginning from the Middle Spring and Autumn period, the rel- These works brought significant achievements. From atively complete developmental sequence of Chu bronzes be- November 2014 to November 2015, 135 tombs were gan to form, and the style of the bronzes of this system lasted unearthed in the eastern, low-lying areas of the Sifangtang until the Late Warring States period. The development of Chu site. This is the first cemetery ever found that is directly related bronzes could be divided into seven phases according to traits to a mining site in China. The funerary objects in different and assemblages. The bronze assemblages unearthed from tombs suggest differences in the division of labor, show cate- burials of people of different ranks show differences in vessel gories of technology employed by the tombs’ occupants, and forms and numbers and in décor on the bronzes, as well as reveal information concerning differences between managers differences in their stability and change. For example, the and laborers. It is also the first time that general information bronze assemblages unearthed from burials lower than da fu about the industrial chain for mining in the Tonglüshan site 大夫 rank usually show clear changes, while that of the has been exposed. The unearthed slag, copper ore, and bronze bronzes of their BCategory A^ unearthed from the burials of objects provide new data for research on the metallurgical da fu and higher ranking people tended to maintain more process and technologies of the Tonglüshan site (Chen traditional elements through time (Yuan Yanling and Zhang Shuxiang 2015). Wenjie 2015). In a related study, Yuan Yanling (2015)ana- From October 2011 to December 2012, the Jingzhou 荆州 lyzes Chu-style bronze ding-tripods, classifying them into the Museum (Hubei Province) conducted the first season of exca- following types: ding-tripods with a constricted waist and flat vations at the Fengjiazhong 冯家冢 cemetery, during which bottom, ding-tripods with a ring of ridge on the rim, ding- seven small-sized tombs of the Chu 楚 state dating to the tripods with a recessed rim to fit the lid, ding-tripods with Warring States period were recovered. All of these tombs were outward-bending rim and constricted neck, and ding-tripods vertical earthen shaft pit tombs with the opening larger than with a mouth. The ding-tripod with a constricted waist and flat the bottom, and the remains of a mound built of light gray bottom was usually associated with gui-tureen 簋 and wine earth were seen at the openings. These tombs were orderly vase with dragon-shaped handles and only seen in high- arranged, their sizes were similar, their orientations were the ranking burials such as that of the da fu or higher officials; same, and their spacing was even; all of these show that this the ding-tripod with a ring of ridge on the rim and the ding- cemetery was carefully planned, and the tombs should be the tripod with outward-bending rim and constricted neck were attendant tombs of Fengjiazhong Tombs Nos. 1 and 2. This usually associated with fu-food vessel簠, yu fou-urn浴缶,and arrangement is very similar to that of the attendant tombs in zun fou-urn 尊缶 and very popular in the Middle through Late the Xiongjiazhong 熊家冢 cemetery in Jingzhou, and they Spring and Autumn period; the ding-tripod with recessed rim would have been constructed according to the same ritual to fit the lid was usually associated with the dui-tureen 敦 and system. A set of pottery ritual vessels imitating bronzes wine vase and popular in the Warring States period. The num- unearthed from one of these seven tombs (JBFBXM13), bers of some of the ding-tripod types in the burials also seem 136 J. Zhongwei to reflect socio-political status. For example, the ding-tripod assemblage clearly demonstrate a connection with Steppe- with constricted waist and flat bottom roughly followed some style bronzes from the Northern Zone. This mosaic pattern rules showing a decreasing sequence of nine, seven, five, indicates a shift in the nature of the cemetery through time. three, etc., likely indicating the position of the tomb occupant During the Early and Middle Warring States period, this cem- in the socio-political hierarchy. The different assemblages and etery was occupied by the Rong 戎 ethnic group which was types of the ritual vessels are also a reflection of the demands closely related to the Wei 魏 state. Later, this region was con- of different ritual activities (Yuan Yanling 2015). quered by the Qin state and primarily occupied by Qin resi- The Qin 秦 Duke Mausoleums on the Sanshi Plateau 三畤 dents (Sun Zhouyong, Sun Zhanwei, and Shao Jing 2015). 塬 in the southern suburbs of Yongcheng 雍城, Shaanxi, are Zhang Liang and Teng Mingyu (2015)divide Eastern Zhou the largest cluster of Qin mausoleums so far found. Their tombs yielding bronzes in southern Shanxi into four chrono- magnificent scale and complete layout, which are rarely found logical phases according to changes in the assemblages and in other states, provide the best evidence by which to explore types of grave goods. Statistical analysis of variables such as the Qin mausoleum system and its long-lasting and influential grave size, layers of coffins, quantity of bronze vessels, chariot complete and unique design. In 2009 and 2010, the Shaanxi and horse fittings, bronze weapons, and tools, and pottery in Provincial Institute of Archaeology collaborated with local the tombs leads them to distinguish high, medium, and low archaeological institutes to conduct the third investigation at class graves in each chronological phase as well as changes the No. 1 and No. 6 Qin Duke Mausoleums. New findings within each class through time. They thus reveal the develop- include the middle mausoleum moats and accompanying ment and evolution of the tombs yielding bronzes and the tombs outside the mausoleum moats and provide new clues cultural features and social structure in southern Shanxi during regarding the layout of the mausoleums and the nature of the the Eastern Zhou period. They suggest that political factors tombs and outside chambers (Qin Duke Mausoleums 2015a). were the main cause for the appearance of different classes of Four tombs and three chariot pits excavated among 708 me- tombs, and that the tomb occupants from each class of tombs dium and small tombs and chariot pits outside the moat of the would belong to different social classes (Zhang Liang and No. 6 mausoleum show that their occupants should be mem- Teng Mingyu 2015). bers of the elite. Unfortunately, the spatial layout of the tombs In a systematic analysis of remains from the various archae- offers little information to draw any conclusions about the ological cultures of the Eastern Zhou through Qin Dynasty relationship between the commoners’ cemetery and the mau- periods in northern China, Shan Yueying (2015)puts forward soleums. The excavators propose that according to the mortu- that there were two cultural zones (the north and south cultural ary practice of honoring the West, these tombs might be asso- zones) during this period. The two zones feature clearly dif- ciated with the No. 4 or No. 10 mausoleum (Qin Duke ferent cultural features and connotations, and the people living Mausoleums 2015b). In addition, the newly found No. 14 within northern China bear clearly different physical charac- mausoleum is relatively separated from the other mauso- teristics. Shan also considers regional differences in each cul- leums. This raises an essential question about the nature tural zone and their developments and changes. She points out of its occupant. A tomb found with chambers and ramps that the cultures in the south cultural zone could not be shaped like the character feng 丰 also provides new regarded as a part of the early Iron Age cultures of the clues to investigate the layout of the Qin mausoleums Eurasian Steppe, but rather a kind of culture peculiar to a (Qin Duke Mausoleums 2015c). transitional zone between the cultures of the Eurasian Steppe From January through August 2012, the Shijiahe 史家河 and that in the Central Plains. The development and evolution cemetery of the Warring States period in Adang 阿党 town of the north cultural zone, which emerged in the Middle to of Huangling 黄陵 County, Shaanxi, was jointly excavated Late Spring and Autumn period, can be divided into three by the Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology and the clear phases: the first phase was a part of the early Iron Age local institute. The 37 burials excavated and their abundant cultures of the Eurasian Steppe. During the second phase, the artifacts not only complement understanding of the genealogy cultural features and connotations of this zone began to stray of the archaeological cultures of the northern Shaanxi region, away from the cultures of the Eurasian Steppe, which could be but also provide a referential dataset for the investigation of closely related to the military conquest and political manage- contemporary remains (Shijiahe 2015). The excavators ad- ment by the states of the Central Plains and the powerful dress the issues of the date, layout, funeral practices, and eth- northward advance of the cultures of the Central Plains. By nic affiliation of this cemetery. The cemetery primarily dates looking at the processes of the sinicization of the Rong 戎,Di to the Middle Warring States period, but with a few graves 狄,and Hu 胡 ethnic groups in northern China, and through dating to earlier or later periods. The assemblage of funeral reference to the relevant historic literature, she makes further goods includes multiple components from various cultures observations concerning the interactions among the states of such as the Xirong 西戎 Culture, the Qin 秦 Culture, and the the Central Plains and the peoples in these two cultural zones Three-Jin 三晋 Culture. In addition, some components in the and the changes of the cultural patterns in each of the two A brief introduction to Chinese Archaeology 137 cultural zones. She points out that the Hu ethnic group lived in cemetery of Marquis Haihun is trapezoidal, covering an area northern China since the Middle Spring and Autumn period, of about 4.6 ha. With tombs of Marquis Haihun and his wife at and the later appearance of the Hu people in the historic liter- the center, there are 7 affiliated tombs, a burial pit, walls, and ature must be related to the northward advances of the terri- north and east gates. There are also funeral towers, bedroom tories of the states of the Central Plains rather than the south- halls, ancestral halls, temples, and accommodations for man- ward invasion of the nomadic tribes who were living in the agement officials within the cemetery, as well as a road system Mongolian Plateau (Shan Yueying 2015). and drainage facilities. Some affiliated tombs also feature as- When we analyze the cultural remains in the Steppe at the sociated ancestral halls. This cemetery of the Western Han initial stage of the nomadic societies in the early first millen- Dynasty features the best preservation, the most integral struc- nium BC, we can find that they are mainly distributed on the ture, the clearest functional layout, and the most complete north bank of the Black Sea and in the Kuban River Valley, ritual system found so far in China. The tomb of Marquis southern Siberia, the Mongolian Plateau, and in southeastern Haihun is a typical example of the Marquis class’ tombs dur- Inner Mongolia. Shao Huiqiu and Yang Jianhua (2015)dis- ing the late Western Han Dynasty, featuring a grand scale and cuss the cultural interaction between these regions through the a chamber design with a complex structure with a clear divi- comparison of the Upper Xiajiadian Culture in southeastern sion of functions. It will contribute to understanding the burial Inner Mongolia with other Steppe cultures. Their research system of Western Han Dynasty feudal lords. Moreover, more reflects that from the formation of the Upper Xiajiadian than 10,000 exquisite artifacts have been excavated, Culture in the Early to Middle Western Zhou period, there representing nature of the life of the nobility during the was interaction between this culture and the Slab Grave Western Han Dynasty. These have high historical, artistic, Culture in the Mongolian Plateau. During the prosperous pe- and scientific value (Yang Jun 2015). riod of the Upper Xiajiadian Culture, this interaction still The urban planning system of Luoyang 洛阳 City during remained, but these was also synchronous developments be- the Han 汉 and Wei 魏 Dynasties is a continuation of the Qin tween the Upper Xiajiadian Culture and the Arzhan tombs of and Han systems as well as the source for the Sui 隋 and Tang Tuva in southern Siberia, indicating the expanding scope of 唐 city, and thus plays a significant role in the history of the this Steppe cultural interaction. The curved animal motif dis- Chinese ancient capital system. The Taiji 太极 Hall site is covered widely in the Eurasian Steppe represents the synchro- located in the northwest to the middle part of the palace of nization of the BSteppe Metal Route^ extending through this the Northern Wei 北魏 Dynasty, about 1 km north of Jin 金 vast region at this time (Shao Huiqiu and Yang Jianhua 2015). village of Pingle 平乐 Town, Mengjin 孟津 County, Henan Province. The hall is located 460 m south of the Changhe 阊 阖 Gate site of the palace. Since 2012, in order to protect the 4 The Qin and Han dynasties cultural heritage, the Archaeological Team of Han and Wei Dynasty Luoyang City from the Institute of Archaeology, The tomb of Marquis Haihun 海昏 is located at Dundun 墩坪 Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (IA CASS), carried Mountain, about 500 m northeast of Laoqiu 老裘 village in out systematic surveys and excavations and acquired a prelim- Datangping 大塘坪 Town in the Xinjian 新建 District of inary understanding of the range, layout, and temporal chang- Nanchang 南昌 City, Jiangxi 江西 Province. The tomb was es in the structure of the site. According to historical records, discovered in March 2011 because it had been robbed. the Taiji Hall is the main place for holding important events Subsequently, the Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Cultural during the Cao-Wei 曹魏 Dynasty, the Western Jin 西晋 Relics and Archaeology conducted archaeological survey Dynasty, and the Northern Wei Dynasty. The east and west and coring over a 5 sq. km area around the tomb. Over 5 years, halls of the Taiji Hall are where the emperor would make they systematical cored an area of 1 sq. km and excavated decisions about policy, hold banquets with his ministers, lec- around 10,000 sq. m, gaining important archaeological tures, and other activities, and so the Taiji Hall is well- achievements, including finding a series of important remains deserved to be called a Bpolitical center.^ It is also the first associated with Marquis Haihun’s state, including the Zijin 紫 palace with single axis symmetry, and thus ushers in a new age 金 city ruins, the family cemetery of Marquis Haihun, and of Chinese palace construction and capital layout, with a sin- tombs for the nobles and common people. They confirmed gle palace centered at Taiji Hall: the Taiji Hall served as the Da that the Zijin city covered an area of 3.6 sq. km and was the Chao 大朝, a place for holding important events. The juxta- capital of the Haihun state during the Han Dynasty. The cem- posed east and west halls served as the Chang Chao 常朝,a eteries of generations of the nobility and common people were place for carrying out daily affairs, and from this the East and located to the west and south of the Zijin city site. This is the West Hall System 东西堂制度 was born. The three gates in largest and best preserved settlement site of a Han Dynasty front of the main hall and the three main halls line up from regional state that has been found so, and it has the most south to north, thus comprising the Five Gates with Three abundant cultural content found so far in China, as well. The Halls System 五门三朝. Thus, this palace layout system of 138 J. Zhongwei LuoyangCityduringHanandWei Dynastieshadafar- the tombs included ban liang 半两 and wu zhu 五铢, and other reaching influence on the subsequent development of the cap- objects included silver finger rings, bronze rings, bronze belt ital city system (Qian Guoxiang 2015). hooks, glass earrings, and bone tubes. A comparison of these From 2009 to 2011, the Archaeological Team of the grave goods with their counterparts unearthed in nearby areas Qinshihuang Mausoleum Museum conducted partial excava- hints that the dates of these four tombs ranged from the early tion of the Terracotta Army Pit No. 1. The excavation locale to late Western Han to the early Eastern Han periods (Miaopu was slightly to the north of the center of the pit and included Cemetery 2015a). The structures of 19 stone-built tombs ex- two trenches and three partitioning walls that were all part of cavated were diverse, including single-cist, single-chamber, the pit, covering 200 sq. m in total. Pit No. 1 is a subterranean triple-chamber, and multi-chamber tombs. The single-cist earth-and-timber structure formed of earthen structures with tombs were in a simple form without a passage, and all of wooden pillars and beams, and the bases of the two trenches them were rectangular in plan. The single-chamber tombs were all paved with bricks. A total of 106 terracotta figures were in a P-shaped or T-shaped plan. The triple-chamber were recovered from the trenches along with 96 figure feet and tombs feature three chambers built abreast and linked to each pedestals and a large amount of weapons and chariot and other through square holes, and grave good platforms were horse fittings. The construction of the pit is thought to date built in them. The multi-chamber tombs were in T-shaped sometime between 228 and 209 BC. This excavation provides plans or plans resembling the characters 凸-, 工-, and 土:the new clues concerning the destruction of the terracotta army structures were complicated, and the stone slabs or boards pits of Emperor Qin Shihuang’s mausoleum and new mate- used to build them were regularly cut and laid firmly. Rich rials for a wide range of research issues (Terracotta Army Pits grave goods were unearthed from these tombs, most of which of Emperor Qin Shihuang’s Mausoleum 2015). were pottery wares. There were also a few silver and bronze In 2014 and 2015, the Joint Wei Bridge Archaeological items and stone and bone objects. In total, 438 pieces of grave Team excavated an ancient shipwreck in the sand deposits to goods were unearthed (Miaopu Cemetery 2015b). the south of the bank of the Wei 渭 River at the Wei Bridge Tombs of the Han Dynasty have been found to be located site, located to the north of the Han Chang’an 长安 City. The to the west of Taojiazhai陶家寨 village in the northern suburbs ship had broken into east and west sections and toppled into of Xining西宁 City, Qinghai青海. In the 1980s and 1990s, the the sand; the remaining parts were bow planks, full-length Qinghai Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and wales, transverse beams, hull planks, ribs, etc. The unearthed Archaeology conducted excavations in this locality. In artifacts show that this ship was built during the Han Dynasty October 2011, two brick-chamber tombs were revealed in and belonged to the mature wooden plank ship type: it is the the course of urban construction, and archaeologists conduct- first archaeological