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When the structure is forced to vibrate and multiple modes exist simultaneously, each vibration mode contributes to the total acoustic power radiated by the structure. Moreover, the acoustic radiation of each vibration mode is not independent of each other, and the coupling between them will also have an impact on the total radiated power. Mutual-radiation efﬁciency is an important metric to measure the ability of the coupling of different modes to radiate. In this note, for both real and complex modes, a method to calculate the mutual-radiation efﬁciencies by ﬁnite element method and boundary element method software is presented. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate and validate the approach. Keywords Acoustic radiation, complex vibration modes, mutual-radiation efﬁciency, acoustic power Introduction In engineering industries, researchers pay much attention to the study of structural vibration and sound radiation char- 1–3 acteristics in recent years. References 1 and 2 derived formulations to analyze the relative panel acoustic contributions of a vibrating structure, and the relative acoustic contributions of a scaled vehicle cabin are ranked. Reference 3 proposed an approach for structural response reconstruction based on the modal superposition method in the presence of closely spaced modes. When considering the vibration of a structure, it can be analyzed in the vibration modal space. The modes of each order are independent of each other, and the modal coordinate represents the contribution of the corresponding vibration mode to the total vibration response. However, when the acoustic radiation of a structure is analyzed by vibration modes, the modes that dominate the vibration response are not necessarily the modes that dominate the acoustic response. Moreover, the vibration modes are not independent of each other, that is, not only they themselves contribute to the sound power, but also the couplings between the modes inﬂuence the total radiation. Self-radiation efﬁciency and mutual-radiation efﬁ- ciency are two important metrics when studying the contribution of vibration modes to acoustic radiation, and they respectively represent the ability of a mode itself and the coupling of different modes to radiate. It is of great signiﬁcance to calculate self-radiation and mutual-radiation efﬁciencies accurately in both active and passive control of noise reduction. Reference 5 determined the self-radiation efﬁciencies of bafﬂed beams theoretically, with both hinged and clamped supports considered. References 6 and 7 took beams as research objects and implied that the interaction between modes is signiﬁcant for the total sound power well below the coincidence wave number ratio. Reference 8 derived the formula to calculate the total acoustic power of a rectangular simply supported panel using modal radiation efﬁciencies. Reference 9 studied the vibration of a simply supported rectangular plate which is reinforced by springs, the result indicates that the coupling effect between modes is normally meaningful. Reference 10 studied the mutual-radiation resistances of simply supported plates, the result shows that modal interaction should not always be neglected at resonant frequencies, and some State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, School of Naval Architecture, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China Corresponding author: Sheng Li, School of Naval Architecture, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China. Email: email@example.com Creative Commons CC BY: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as speciﬁed on the SAGE and Open Access pages (https://us.sagepub.com/ en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage). 