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Least-squares and maximum-likelihood in computed tomography

Least-squares and maximum-likelihood in computed tomography Abstract.Purpose: Existing maximum-likelihood (ML) methods in computed tomography usually require significant computing resources to implement, and/or are limited to particular measurement noise models that are representative of the simplest theoretical archetypes. There is an absence of general procedures to produce rapid ML methods that account precisely for the noise model of a given experiment. We investigate a mathematical-computational procedure of producing constrained quadratic optimization reconstruction algorithms that fill this niche, requiring less computing resources than the exact (expectation-maximization) procedures and having comparable performance with least-squares iterative methods. This allows high-fidelity reconstructions to be practically achievable for largely arbitrary noise models.Approach: We identify a systematic mathematical procedure to produce constrained quadratic optimization methods that maximize tomogram likelihood under arbitrary noise models, which are tunable to specific characteristics of the experiment. This procedure is applied to a general theory of mixed Poisson–Gaussian noise in transmission tomography, and to a theory of invertible linear transformations of measurement intensity subject to Poisson noise. We perform tomographic reconstructions of a very highly attenuating two-dimensional object phantom and compare the speed and fidelity of reconstruction with alternative quadratic metrics (ℓ2—minimization among others).Results: Quantitative metrics reveal that reconstructions under our systematically produced quadratic methods achieved significantly greater reconstruction fidelity with less computation than the optimized conventional, untuned quadratic metrics with a comparable procedure.Conclusion: Constrained quadratic optimization methods appear to apply sufficiently good approximations to achieve a high reconstruction fidelity with a simple quadratic metric amenable to a broad class of minimization methods. These preliminary simulation-based results are very promising and suggest that such methods may be used to produce high-fidelity reconstructions with less computation than many other statistical methods. By design, these quadratic methods are also explicit and quantitative in their description, allowing fine-tuning according to the specific uncertainties and noise model of the experiment. Further research is required to ascertain the full practical potential of these methods. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Medical Imaging SPIE

Least-squares and maximum-likelihood in computed tomography

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Publisher
SPIE
Copyright
© 2022 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
ISSN
2329-4302
eISSN
2329-4310
DOI
10.1117/1.jmi.9.3.031508
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract.Purpose: Existing maximum-likelihood (ML) methods in computed tomography usually require significant computing resources to implement, and/or are limited to particular measurement noise models that are representative of the simplest theoretical archetypes. There is an absence of general procedures to produce rapid ML methods that account precisely for the noise model of a given experiment. We investigate a mathematical-computational procedure of producing constrained quadratic optimization reconstruction algorithms that fill this niche, requiring less computing resources than the exact (expectation-maximization) procedures and having comparable performance with least-squares iterative methods. This allows high-fidelity reconstructions to be practically achievable for largely arbitrary noise models.Approach: We identify a systematic mathematical procedure to produce constrained quadratic optimization methods that maximize tomogram likelihood under arbitrary noise models, which are tunable to specific characteristics of the experiment. This procedure is applied to a general theory of mixed Poisson–Gaussian noise in transmission tomography, and to a theory of invertible linear transformations of measurement intensity subject to Poisson noise. We perform tomographic reconstructions of a very highly attenuating two-dimensional object phantom and compare the speed and fidelity of reconstruction with alternative quadratic metrics (ℓ2—minimization among others).Results: Quantitative metrics reveal that reconstructions under our systematically produced quadratic methods achieved significantly greater reconstruction fidelity with less computation than the optimized conventional, untuned quadratic metrics with a comparable procedure.Conclusion: Constrained quadratic optimization methods appear to apply sufficiently good approximations to achieve a high reconstruction fidelity with a simple quadratic metric amenable to a broad class of minimization methods. These preliminary simulation-based results are very promising and suggest that such methods may be used to produce high-fidelity reconstructions with less computation than many other statistical methods. By design, these quadratic methods are also explicit and quantitative in their description, allowing fine-tuning according to the specific uncertainties and noise model of the experiment. Further research is required to ascertain the full practical potential of these methods.

Journal

Journal of Medical ImagingSPIE

Published: May 1, 2022

Keywords: computed tomography; x-ray computed tomography; statistical reconstruction; maximum likelihood; quadratic optimization; convex optimization

References