discovery of this type in China. This ship’s ed rescue excavations of them. Both of the tombs were single- building technique was popular in the Mediterranean area chamber tombs consisting of a ramp passage, entrance, and during the Roman period, and therefore its remains are mean- tomb chamber with vaulted roof. In all, 31 pieces (or sets) of ingful for the study of cultural communication between grave goods, including pottery, bronzes, lacquered wooden Chang’an and Rome, which were the two ends of the Silk objects, and glass ornaments, were unearthed. The tomb struc- Road (Wei qiao kao gu dui 2015). ture and unearthed artifacts show that the date of these tombs From May 2008 through November 2012, the Liaoning is from the Wang Mang 王莽 Interregnum to the middle Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology exca- Eastern Han period. The glazed pottery is the first discovery vated the Miaopu 苗圃 cemetery in Liaoyang 辽阳 City, of glazed pottery wares from this time period in Qinghai and is Liaoning. The terrain of the cemetery was the terrace on the also the earliest glazed pottery found in Qinghai to date. The west bank of the Taizihe 太子河 River at the southeast corner pottery model of a freestanding toilet is also the only such of Liaoyang City. Covering an area of about 50 ha in total, the object found to date (Taojiazhai 2015). cemetery was about 1.5 km to the west of the course of the In his study on settlement distributions during the Han Taizihe River. In the past, burials of the Han Dynasty to the Dynasty, Kim Byung-joon (2015) inferred the locations of Three Kingdoms period had been found in the surrounding settlements through the distributions of the burials, as he no- areas. Among the tombs excavated this time were four earthen ticed they frequently are located together. In addition to shaft pit tombs of the Han Dynasty; they were each furnished culling information from excavation reports and published differently, with a single coffin, a single outer coffin, and a materials from several provinces, Kim precisely calculated double inner coffin, and a single outer coffin and triple inner the distances between cemeteries and county seats using coffin. Grave goods included mainly pottery, plus bone imple- GPS survey. The results show that most of the burials of the ments, glass objects, and a few metal objects. The main types Western Han Dynasty were distributed on the periphery of the of the pottery were vats, lian 奁 cosmetic boxes, vases, zun 尊 county seats. Based on this, Kim argues that the common wine jars, ding-tripods, and various models of household farmers would have been living inside or nearby the county items such as ovens and wells, basins, etc. Bronze coins in seats. Moreover, this also demonstrates that by the Western A brief introduction to Chinese Archaeology 139 Han Dynasty, state control over local populations was thor- Here, analyzed through the historic literature, the natural to- oughly put into effect based on the governing system of bian pography, and the imperial burial tradition of the Western Han hu qi min 编户齐民 (registering common people). During the Dynasty, the authors argue that the structure of the Baling Eastern Han Dynasty, settlements were no longer limited to mausoleum would possibly be an earthen (stone) shaft pit the periphery of the county seats and were even scattered tomb with four passages forming a cross-shaped plan, and randomly in areas far from them. These features coincide with the large tomb found at Jiangcun village might be the real records showing a collapse of local control by central elites Baling mausoleum. Emperor Wendi’s thrifty character and because of social turmoil, and this resulted in the formation of optimistic view on death would be the main reasons for not new settlements in places far from the county seats; these requiring a tumulus above his grave, while the admonitions of settlements form in association with the construction of castles his officials might also have played a positive role (Yang and manors by powerful families. These situations are Wuzhan and Cao Long 2015). interpreted as showing that it had become more difficult for Li Yali and Teng Mingyu (2015) focus on the iconography state power during the Eastern Han to extend into local settle- concerning pavilions on Han Dynasty stone reliefs, first clar- ments as it had during the Western Han Dynasty. In the ifying the terminology related to pavilions and then illustrat- Eastern Han Dynasty, the old ruling methods became some- ing their developmental trajectory with an aim at better under- what restricted and new ruling forms were attempted, and the standing the significance of pavilions in the history of ancient distribution pattern of the settlements could provide a reason Chinese architecture. The authors propose that pavilions for these attempts. It is hard to identify whether a settlements inherited features of terraced buildings predating the Han but was a natural village or an administrative village, but the fact gradually replaced them when more advanced wooden con- that in the Western Han Dynasty the settlements were concen- struction techniques were invented. Eventually, pavilions fully trated at the periphery of the county seats supports this pattern developed into water pavilions, which appeared in the Tang as resulting from intentional organization under the influence Dynasty (Li Yali and Teng Mingyu 2015). of state power, so these settlements must have had a strong Wang Yu and Tang Xiyang (2015) study that the emer- flavor as administrative villages. In the Eastern Han Dynasty, gence of the iconography of the Queen Mother of the West new settlements were formed far from the county seats, and and argue that it was influenced by various types of Western therefore they would have had more features of natural vil- goddesses instead of one single type. Therefore, its emergence lages (Kim Byung-joon 2015). made the interaction between the East and West during the In the Han Dynasty, the Nanyang commandery included Han Dynasty more dynamic and vivid. Han people usually the area of present-day Nanyang City, Henan, and the north thought the Queen Mother of the West was living in the land part of Xiangyang City, Hubei. Song Rong (2015)explores of the western region. During the gradual expansion of this religious practice as a Bwestward movement,^ various belief the characteristics, developing process, and formation modes of the archaeological culture of the Han Dynasty in Nanyang systems of goddesses and various types of goddesses from the through the comprehensive observation of Han burials in this West were absorbed and became part of the iconography of area and with reference to the historic literature. The new the Queen Mother of the West. Although the authors argue research results show that the formation and development of that the beliefs and iconography are more than likely to have the Han archaeological culture in Nanyang can be divided into originated from an indigenous practice in China, there was a three phases: the pregnancy phase in the early and middle dynamic interaction between the Queen Mother of the West Western Han period, the growth phase from the end of the and Western goddesses in contexts of cultural exchange and Western Han to the beginning of the Eastern Han periods, the religious practices directed toward the Queen Mother of and the mature and declining phase in the Eastern Han period. the West (Wang Yu and Tang Xiyang 2015). In the ideological field, the local culture of Nanyang began to integrate into the Han culture in the first phase, but complete integration did not occur until the last phase. The mode of the 5 The three kingdoms period to Qing dynasty development of the Han culture in Nanyang was gradual, and the process of this development coincided with the BGreat There are two discoveries among the Top 10 Unity^ in the fields of ideas and politics, which could repre- Archaeological Discoveries in 2015 dating to the sent the culture formation mode coming from the political Three Kingdoms period to Qing Dynasty. In addition, center of the Han Dynasty (Song Rong 2015). other archaeological discoveries belonging to this period Yang Wuzhan and Cao Long (2015) point out that the were reported along with related papers. Baling 霸陵 mausoleum of Emperor Wendi 文帝 of the From June to December 2015, the Inner Mongolian Western Han Dynasty does not have a tumulus mound built Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology conducted sal- from the ground level. Archaeologists have previously argued vage excavations of Liao辽 Dynasty tombs at Xiaowangligou that it was a cliff tomb or an earthen (stone) shaft pit tomb. 小王力沟 in Tiegongpaozi 铁公泡子 Village, Caimushan 蔡木 140 J. Zhongwei 山 Town, Duolun 多伦 County, Xilingol 锡林郭勒 League. 长兴 Street in Luolong 洛龙 District, Luoyang City. This tomb They discovered two large tombs of the Liao Dynasty. Tomb was a brick double-chamber tomb with vaulted ceilings No. 1 is composed of an entrance passage, tomb doorway, consisting of a passage, a tunnel with a sealed-door wall, an- vaulted passages leading to the dooryard, and vaulted corri- techamber, corridor, and rear chamber. The passage was in the dors and chambers, with a total length of 25.6 m. Tomb No. 2 shape of a vertical shaft with ramp bottom in rectangular plan; is composed of an entrance passage, a vestibule, a door imi- the tunnel and corridor were in a rectangular plan; the ante- tating a wooden structure, vaulted passages leading to the chamber was roughly in a square plan; and the rear chamber dooryard, vaulted corridors, and the main chamber, with a was in a rectangular plan. The grave goods, including pottery, total length of more than 40 m. Although the two tombs had coins, etc., were mainly unearthed in the tunnel and the ante- been robbed, there were still a large number of precious arti- chamber. The tomb structure and the grave goods show that facts unearthed. According to the tomb structure and the fu- thedateofthistomb was themiddletolateWestern Jin nerary objects, the two large tombs may belong to the same Dynasty (Guanlin Road 2015). family and date to the Liao Dynasty. Through the unearthed From October 2009 to February 2010, the Hebei epitaphs, we can know that the occupant of Tomb No. 2 was a Archaeological Team, IA, CASS, conducted coring tests and noble consort of Emperor Shengzong 圣宗 of the Liao excavations at the cemetery of the Li family of Zhao 赵 Dynasty. This is the first discovery of noble consort’stomb Commandery of the Northern Dynasties period at Xigao 西 of the Liao Dynasty. As the most prominent family of the 高 Township, Zanhuang 赞皇 County. The cemetery is located consort clans, there were a total of four queens in her family on the course of the middle route of the South-North Water during the Liao Dynasty. Although an epitaph table was not Transfer Project. Among the excavated tombs, M52 was a found in Tomb No. 1 and the occupant is unknown, consider- brick single-chamber tomb with a long ramp passage, a tunnel ing the large scale of the tomb, the high-level funerary objects, corridor, an entrance-sealing wall, and chamber. The grave and other information, it can be inferred to be the tomb of a goods unearthed from this tomb were mainly pottery, porce- noble member of a prominent family in the Liao Dynasty or lains, bronzes, and stone epitaphs. According to the text of the even of an important member of the same family as the noble epitaphs, the occupants of this tomb were Li Zhongyin李仲胤, consort. The excavation of the these two tombs is of great who was a native of Zhao Commandery, and his wife, whose significance, and it will promote research on the clan lineages name was Xing Senglan 邢僧兰,fromHejian 河间 of the Liao Dynasty, and even fill some blanks in research on Commandery. This tomb with clear provenance and exact date the history of the Liao Dynasty (Gai Zhiyong 2015). provides important materials for research on the burial archae- The Dandong No. 1 shipwreck is located in the sea over ology and history of the Northern Wei Dynasty (Xigao 50 km southwest of Dandong 丹东 City, Liaoning Province. 2015a). Tomb M4 was a single-chamber earthen cave tomb From 2013 to 2015, an underwater archaeological team consisting of a long ramp passage, tunnel, and chamber, from consisting of members from the National Center of which pottery and porcelain wares, bronzes, and other grave Underwater Cultural Heritage and the Liaoning Provincial goods were unearthed. The epitaph unearthed from this tomb Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology carried out inves- shows that its occupants were Li Yi 李翼 from Zhao tigations and excavations of underwater cultural heritage sites Commandery of the Northern Wei Dynasty and his wife, around the area: this is an important achievement of underwa- whose name was Cui Huihua 崔徽华,fromBoling 博陵 ter archaeology in China in recent years, There were 60 type Commandery. This tomb has exact attribution, clear date, of artifacts discovered, including 150 items involving ship and a complete grave goods assemblage, so it can be seen as components, weapons, personal items, etc. According to his- an important chronological calibrating rod (Xigao 2015b). torical documents, local oral histories, and archaeological dis- From June through October 2006, the Department of coveries of the ship structure, including a dome deck and Archaeology of Sichuan University and other institutions ex- square porthole, and standard tableware with the inscription cavated a tomb dating to the Sui-Tang period belonging to a BZhiyuan 致远,^ scholars agreed that Dandong No. 1 ship- couple, with the male named Qifu Linghe乞扶令和. The tomb wreck is the Zhiyuan warship of the Beiyang 北洋 fleet. was located to the north of Da Sima 大司马 Village in Weihui These discoveries provide very precious material data 卫辉 City, Henan. It was a large-sized earthen cave tomb with for the study of Chinese modern history and the sea a long ramp passage, recesses on the walls, tunnels, ventilating battle history of the Jiawu Sino-Japanese War of shafts, entrance-sealing wall, stone door, corridor, and tomb 1894–1895 (Zhou Chunshui 2015). chamber. Murals were painted on the walls of the corridor and Previous archaeological discoveries published in 2015 in- the tomb chamber. The tomb had been severely looted and clude the following: damaged, but rather rich grave goods were still preserved: In October 2008, the Luoyang Municipal Archaeological the unearthed pottery figurines and other artifacts bear features Team excavated a tomb of the Western Jin Dynasty on the of the early Sui Dynasty. The inscription of the unearthed south side of Guanlin 关林 Road to the west of Changxing epitaph shows that Qifu Linghe, one of the occupants of this A brief introduction to Chinese Archaeology 141 tomb, died in the sixth year of the Daye 大业 Era of the Sui higher than the seabed were missing, and only a small part Dynasty (AD 610) and was buried together with his wife in of the keel and bottom boards remained, at the south end of the the first year of the Zhenguan 贞观 Era of the Tang Dynasty exposed seabed. The remaining length of the shipwreck was (AD 627) (Da Sima 2015). about 20.35 m and the width, 7.85 m, and the whole ship had From January through March 2012, the Luoyang been broken into two halves situated east and west of each Municipal Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology exca- other. The recovered ship parts include the keel, ribs, bottom vated a kiln group of the Tang and Song 宋 Dynasties in the planks, bulkheads, bottom boards, mast bases, draining hole, ward zone on the north bank of the Luo River within the outer and square posts, etc. 118 artifacts were recovered, most of city of the Sui-Tang Luoyang City Site. The excavation recov- which were porcelain wares, plus some pottery, metal objects, ered 12 kilns, which were mostly in Ω-shaped plans, stone boards, etc. The date of the sinking of this ship would be consisting of an operating pit, entrance, firebox, stacking in the Daoguang 道光 Era (1821–1850) of the Qing Dynasty floor, and flue system. The superimposition and intrusion re- (Xiaobaijiao 2015). lationships of the stratigraphy and the features as well as the Xu Longguo (2015) discusses the evolution process of the typological characteristics of the unearthed artifacts show that forms of the gateways of the capital city gates from the Bronze these kilns can be divided into early and late phases. Referring Age Three Dynasties period (Xia, Shang, and Zhou) to the Sui to the historic literature, the kilns of the early phase operated and Tang Dynasties. His paper consists of four parts: first, a from the beginning of the Tang Dynasty and continued in use summary of all of the discoveries of gates of capital cities from sometime up to the nineteenth year of the Kaiyuan Era (AD the pre-Qin period through the Sui and Tang Dynasties, elu- 731). The kilns of the late phase were operated in the late Tang cidating the development procedure from single-way gates to through the early Northern Song Dynasties. This kiln site multi-way gates; second, examining the reasons for the emer- would have belonged to the large-scale state-run kilns in gence of the multi-way city gates and how the gates relate to Sui-Tang Luoyang City (Xinjiekou 2015). the design of the capital cities; third, exploring the political The site of the Grand Bao’en Temple 大报恩寺 is located in and ritual functions of the multi-way city gates; and fourth, a the ancient Changganli 长干里 outside the middle south gate conclusion with the main viewpoints of the entire paper. These of Nanjing City. From February 2007 to the end of 2010, the include: 1. The gateways of the capital city gates of ancient Nanjing Municipal Institute of Archaeology conducted exca- China can be divided into early and late phases, with the vations in the north zone of the site, during which 3.6 ha of divide at the Western Han Dynasty: the early phase gates are remains were uncovered, and the main architecture and gen- mainly single-way gates and late phase gates are mostly multi- eral layout of the north zone were made clear. During the way gates (and primarily three-way gates). 2. The three-way excavation, a pagoda foundation located on the central axis city gates had nothing to do with the number of steps of the of the north zone of the site was revealed. In the center of the palace: the strict, three-flight-step system was not established pagoda foundation, an underground palace with a circular in the Three Dynasties period, and discussions related to the mouth was found. Later, two ash pits were found in the pago- three-flight-step system in the extant historic literature might da foundation, and 46 column base pits were found along its be resultant from doctoring to the ancient canons and scrip- periphery. From the underground palace, a BBuddha’sparietal tures by Confucian scholars during the Han Dynasty. 3. The bone^ sarira, jewelry-adorned silver Asoka stupa, and other emergence of the multi-way gates and the designing of the Buddhist relics were unearthed. According to the text of The Bthree gates on each side (of the capital city)^ provided con- Inscription of the Stone Crypt of the Real Buddha Remains ditions for forming the central axis layout for the ancient cap- Pagoda at Changgan Temple in Jinling unearthed from this ital cities and for establishing the design principle of jian underground palace, this underground palace was that of the zhong li ji 建中立极 (building the main hall of the palace in Zhenshen Ta 真身塔 (Real Buddha Remains Pagoda) built in the center of the capital and setting a central axis pointing to the fourth year of the Dazhongxiangfu 大中祥符 Era (AD the pole star) for the palaces (Xu Longguo 2015). 