2 Journal of Low Frequency Noise, Vibration and Active Control 0(0) spurious peaks may be generated at some frequency points if the coupling effect between modes is ignored. So it is hard to determine when the modal interaction could be neglected. Reference 11 presented an analytical solution for the self- and mutual- radiation resistances of a simply supported plate in the form of power series. References 12 and 13 studied the calculation methods of intermodal radiation impedance for ﬂuid-loaded plates. Reference 14 presented a partially coupled modal con- tribution assumption to identify the dominant noise-contribution mode. Analytical and numerical methods are commonly used to analyze the acoustic radiation of a plate. As one of the numerical methods, the elementary radiator approach is an effective and convenient method. This approach is summarized and introduced in References 15 and 16. Reference 16 used elementary radiator approach to calculate the radiation efﬁciencies of a simply supported beam and a simply supported plate. Modal radiation efﬁciencies of complex modes for plates were determined by elementary radiator approach in References 17 and 18. It is noted that most of the research results on modal radiation efﬁciencies have been aimed at real modes. When the damping matrix of the vibration system does not satisfy the Caughey and O ’Kelly condition, the modes of the system are complex modes. As described in Reference 20, the distribution of non-proportional or inhomogeneous damping within a structure will lead to the generation of complex modes, if the complexity of the modes is too high, the reliability and accuracy of the analysis using real modes could be adversely affected. References 17, 18, and 21 studied the acoustic radiation efﬁciencies of complex modes. In Reference 18, inhomogeneous damping was applied to plate structures to generate complex modes, and it was found that the acoustic radiation behavior of complex modes is different from that of real modes. For example, in the case of a uniform rectangular plate, only the modes of similar type can be coupled in the condition of real modes, that is, odd-even modes can only be coupled with odd-even modes, but not with odd–odd, even– even, or even–odd modes. But in the condition of complex modes, the interaction of different types of modes may also occur. Reference 21 shows that the traveling wave component in complex modes could greatly improve the self-radiation efﬁciency of even-order modes. It can be seen that in the acoustic radiation analysis, if the complexity of the modes is too high, it is necessary to study the acoustic radiation based on complex modes. It is worth noting that the research objects above are all simple structures such as planar beams or plates. As for complicated structures in practice, ﬁnite element method (FEM) and boundary element method (BEM) software is generally used in acoustic analysis. When calculating the mutual-radiation efﬁciencies of a structure, there is no corresponding module in FEM and BEM software, thus the mutual-radiation efﬁciencies cannot be obtained directly after the model is built. In this note, for both real and complex modes, a method to calculate the mutual-radiation efﬁciencies by FEM and BEM software is presented, so that the mutual-radiation efﬁciencies of complicated structures can be obtained. By using the method, we can calculate the mutual-radiation efﬁciencies of complicated structures in engineering. It should be em- phasized that the commercial software is only used to obtain the radiated acoustic power. This note explains which acoustic power values need to be calculated and how to process them. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate and validate the approach. In addition, the meaning of the mutual-radiation efﬁciencies in the condition of complex modes is discussed. Theory Radiation efﬁciencies of vibration modes The relationship between the radiated sound power W by a structure and the sound pressure pðx,y,zÞ, the normal velocities v ðx,y,zÞ can be expressed as W ¼ Re pðx,y,zÞv ðx,y,zÞ dS (1) where Re½ denotes the real part, the superscript * represents the complex conjugate. The relationship between the sound pressure and the velocities on the structural surface can be obtained by discretizing the Helmholtz integral equation, then be written as Ep ¼ Dv (2) in which E and D are coefﬁcient matrices. Then, the relationship can be written as p ¼ Zv (3) where Z ¼ E