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How CT happened: the early development of medical computed tomography

How CT happened: the early development of medical computed tomography Abstract.As we arrive at the 50th anniversary of the first computed tomography (CT) scan of a live patient, we take this opportunity to revisit the history of early CT development. It is not an exaggeration to say that the invention of CT may represent the greatest revolution in medical imaging since the discovery of x-rays. We cover events over a period of about two decades that started with the realization that accurate cross-sectional soft-tissue detail is possible and could be a significant advance. We describe in some detail the development of the first CT system and then the rapid technical advances during the following years that included the entry of many companies into the field and the circumstances that led many of those entrants to exit the field. Rather than focusing on the specific technical details (which can be found elsewhere), we include stories and events in the hope that broader lessons can be learned. As the first x-ray-based digital imaging modality, CT brought into common use an exceptional tool that benefits countless patients every day. It also introduced dramatic changes to biomedical imaging as a field that continues to influence progress to this day. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Medical Imaging SPIE

How CT happened: the early development of medical computed tomography

How CT happened: the early development of medical computed tomography

Supplemental Material for a b c Raymond A. Schulz , Norbert J Pelc , and Jay A. Stein Varian, A Siemens Healtineers Company, Palo Alto CA 94304, USA Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305, USA Hologic, Inc., Marlborough MA 01752, USA Content Page Hounsfield 1968 proposal "An Improved Form of X-Radiography 2 Programs from 1972 presentations at BIR and Montefiore 18 Hounsfield report on visit to New York and Boston May 1972 19 Minicomputers - critical component for success 23 Early work at MGH 24 New EMI machine brochure, May 1972 25 EMI New Perspectives brochure, RSNA, Nov 1972 29 GE CT/T brochure (cover only) 45 AS&E CT brochure 1976 46 Varian Associates Inc-1976 61 Pfizer AS&E CT Ad 1978 62 Picker Synerview 1sec Ad 1978 63 Siemens Somatom Ad 1978 64 EMI CT 7070 brochure 1978 65 Technicare Deltascan 2020 brochure 1979 72 Elscint CT Twin brochure 1993 84 Hounsfield speech at Magnus school 1983 91 Some drivers of CT market changes 96 CT U.S. Sales 1973-1988 97 Scientific Program nd – 32 British Institute of Radiology Meeting – Imperial College London: Thursday, April 20, 1972 Program of the first day of the Neuroradiology Postgraduate Course Montefiore Medical Center, New York, NY: May 15, 1972 Mini-Computers: The critical component for success Hounsfield worked on the design of the EMIDEC 1100 mainframe computer and knew its capabilities. It was fast for its time, but that was all relative. It had 1024 words of memory and three magnetic drums that stored less than a 3.5” floppy of the 90s. It could add 2 numbers in 140 msec. In the prototype EMI Mark the projection data was EMIDEC 1100 collected by a reel-to-reel tape drive, sent across town for overnight reconstruction on an ICL1905 mainframe, and returned the next day for display, analysis and Polaroid image capture and medical record archiving. On March 22, 1965, the PDP-8, a 12-bit (two 6-bit words) minicomputer produced by Digital Equipment...
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Publisher
SPIE
Copyright
© The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI.
ISSN
2329-4302
eISSN
2329-4310
DOI
10.1117/1.jmi.8.5.052110
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract.As we arrive at the 50th anniversary of the first computed tomography (CT) scan of a live patient, we take this opportunity to revisit the history of early CT development. It is not an exaggeration to say that the invention of CT may represent the greatest revolution in medical imaging since the discovery of x-rays. We cover events over a period of about two decades that started with the realization that accurate cross-sectional soft-tissue detail is possible and could be a significant advance. We describe in some detail the development of the first CT system and then the rapid technical advances during the following years that included the entry of many companies into the field and the circumstances that led many of those entrants to exit the field. Rather than focusing on the specific technical details (which can be found elsewhere), we include stories and events in the hope that broader lessons can be learned. As the first x-ray-based digital imaging modality, CT brought into common use an exceptional tool that benefits countless patients every day. It also introduced dramatic changes to biomedical imaging as a field that continues to influence progress to this day.

Journal

Journal of Medical ImagingSPIE

Published: Sep 1, 2021

Keywords: computed tomography; early history; technical development

References