1011) of the Northern Song Dynasty. The pagoda foundation Qi Dongfang (2015) points out that the BJin System^ of and underground palace of the Grand Bao’en Temple are new funeral systems included specific ideas, customs, rites and important discoveries in Buddhist archaeology in China, and ceremonies, and regulations. The Bfuneral ideas^ were the the large amount of Buddhist cultural relics unearthed from understanding and knowledge about death; the Bfuneral them are very valuable, as they provide important physical customs^ were the widely-accepted ways and procedures of materials for research in all of the related disciplines (Grand entombing and mourning the dead; and Bfuneral rites and Bao’en Temple 2015). ceremonies^ were the rational expressions and systematic ac- From May through July 2012, part of the shipwreck tion patterns of the funeral ideas and customs. The Bfuneral Xiaobaijiao 小白礁 No. 1 above the sealed in sea area of regulations^ were the mandatory rules and systems that must Xiangshan 象山 County, Zhejiang Province, was excavated. be followed in the funerals. They had cause-result relation- The superstructure, side boards, and other parts of the ship ships and were also usually seen as a whole. The so-called 142 J. Zhongwei Bsystematic evolution^ resulted in the dynamic formation of Bailuyuan 白鹿原 and Tongrenyuan 铜人原.Mediumand all four. The Western Jin Dynasty inherited and intensified the low ranking officials were buried at Fengqiyuan 凤栖原 and Bdecree for austere burial^ of the Wei Kingdom in the Three Gaoyangyuan 高阳原 in the southern suburbs as well as at Kingdoms period, requiring burials Bnot to be mounded and Hongduyuan 洪渎原 in Xianyang. In addition, commoner monumentalized,^ which is archaeologically reflected in the tombs are found scattered on various small plateaus nearby sacrificial altar, pottery seat, pottery tray and armrest, epitaph their original settlements. Among them, the tombs in appearing in the tomb chambers, and the new grave good Fengxiang 凤翔 represent the most typical commoner ceme- assemblage of pottery figurines and oxcarts found in tombs. tery. Imperial servants were buried at Sanmingcun in the west- All of these show that new funeral customs were formed when ern suburbs, or the so-called Gongrenxie 宫人斜 in the litera- the new funeral ideas were accepted by the society. The argu- ture (Liu Daiyun 2015). ment on the funeral rites and ceremonies in the Western Jin Based on the periodization and distribution of the tombs of Dynasty simplified the funeral procedure, while interference the Mongol period and the Yuan Dynasty and referring to the by political powers promoted the new funeral procedure as a textual materials from tombstones and epitaphs and the legal obligation not to be violated. The funeral reforms of the different funeral customs, Dong Xinlin (2015) classifies these Three Kingdoms period through the Jin Dynasty started by the tombs into the tombs of the Mongol people, the tombs of Bdecree for austere burial^ introduced new funeral ideas and BMongolized^ people, the tombs of the se mu ren 目人 (mis- customs; having received ritual supports, the new funeral cus- cellaneous aliens), and tombs of Han people. He also prelim- toms also had systematic and political guarantees. Compared inarily summarizes the features of the funeral customs shown with the burials under the BHan System,^ the reformed burials in the tombs of the Mongol people, providing a reference for feature three key changes: first, the shrine or memorial hall, identifying tombs without inscriptions from the Mongol stone tablet, stone pillars, and stone sculptures on the ground Period and the Yuan Dynasty (Dong Xinlin 2015). were omitted; second, the multi-chamber burial structures re- Acknowledgements I am deeply indebted to three graduate students, sembling the front hall, rear rooms, kitchen, granary, and so Yang Lin (杨琳), Wei Kai (魏凯), and Wang Jianfeng (王建峰), for their on, declined, and the single-chamber structure decorated with collection and translation of some of the archaeological data during the simulated windows and lamp recesses became the most pop- preparation of this paper. ular burial type, which was still built as a residence for the afterlife; third, in the grave goods assemblages, models Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative reflecting rural manor life declined and procession lines Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http:// consisting of oxcarts and figurines became the core of the creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appro- assemblage. The evolution of the burial system in ancient priate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the China had a new appearance from this period onward (Qi Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Dongfang 2015). Huo Wei (2015) also discusses the mausoleum system of China and the development and evolution from the BHan System^ to the BJin System^ in the Six Dynasties period. On References the ground and in their underground structures, high-ranking burials of the Six Dynasties period all had sculptures or figures Chen Shuxiang陈树祥. 2015. 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BHangzhou shi 构建海南完整的史前文化史——海南东南部沿海地区新石器时代遗存 Liangzhu gu cheng Wai guo de tan cha yu Meirendi he (The Neolithic Age sites in the southeastern coastal area of Hainan Biandanshan de fa jue 杭州市良渚古城外郭的探查与美人地和扁担山的 constructed the complete prehistoric cultures in Hainan).^ 发掘 (the detection of the outer city of the Liangzhu Ancient City and Zhongguo wen wu bao 2016–05-20: 6. the excavations of the Meirendi and Biandanshan sites in Fu Zhongyang 付仲杨. 2015. BFenghao yi zhi de zhi gu yi cun yu zhi gu Hangzhou).^ Kao gu 2015.1: 14–29. shou gong ye 丰镐遗址的制骨遗存与制骨手工业 (the bone workshop Lin Liugen 林留根. 2015. BWen ming kuo zhang de jian zheng—Jiangsu remains and bone industry in the Fenghao site).^ Kao gu 2015.9: Xinghua Dongtai Jiangzhuang yi zhi 文明扩张的见证——江苏兴 92–100. 化、东台蒋庄遗址 (The Jiangzhuangsite at the border of Xinghua Gai Zhiyong 盖志勇. 2015. BDa liao gui fei de chang mian di— and Dongtai counties, Jiangsu Province: testimony to civilization’s Neimenggu Duolun Liao dai gui fei jia zu mu zang 大辽贵妃的长眠 expansion).^ Zhongguo wen wu bao 2016–05-20: 6. 地——内蒙古多伦辽代贵妃家族墓葬 (The noble consort’sfamily cemetery of the Liao Dynasty in Duolun County, Inner Lin Meicun 林梅村. 2015. BSaiyima-Tuerbinnuo wen hua yu shi qian si chou zhi lu塞伊玛—图尔宾诺文化与史前丝绸之路 (the Seima-Turbino Mongolia).^ Zhongguo wen wu bao 2016–05-20: 6. culture and the prehistoric silk road).^ Wen wu 2015.10: 49–63. Grand Bao’en Temple 2015: Nanjing Municipal Institute of Archaeology 南京市考古研究所.2015. BNanjing Da Bao’en si yi zhi ta ji yu di Liu Daiyun 刘呆运. 2015. BGuanzhong di qu sui dai mu di fen buyan jiu gong fa jue jian bao 南京大报恩寺遗址塔基与地宫发掘简报 (the 关中地区隋代墓地分布研究 (on the distribution of the cemeteries of 144 J. Zhongwei the sui dynasty in the Guanzhong region).^ Kao gu yu wen wu Shan Yueying 单月英.2015. BDong Zhou Qin dai Zhongguo bei fang di 2015.5: 74–79. qu kao gu xue wen hua ge ju—Jian lun Rong Di Hu yu Huaxia zhi jiandehudong 东周秦代中国北方地区考古学文化格局——兼论 Liu Jianhui 刘建辉. 2015. BYuan gu ren lei sheng huo de wan zheng tu 戎、狄、胡与华夏之间的互动 (the pattern of the archaeological cul- jing—Yunnan JiangchuanGantangqing jiu shi qi yi zhi 远古人类生活 tures in northern China during the eastern Zhou period to the Qin 的完整图景—云南江川甘棠箐旧石器遗址 (The Gantangqing dynasty—Also on the interactions among the Rong, Di, and Hu Paleolithic sites in Jiangchuan County, Yunnan Province, reveal ethnic groups and the Central Plains).^ Kao gu xue bao 2015.3: the complete life prospects of ancient humans).^ Zhongguo wen 303–344. wu bao 2016–05-20: 6. Shao Huiqiu 邵会秋 and Yang Jianhua 杨建华. 2015. BCong Xiajiadian Liu Rui 刘瑞, Gao Jiangtao 高江涛, and Kong Deming 孔德铭. 2015. shang ceng wen hua qing tong qi kan cao yuan jin shu zhi lu 从夏家 BZhongguo suo jian Saiyima-Tuerbinnuo shi dao gou tong Mao de 店上层文化青铜器看草原金属之路 (the steppe metal route seen from he jin cheng fen中国所见塞伊玛—图尔宾诺式倒钩铜矛的合金成分 (the the bronzes of the upper Xiajiadian culture).^ Kao gu 2015.10: alloy components of the Seima-Turbino style socketed bronze spear- 85–99. head with a side hook found in China).^ Wen wu 2015.10: 77–85. Shijiahe 2015: Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology, et al.陕西省考 Liu Xiang刘翔. 2015. BQinghai Datong xian Saiyima-Tuerbinnuo shi dao 古研究院等. 2015.BShanxi Huangling xian Shijiahe mu difa jue jian gou tong Mao kao cha yu xiang guan yan jiu 青海大通县塞伊玛—图 bao 陕西黄陵县史家河墓地发掘简报 (preliminary report on the exca- 尔宾诺式倒钩铜矛考察与相关研究 (the investigation and corelational vation of the Shijiahe cemeteryin Huangling County, Shaanxi).^ research on the Seima-Turbino stylistic socketed bronze spearhead Kao gu yu wen wu 2015.3: 3–13. with a side hook unearthed in Datong County, Qinghai).^ Wen wu 2015.10: 64–69. Song Rong 宋蓉. 2015. BNanyangdi qu Han dai mu zang yan jiu—Jian lun Nanyang di qu Han wenhua de xing cheng 南阳地区汉代墓葬研 Liu Yang 刘扬,Hou Yamei 侯亚梅, and Yang Zemeng杨泽蒙. 2015. 究——兼论南阳地区汉文化的形成 (the study of the burials of the Han BE’erduosi shi Wulanmulun yi zhi shi he Bo pian ji shu de jie duan dynasty in the Nanyang area—Also on the formation of the Han lei xing xue yan jiu 鄂尔多斯市乌兰木伦遗址石核剥片技术的阶段类型 culture in the Nanyang area).^ Kao gu xue bao 2015.2: 157–186. 学研究 (the stage typological study on the core reduction technique of the Wulanmulun site in Ordos City).^ Kaogu 2015.6: 68–79. Sun Zhouyong 孙周勇,Sun Zhanwei 孙战伟, and Shao Jing 邵晶. 2015. BHuangling Shijiahe Zhan Guo mu di xiang guan wen ti tan tao黄陵 Miaopu Cemetery 2015a: Liaoning Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics 史家河战国墓地相关问题探讨 (on the related issues of the Shijiahe and Archaeology 辽宁省文物考古研究所.2015. BLiaoning Liaoyang warring states cemetery in Huangling).^ Kaoguyu wen wu shi Miaopu mu di Han dai tu keng mu辽宁辽阳市苗圃墓地汉代土坑墓 2015.3: 60–66. (the earthen shaft pit tombs of the Han dynasty at Miaopu cemetery in Liaoyang, Liaoning).^ Kao gu 2015.4: 53–66. Tang Jinqiong 唐锦琼. 2015. BLun Yinxu tong qi mu zhong tao qi de shi yong fang shi 论殷墟铜器墓中陶器的使用方式 (on themethods of use Miaopu Cemetery 2015b: Research Center for Chinese Frontier of pottery in the burials yielding bronzes in the Yinxu site).^ Kao gu Archaeology, Jilin University 吉林大学边疆考古研究中心 and 2015.4: 88–95. Liaoning Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology 辽宁省文物考古研究所. 2015. BLiaoning Liaoyang Miaopu Han Wei Taojiazhai 2015: Qinghai Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and shi shi mu 2008 nian fa jue bao Gao 辽宁辽阳苗圃汉魏石室墓2008年 Archaeology 青海省文物考古研究所. 2015. BQinghai Xining 发掘报告 (report on the 2008 excavations in the Miaopu cemetery, Taojiazhai Han mu fa jue jian bao 青海西宁陶家寨汉墓发掘简报 (the Liaoyang, Liaoning, of stone tombs of the Han dynasty to the three excavation of the tombs of the Han dynasty at Taojiazhai village in kingdoms period).^ Kao gu xue bao 2015.4: 505–536. Xining, Qinghai).^ Wen wu 2015.9: 39–48. Qi Dongfang齐东方. 2015. BZhongguo gu dai sang zang zhong de Jin zhi Taosi 2015: Shanxi Archaeological Team, Institute of Archaeology, 中国古代丧葬中的晋制 (a study on the Jin system of funeral systems CASS 中国社会科学院考古研究所山西队 and Shanxi Provincial in ancient China).^ Kao gu xue bao 2015.03: 345–366. Institute of Archaeology 山西省考古研究所. 2015. BShanxi Xiangfen xian Taosi yi zhi III qu da xing hang tu ji zhi fa jue jian Qian Guoxiang 钱国祥. 2015. BZijincheng shi zu—Henan Luoyang Han bao 山西襄汾县陶寺遗址III区大型夯土基址发掘简报 (the excavation Wei Luoyangcheng Taijidian yi zhi 紫禁城始祖——河南洛阳汉魏洛 ofthe large-sized rammed-earth foundation in zone III of the Taosi 阳城太极殿遗址 (The earliest ancestor of the Forbidden Palace in site in Xiangfen County, Shanxi).^ Kao gu 2015.1: 30–39. Beijing was probably the Taiji Hall site of Luoyang City during the Han and Wei Dynasties, Henan Province).^ Zhongguo wen wu Terracotta Army Pits of Emperor Qin Shihuang’s Mausoleum 2015: The bao 2016–05-20: 6. Archaeological Team of the Terracotta Army Pits of Emperor Qin Shihuang’s Mausoleum Site Museum 秦始皇帝陵博物院兵马俑坑考古 Qin Duke Mausoleums 2015a: Shaanxi Provincial Institute of 队. 2015. BQin Shihuang di ling yi hao bing ma yong pei zang keng Archaeology, et al. 陕西省考古研究院等. 2015. BYongcheng yi liu 2009-2011 nian fa jue jian bao 秦始皇帝陵一号兵马俑陪葬坑2009- Hao qin gong ling yuan di san ci kan tan jian bao 雍城一、六号秦 2011年发掘简报 (the excavation of the terracotta Army pits no. 1 of 公陵园第三次勘探简报 (preliminary report on the third coring inves- emperor Qin Shihuang’s mausoleum in 2009-2011).^ Wen wu tigation of the no. 1 and no. 6 Qin Duke mausoleums).^ Kao gu yu 2015.9: 4–38. wen wu 2015.4: 9–14. Wang Lixin 王立新 andFuLin 付琳. 2015. BLun Keshenketeng qi Qin Duke Mausoleums 2015b: Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Xiquegou tong kuang yi zhi ji xiang guan wen ti 论克什克腾旗喜鹊 Archaeology, et al. 陕西省考古研究院等. 2015. BYongcheng liu Hao 沟铜矿遗址及相关问题 (on the Xiquegou copper mine site in Qin gong ling yuan zhao gou xi nan ce zhong xiao xing mu zang yu Hexingten banner and related issues).^ Kao gu 2015.4: 79–87. che ma keng fa jue jian bao雍城六号秦公陵园兆沟西南侧中小型墓葬与 车马坑发掘简报 (preliminary report on the excavation of medium and Wang Ningyuan 王宁远. 2015. B5000 nian qian wang guo de wei da gong small tombs and chariot pits to the southwest of the moat of the no. 6 cheng —Zhejiang YuhangLiangzhu gu cheng wai wei da xing shui mausoleum of the Qin Duke in Yongcheng).^ Kaogu yuwen wu li gong cheng de diao cha yu fa jue 5000年前王国的伟大工程——浙 2015.4: 15–20. 江余杭良渚古城外围大型水利工程的调查与发掘 (The investigation and excavation of the outside large-scale water conservancy system of Qin Duke Mausoleums 2015c: Shaanxi Provincial Institute of the Liangzhu Ancient City in Yuhang County, Zhejiang Province Archaeology, et al. 陕西省考古研究院等. 2015. BYongcheng shi si reveals the great project of the kingdom 5,000 years ago).^ Hao qin gong ling yuan zuan tan jian bao 雍城十四号秦公陵园钻探 Zhongguo wen wu bao 2016–05-20: 6. 简报 (preliminary report on the augering results of the no. 14 Qin Duke mausoleum in Yongcheng).^ Kao gu yu wen wu 2015.4: 3–8. A brief introduction to Chinese Archaeology 145 Wang Weilin 王炜林.2015. BMiaodigou wen hua yu bi de qi yuan 庙底沟 Xu Yongjie 徐永杰. 2015. BZai shen Banpo wen hua he Miaodigou wen 文化与璧的起源 (the Miaodigou culture and the origin of bi jades).^ hua de nian dai guan xi–yi die ya da po he gong cun guan xi wei shi Kao gu yu wen wu 2015.6: 30–34. jiao 再审半坡文化和庙底沟文化的年代关系——以叠压打破和共存关系 Wang Yu 王煜 and Tang Xiyang 唐熙阳. 2015. BHan dai xi Wang mu tu 为视角 (a reexamination of the chronological relationship between xiang yu xi fang nü shen xiang zhi guan xi ji qi bei jing汉代西王母图 the Banpo and Miaodigou cultures –with consideration of the super- 像与西方女神像之关系及其背景 (the relationship between the queen imposition, intrusion, and coexistence relationships).^ Kao gu mother of the west and western goddess and their historial 2015.3: 74–89. background).^ Kao gu yu wen wu 2015.5: 88–95. Yang Jun 杨军. 2015. BXi Han wang hou de di xia she hua—Jiangxi Wang Zhankui 王占奎 and Lei Xingshan 雷兴山. 2015. BGu lao du yi de Nanchang Xi Han Haihun hou Liuhe mu 西汉王侯的地下奢华—— xin renshi —Shaanxi Baoji Zhou yuan yi zhi 古老都邑的新认识—— 江西南昌西汉海昏侯刘贺墓 (The tomb of Marquis Haihun Liuhe in 陕西宝鸡周原遗址 (The Zhouyuan site in Baoji City, Shaanxi Nanchang City, Jiangxi Province, reveals the underground luxuries Province, reveals some new understandings about the ancient capital of marquis in the Western Han Dynasty).^ Zhongguo wen wu bao ruins).^ Zhongguo wen wu bao 2016–05-20: 6. 2016–05-17: 1. Wei qiao kao gu dui 渭桥考古队.2015. BXi’an shi Han Chang’an cheng Yang Wuzhan 杨武站 and Cao Long 曹龙. 2015. BHan baling di ling de bei Wei qiao yi zhi chu tu de gu chuan西安市汉长安城北渭桥遗址出土 mu zang xing zhi tan tao 汉霸陵帝陵的墓葬形制探讨 (on the structure 的古船 (the ancient ship unearthed at the Wei bridge site to the north of the baling mausoleum of the western Han dynasty).^ Kao gu of Han Chang’an City in Xi’an).^ Kao gu 2015.9: 3–6. 2015.8: 113–120. Xiaobaijiao 2015: Ningbo Research Institute of Cultural Relics and Yanshi Shang City Site 2015: Second Henan Archaeological Team, IA, Archaeology 宁波市文物考古研究所 and State Administration of CASS 中国社会科学院考古研究所河南第二工作队. 2015. BHenan Cultural Heritage Center for Underwater Cultural Heritage 国家文 Yanshi Shang cheng gong cheng di san Hao gong dian jian zhu ji 物局水下文化遗产保护中心. 2015. BZhejiang Xiangshan xian zhi fa jue jian bao 河南偃师商城宫城第三号宫殿建筑基址发掘简报 (the ‘Xiaobaijiao 1 Hao’ Qing dai chen chuan 2012 nian fa jue jian bao excavation of the hall no. 3 foundation in the palace city of the 浙江象山县‘小白礁1号’清代沉船2012年发掘简报 (the excavation of the Yanshi Shang City in Henan).^ Kao gu 2015.12: 38–51. shipwreck ‘Xiaobaijiao no. 1′ of the Qing dynasty at Xiangshan Yinxu 2015a: Anyang Archaeological Team, IA, CASS中国社会科学院考 County, Zhejiang, in 2012).^ Kao gu 2015.6: 54–67. 古研究所安阳工作队. 2015. BHenan Anyang shi Tiesan lu Yinxu wen Xipo 2015: First Henan Archaeological Team, Institute of Archaeology, hua shi qi zhi gu zuo fang yi zhi河南安阳市铁三路殷墟文化时期制骨作 CASS, et al. 中国社会科学院考古研究所河南一队. 2015. BHenan 坊遗址 (the bone workshop site of the Yinxu culture period at Tiesan Lingbaoshi Xipo yi zhi Miaodigou lei xing liang zuo da xing fang road in Anyang City, Henan).^ Kao gu 2015.8: 37–62. zhi de fa jue 河南灵宝市西坡遗址庙底沟类型两座大型房址的发掘 (the Yinxu 2015b: Anyang Archaeological Team, IA, CASS中国社会科学院考 excavation of two large-sized house foundations of the Miaodigou 古研究所安阳工作队. 2015. BHenan Anyang shi Dasikong cun dong culture period at the Xipo site in Lingbao City, Henan).^ Kao gu di Shang dai yi cun 2012-2015 nian de fa jue河南安阳市大司空村东地 2015.5: 3–16. 商代遗存2012-2015年的发掘 (the 2012-2015 excavations of the re- Xichengyi 2015a: Metallurgy History and Materials Research Institute of mains of the Shang dynasty at Dasikong Village locus east in University of Science and Technology Beijing 北京科技大学冶金与材 Anyang, Henan).^ Kao gu 2015.12: 52–63. 料史研究所 and Gansu Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Yuan Yanling袁艳玲. 2015. BChu shi ding de fen lei zu he ji qi li zhi han yi Archaeology 甘肃省文物考古研究所. 2015. BZhangye Xichengyi ye 楚式鼎的分类、组合及其礼制涵义 (the classification, assemblage and jin yi zhi diao cha bao gao张掖西城驿冶金遗址调查报告 (report on the ritual connotation of the Chu-style ding-tripods).^ Kao gu 2015.8: archaeological survey at the Xichengyi smelting site in Zhangye).^ 103–112. Kao gu yu wen wu 2015.2: 27–35. Yuan Yanling 袁艳玲 and Zhang Wenjie 张闻捷. 2015. BChu xi qing tong Xichengyi 2015b: Gansu Provincial Institute of Relics and Archaeology, qi de fen qi yu nian dai 楚系青铜器的分期与年代 (the periodization et al. 甘肃省文物考古研究所等.2015. BGansu Zhangye shi Xichengyi and chronology of the bronzes of the Chu system).^ Kao gu xue bao yi zhi 2010 nian fa jue jian bao甘肃张掖市西城驿遗址2010年发掘简报 2015.4: 475–504. (the excavation of the Xichengyi site in Zhangye City, Gansu, in Zhang Guoshuo 张国硕.2015. BShi xi Huanbei Shang cheng zhi cheng 2010).^ Kao gu 2015.10: 66–84. guo bu ju—Jian tan da cheng cheng yuan de jian zao试析洹北商城之 Xigao 2015a: Hebei Archaeological Team, Institute of Archaeology, 城郭布局——兼谈大城城垣的建造 (on the layout of the Huanbei CASS 中国社会科学院考古研究所河北工作队. 2015. BHebei Shang City: A discussion about the construction of the outer wall).^ Zanhuang xian Bei Wei li Zhongyinfu fu mu fa jue jian bao 河北赞 Kao gu yu wen wu 2015.4: 35–39. 皇县北魏李仲胤夫妇墓发掘简报 (the excavation of the tomb of li Zhang Liang 张亮 and Teng Mingyu 滕铭予. 2015. BJin nan di qu dong Zhongyin and his wife of the northern Wei dynasty in Zanhuang Zhou shiqitongqi mu zang yan jiu晋南地区东周时期铜器墓葬研究 (a County, Hebei).^ Kao gu 2015.8: 75–88. study of eastern Zhou tombs yielding bronzes in southern Shanxi).^ Xigao 2015b: Hebei Archaeological Team, Institute of Archaeology, Kao gu 2015.6: 87–100. CASS 中国社会科学院考古研究所河北工作队. 2015. BHebei Zanhuang xian Bei Wei li Yi fu fu mu 河北赞皇县北魏李翼夫妇墓 Zhang Xingde张星德. 2015. BHougang qi Hongshan wen hua zai kao cha (the tomb of li Yi and his wife of the northern Wei dynasty in 后冈期红山文化再考察 (a reexamination of the Hongshan culture dur- Zanhuang County, Hebei).^ Kao gu 2015.12: 64–77. ing the Hougang phase).^ Wen wu 2015.5: 60–65. Xinjiekou 2015: Luoyang Municipal Institute of Cultural Relics and Zhou Chunshui 周春水. 2015. BFa xian ying xiong jun jian—Liaoning Archaeology 洛阳市文物考古研究院. 2015. BHenan Luoyang shi ‘Dandong yi hao’ Qingdai chen chuan (Zhiyuan jian) shui xia kao Xinjiekou tang-song Yao zhi de fa jue 河南洛阳市新街口唐宋窑址的 gu diao cha 发现英雄军舰——辽宁‘丹东一号’清代沉船(致远舰)水下考 发掘 (the excavations of the kiln sites of the tang and song dynasties 古调查 (Discovering the heroic warship: underwater investigation of at Xinjiekou in Luoyang City, Henan).^ Kao gu 2015.6: 23–38. the Dandong No. 1 Qing Dynasty shipwreck (the Zhiyuan Xu Longguo 徐龙国.2015. BZhongguo gu dai du cheng men dao yan jiu warship).^ Zhongguo wen wu bao 2016–05-20: 6. 中国古代都城门道研究 (research on gateways of the ancient capital cities of China).^ Kao gu xue bao 2015.4: 425–450. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Asian Archaeology Springer Journals