D is the acoustic impedance matrix. Equation (1) can be written in the form of matrices H H W ¼ Re v AZv ¼ v Rv (4) n n n n 2 Wei and Li 3 where the superscript denotes the Hermitian transpose (complex conjugate transpose). A ¼ N NdS,where N is the vector of interpolation functions. R ¼ðA=2ÞRe½Z is deﬁned as radiation resistance matrix, and it is real, symmetric, and positive deﬁnite. Using the matrix of eigenvectors Φ and modal coordinates a, v can be expressed as v ¼ Φa (5) Equation (4) can be rewritten as N N N N XX XX H ∗ W ¼ a Ma ¼ M a a ¼ W (6) ij j ij i¼1 j¼1 i¼1 j¼1 H 15 where M ¼ Φ RΦ is the power transfer matrix. If Φ is a matrix of real mode shapes, M is real and symmetric. If Φ is a 16,18 matrix of complex mode shapes, then M is Hermitian. Moreover, the element of M is M ¼ φ Rφ , where φ and φ are ij i j i j the i-th and j-th column vectors of Φ, respectively. Radiation efﬁciency is generally deﬁned as σ ¼ (7) ρ cS v where ρ is the density of the medium, c is the sound speed in the medium, S is the total area, hv i is the space average 0 T mean-square velocity, and it is given by v ¼ jv ðx,y,zÞj dS (8) 2S T S Suppose that a single vibration mode is excited, that is, the velocity vector is v ¼ a φ , according to equation (6)we n i know W ¼ ja j M . If the rules to normalize the eigenvectors is given by i ii jφ ðx,y,zÞj dS ¼ 1 (9) 2 2 so hv i¼ja j=2, the modal self-radiation efﬁciency is written as n i 2M ii σ ¼ (10) ii ðρ cS Þ The mutual-radiation efﬁciency between modes is written as 2M ij σ ¼ (11) ij ðρ cS Þ A bafﬂed panel could be divided into I small pistons of the same size according to the elementary radiator approach summarized in References 15 and 16. The vibration of each piston is speciﬁed by the velocity at its central position. If the area of each elementary radiator is S , the sound power is given by W ¼ Re v p (12) And R is a matrix of I × I elements, it is given by 2 3 1 sinðkr Þ=kr ::: sinðkr Þ=kr 6 12 12 1I 1I 7 6 7 2 2 ω ρ S 6 sinðkr Þ=kr 1 ::: ::: 7 0 21 21 R ¼ 6 7 (13) 4πc 6 ::: ::: ::: ::: 7 4 5 sinðkr Þ=kr ::: ::: 1 I1 I1 4 Journal of Low Frequency Noise, Vibration and Active Control 0(0) here, k ¼ ω=c, r is the distance from element i to element j, obviously r ¼ r . Thus, the radiation resistance matrix R can ij ij ji be obtained conveniently for planar structures. Mutual-radiation efﬁciency estimation from ﬁnite element method and boundary element method software When calculating the self-radiation efﬁciency by software, the key is to obtain M ¼ φ Rφ , that is the sound power when ii v ¼ φ . Thus we can input φ as velocity conditions on the structure in the software, then calculating the radiated acoustic i i power W . Note that W ¼ M , the self-radiation efﬁciency could be obtained by equation (10). ii ii ii It should be emphasized before introducing the calculation method of mutual-radiation efﬁciencies that the values of the mutual-radiation efﬁciencies are real in the case of real modes and complex in the case of complex modes. In the condition of complex modes, suppose that two vibration modes are excited, and a , a are their modal coordinates respectively, 1 2 according to equation (6), the total sound power radiated by the structure is given by ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ W ¼ a M a þ a M a þ a M a þ a M a (14) 11 1 22 2 12 2 21 1 1 2 1 2 ∗ ∗ where a M a and a M a are conjugate complex. The overall contribution of the coupling of the modes is given by 12 2 21 1 1 2 ∗ ∗ ∗ W ¼ a M a þ a M a ¼ 2Re a M a (15) m 12 2 21 1 12 2 1 2 1 Let a ¼ a þ i a , a ¼ a þ i a , where i is the imaginary unit, then consider the relationship between σ and 1 1r 1i 2 2r 2i 12 M in equation (11), equation (15) is rewritten as W ¼ðρ cS Þ Re½σ ða a þ a a Þþðρ cS Þ Im½σ ða a a a Þ (16) m T 12 1r 2r 1i 2i T 12 1i 2r 1r 2i 0 0 According to equation (16), if the modal coordinates of structural vibration are known, the radiated acoustic power contributed by mode coupling can be calculated accurately only when both the real part and the imaginary part of σ (or M ) are obtained. In addition, it is reasonable to use the magnitude of σ as a metric to measure the ability of the coupling 12 12 of complex modes to radiate. Because if we only use the real part as the metric, a situation may occur that Re½σ is equal to zero, that is, the metric indicates that there is no acoustic coupling between the two modes, but the sound power contributed by the coupling is not zero (e.g. when Re½σ ¼ 0, Im½σ ≠ 0 and ða a a a Þ ≠ 0). Apparently, it is unreasonable. 