A brief introduction to new discoveries and research in Chinese archaeology in 2015

Asian Archaeology , Volume 1 (2) – Aug 23, 2018

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Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 by The Author(s)
Subject
Social Sciences; Archaeology
ISSN
2520-8098
eISSN
2520-8101
DOI
10.1007/s41826-018-0011-6
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Abstract

This article introduces archaeological excavations, discoveries, and research in China from 2015. The author reviews some major papers published in 2015, in the chronological order of their subject time period, using the periodization commonly used in Chinese archaeology: Paleolithic; Neolithic; Xia, Shang, Western and Eastern Zhou Dynasties; Qin and Han Dynasties; the Three Kingdoms period to Qing Dynasty. . . Keywords Chinese archaeology New discoveries and research in 2015 Brief introduction The annual selection of China’s Top 10 Archaeological some of them. Here, we present information related to archae- Discoveries has always attracted a great deal of attention from ological remains and new research according to the standard both archaeological circles and the public, and the public’s periodization used in Chinese archaeology, namely Paleolithic interest in archaeology has been gradually increasing over Age, Neolithic Age, Xia 夏,Shang商, Western Zhou西周 and the years. On May 16, 2016, the Chinese Cultural Relics Eastern Zhou 东周 Dynasties, Qin 秦 and Han 汉 Dynasties, Newspaper and the Chinese Society of Archaeology held a and the Three-Kingdoms 三国 to Qing 清 Dynasty period. joint press conference announcing the top ten major discover- ies for the year 2015. These had been chosen from more than 700 archaeological excavation programs after many rounds of 1 Paleolithic age selection. The selected sites’ time periods range from the Early Paleolithic through the Qing 清 Dynasty and they are found In 2015, archaeologists discovered Paleolithic remains and widely distributed across 10 provinces, including in the presented research papers on both southern and northern Central Plains and frontier areas. These top ten discoveries China. cover a rich variety of sites, including not only prehistoric The Gantangqing 甘棠箐 site is about 1.5 km to the south- settlement, cemetery, and city sites, but also types of sites that west of Longtan 龙潭 Village of Luju 路居 Town in have rarely been discovered in the past, including mining and Jiangchuan 江川 County, Yunnan 云南 Province. From metallurgy sites, a water conservancy system, and shipwreck October 2014 to February 2015, the Yunnan Provincial remains. These discoveries offer new information and per- Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology carried out the spectives to solve some of the major academic issues in excavation of the site. In the revealed area of 50 sq. m they Chinese archaeology, and they fully display the achievements discovered remains of fire usage, 25,153 stone artifacts, 28 and significant breakthroughs from fieldwork in 2015 (Guo bone artifacts, and more than 10 wood artifacts. Moreover, Xiaorong 2015). rich faunal and floral remains were unearthed. The geological Since over 1000 excavation reports and research articles age of the site could belong to the early Pleistocene, but the were published in 2015, the present paper can only introduce absolute age determination is still being carried out. Like the Yuanmou 元谋 site, the Gantangqing site is another very im- portant Early Paleolithic site in Yunnan Province, as it pro- * Zhongwei Jing vides new evidence for the theory of the local origin of ancient jingzw@jlu.edu.cn human beings in East Asia, and it demonstrates again that the central Yunnan Plateau is a key region for human origins (Liu The Research Center for Chinese Frontier Archaeology of Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Ave, Changchun 130012, China Jianhui 2015). 130 J. Zhongwei Paleolithic archaeologists in China have also been looking main deposits extend over 2 ha and belong to the Neolithic at lithic technologies found outside of the country. Chen Liangzhu 良渚 Culture. From October 2011 to December Youcheng and Qu Tongli (2015) point out that Levallois tech- 2015, the Archaeological Institute of the Nanjing Museum nology is a milestone in the prehistoric period, and its devel- carried out a number of archaeological excavations, mainly opment can divided into four phases: 1. the incipient phase, in the western area, with a total area of 3500 sq. m, revealing from 500 to 250 ka BP, characterized by the production of a settlement of the Liangzhu Culture thought to date ca. 5300– Bpreferential^ Levallois flakes and large Levallois flakes; 2. 4500 BP. 280 tombs, 8 house foundations, more than 110 ash the developing phase, from 250 to 130 ka BP, when the recur- pits, wells, ditches, and some other important features were rent method was used and Levallois points of generally more unearthed, from which nearly 1200 artifacts of different ma- than 10 cm in length were the typical artifact; and 3. the terials, including jade, stone, pottery, and bone, were recov- flourishing phase (ca.130–50 ka BP), when the Mousterian ered. It is the first time archaeologists discovered a large scale Industry, including Levallois flakes, Levallois points, settlement with elite tombs containing jade cong 琮 tubes, bi Levallois blades, as well as side scrapers, notches, denticu- 璧 disks, and other jade objects of the Liangzhu Culture to the lates, etc., developed, flake sizes were reduced, and the toolkit north of the Yangtze River. Moreover, the discoveries have appears diversified. During the fourth and last phase, from 50 disproved the previous academic view about the distribution to 30 ka BP, identified as the declining phase of Levallois of the Liangzhu Culture as being limited to south of the technology, Levallois and other technologies, including blade Yangtze River. This site is far from the Liangzhu core area, and simple core-flake industries, co-exist in some sites, and and the many forms of pottery ding 鼎 tripods found show the Levallois technology did not play a major role. The chang- distinctive characteristics that are the product of the integra- es in Levallois technology and its products may indicate tion of the Liangzhu and the local culture. Jiangzhuang has changes in the functions of the stone tools and in human be- particular significance for constructing the prehistoric archae- havior (Chen Youcheng and Qu Tongli 2015). ological cultural lineage in the eastern Jianghuai 江淮 region Liu Yang, Hou Yamei, and Yang Zemeng (2015) study the and for studying the relationship between the Liangzhu core flaking technique of the Wulanmulun 乌兰木伦site in Culture and the local culture, thought to be a regional phase Ordos 鄂尔多斯 City, Inner Mongolia. The site is believed to of the Dawenkou 大汶口 Culture (Lin Liugen 2015). date to the Late Pleistocene period. Their results show that the The Liangzhu Ancient City 良渚古城 is located in Pingyao core flaking technique in this site can be divided into two 瓶窑 town in the Yuhang 余杭 District of Hangzhou 杭州 City, stages: primary core reduction and continued core reduction, Zhejiang浙江 Province. From 1987 through 2013, survey and and they identify at least 17 flaking sequences. The different other research on ancient water control engineering on the flaking sequences exhibit choices made concerning the origi- periphery of the Liangzhu Ancient City generally revealed nal shapes of the stone core blanks and the raw material. The an entire water system. An entire dam system was identified, diversity of the utilization of the original stone blanks and the found to be composed of many sections of artificial dams and methods, techniques, and sequences of the flaking reflect how natural hill bodies, that can be divided into upper and lower the inhabitants of this site had not only superb knapping skills sectors. Radiocarbon dates show that the dam system dates to but also rather strong planning and organizational abilities. the early and middle Liangzhu Culture period, or about 3300– Some special sequences (such as the one containing the 2900 BC. The consistency of the structure of the dams, and C3.2.2 method) reflect the intentional production of flakes their building techniques with typical remains of the Liangzhu with special technical features by the hominin inhabitants of Culture, also provide evidence for their dating to the Liangzhu the site (Liu Yang, Hou Yamei and Yang Zemeng 2015). Culture. The water control engineering might have multiple functions, including flood control, transportation, domestic water supply, irrigation, etc. As such, it also has a direct rela- 2 Neolithic age tionship with the economic and social development of the societies of the Liangzhu Culture and the emergence of the In 2015, archaeologists discovered important new Neolithic Liangzhu Ancient City (Liangzhu 2015a). The Zhejiang sites in both southern and northern China, while some scholars Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology exca- discussed issues concerning cultural chronology, sequences, vated dike features belonging to the water control system at and communication and put forward some new views. Laohu 老虎 Hill, Liyu 鲤鱼 Mountain, Shizi 狮子 Mountain, The Jiangzhuang 蒋庄 site is located at the border of and other locations from July 2015 to January 2016, providing Xinghua 兴化 and Dongtai 东台 counties in Jiangsu 江苏 better understand of the structure of the dikes and more strat- Province. With the Taidong 泰东 River as the boundary, the igraphic information. These excavations, confirmed that the site is divided into eastern and western areas. In the eastern Liangzhu water control engineering system is composed of 11 area, the main deposits, covering an area of 45 ha, are dated to artificial dikes connecting valleys and hills, and it was a part of the Tang 唐 and Song 宋 dynasties. In the western area, the a construction plan for the outside of the city from its A brief introduction to Chinese Archaeology 131 beginning ca. 5000 years ago. It has been confirmed that the culture and could roughly be divided into two stages, early Liangzhu Ancient City consisted of palaces, inner city and and late. The Songze Culture remains could be divided into outer city walls, and the water control engineering around its three phases and six sub-phases, the dates of which were periphery. It is thought to be among the best preserved early 6000–5200 BP. The high-ranking burials of the Songze capital structure systems found throughout the world Culture found at the Dongshancun site provide valuable infor- (Liangzhu 2015b). The water control engineering of the city, mation previously lacking on high-ranking burials of the in the form of dams functioning for flood control, is obviously Songze Culture and also show the origins of the highly devel- different from the water control engineering of the early civ- oped Liangzhu civilization. They thus, allow new understand- ilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia, which consisted of ca- ing of the comprehensive features of the Songze Culture in the nals and holding facilities with the main purpose of bringing circum-Lake Tai region and its level of social development in river water to the cities. These differences between Eastern and productivity. The separate areas for the large versus small and Western civilizations are of great value in research on the burials and the emergence of the large house foundations in history of world civilizations (Wang Ningyuan 2015). the early and middle Songze Culture show that at least by Beginning in 2012, the Institute of Archaeology of the 5800 BP, there is clear social polarization, and social stratifi- Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and the Hainan 海南 cation has appeared. Dongshancun provides new archaeolog- Provincial Museum jointly carried out a series of field surveys ical data on the emergence of civilization in the lower Yangtze and excavations in the southeastern coastal area of Hainan River, and these are also significantly meaningful for research Province and found more than 30 prehistoric sites, including on the origin of Chinese civilization (Dongshancun 2015a, b). Gangshan 岗山 and Zoufeng 走风 in Lingshui 陵水 County. The seventh season of excavations, in 2011, at the Xipo 西 Meanwhile, they excavated the Yingdun 英墩 site in Sanya 三 坡site in Lingbao 灵宝 City, Henan Province, exposed two 亚 City, and the Lianziwan 莲子湾 and Qiaoshan 桥山 sites in large-sized, semi-subterranean house foundations, F107 and Lingshui 陵水 County. These allowed the establishment of the F108, with F108 superimposed on F107. These houses belong basic chronological framework for prehistoric cultures along to the Miaodigou 庙底沟 Culture and are thought to date about the southeastern coast of Hainan, and the discoveries have 3900 BC. The internal area of F107 is about 169sq m, and its filled in many blanks in the prehistoric archaeology of this doorway is oriented to 198°. The construction process of F107 area. The stratigraphic evidence and artifacts in the Yingdun, involved the trimming of the semi-subterranean house Lianziwan, and Qiaoshan sites reveal three new kinds of body, digging post ditches, erecting posts, ramming the Neolithic cultures with different cultural implications. With walls, building the hearth, paving the living floor, etc. the Yingdun site and Qiaoshan site as the fulcrum, the chro- The size of F108 was similar to F107, while its door- nology of the prehistoric culture lineage of the coastal area of way was oriented to 295° and thus facing toward the southeastern Hainan has been established. The first unearthed central plaza of the settlement (earlier excavated houses prehistoric tomb in Hainan was found at the Qiaoshan site and F105 and F106 also faced the plaza). Pottery, stone provides material for research on the local inhabitants’ phys- implements, and animal bones were unearthed from ical characteristics and DNA information, etc. The abundant F107. The excavation of these two large-sized house aquatic and land animal remains unearthed from the foundations provides new data for understanding house Lianziwan and Yingdun sites provide important information construction and the design evolution of large-sized ar- on the natural environment and subsistence activities in the chitecture in the Xipo settlement (Xipo 2015). local area (Fu Xianguo 2015). From the autumn of 2011 to the autumn of 2012, the Two seasons of rescue excavations conducted at the Shanxi Archaeological Team of the Institute of Archaeology, Dongshancun 东山村 site in Zhangjiagang 张家港 City, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, and other institutions Jiangsu Province, from August through November 2008 and excavated a large-sized, rammed-earth foundation at the March 2009 through February 2010, uncovered a total area of Longshan 龙山period Taosi 陶寺city site (Xiangfen 襄汾 ca. 2300 sq. m. The excavations revealed a settlement belong- County, Shanxi 山西 Province) within an area suggested to ing to the Songze 崧泽 Culture, which included house foun- be a handicraft zone in the southwest of the site. This archi- dations, ash pits, burials, etc., as well as a set of high-ranking, tectural foundation, thought to date from 2500 through large burials of the early and middle phases of the Songze 1900 BC, was in a circumscribed rectangular, or hui -shaped, Culture for the first time in the circum-Lake Tai 环太湖 area. plan with curved corners, and it consisted of the foundations All of the small burials of the Songze Culture were found in of a central building, west, east, and south surrounding Zone I of the site, all of the house foundations were found in walls, a gate, and a courtyard, covering an area of more Zone II, and all of the high-ranking, large burials were found than 1200 sq. m. The huge scale of this architectural in Zone III. In addition, several dozens of burials of the foundation, its regular layout, and special structure Majiabang 马家浜 Culture were also recovered. The remains might be related to the management and control of of the Majiabang Culture belong to the late phase of this handicraft production at Taosi (Taosi 2015). 132 J. Zhongwei In a recent study of pottery ding-tripods of the Neolithic 3 Xia, Shang, and western and eastern Zhou Age in China, Han Jianye (2015) argues that they belong to dynasties one large tradition that experienced five developmental stages. First, pottery ding originated in the Central Plains around New archaeological discoveries of the Xia and Shang 6200 BC and then extended into the lower reach of the Dynasties were few for 2015 but very important. Scholarly Yellow River and the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze discussions concerned cultural character, evolution, and inter- River around 5000 BC. Around 4200 BC, this tradition dif- action, as well as handicraft production. fused into the Liaodong辽东 Peninsula from the lower reaches From November 2012 through May 2013, the Erlitou of the Yellow River. Around 3500 BC, it expanded into the Archaeological Team of the Institute of Archaeology, northern part of South China, and after 2500 BC, this tradition Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, worked on a rammed- was introduced into most other areas of South China. During earth wall with a roughly north-south orientation (Q7) discov- the entire 4000-year development process, the Central Plains ered in the wall-enclosed workshop zone of the Erlitou 二里头 was always the core area, and the middle and lower reaches of site, as well as hard-packed road surfaces found distributed the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers always remained the main along both sides of the wall. The wall might have been built body of the pottery ding-tripod tradition, despite its continuing in Phase II of the Erlitou Culture, around 1700–1650 BC, and expansion into other regions (Han Jianye 2015). used through the early stage of Phase IV. The roads were in Xu Yongjie (2015) points out that the chronological and use from Phase II to Phase III or the early stage of Phase IV. cultural relationships between the Banpo 半坡 and Miaodigou Referring to previous discoveries, the excavators suggest that 庙底沟 Cultures are important in considerations of the con- this rammed-earth wall should be the west wall of the wall- struction of the cultural-chronological system for the enclosed handicraft workshop zone or the east wall of another Neolithic in China. The chronological relationship between zone to its west, and the roads were auxiliary facilities for the these two cultures can be discussed through observing their wall when it was in use (Erlitou 2015a). In addition, test cor- superimposition and intrusional relationships and the co- ing in 2010 in the palace zone of the Erlitou site revealed a existence of the same cultural elements and same kinds huge pit covering an area of over 2200 sq. m that was almost of artifacts belonging to each of these two cultures. 