12 12 1i 2r 1r 2i Similarly Im½σ should not be used as the metric alone. It can be seen that in the condition of complex modes, both the real and the imaginary part should be obtained when calculating the mutual-radiation efﬁciencies. When calculating the mutual-radiation efﬁciency, we need to know M ¼ φ Rφ , it cannot be obtained directly. Consider ij H H H H φ þ φ R φ þ φ ¼ φ Rφ þ φ Rφ þ φ Rφ þ φ Rφ (17) i j i j i i j j i j j i let W ¼ðφ þ φ Þ Rðφ þ φ Þ, it can be obtained by inputting ðφ þ φ Þ as velocity conditions on the structure in the T1 i j i j i j H H software and solving the sound power. Then calculate W together with W . In the condition of real modes, φ Rφ ¼ φ Rφ ,so ii jj i j j i W W W T1 ii jj σ ¼ (18) ij ðρ cS Þ hence the mutual-radiation efﬁciency of real modes can be obtained. H H In the condition of complex modes, φ and φ are complex vectors, so φ Rφ , φ Rφ are conjugate values. Let i j j i i j H H H H φ Rφ ¼ a þ i b, then φ Rφ ¼ a i b,so φ Rφ þ φ Rφ ¼ 2a. It can be seen that the real part of σ is ij j i j i i j i j W W W T1 ii jj Re σ ¼ (19) ij ðρ cS Þ Consider that H H H H φ i φ R φ i φ ¼ φ Rφ þ φ Rφ i φ Rφ þ i φ Rφ (20) i j i j i j j i i j i j H H in which i φ Rφ þ i φ Rφ ¼ 2b. Let W ¼ðφ i φ Þ Rðφ i φ Þ, it can be obtained by inputting ðφ i φ Þ as j i T2 i j i j i j i j velocity conditions on the structure in the software and solving the sound power. The imaginary part of σ is ij Wei and Li 5 W W W T2 ii jj Im σ ¼ (21) ij ðρ cS Þ Thus the mutual-radiation efﬁciency of complex modes can be obtained by combining equations (19) and (21). Numerical results Example 1 This example is to verify the method in the condition of real modes. The structure is a rectangular aluminum plate, it has a dimension of 348 × 304.8 × 0.762 mm. Aluminum material properties (ρ = 2700 kg/m , E = 72.0 GPa, ν = 0.3) are deﬁned. The structural damping ratio is not taken into account, the damping ratio ζ is zero for the whole plate. The edges of the plate are clamped. The sound speed in the medium is 344 m/s and the density of the medium is 1.21 kg/m . The plate is modeled by Shell 181 elements in ANSYS software and the number of elements is 64 × 64 × 1. The ﬁrst nine natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes are listed in Table 1.In Table 1, the modes of the rectangular plate are expressed in the form of (m, n), where m and n represent the number of anti-nodes (wave peaks or valleys) in the direction of plate length and width in the mode shape, respectively. A ﬂuid-structure coupling model is established in ANSYS, and the radius of the ﬂuid is 5 m. as shown in Figure 1. For complicated structures, we can just model the part in contact with the ﬂuid of the structure to reduce the computational amount. Looping statement of APDL language is applied to input the eigenvector φ as velocity conditions on the structure, and then the sound pressure at each position can be calculated. The total radiated acoustic power can be obtained by equation (1). For mode (3, 1) and (3, 3), the self-radiation efﬁciency results calculated by elementary radiator approach and software respectively are shown in Figure 2. The mutual-radiation efﬁciency results of mode (1, 1) with (3, 1), mode (1, 2) with (3, 2) are shown in Figure 3. In both Figures 2 and 3, between 20–100 Hz, the relative errors of radiation efﬁciencies calculated by software method and elementary radiator approach are below 11%. It can be seen that for real modes, the calculation method of radiation efﬁciencies by software is valid. If more accurate results are needed, or the frequency bandwidth needs to be wider, it can be achieved by reducing the size of grids or using BEM software to calculate the radiated acoustic power. Example 2 In