7 m at its deepest place. The ground nearby was paved with Phase I of the Banpo Culture, dating around 6800– calcareous nodules (liao jiang 料礓), showing that it was a 6600 BP, is earlier than the Miaodigou Culture repre- special location. The terminus ad quem of this pit is Phase II sented by the Quanhucun 泉护村 site, which has the of the Erlitou Culture, and the original intention for digging it earliest Miaodigou remains known to date. Phase I of would have been for quarrying earth for the construction of the Miaodigou Culture could be as early as Phase II of the large-scale rammed-earth architectural foundations. the Banpo Culture, ca. 6600–6400 BP; Phase III of the Sectioning of this pit recovered four complete piglet skeletons Banpo Culture and Phases II and III of the Miaodigou lying orderly in the same posture, one small house foundation, Culture are simultaneous in their development, and both one potsherd heap, one potsherd-paved path and many hard- cultures ended roughly at the same time, around 6200 trodden paths, hinting that sacrifices and living activities were BP (Xu Yongjie 2015). conducted after the forming of this huge pit. It gradually silted Wang Weilin (2015) summarizes the records concerning bi and was refilled in later times, with in-filling occurring up to jade discs in transmitted texts and relevant archaeological dis- Phase IVof the Erlitou Culture (Erlitou 2015b). coveries in the Liangzhu Culture and the Hongshan 红山 At the Yanshi Shang City偃师商城site, supplementary ex- Culture in order to shed new light on the concept and origin cavation completely revealed the full-view of Hall Foundation of this type of jade object. According to recent discov- No. 3, located in the southwestern corner of the palace eries of bi,jade cong tubes, and color-painted pottery city. The building could then be recognized as the first with similar iconographies from the Yangguanzhai 杨官 row of the western triple palace complex. The excava- 寨 site in Gaoling 高陵, the Anban 案板 site in Fufeng tions proved that a previous suggestion that the exten- 扶风, and the Quanhucun 泉护村 site in Huaxian 华县,he sion of this hall had been built from east to west was suggests that bi jade discs as ritual paraphernalia might wrong; instead, it became clear that the west corridor of have been developed first in the Central Plains areas the western row was built first and the west corridor of during the Miaodigou period (Wang Weilin 2015). the eastern row was the extension. In the middle of the Lastly, in two other significant research papers, Li Xinwei south corridor, a gatehouse with three gateways was (2015) discusses the long-distance exchange networks of the found, and the settings of the gateways in the early upper-class in prehistoric society and how they formed in and late phases were different. These revisions to our China (Li Xinwei 2015). Zhang Xingde (2015)re-examines understanding of the layout of the palace complexes has the Hongshan Culture during the Hougang Phase I Culture also propelled forward our understanding of the entire (Zhang Xingde 2015). palace city (Yanshi Shang City Site 2015). A brief introduction to Chinese Archaeology 133 Between 2002 to 2008, three seasons of excavations were The Xichengyi 西城驿 site is located in a suburb of conducted on a bone workshop site of the Yinxu 殷墟 Culture Zhangye 张掖 City, Gansu. Archaeological survey results period at Tiesan 铁三 Road in Anyang City, Henan Province. show that the site was a copper smelting site dating 3600– These revealed that the general area of this workshop was 2000 BC. A substantial amount of cultural remains have been about 1.76 ha. The features recovered in the site were mainly collected, including pottery, stone implements, ore, slag, and roads, house foundations, ash pits, and burials, and the arti- copper pieces belonging to the Qijia 齐家 Culture, Siba 四坝 facts unearthed from these included pottery, bronzes, and Culture, and a transitional-type period. The collected remains jades, but the most prominent artifacts were worked bone are crucial not only for exploring the relationships between the materials. The bone workshop started to operate at the latest above cultures, but also for understanding the development of in Phase II of the Yinxu Culture period and lasted until Phase copper metallurgy in the Hexi Corridor 河西走廊 (Xichengyi IV, or ca. 1250–1046 BC. The large amount of worked bone 2015a). In 2010, the Gansu Provincial Institute of Cultural materials provide important data for research on handicraft Relics and Archaeology and other institutions conducted co- production, animal husbandry economy, and the utilization operative excavations at the site. The excavation uncovered and supply of animal resources during the late Shang 150 sq. m in total, from which house foundations, walls, ash Dynasty (Yinxu 2015a). pits, ash ditches, and burials were found along with more than From 2012 through 2015, the Anyang Archaeological 1000 artifacts. The finds are significant for further re- Team, IA, CASS, recovered a group of remains of the Late search on the origin of the Siba Culture, early copper- Shang period at Dasikong大司空 Village Locus East, which is based metallurgy in the Hexi Corridor, and other rele- located in an area shared by the traditional Yinxu site and the vant issues, and they provide important materials for the Huanbei Shang City洹北商城 site. Recovered remains include exploration of early cultural communication between the house foundations, wells, ash pits, underground storage fea- East and the West (Xichengyi 2015b). tures, and paths. These date mainly to Yinxu Phases III and IV, The Seima-Turbino Culture is an early Bronze Age culture but the earliest could be from the late stage of Phase I. These of the Eurasian Steppe. The representative artifact of this cul- excavation data have significant academic value for under- ture—a socketed bronze spearhead with a side hook—has had standing the distribution of Shang cultural remains in the joint 13 samples found in China. Metal compositional analyses and area of Yinxu and the Huanbei Shang City, as well as for the typological research on these 13 bronze spearheads show that planning of the part of the Shang Yinxu capital to the north of they were mainly made of copper or arsenical copper by cast- the Huan River (Yinxu 2015b). ing, and are later than the copper or arsenical copper objects of Zhang Guoshuo (2015) argues that the so-called Binner- the West made by forging, which date correspondingly to the wall foundation^ and Bouter-wall foundation^ of the Late Neolithic or Early Bronze Age periods in China. These Huanbei Shang City are actually not wall foundations at all. socketed bronze spearheads with side hook found in China are The so-called inner-wall foundation should belong to remains directly related to the Seima-Turbino Culture, and their diffu- from the filling of an early moat, and so the outer-wall foun- sion along the prehistoric Silk Road and their influence on dation would have belonged to the surrounding wall, and only Chinese civilization reveals again that cultural communica- wall, for the entire walled city. In other words, the wall tions between China and the West started on the Eurasian existing during the usage of the site should be the so-called Steppe, and that the history of the development of Chinese outer-wall. This wall, however, was abandoned before it was civilization shows uninterrupted communication between the completely finished. Zhang demonstrates that the city’slayout cultures of China and cultures of other regions of the world embodies various characteristics of urban centers of early (Lin Meicun 2015; Liu Xiang 2015; Liu Rui, Gao Jiangtao China. During the construction process, the structure of the and Kong Deming 2015). capital changed from a palace walled-town with moat to a Wang Lixin and Fu Lin (2015) point out that among the palace walled-town with an outer walled-town (Zhang popular pottery artifacts unearthed at the Xiquegou 喜鹊沟 Guoshuo 2015). copper mine site (Hexigten Banner 克什克腾旗,Inner Tang Jinqiong (2015) notes in his paper that in burials Mongolia), a kind of li-cauldron 鬲 with high neck, bulging yielding bronzes at Yinxu, pottery is also usually unearthed. belly, and lobed rim is generally believed to belong to the Late The usage of this pottery, however, is different from that of the Shang period. The Xiquegou copper mine site is the earliest bronzes associated with it; moreover, the usage of the pottery mining site found north of the Yangtze River to date. Seen vessels themselves also differed according to their vessel from the surrounding ecological environment and terrain and forms and locations in the graves. The different loca- the pattern of the residential remains, Xiquegou could not be a tions of the different pottery reflects not only the differ- settlement with permanent residents, but was instead a season- ent steps of the interment ritual, but also the different al settlement for mining activity. The food resources for the roles of the spaces in the graves during the funeral rites residents (or the miners), derived from animal husbandry or and ceremonies (Tang Jinqiong 2015). fishing and hunting. The discovery of this mining site 134 J. Zhongwei provides important clues for research on copper and tin re- the settlement, and fills lacuna in what we knew about the sources used in the bronze metallurgy of the Central Plains water supply chi yuan 池苑 system in the capital of the Zhou during the Late Shang period (Wang Lixin and Fu Lin Dynasty (Wang Zhankui and Lei Xingshan 2015). 2015). Based on this, the two scholars suggest that the In the Feng 丰 capital and Hao 镐 capital sites of the pattern of archaeological cultures in western Liaoning Fenghao 丰镐 site of the Western Zhou Dynasty, remains of become complicated during the Late Shang and bone workshops were found at Zhangjiapo 张家坡,Xinwang Western Zhou period with the diminishment and 新旺, and Fengcun 冯村 villages. These can be confirmed as vanishing of the Lower Xiajiadian 夏家店 Culture. bone workshops from the evidence for bone implement pro- Through close analyses and summarization of the char- duction, bone processing workflow, and the settlement pat- acteristics of the pottery assemblages and other contexts, terns of the sites. The bone industry in the Fenghao site was they distinguish five artifactual assemblages with differ- rather developed, and this can also provide strong evidence to ent cultural characteristics in western Liaoning existing support that the Fenghao site is the capital site. The settlement between the Lower Xiajiadian Culture and the Upper remains nearby the bone workshop sites show that special Xiajiadian and Linghe 凌河 Cultures: these are Houfen people were assigned to be in charge of the production of 后坟 remains, Weiyingzi 魏营子 burial remains, the bone implements and management of the workshops, Xiangyangling 向阳岭 remains, Xiquegou remains, and and that the concentrated management of different handicraft Liunan 柳南 burial remains. Then, bronze hoards found industries might also exist (Fu Zhongyang 2015). in western Liaoning dating to the Late Shang and Li Feng (2015) proposes a new interpretation for the cast- Western Zhou periods, based on their combinations of ing technique for Western Zhou bronze inscriptions, especial- artifacts and distributions, can be divided into three ly those cast in raised grids. In fuller consideration of the groups. Group A belongs to the Xiquegou remains, various phenomena seen on the bronzes, he suggests a nine- Group B belongs to the Houfen remains, and Group C step workflow in which transitional molds were employed to maybe belongs to the other remains mentioned above produce the real casting core with intaglio grids and raised (Fu Lin and Wang Lixin 2015). characters to be used for the final casting. This new theory The Zhouyuan 周原 site, thought to be the birthplace of the not only fully explains the production of long inscriptions with Zhou Culture, is located at the border of Fufeng 扶风 County intaglio texts and raised grids, but also explains the technical and Qishan 岐山 County in Baoji 宝鸡 City, Shaanxi 陕西 details behind a number of recently discovered special inscrip- Province. The site covers a total area of about 33 sq. km. tions (Li Feng 2015). From September 2014 to December 2015, the Zhouyuan ar- Chen Xiaoshan (2015) points out that a bronze he-pitcher chaeological team, consisting of members from the Shaanxi 盉 presenting typical Wu-Yue 吴越 stylistic features was dis- Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, covered in tomb M85 of the cemetery of the Ying 应 state at School of Archaeology and Museology, Peking University, Pingdingshan 平顶山 City, Henan Province. By comparing and the Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of this vessel with similar bronze vessels and well-dated tombs Social Sciences, carried out a new round of archaeological in the Central Plains, the author could confirm that the date of work at this site. They exposed two rammed earth buildings, this particular bronze he-pitcher cannot be later than the end of one residential and burial area, two chariot-horse pits, and also the Middle Western Zhou period. Following this lead, he com- excavated trenches through five pool and canal related fea- pares its design with six other he-pitchers of similar style in tures. Among the buildings, Fengchu 凤雏 Building No. 3 is order to establish a better chronological sequence and draw the largest building excavated dating to the Western Zhou conclusions about cultural communications between the Dynasty to date and adds further support to the importance Central Plains and the middle and lower reaches of the of the Fengchu building group. The building also is the first to Yangtze River during the Erlitou Period through the Late show the concentric double rectangular layout (or hui 回- Shang period. The author believes that the bronze industry shaped layout) from the Western Zhou Dynasty, and it also of the Wu-Yue region began during the Early Western Zhou provides new material for research on the evolution of period (Chen Xiaoshan 2015). Western Zhou architecture. In the courtyard of Fengchu Jing Zhongwei and He Feifei (2015) analyze two well- Building No. 3, archaeologists unearthed the first stele and preserved elite tombs of the Zhou period excavated at pavement stone traces ever discovered as sacrifice remains Wanggudao 王古道 village in Anyang City, Henan, from of the Western Zhou Dynasty, and these are of great academic August through September 2004. The research results show value. The discovery of the water network system in the that the occupant of tomb No. 2 was the husband while that of Zhouyuan site further strengthens the understanding of many tomb No. 1 was the wife. In other words, the two tombs’ important relics found in the past that can now be seen as owners should be a couple belonging to lower rank elites, or associated with it, deepens the understanding of the process shi 士 of the Wei 卫 state. These two burials should date to of settlement expansion and the nature of the water supply to either the end of the Western Zhou or the early stage of the A brief introduction to Chinese Archaeology 135 Early Spring and Autumn period. They point out that three includes a ding-tripod, dui 敦 tureen, fou 缶 jar, pan 盘 basin, objects in the original report were misnamed by the excava- and yi 匜 pourer: These had traits clearly belonging chrono- tors. For instance, the long, thin bronze sheets unearthed from logically to the late stage of the Early Warring States period to tomb No. 1 should be called sha 翣, which were used as the early stage of the Middle Warring States period. decorations covering the coffin and as ritual paraphernalia Considering all of these features, the date of this cemetery symbolizing an elite’s status. In addition, the rectangular could be also defined to around the late stage of the Early fish-shaped bronze decorative pendants which were stringed Warring States period to the early stage of the Middle and surrounded the coffin of tomb No. 1 indicate that the Warring States period (Fengjiazhong 2015a). From March owner’s rank might correspond to the class of shi yi chi 士一 through May 2013, the Jingzhou Museum excavated nine 池 mentioned in texts (Jing Zhongwei and He Feifei 2015). sacrificial pits near tomb No. 1 in the Fengjiazhong cemetery, The Tonglüshan 铜绿山 site in Daye 大冶 City, Hubei 湖北 andthesepits weredatedtothe Warring States period Province, is a famous Chinese copper mining and smelting (Fengjiazhong 2015b). site. In coordination with the construction of the National Among the states of the Eastern Zhou period, the quantity Archaeological Heritage Park of Tonglüshan and the site se- of bronzes discovered to date from the Chu cultural region, lection for a new museum of copper mining and smelting, the and the completeness of their chronological sequence, are sec- Hubei Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology ond to none. The establishment of the Chu bronze chronolog- established the Archaeological Team of Ancient Copper ical sequence has become the basis for in-depth research on Mining and Smelting in cooperation with other excavation the Chu Culture, as well as a major reference for cross-dating conductors in 2011. The team focused on survey and salvage bronzes from other states in the Eastern Zhou period. Yuan excavations of the area where ore body VII is located, then Yanling and Zhang Wenjie (2015) make a systematic study of discovered and excavated the Yanyinshanjiao 岩阴山脚 site, the bronzes of Chu published before 2013 and show that be- the Sifangtang 四方塘 site, and its cemetery successively. ginning from the Middle Spring and Autumn period, the rel- These works brought significant achievements. From atively complete developmental sequence of Chu bronzes be- November 2014 to November 2015, 135 tombs were gan to form, and the style of the bronzes of this system lasted unearthed in the eastern, low-lying areas of the Sifangtang until the Late Warring States period. The development of Chu site. This is the first cemetery ever found that is directly related bronzes could be divided into seven phases according to traits to a mining site in China. The funerary objects in different and assemblages. The bronze assemblages unearthed from tombs suggest differences in the division of labor, show cate- burials of people of different ranks show differences in vessel gories of technology employed by the tombs’ occupants, and forms and numbers and in décor on the bronzes, as well as reveal information concerning differences between managers differences in their stability and change. For example, the and laborers. It is also the first time that general information bronze assemblages unearthed from burials lower than da fu about the industrial chain for mining in the Tonglüshan site 大夫 rank usually show clear changes, while that of the has been exposed. The unearthed slag, copper ore, and bronze bronzes of their BCategory A^ unearthed from the burials of objects provide new data for research on the metallurgical da fu and higher ranking people tended to maintain more process and technologies of the Tonglüshan site (Chen traditional elements through time (Yuan Yanling and Zhang Shuxiang 2015). Wenjie 2015). In a related study, Yuan Yanling (2015)ana- From October 2011 to December 2012, the Jingzhou 荆州 lyzes Chu-style bronze ding-tripods, classifying them into the Museum (Hubei Province) conducted the first season of exca- following types: ding-tripods with a constricted waist and flat vations at the Fengjiazhong 冯家冢 cemetery, during which bottom, ding-tripods with a ring of ridge on the rim, ding- seven small-sized tombs of the Chu 楚 state dating to the tripods with a recessed rim to fit the lid, ding-tripods with Warring States period were recovered. All of these tombs were outward-bending rim and constricted neck, and ding-tripods vertical earthen shaft pit tombs with the opening larger than with a mouth. The ding-tripod with a constricted waist and flat the bottom, and the remains of a mound built of light gray bottom was usually associated with gui-tureen 簋 and wine earth were seen at the openings. These tombs were orderly vase with dragon-shaped handles and only seen in high- arranged, their sizes were similar, their orientations were the ranking burials such as that of the da fu or higher officials; same, and their spacing was even; all of these show that this the ding-tripod with a ring of ridge on the rim and the ding- cemetery was carefully planned, and the tombs should be the tripod with outward-bending rim and constricted neck were attendant tombs of Fengjiazhong Tombs Nos. 1 and 2. This usually associated with fu-food vessel簠, yu fou-urn浴缶,and arrangement is very similar to that of the attendant tombs in zun fou-urn 尊缶 and very popular in the Middle through Late the Xiongjiazhong 熊家冢 cemetery in Jingzhou, and they Spring and Autumn period; the ding-tripod with recessed rim would have been constructed according to the same ritual to fit the lid was usually associated with the dui-tureen 敦 and system. A set of pottery ritual vessels imitating bronzes wine vase and popular in the Warring States period. The num- unearthed from one of these seven tombs (JBFBXM13), bers of some of the ding-tripod types in the burials also seem 136 J. Zhongwei to reflect socio-political status. For example, the ding-tripod assemblage clearly demonstrate a connection with Steppe- with constricted waist and flat bottom roughly followed some style bronzes from the Northern Zone. This mosaic pattern rules showing a decreasing sequence of nine, seven, five, indicates a shift in the nature of the cemetery through time. three, etc., likely indicating the position of the tomb occupant During the Early and Middle Warring States period, this cem- in the socio-political hierarchy. The different assemblages and etery was occupied by the Rong 戎 ethnic group which was types of the ritual vessels are also a reflection of the demands closely related to the Wei 魏 state. Later, this region was con- of different ritual activities (Yuan Yanling 2015). quered by the Qin state and primarily occupied by Qin resi- The Qin 秦 Duke Mausoleums on the Sanshi Plateau 三畤 dents (Sun Zhouyong, Sun Zhanwei, and Shao Jing 2015). 塬 in the southern suburbs of Yongcheng 雍城, Shaanxi, are Zhang Liang and Teng Mingyu (2015)divide Eastern Zhou the largest cluster of Qin mausoleums so far found. Their tombs yielding bronzes in southern Shanxi into four chrono- magnificent scale and complete layout, which are rarely found logical phases according to changes in the assemblages and in other states, provide the best evidence by which to explore types of grave goods. Statistical analysis of variables such as the Qin mausoleum system and its long-lasting and influential grave size, layers of coffins, quantity of bronze vessels, chariot complete and unique design. In 2009 and 2010, the Shaanxi and horse fittings, bronze weapons, and tools, and pottery in Provincial Institute of Archaeology collaborated with local the tombs leads them to distinguish high, medium, and low archaeological institutes to conduct the third investigation at class graves in each chronological phase as well as changes the No. 1 and No. 6 Qin Duke Mausoleums. New findings within each class through time. They thus reveal the develop- include the middle mausoleum moats and accompanying ment and evolution of the tombs yielding bronzes and the tombs outside the mausoleum moats and provide new clues cultural features and social structure in southern Shanxi during regarding the layout of the mausoleums and the nature of the the Eastern Zhou period. They suggest that political factors tombs and outside chambers (Qin Duke Mausoleums 2015a). were the main cause for the appearance of different classes of Four tombs and three chariot pits excavated among 708 me- tombs, and that the tomb occupants from each class of tombs dium and small tombs and chariot pits outside the moat of the would belong to different social classes (Zhang Liang and No. 6 mausoleum show that their occupants should be mem- Teng Mingyu 2015). bers of the elite. Unfortunately, the spatial layout of the tombs In a systematic analysis of remains from the various archae- offers little information to draw any conclusions about the ological cultures of the Eastern Zhou through Qin Dynasty relationship between the commoners’ cemetery and the mau- periods in northern China, Shan Yueying (2015)puts forward soleums. The excavators propose that according to the mortu- that there were two cultural zones (the north and south cultural ary practice of honoring the West, these tombs might be asso- zones) during this period. The two zones feature clearly dif- ciated with the No. 4 or No. 10 mausoleum (Qin Duke ferent cultural features and connotations, and the people living Mausoleums 2015b). In addition, the newly found No. 14 within northern China bear clearly different physical charac- mausoleum is relatively separated from the other mauso- teristics. Shan also considers regional differences in each cul- leums. This raises an essential question about the nature tural zone and their developments and changes. She points out of its occupant. A tomb found with chambers and ramps that the cultures in the south cultural zone could not be shaped like the character feng 丰 also provides new regarded as a part of the early Iron Age cultures of the clues to investigate the layout of the Qin mausoleums Eurasian Steppe, but rather a kind of culture peculiar to a (Qin Duke Mausoleums 2015c). transitional zone between the cultures of the Eurasian Steppe From January through August 2012, the Shijiahe 史家河 and that in the Central Plains. The development and evolution cemetery of the Warring States period in Adang 阿党 town of the north cultural zone, which emerged in the Middle to of Huangling 黄陵 County, Shaanxi, was jointly excavated Late Spring and Autumn period, can be divided into three by the Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology and the clear phases: the first phase was a part of the early Iron Age local institute. The 37 burials excavated and their abundant cultures of the Eurasian Steppe. During the second phase, the artifacts not only complement understanding of the genealogy cultural features and connotations of this zone began to stray of the archaeological cultures of the northern Shaanxi region, away from the cultures of the Eurasian Steppe, which could be but also provide a referential dataset for the investigation of closely related to the military conquest and political manage- contemporary remains (Shijiahe 2015). The excavators ad- ment by the states of the Central Plains and the powerful dress the issues of the date, layout, funeral practices, and eth- northward advance of the cultures of the Central Plains. By nic affiliation of this cemetery. The cemetery primarily dates looking at the processes of the sinicization of the Rong 戎,Di to the Middle Warring States period, but with a few graves 狄,and Hu 胡 ethnic groups in northern China, and through dating to earlier or later periods. The assemblage of funeral reference to the relevant historic literature, she makes further goods includes multiple components from various cultures observations concerning the interactions among the states of such as the Xirong 西戎 Culture, the Qin 秦 Culture, and the the Central Plains and the peoples in these two cultural zones Three-Jin 三晋 Culture. In addition, some components in the and the changes of the cultural patterns in each of the two A brief introduction to Chinese Archaeology 137 cultural zones. She points out that the Hu ethnic group lived in cemetery of Marquis Haihun is trapezoidal, covering an area northern China since the Middle Spring and Autumn period, of about 4.6 ha. With tombs of Marquis Haihun and his wife at and the later appearance of the Hu people in the historic liter- the center, there are 7 affiliated tombs, a burial pit, walls, and ature must be related to the northward advances of the terri- north and east gates. There are also funeral towers, bedroom tories of the states of the Central Plains rather than the south- halls, ancestral halls, temples, and accommodations for man- ward invasion of the nomadic tribes who were living in the agement officials within the cemetery, as well as a road system Mongolian Plateau (Shan Yueying 2015). and drainage facilities. Some affiliated tombs also feature as- When we analyze the cultural remains in the Steppe at the sociated ancestral halls. This cemetery of the Western Han initial stage of the nomadic societies in the early first millen- Dynasty features the best preservation, the most integral struc- nium BC, we can find that they are mainly distributed on the ture, the clearest functional layout, and the most complete north bank of the Black Sea and in the Kuban River Valley, ritual system found so far in China. The tomb of Marquis southern Siberia, the Mongolian Plateau, and in southeastern Haihun is a typical example of the Marquis class’ tombs dur- Inner Mongolia. Shao Huiqiu and Yang Jianhua (2015)dis- ing the late Western Han Dynasty, featuring a grand scale and cuss the cultural interaction between these regions through the a chamber design with a complex structure with a clear divi- comparison of the Upper Xiajiadian Culture in southeastern sion of functions. It will contribute to understanding the burial Inner Mongolia with other Steppe cultures. Their research system of Western Han Dynasty feudal lords. Moreover, more reflects that from the formation of the Upper Xiajiadian than 10,000 exquisite artifacts have been excavated, Culture in the Early to Middle Western Zhou period, there representing nature of the life of the nobility during the was interaction between this culture and the Slab Grave Western Han Dynasty. These have high historical, artistic, Culture in the Mongolian Plateau. During the prosperous pe- and scientific value (Yang Jun 2015). riod of the Upper Xiajiadian Culture, this interaction still The urban planning system of Luoyang 洛阳 City during remained, but these was also synchronous developments be- the Han 汉 and Wei 魏 Dynasties is a continuation of the Qin tween the Upper Xiajiadian Culture and the Arzhan tombs of and Han systems as well as the source for the Sui 隋 and Tang Tuva in southern Siberia, indicating the expanding scope of 唐 city, and thus plays a significant role in the history of the this Steppe cultural interaction. The curved animal motif dis- Chinese ancient capital system. The Taiji 太极 Hall site is covered widely in the Eurasian Steppe represents the synchro- located in the northwest to the middle part of the palace of nization of the BSteppe Metal Route^ extending through this the Northern Wei 北魏 Dynasty, about 1 km north of Jin 金 vast region at this time (Shao Huiqiu and Yang Jianhua 2015). village of Pingle 平乐 Town, Mengjin 孟津 County, Henan Province. The hall is located 460 m south of the Changhe 阊 阖 Gate site of the palace. Since 2012, in order to protect the 4 The Qin and Han dynasties cultural heritage, the Archaeological Team of Han and Wei Dynasty Luoyang City from the Institute of Archaeology, The tomb of Marquis Haihun 海昏 is located at Dundun 墩坪 Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (IA CASS), carried Mountain, about 500 m northeast of Laoqiu 老裘 village in out systematic surveys and excavations and acquired a prelim- Datangping 大塘坪 Town in the Xinjian 新建 District of inary understanding of the range, layout, and temporal chang- Nanchang 南昌 City, Jiangxi 江西 Province. The tomb was es in the structure of the site. According to historical records, discovered in March 2011 because it had been robbed. the Taiji Hall is the main place for holding important events Subsequently, the Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Cultural during the Cao-Wei 曹魏 Dynasty, the Western Jin 西晋 Relics and Archaeology conducted archaeological survey Dynasty, and the Northern Wei Dynasty. The east and west and coring over a 5 sq. km area around the tomb. Over 5 years, halls of the Taiji Hall are where the emperor would make they systematical cored an area of 1 sq. km and excavated decisions about policy, hold banquets with his ministers, lec- around 10,000 sq. m, gaining important archaeological tures, and other activities, and so the Taiji Hall is well- achievements, including finding a series of important remains deserved to be called a Bpolitical center.^ It is also the first associated with Marquis Haihun’s state, including the Zijin 紫 palace with single axis symmetry, and thus ushers in a new age 金 city ruins, the family cemetery of Marquis Haihun, and of Chinese palace construction and capital layout, with a sin- tombs for the nobles and common people. They confirmed gle palace centered at Taiji Hall: the Taiji Hall served as the Da that the Zijin city covered an area of 3.6 sq. km and was the Chao 大朝, a place for holding important events. The juxta- capital of the Haihun state during the Han Dynasty. The cem- posed east and west halls served as the Chang Chao 常朝,a eteries of generations of the nobility and common people were place for carrying out daily affairs, and from this the East and located to the west and south of the Zijin city site. This is the West Hall System 东西堂制度 was born. The three gates in largest and best preserved settlement site of a Han Dynasty front of the main hall and the three main halls line up from regional state that has been found so, and it has the most south to north, thus comprising the Five Gates with Three abundant cultural content found so far in China, as well. The Halls System 五门三朝. Thus, this palace layout system of 138 J. Zhongwei LuoyangCityduringHanandWei Dynastieshadafar- the tombs included ban liang 半两 and wu zhu 五铢, and other reaching influence on the subsequent development of the cap- objects included silver finger rings, bronze rings, bronze belt ital city system (Qian Guoxiang 2015). hooks, glass earrings, and bone tubes. A comparison of these From 2009 to 2011, the Archaeological Team of the grave goods with their counterparts unearthed in nearby areas Qinshihuang Mausoleum Museum conducted partial excava- hints that the dates of these four tombs ranged from the early tion of the Terracotta Army Pit No. 1. The excavation locale to late Western Han to the early Eastern Han periods (Miaopu was slightly to the north of the center of the pit and included Cemetery 2015a). The structures of 19 stone-built tombs ex- two trenches and three partitioning walls that were all part of cavated were diverse, including single-cist, single-chamber, the pit, covering 200 sq. m in total. Pit No. 1 is a subterranean triple-chamber, and multi-chamber tombs. The single-cist earth-and-timber structure formed of earthen structures with tombs were in a simple form without a passage, and all of wooden pillars and beams, and the bases of the two trenches them were rectangular in plan. The single-chamber tombs were all paved with bricks. A total of 106 terracotta figures were in a P-shaped or T-shaped plan. The triple-chamber were recovered from the trenches along with 96 figure feet and tombs feature three chambers built abreast and linked to each pedestals and a large amount of weapons and chariot and other through square holes, and grave good platforms were horse fittings. The construction of the pit is thought to date built in them. The multi-chamber tombs were in T-shaped sometime between 228 and 209 BC. This excavation provides plans or plans resembling the characters 凸-, 工-, and 土:the new clues concerning the destruction of the terracotta army structures were complicated, and the stone slabs or boards pits of Emperor Qin Shihuang’s mausoleum and new mate- used to build them were regularly cut and laid firmly. Rich rials for a wide range of research issues (Terracotta Army Pits grave goods were unearthed from these tombs, most of which of Emperor Qin Shihuang’s Mausoleum 2015). were pottery wares. There were also a few silver and bronze In 2014 and 2015, the Joint Wei Bridge Archaeological items and stone and bone objects. In total, 438 pieces of grave Team excavated an ancient shipwreck in the sand deposits to goods were unearthed (Miaopu Cemetery 2015b). the south of the bank of the Wei 渭 River at the Wei Bridge Tombs of the Han Dynasty have been found to be located site, located to the north of the Han Chang’an 长安 City. The to the west of Taojiazhai陶家寨 village in the northern suburbs ship had broken into east and west sections and toppled into of Xining西宁 City, Qinghai青海. In the 1980s and 1990s, the the sand; the remaining parts were bow planks, full-length Qinghai Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and wales, transverse beams, hull planks, ribs, etc. The unearthed Archaeology conducted excavations in this locality. In artifacts show that this ship was built during the Han Dynasty October 2011, two brick-chamber tombs were revealed in and belonged to the mature wooden plank ship type: it is the the course of urban construction, and archaeologists conduct- first archaeological discovery of this type in China. This ship’s ed rescue excavations of them. Both of the tombs were single- building technique was popular in the Mediterranean area chamber tombs consisting of a ramp passage, entrance, and during the Roman period, and therefore its remains are mean- tomb chamber with vaulted roof. In all, 31 pieces (or sets) of ingful for the study of cultural communication between grave goods, including pottery, bronzes, lacquered wooden Chang’an and Rome, which were the two ends of the Silk objects, and glass ornaments, were unearthed. The tomb struc- Road (Wei qiao kao gu dui 2015). ture and unearthed artifacts show that the date of these tombs From May 2008 through November 2012, the Liaoning is from the Wang Mang 王莽 Interregnum to the middle Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology exca- Eastern Han period. The glazed pottery is the first discovery vated the Miaopu 苗圃 cemetery in Liaoyang 辽阳 City, of glazed pottery wares from this time period in Qinghai and is Liaoning. The terrain of the cemetery was the terrace on the also the earliest glazed pottery found in Qinghai to date. The west bank of the Taizihe 太子河 River at the southeast corner pottery model of a freestanding toilet is also the only such of Liaoyang City. Covering an area of about 50 ha in total, the object found to date (Taojiazhai 2015). cemetery was about 1.5 km to the west of the course of the In his study on settlement distributions during the Han Taizihe River. In the past, burials of the Han Dynasty to the Dynasty, Kim Byung-joon (2015) inferred the locations of Three Kingdoms period had been found in the surrounding settlements through the distributions of the burials, as he no- areas. Among the tombs excavated this time were four earthen ticed they frequently are located together. In addition to shaft pit tombs of the Han Dynasty; they were each furnished culling information from excavation reports and published differently, with a single coffin, a single outer coffin, and a materials from several provinces, Kim precisely calculated double inner coffin, and a single outer coffin and triple inner the distances between cemeteries and county seats using coffin. Grave goods included mainly pottery, plus bone imple- GPS survey. The results show that most of the burials of the ments, glass objects, and a few metal objects. The main types Western Han Dynasty were distributed on the periphery of the of the pottery were vats, lian 奁 cosmetic boxes, vases, zun 尊 county seats. Based on this, Kim argues that the common wine jars, ding-tripods, and various models of household farmers would have been living inside or nearby the county items such as ovens and wells, basins, etc. Bronze coins in seats. Moreover, this also demonstrates that by the Western A brief introduction to Chinese Archaeology 139 Han Dynasty, state control over local populations was thor- Here, analyzed through the historic literature, the natural to- oughly put into effect based on the governing system of bian pography, and the imperial burial tradition of the Western Han hu qi min 编户齐民 (registering common people). During the Dynasty, the authors argue that the structure of the Baling Eastern Han Dynasty, settlements were no longer limited to mausoleum would possibly be an earthen (stone) shaft pit the periphery of the county seats and were even scattered tomb with four passages forming a cross-shaped plan, and randomly in areas far from them. These features coincide with the large tomb found at Jiangcun village might be the real records showing a collapse of local control by central elites Baling mausoleum. Emperor Wendi’s thrifty character and because of social turmoil, and this resulted in the formation of optimistic view on death would be the main reasons for not new settlements in places far from the county seats; these requiring a tumulus above his grave, while the admonitions of settlements form in association with the construction of castles his officials might also have played a positive role (Yang and manors by powerful families. These situations are Wuzhan and Cao Long 2015). interpreted as showing that it had become more difficult for Li Yali and Teng Mingyu (2015) focus on the iconography state power during the Eastern Han to extend into local settle- concerning pavilions on Han Dynasty stone reliefs, first clar- ments as it had during the Western Han Dynasty. In the ifying the terminology related to pavilions and then illustrat- Eastern Han Dynasty, the old ruling methods became some- ing their developmental trajectory with an aim at better under- what restricted and new ruling forms were attempted, and the standing the significance of pavilions in the history of ancient distribution pattern of the settlements could provide a reason Chinese architecture. The authors propose that pavilions for these attempts. It is hard to identify whether a settlements inherited features of terraced buildings predating the Han but was a natural village or an administrative village, but the fact gradually replaced them when more advanced wooden con- that in the Western Han Dynasty the settlements were concen- struction techniques were invented. Eventually, pavilions fully trated at the periphery of the county seats supports this pattern developed into water pavilions, which appeared in the Tang as resulting from intentional organization under the influence Dynasty (Li Yali and Teng Mingyu 2015). of state power, so these settlements must have had a strong Wang Yu and Tang Xiyang (2015) study that the emer- flavor as administrative villages. In the Eastern Han Dynasty, gence of the iconography of the Queen Mother of the West new settlements were formed far from the county seats, and and argue that it was influenced by various types of Western therefore they would have had more features of natural vil- goddesses instead of one single type. Therefore, its emergence lages (Kim Byung-joon 2015). made the interaction between the East and West during the In the Han Dynasty, the Nanyang commandery included Han Dynasty more dynamic and vivid. Han people usually the area of present-day Nanyang City, Henan, and the north thought the Queen Mother of the West was living in the land part of Xiangyang City, Hubei. Song Rong (2015)explores of the western region. During the gradual expansion of this religious practice as a Bwestward movement,^ various belief the characteristics, developing process, and formation modes of the archaeological culture of the Han Dynasty in Nanyang systems of goddesses and various types of goddesses from the through the comprehensive observation of Han burials in this West were absorbed and became part of the iconography of area and with reference to the historic literature. The new the Queen Mother of the West. Although the authors argue research results show that the formation and development of that the beliefs and iconography are more than likely to have the Han archaeological culture in Nanyang can be divided into originated from an indigenous practice in China, there was a three phases: the pregnancy phase in the early and middle dynamic interaction between the Queen Mother of the West Western Han period, the growth phase from the end of the and Western goddesses in contexts of cultural exchange and Western Han to the beginning of the Eastern Han periods, the religious practices directed toward the Queen Mother of and the mature and declining phase in the Eastern Han period. the West (Wang Yu and Tang Xiyang 2015). In the ideological field, the local culture of Nanyang began to integrate into the Han culture in the first phase, but complete integration did not occur until the last phase. The mode of the 5 The three kingdoms period to Qing dynasty development of the Han culture in Nanyang was gradual, and the process of this development coincided with the BGreat There are two discoveries among the Top 10 Unity^ in the fields of ideas and politics, which could repre- Archaeological Discoveries in 2015 dating to the sent the culture formation mode coming from the political Three Kingdoms period to Qing Dynasty. In addition, center of the Han Dynasty (Song Rong 2015). other archaeological discoveries belonging to this period Yang Wuzhan and Cao Long (2015) point out that the were reported along with related papers. Baling 霸陵 mausoleum of Emperor Wendi 文帝 of the From June to December 2015, the Inner Mongolian Western Han Dynasty does not have a tumulus mound built Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology conducted sal- from the ground level. Archaeologists have previously argued vage excavations of Liao辽 Dynasty tombs at Xiaowangligou that it was a cliff tomb or an earthen (stone) shaft pit tomb. 小王力沟 in Tiegongpaozi 铁公泡子 Village, Caimushan 蔡木 140 J. Zhongwei 山 Town, Duolun 多伦 County, Xilingol 锡林郭勒 League. 长兴 Street in Luolong 洛龙 District, Luoyang City. This tomb They discovered two large tombs of the Liao Dynasty. Tomb was a brick double-chamber tomb with vaulted ceilings No. 1 is composed of an entrance passage, tomb doorway, consisting of a passage, a tunnel with a sealed-door wall, an- vaulted passages leading to the dooryard, and vaulted corri- techamber, corridor, and rear chamber. The passage was in the dors and chambers, with a total length of 25.6 m. Tomb No. 2 shape of a vertical shaft with ramp bottom in rectangular plan; is composed of an entrance passage, a vestibule, a door imi- the tunnel and corridor were in a rectangular plan; the ante- tating a wooden structure, vaulted passages leading to the chamber was roughly in a square plan; and the rear chamber dooryard, vaulted corridors, and the main chamber, with a was in a rectangular plan. The grave goods, including pottery, total length of more than 40 m. Although the two tombs had coins, etc., were mainly unearthed in the tunnel and the ante- been robbed, there were still a large number of precious arti- chamber. The tomb structure and the grave goods show that facts unearthed. According to the tomb structure and the fu- thedateofthistomb was themiddletolateWestern Jin nerary objects, the two large tombs may belong to the same Dynasty (Guanlin Road 2015). family and date to the Liao Dynasty. Through the unearthed From October 2009 to February 2010, the Hebei epitaphs, we can know that the occupant of Tomb No. 2 was a Archaeological Team, IA, CASS, conducted coring tests and noble consort of Emperor Shengzong 圣宗 of the Liao excavations at the cemetery of the Li family of Zhao 赵 Dynasty. This is the first discovery of noble consort’stomb Commandery of the Northern Dynasties period at Xigao 西 of the Liao Dynasty. As the most prominent family of the 高 Township, Zanhuang 赞皇 County. The cemetery is located consort clans, there were a total of four queens in her family on the course of the middle route of the South-North Water during the Liao Dynasty. Although an epitaph table was not Transfer Project. Among the excavated tombs, M52 was a found in Tomb No. 1 and the occupant is unknown, consider- brick single-chamber tomb with a long ramp passage, a tunnel ing the large scale of the tomb, the high-level funerary objects, corridor, an entrance-sealing wall, and chamber. The grave and other information, it can be inferred to be the tomb of a goods unearthed from this tomb were mainly pottery, porce- noble member of a prominent family in the Liao Dynasty or lains, bronzes, and stone epitaphs. According to the text of the even of an important member of the same family as the noble epitaphs, the occupants of this tomb were Li Zhongyin李仲胤, consort. The excavation of the these two tombs is of great who was a native of Zhao Commandery, and his wife, whose significance, and it will promote research on the clan lineages name was Xing Senglan 邢僧兰,fromHejian 河间 of the Liao Dynasty, and even fill some blanks in research on Commandery. This tomb with clear provenance and exact date the history of the Liao Dynasty (Gai Zhiyong 2015). provides important materials for research on the burial archae- The Dandong No. 1 shipwreck is located in the sea over ology and history of the Northern Wei Dynasty (Xigao 50 km southwest of Dandong 丹东 City, Liaoning Province. 2015a). Tomb M4 was a single-chamber earthen cave tomb From 2013 to 2015, an underwater archaeological team consisting of a long ramp passage, tunnel, and chamber, from consisting of members from the National Center of which pottery and porcelain wares, bronzes, and other grave Underwater Cultural Heritage and the Liaoning Provincial goods were unearthed. The epitaph unearthed from this tomb Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology carried out inves- shows that its occupants were Li Yi 李翼 from Zhao tigations and excavations of underwater cultural heritage sites Commandery of the Northern Wei Dynasty and his wife, around the area: this is an important achievement of underwa- whose name was Cui Huihua 崔徽华,fromBoling 博陵 ter archaeology in China in recent years, There were 60 type Commandery. This tomb has exact attribution, clear date, of artifacts discovered, including 150 items involving ship and a complete grave goods assemblage, so it can be seen as components, weapons, personal items, etc. According to his- an important chronological calibrating rod (Xigao 2015b). torical documents, local oral histories, and archaeological dis- From June through October 2006, the Department of coveries of the ship structure, including a dome deck and Archaeology of Sichuan University and other institutions ex- square porthole, and standard tableware with the inscription cavated a tomb dating to the Sui-Tang period belonging to a BZhiyuan 致远,^ scholars agreed that Dandong No. 1 ship- couple, with the male named Qifu Linghe乞扶令和. The tomb wreck is the Zhiyuan warship of the Beiyang 北洋 fleet. was located to the north of Da Sima 大司马 Village in Weihui These discoveries provide very precious material data 卫辉 City, Henan. It was a large-sized earthen cave tomb with for the study of Chinese modern history and the sea a long ramp passage, recesses on the walls, tunnels, ventilating battle history of the Jiawu Sino-Japanese War of shafts, entrance-sealing wall, stone door, corridor, and tomb 1894–1895 (Zhou Chunshui 2015). chamber. Murals were painted on the walls of the corridor and Previous archaeological discoveries published in 2015 in- the tomb chamber. The tomb had been severely looted and clude the following: damaged, but rather rich grave goods were still preserved: In October 2008, the Luoyang Municipal Archaeological the unearthed pottery figurines and other artifacts bear features Team excavated a tomb of the Western Jin Dynasty on the of the early Sui Dynasty. The inscription of the unearthed south side of Guanlin 关林 Road to the west of Changxing epitaph shows that Qifu Linghe, one of the occupants of this A brief introduction to Chinese Archaeology 141 tomb, died in the sixth year of the Daye 大业 Era of the Sui higher than the seabed were missing, and only a small part Dynasty (AD 610) and was buried together with his wife in of the keel and bottom boards remained, at the south end of the the first year of the Zhenguan 贞观 Era of the Tang Dynasty exposed seabed. The remaining length of the shipwreck was (AD 627) (Da Sima 2015). about 20.35 m and the width, 7.85 m, and the whole ship had From January through March 2012, the Luoyang been broken into two halves situated east and west of each Municipal Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology exca- other. The recovered ship parts include the keel, ribs, bottom vated a kiln group of the Tang and Song 宋 Dynasties in the planks, bulkheads, bottom boards, mast bases, draining hole, ward zone on the north bank of the Luo River within the outer and square posts, etc. 118 artifacts were recovered, most of city of the Sui-Tang Luoyang City Site. The excavation recov- which were porcelain wares, plus some pottery, metal objects, ered 12 kilns, which were mostly in Ω-shaped plans, stone boards, etc. The date of the sinking of this ship would be consisting of an operating pit, entrance, firebox, stacking in the Daoguang 道光 Era (1821–1850) of the Qing Dynasty floor, and flue system. The superimposition and intrusion re- (Xiaobaijiao 2015). lationships of the stratigraphy and the features as well as the Xu Longguo (2015) discusses the evolution process of the typological characteristics of the unearthed artifacts show that forms of the gateways of the capital city gates from the Bronze these kilns can be divided into early and late phases. Referring Age Three Dynasties period (Xia, Shang, and Zhou) to the Sui to the historic literature, the kilns of the early phase operated and Tang Dynasties. His paper consists of four parts: first, a from the beginning of the Tang Dynasty and continued in use summary of all of the discoveries of gates of capital cities from sometime up to the nineteenth year of the Kaiyuan Era (AD the pre-Qin period through the Sui and Tang Dynasties, elu- 731). The kilns of the late phase were operated in the late Tang cidating the development procedure from single-way gates to through the early Northern Song Dynasties. This kiln site multi-way gates; second, examining the reasons for the emer- would have belonged to the large-scale state-run kilns in gence of the multi-way city gates and how the gates relate to Sui-Tang Luoyang City (Xinjiekou 2015). the design of the capital cities; third, exploring the political The site of the Grand Bao’en Temple 大报恩寺 is located in and ritual functions of the multi-way city gates; and fourth, a the ancient Changganli 长干里 outside the middle south gate conclusion with the main viewpoints of the entire paper. These of Nanjing City. From February 2007 to the end of 2010, the include: 1. The gateways of the capital city gates of ancient Nanjing Municipal Institute of Archaeology conducted exca- China can be divided into early and late phases, with the vations in the north zone of the site, during which 3.6 ha of divide at the Western Han Dynasty: the early phase gates are remains were uncovered, and the main architecture and gen- mainly single-way gates and late phase gates are mostly multi- eral layout of the north zone were made clear. During the way gates (and primarily three-way gates). 2. The three-way excavation, a pagoda foundation located on the central axis city gates had nothing to do with the number of steps of the of the north zone of the site was revealed. In the center of the palace: the strict, three-flight-step system was not established pagoda foundation, an underground palace with a circular in the Three Dynasties period, and discussions related to the mouth was found. Later, two ash pits were found in the pago- three-flight-step system in the extant historic literature might da foundation, and 46 column base pits were found along its be resultant from doctoring to the ancient canons and scrip- periphery. From the underground palace, a BBuddha’sparietal tures by Confucian scholars during the Han Dynasty. 3. The bone^ sarira, jewelry-adorned silver Asoka stupa, and other emergence of the multi-way gates and the designing of the Buddhist relics were unearthed. According to the text of The Bthree gates on each side (of the capital city)^ provided con- Inscription of the Stone Crypt of the Real Buddha Remains ditions for forming the central axis layout for the ancient cap- Pagoda at Changgan Temple in Jinling unearthed from this ital cities and for establishing the design principle of jian underground palace, this underground palace was that of the zhong li ji 建中立极 (building the main hall of the palace in Zhenshen Ta 真身塔 (Real Buddha Remains Pagoda) built in the center of the capital and setting a central axis pointing to the fourth year of the Dazhongxiangfu 大中祥符 Era (AD the pole star) for the palaces (Xu Longguo 2015). 1011) of the Northern Song Dynasty. The pagoda foundation Qi Dongfang (2015) points out that the BJin System^ of and underground palace of the Grand Bao’en Temple are new funeral systems included specific ideas, customs, rites and important discoveries in Buddhist archaeology in China, and ceremonies, and regulations. The Bfuneral ideas^ were the the large amount of Buddhist cultural relics unearthed from understanding and knowledge about death; the Bfuneral them are very valuable, as they provide important physical customs^ were the widely-accepted ways and procedures of materials for research in all of the related disciplines (Grand entombing and mourning the dead; and Bfuneral rites and Bao’en Temple 2015). ceremonies^ were the rational expressions and systematic ac- From May through July 2012, part of the shipwreck tion patterns of the funeral ideas and customs. The Bfuneral Xiaobaijiao 小白礁 No. 1 above the sealed in sea area of regulations^ were the mandatory rules and systems that must Xiangshan 象山 County, Zhejiang Province, was excavated. be followed in the funerals. They had cause-result relation- The superstructure, side boards, and other parts of the ship ships and were also usually seen as a whole. The so-called 142 J. Zhongwei Bsystematic evolution^ resulted in the dynamic formation of Bailuyuan 白鹿原 and Tongrenyuan 铜人原.Mediumand all four. The Western Jin Dynasty inherited and intensified the low ranking officials were buried at Fengqiyuan 凤栖原 and Bdecree for austere burial^ of the Wei Kingdom in the Three Gaoyangyuan 高阳原 in the southern suburbs as well as at Kingdoms period, requiring burials Bnot to be mounded and Hongduyuan 洪渎原 in Xianyang. In addition, commoner monumentalized,^ which is archaeologically reflected in the tombs are found scattered on various small plateaus nearby sacrificial altar, pottery seat, pottery tray and armrest, epitaph their original settlements. Among them, the tombs in appearing in the tomb chambers, and the new grave good Fengxiang 凤翔 represent the most typical commoner ceme- assemblage of pottery figurines and oxcarts found in tombs. tery. Imperial servants were buried at Sanmingcun in the west- All of these show that new funeral customs were formed when ern suburbs, or the so-called Gongrenxie 宫人斜 in the litera- the new funeral ideas were accepted by the society. The argu- ture (Liu Daiyun 2015). ment on the funeral rites and ceremonies in the Western Jin Based on the periodization and distribution of the tombs of Dynasty simplified the funeral procedure, while interference the Mongol period and the Yuan Dynasty and referring to the by political powers promoted the new funeral procedure as a textual materials from tombstones and epitaphs and the legal obligation not to be violated. The funeral reforms of the different funeral customs, Dong Xinlin (2015) classifies these Three Kingdoms period through the Jin Dynasty started by the tombs into the tombs of the Mongol people, the tombs of Bdecree for austere burial^ introduced new funeral ideas and BMongolized^ people, the tombs of the se mu ren 目人 (mis- customs; having received ritual supports, the new funeral cus- cellaneous aliens), and tombs of Han people. He also prelim- toms also had systematic and political guarantees. Compared inarily summarizes the features of the funeral customs shown with the burials under the BHan System,^ the reformed burials in the tombs of the Mongol people, providing a reference for feature three key changes: first, the shrine or memorial hall, identifying tombs without inscriptions from the Mongol stone tablet, stone pillars, and stone sculptures on the ground Period and the Yuan Dynasty (Dong Xinlin 2015). were omitted; second, the multi-chamber burial structures re- Acknowledgements I am deeply indebted to three graduate students, sembling the front hall, rear rooms, kitchen, granary, and so Yang Lin (杨琳), Wei Kai (魏凯), and Wang Jianfeng (王建峰), for their on, declined, and the single-chamber structure decorated with collection and translation of some of the archaeological data during the simulated windows and lamp recesses became the most pop- preparation of this paper. ular burial type, which was still built as a residence for the afterlife; third, in the grave goods assemblages, models Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative reflecting rural manor life declined and procession lines Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http:// consisting of oxcarts and figurines became the core of the creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appro- assemblage. The evolution of the burial system in ancient priate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the China had a new appearance from this period onward (Qi Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Dongfang 2015). Huo Wei (2015) also discusses the mausoleum system of China and the development and evolution from the BHan System^ to the BJin System^ in the Six Dynasties period. On References the ground and in their underground structures, high-ranking burials of the Six Dynasties period all had sculptures or figures Chen Shuxiang陈树祥. 2015. 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BDa liao gui fei de chang mian di— and Dongtai counties, Jiangsu Province: testimony to civilization’s Neimenggu Duolun Liao dai gui fei jia zu mu zang 大辽贵妃的长眠 expansion).^ Zhongguo wen wu bao 2016–05-20: 6. 地——内蒙古多伦辽代贵妃家族墓葬 (The noble consort’sfamily cemetery of the Liao Dynasty in Duolun County, Inner Lin Meicun 林梅村. 2015. BSaiyima-Tuerbinnuo wen hua yu shi qian si chou zhi lu塞伊玛—图尔宾诺文化与史前丝绸之路 (the Seima-Turbino Mongolia).^ Zhongguo wen wu bao 2016–05-20: 6. culture and the prehistoric silk road).^ Wen wu 2015.10: 49–63. Grand Bao’en Temple 2015: Nanjing Municipal Institute of Archaeology 南京市考古研究所.2015. BNanjing Da Bao’en si yi zhi ta ji yu di Liu Daiyun 刘呆运. 2015. BGuanzhong di qu sui dai mu di fen buyan jiu gong fa jue jian bao 南京大报恩寺遗址塔基与地宫发掘简报 (the 关中地区隋代墓地分布研究 (on the distribution of the cemeteries of 144 J. Zhongwei the sui dynasty in the Guanzhong region).^ Kao gu yu wen wu Shan Yueying 单月英.2015. BDong Zhou Qin dai Zhongguo bei fang di 2015.5: 74–79. qu kao gu xue wen hua ge ju—Jian lun Rong Di Hu yu Huaxia zhi jiandehudong 东周秦代中国北方地区考古学文化格局——兼论 Liu Jianhui 刘建辉. 2015. BYuan gu ren lei sheng huo de wan zheng tu 戎、狄、胡与华夏之间的互动 (the pattern of the archaeological cul- jing—Yunnan JiangchuanGantangqing jiu shi qi yi zhi 远古人类生活 tures in northern China during the eastern Zhou period to the Qin 的完整图景—云南江川甘棠箐旧石器遗址 (The Gantangqing dynasty—Also on the interactions among the Rong, Di, and Hu Paleolithic sites in Jiangchuan County, Yunnan Province, reveal ethnic groups and the Central Plains).^ Kao gu xue bao 2015.3: the complete life prospects of ancient humans).^ Zhongguo wen 303–344. wu bao 2016–05-20: 6. Shao Huiqiu 邵会秋 and Yang Jianhua 杨建华. 2015. BCong Xiajiadian Liu Rui 刘瑞, Gao Jiangtao 高江涛, and Kong Deming 孔德铭. 2015. shang ceng wen hua qing tong qi kan cao yuan jin shu zhi lu 从夏家 BZhongguo suo jian Saiyima-Tuerbinnuo shi dao gou tong Mao de 店上层文化青铜器看草原金属之路 (the steppe metal route seen from he jin cheng fen中国所见塞伊玛—图尔宾诺式倒钩铜矛的合金成分 (the the bronzes of the upper Xiajiadian culture).^ Kao gu 2015.10: alloy components of the Seima-Turbino style socketed bronze spear- 85–99. head with a side hook found in China).^ Wen wu 2015.10: 77–85. Shijiahe 2015: Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology, et al.陕西省考 Liu Xiang刘翔. 2015. BQinghai Datong xian Saiyima-Tuerbinnuo shi dao 古研究院等. 2015.BShanxi Huangling xian Shijiahe mu difa jue jian gou tong Mao kao cha yu xiang guan yan jiu 青海大通县塞伊玛—图 bao 陕西黄陵县史家河墓地发掘简报 (preliminary report on the exca- 尔宾诺式倒钩铜矛考察与相关研究 (the investigation and corelational vation of the Shijiahe cemeteryin Huangling County, Shaanxi).^ research on the Seima-Turbino stylistic socketed bronze spearhead Kao gu yu wen wu 2015.3: 3–13. with a side hook unearthed in Datong County, Qinghai).^ Wen wu 2015.10: 64–69. Song Rong 宋蓉. 2015. BNanyangdi qu Han dai mu zang yan jiu—Jian lun Nanyang di qu Han wenhua de xing cheng 南阳地区汉代墓葬研 Liu Yang 刘扬,Hou Yamei 侯亚梅, and Yang Zemeng杨泽蒙. 2015. 究——兼论南阳地区汉文化的形成 (the study of the burials of the Han BE’erduosi shi Wulanmulun yi zhi shi he Bo pian ji shu de jie duan dynasty in the Nanyang area—Also on the formation of the Han lei xing xue yan jiu 鄂尔多斯市乌兰木伦遗址石核剥片技术的阶段类型 culture in the Nanyang area).^ Kao gu xue bao 2015.2: 157–186. 学研究 (the stage typological study on the core reduction technique of the Wulanmulun site in Ordos City).^ Kaogu 2015.6: 68–79. Sun Zhouyong 孙周勇,Sun Zhanwei 孙战伟, and Shao Jing 邵晶. 2015. BHuangling Shijiahe Zhan Guo mu di xiang guan wen ti tan tao黄陵 Miaopu Cemetery 2015a: Liaoning Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics 史家河战国墓地相关问题探讨 (on the related issues of the Shijiahe and Archaeology 辽宁省文物考古研究所.2015. BLiaoning Liaoyang warring states cemetery in Huangling).^ Kaoguyu wen wu shi Miaopu mu di Han dai tu keng mu辽宁辽阳市苗圃墓地汉代土坑墓 2015.3: 60–66. (the earthen shaft pit tombs of the Han dynasty at Miaopu cemetery in Liaoyang, Liaoning).^ Kao gu 2015.4: 53–66. Tang Jinqiong 唐锦琼. 2015. BLun Yinxu tong qi mu zhong tao qi de shi yong fang shi 论殷墟铜器墓中陶器的使用方式 (on themethods of use Miaopu Cemetery 2015b: Research Center for Chinese Frontier of pottery in the burials yielding bronzes in the Yinxu site).^ Kao gu Archaeology, Jilin University 吉林大学边疆考古研究中心 and 2015.4: 88–95. Liaoning Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology 辽宁省文物考古研究所. 2015. BLiaoning Liaoyang Miaopu Han Wei Taojiazhai 2015: Qinghai Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and shi shi mu 2008 nian fa jue bao Gao 辽宁辽阳苗圃汉魏石室墓2008年 Archaeology 青海省文物考古研究所. 2015. BQinghai Xining 发掘报告 (report on the 2008 excavations in the Miaopu cemetery, Taojiazhai Han mu fa jue jian bao 青海西宁陶家寨汉墓发掘简报 (the Liaoyang, Liaoning, of stone tombs of the Han dynasty to the three excavation of the tombs of the Han dynasty at Taojiazhai village in kingdoms period).^ Kao gu xue bao 2015.4: 505–536. Xining, Qinghai).^ Wen wu 2015.9: 39–48. Qi Dongfang齐东方. 2015. BZhongguo gu dai sang zang zhong de Jin zhi Taosi 2015: Shanxi Archaeological Team, Institute of Archaeology, 中国古代丧葬中的晋制 (a study on the Jin system of funeral systems CASS 中国社会科学院考古研究所山西队 and Shanxi Provincial in ancient China).^ Kao gu xue bao 2015.03: 345–366. Institute of Archaeology 山西省考古研究所. 2015. BShanxi Xiangfen xian Taosi yi zhi III qu da xing hang tu ji zhi fa jue jian Qian Guoxiang 钱国祥. 2015. BZijincheng shi zu—Henan Luoyang Han bao 山西襄汾县陶寺遗址III区大型夯土基址发掘简报 (the excavation Wei Luoyangcheng Taijidian yi zhi 紫禁城始祖——河南洛阳汉魏洛 ofthe large-sized rammed-earth foundation in zone III of the Taosi 阳城太极殿遗址 (The earliest ancestor of the Forbidden Palace in site in Xiangfen County, Shanxi).^ Kao gu 2015.1: 30–39. Beijing was probably the Taiji Hall site of Luoyang City during the Han and Wei Dynasties, Henan Province).^ Zhongguo wen wu Terracotta Army Pits of Emperor Qin Shihuang’s Mausoleum 2015: The bao 2016–05-20: 6. Archaeological Team of the Terracotta Army Pits of Emperor Qin Shihuang’s Mausoleum Site Museum 秦始皇帝陵博物院兵马俑坑考古 Qin Duke Mausoleums 2015a: Shaanxi Provincial Institute of 队. 2015. BQin Shihuang di ling yi hao bing ma yong pei zang keng Archaeology, et al. 陕西省考古研究院等. 2015. BYongcheng yi liu 2009-2011 nian fa jue jian bao 秦始皇帝陵一号兵马俑陪葬坑2009- Hao qin gong ling yuan di san ci kan tan jian bao 雍城一、六号秦 2011年发掘简报 (the excavation of the terracotta Army pits no. 1 of 公陵园第三次勘探简报 (preliminary report on the third coring inves- emperor Qin Shihuang’s mausoleum in 2009-2011).^ Wen wu tigation of the no. 1 and no. 6 Qin Duke mausoleums).^ Kao gu yu 2015.9: 4–38. wen wu 2015.4: 9–14. Wang Lixin 王立新 andFuLin 付琳. 2015. BLun Keshenketeng qi Qin Duke Mausoleums 2015b: Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Xiquegou tong kuang yi zhi ji xiang guan wen ti 论克什克腾旗喜鹊 Archaeology, et al. 陕西省考古研究院等. 2015. BYongcheng liu Hao 沟铜矿遗址及相关问题 (on the Xiquegou copper mine site in Qin gong ling yuan zhao gou xi nan ce zhong xiao xing mu zang yu Hexingten banner and related issues).^ Kao gu 2015.4: 79–87. che ma keng fa jue jian bao雍城六号秦公陵园兆沟西南侧中小型墓葬与 车马坑发掘简报 (preliminary report on the excavation of medium and Wang Ningyuan 王宁远. 2015. B5000 nian qian wang guo de wei da gong small tombs and chariot pits to the southwest of the moat of the no. 6 cheng —Zhejiang YuhangLiangzhu gu cheng wai wei da xing shui mausoleum of the Qin Duke in Yongcheng).^ Kaogu yuwen wu li gong cheng de diao cha yu fa jue 5000年前王国的伟大工程——浙 2015.4: 15–20. 江余杭良渚古城外围大型水利工程的调查与发掘 (The investigation and excavation of the outside large-scale water conservancy system of Qin Duke Mausoleums 2015c: Shaanxi Provincial Institute of the Liangzhu Ancient City in Yuhang County, Zhejiang Province Archaeology, et al. 陕西省考古研究院等. 2015. BYongcheng shi si reveals the great project of the kingdom 5,000 years ago).^ Hao qin gong ling yuan zuan tan jian bao 雍城十四号秦公陵园钻探 Zhongguo wen wu bao 2016–05-20: 6. 简报 (preliminary report on the augering results of the no. 14 Qin Duke mausoleum in Yongcheng).^ Kao gu yu wen wu 2015.4: 3–8. A brief introduction to Chinese Archaeology 145 Wang Weilin 王炜林.2015. BMiaodigou wen hua yu bi de qi yuan 庙底沟 Xu Yongjie 徐永杰. 2015. BZai shen Banpo wen hua he Miaodigou wen 文化与璧的起源 (the Miaodigou culture and the origin of bi jades).^ hua de nian dai guan xi–yi die ya da po he gong cun guan xi wei shi Kao gu yu wen wu 2015.6: 30–34. jiao 再审半坡文化和庙底沟文化的年代关系——以叠压打破和共存关系 Wang Yu 王煜 and Tang Xiyang 唐熙阳. 2015. BHan dai xi Wang mu tu 为视角 (a reexamination of the chronological relationship between xiang yu xi fang nü shen xiang zhi guan xi ji qi bei jing汉代西王母图 the Banpo and Miaodigou cultures –with consideration of the super- 像与西方女神像之关系及其背景 (the relationship between the queen imposition, intrusion, and coexistence relationships).^ Kao gu mother of the west and western goddess and their historial 2015.3: 74–89. background).^ Kao gu yu wen wu 2015.5: 88–95. Yang Jun 杨军. 2015. BXi Han wang hou de di xia she hua—Jiangxi Wang Zhankui 王占奎 and Lei Xingshan 雷兴山. 2015. BGu lao du yi de Nanchang Xi Han Haihun hou Liuhe mu 西汉王侯的地下奢华—— xin renshi —Shaanxi Baoji Zhou yuan yi zhi 古老都邑的新认识—— 江西南昌西汉海昏侯刘贺墓 (The tomb of Marquis Haihun Liuhe in 陕西宝鸡周原遗址 (The Zhouyuan site in Baoji City, Shaanxi Nanchang City, Jiangxi Province, reveals the underground luxuries Province, reveals some new understandings about the ancient capital of marquis in the Western Han Dynasty).^ Zhongguo wen wu bao ruins).^ Zhongguo wen wu bao 2016–05-20: 6. 2016–05-17: 1. Wei qiao kao gu dui 渭桥考古队.2015. BXi’an shi Han Chang’an cheng Yang Wuzhan 杨武站 and Cao Long 曹龙. 2015. BHan baling di ling de bei Wei qiao yi zhi chu tu de gu chuan西安市汉长安城北渭桥遗址出土 mu zang xing zhi tan tao 汉霸陵帝陵的墓葬形制探讨 (on the structure 的古船 (the ancient ship unearthed at the Wei bridge site to the north of the baling mausoleum of the western Han dynasty).^ Kao gu of Han Chang’an City in Xi’an).^ Kao gu 2015.9: 3–6. 2015.8: 113–120. Xiaobaijiao 2015: Ningbo Research Institute of Cultural Relics and Yanshi Shang City Site 2015: Second Henan Archaeological Team, IA, Archaeology 宁波市文物考古研究所 and State Administration of CASS 中国社会科学院考古研究所河南第二工作队. 2015. BHenan Cultural Heritage Center for Underwater Cultural Heritage 国家文 Yanshi Shang cheng gong cheng di san Hao gong dian jian zhu ji 物局水下文化遗产保护中心. 2015. BZhejiang Xiangshan xian zhi fa jue jian bao 河南偃师商城宫城第三号宫殿建筑基址发掘简报 (the ‘Xiaobaijiao 1 Hao’ Qing dai chen chuan 2012 nian fa jue jian bao excavation of the hall no. 3 foundation in the palace city of the 浙江象山县‘小白礁1号’清代沉船2012年发掘简报 (the excavation of the Yanshi Shang City in Henan).^ Kao gu 2015.12: 38–51. shipwreck ‘Xiaobaijiao no. 1′ of the Qing dynasty at Xiangshan Yinxu 2015a: Anyang Archaeological Team, IA, CASS中国社会科学院考 County, Zhejiang, in 2012).^ Kao gu 2015.6: 54–67. 古研究所安阳工作队. 2015. BHenan Anyang shi Tiesan lu Yinxu wen Xipo 2015: First Henan Archaeological Team, Institute of Archaeology, hua shi qi zhi gu zuo fang yi zhi河南安阳市铁三路殷墟文化时期制骨作 CASS, et al. 中国社会科学院考古研究所河南一队. 2015. BHenan 坊遗址 (the bone workshop site of the Yinxu culture period at Tiesan Lingbaoshi Xipo yi zhi Miaodigou lei xing liang zuo da xing fang road in Anyang City, Henan).^ Kao gu 2015.8: 37–62. zhi de fa jue 河南灵宝市西坡遗址庙底沟类型两座大型房址的发掘 (the Yinxu 2015b: Anyang Archaeological Team, IA, CASS中国社会科学院考 excavation of two large-sized house foundations of the Miaodigou 古研究所安阳工作队. 2015. BHenan Anyang shi Dasikong cun dong culture period at the Xipo site in Lingbao City, Henan).^ Kao gu di Shang dai yi cun 2012-2015 nian de fa jue河南安阳市大司空村东地 2015.5: 3–16. 商代遗存2012-2015年的发掘 (the 2012-2015 excavations of the re- Xichengyi 2015a: Metallurgy History and Materials Research Institute of mains of the Shang dynasty at Dasikong Village locus east in University of Science and Technology Beijing 北京科技大学冶金与材 Anyang, Henan).^ Kao gu 2015.12: 52–63. 料史研究所 and Gansu Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Yuan Yanling袁艳玲. 2015. BChu shi ding de fen lei zu he ji qi li zhi han yi Archaeology 甘肃省文物考古研究所. 2015. BZhangye Xichengyi ye 楚式鼎的分类、组合及其礼制涵义 (the classification, assemblage and jin yi zhi diao cha bao gao张掖西城驿冶金遗址调查报告 (report on the ritual connotation of the Chu-style ding-tripods).^ Kao gu 2015.8: archaeological survey at the Xichengyi smelting site in Zhangye).^ 103–112. Kao gu yu wen wu 2015.2: 27–35. Yuan Yanling 袁艳玲 and Zhang Wenjie 张闻捷. 2015. BChu xi qing tong Xichengyi 2015b: Gansu Provincial Institute of Relics and Archaeology, qi de fen qi yu nian dai 楚系青铜器的分期与年代 (the periodization et al. 甘肃省文物考古研究所等.2015. BGansu Zhangye shi Xichengyi and chronology of the bronzes of the Chu system).^ Kao gu xue bao yi zhi 2010 nian fa jue jian bao甘肃张掖市西城驿遗址2010年发掘简报 2015.4: 475–504. (the excavation of the Xichengyi site in Zhangye City, Gansu, in Zhang Guoshuo 张国硕.2015. BShi xi Huanbei Shang cheng zhi cheng 2010).^ Kao gu 2015.10: 66–84. guo bu ju—Jian tan da cheng cheng yuan de jian zao试析洹北商城之 Xigao 2015a: Hebei Archaeological Team, Institute of Archaeology, 城郭布局——兼谈大城城垣的建造 (on the layout of the Huanbei CASS 中国社会科学院考古研究所河北工作队. 2015. BHebei Shang City: A discussion about the construction of the outer wall).^ Zanhuang xian Bei Wei li Zhongyinfu fu mu fa jue jian bao 河北赞 Kao gu yu wen wu 2015.4: 35–39. 皇县北魏李仲胤夫妇墓发掘简报 (the excavation of the tomb of li Zhang Liang 张亮 and Teng Mingyu 滕铭予. 2015. BJin nan di qu dong Zhongyin and his wife of the northern Wei dynasty in Zanhuang Zhou shiqitongqi mu zang yan jiu晋南地区东周时期铜器墓葬研究 (a County, Hebei).^ Kao gu 2015.8: 75–88. study of eastern Zhou tombs yielding bronzes in southern Shanxi).^ Xigao 2015b: Hebei Archaeological Team, Institute of Archaeology, Kao gu 2015.6: 87–100. CASS 中国社会科学院考古研究所河北工作队. 2015. BHebei Zanhuang xian Bei Wei li Yi fu fu mu 河北赞皇县北魏李翼夫妇墓 Zhang Xingde张星德. 2015. BHougang qi Hongshan wen hua zai kao cha (the tomb of li Yi and his wife of the northern Wei dynasty in 后冈期红山文化再考察 (a reexamination of the Hongshan culture dur- Zanhuang County, Hebei).^ Kao gu 2015.12: 64–77. ing the Hougang phase).^ Wen wu 2015.5: 60–65. Xinjiekou 2015: Luoyang Municipal Institute of Cultural Relics and Zhou Chunshui 周春水. 2015. BFa xian ying xiong jun jian—Liaoning Archaeology 洛阳市文物考古研究院. 2015. BHenan Luoyang shi ‘Dandong yi hao’ Qingdai chen chuan (Zhiyuan jian) shui xia kao Xinjiekou tang-song Yao zhi de fa jue 河南洛阳市新街口唐宋窑址的 gu diao cha 发现英雄军舰——辽宁‘丹东一号’清代沉船(致远舰)水下考 发掘 (the excavations of the kiln sites of the tang and song dynasties 古调查 (Discovering the heroic warship: underwater investigation of at Xinjiekou in Luoyang City, Henan).^ Kao gu 2015.6: 23–38. the Dandong No. 1 Qing Dynasty shipwreck (the Zhiyuan Xu Longguo 徐龙国.2015. BZhongguo gu dai du cheng men dao yan jiu warship).^ Zhongguo wen wu bao 2016–05-20: 6. 中国古代都城门道研究 (research on gateways of the ancient capital cities of China).^ Kao gu xue bao 2015.4: 425–450.

Journal

Asian ArchaeologySpringer Journals

Published: Aug 23, 2018

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