order to reduce noise emitted by vibrating structures additional damping treatments such as constraint layer damping or embedded elastomer layers can be used. To save weight and cost, the additional damping is often placed at some critical locations of the structure, which leads to spatially inhomogeneous distribution of damping. This inhomogeneous dis- tribution of structural damping leads to an occurrence of complex vibration modes. This example is to verify the method in the condition of complex modes. The size and material properties of the model, except for damping, are the same as those in example 1. The distribution of inhomogeneous damping is shown in Figure 4, in which the dark area is the location of damping. The damping ratio ζ of the material is 0.2 in the dark area. The operation method of applying damping in ANSYS is as follows: based on the model in example 1, ﬁrst the “NSEL” command is used to select the nodes in the damping area, then the “ESLN” command is used to select the corresponding elements, ﬁnally the “EMODIF” command is used to modify the elements’ material (the damping ratio of the new material is 0.2). For mode (1, 1) and (2, 1), the self-radiation efﬁciency results calculated by elementary radiator approach and software respectively are shown in Figure 5. The mutual-radiation efﬁciency results of mode (1, 1) with (3, 1) are shown in Figure 6, and the mutual-radiation efﬁciency results of mode (2, 2) with (1, 3) are shown in Figure 7. Table 1. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of the plate. 12 345 67 89 Mode (1, 1) (2, 1) (1, 2) (2, 2) (3, 1) (1, 3) (3, 2) (2, 3) (4, 1) Frequency (Hz) 65 122 143 196 213 264 283 314 337 6 Journal of Low Frequency Noise, Vibration and Active Control 0(0) Figure 1. Fluid-structure coupling model in the ﬁnite element method software. Figure 2. Self-radiation efﬁciencies of real modes: (a) mode (3, 1) and (b) mode (3, 3). Figure 3. Mutual-radiation efﬁciencies of real modes: (a) mode (1, 1) with mode (3, 1) and (b) mode (1, 2) with mode (3, 2). In Figures 5–7, the relative errors of radiation efﬁciencies calculated by software method and elementary radiator approach are below 11%. It can be seen that for complex modes, the calculation method of radiation efﬁciencies by software is valid. Figure 8 shows the mode shapes of mode (2, 2) for the plates in both example 1 and example 2, and Figure 9 shows the mode shapes of mode (1, 3). The most intuitive difference between real mode shapes and complex mode shapes is that all elements of the modal vectors are real numbers in real modes, and the phase angle difference between each element is 0° or 180°, all nodes reach their equilibrium positions at the same time, however, as for complex modes, the elements are complex Wei and Li 7 Figure 4. Distribution of inhomogeneous damping. Figure 5. Self-radiation efﬁciencies of complex modes: (a) mode (1, 1) and (b) mode (2, 1). Figure 6. Mutual-radiation efﬁciency of mode (1, 1) with mode (3, 1): (a) real part, (b) imaginary part and (c) amplitude. numbers and possess different phase angles, and the nodes of mode shapes do not pass through their equilibrium positions at the same time. Mode (2, 2) and mode (1, 3) are different types of modes, and in the case of real modes the mutual-radiation efﬁciency between them is zero. However, as seen in Figure 7, due to the generation of complex modes caused by in- homogeneous damping, the acoustic coupling between the two modes will exist and the mutual-radiation efﬁciency is no longer zero in this example. When study the acoustic power of a vibrating plate by modal method, there is no need to consider the coupling between different types of modes for real modes because the mutual-radiation efﬁciencies of even–even with odd–odd, even–odd, or odd–even order modes are zero, but for complex modes, the coupling between different types of modes is not zero and may not be neglected. 8 Journal of Low Frequency Noise, Vibration and Active Control 0(0) Figure 7. Mutual-radiation efﬁciency of mode (2, 2) with mode (1, 3): (a) real part, (b) imaginary part and (c) amplitude. Figure 8. Mode shape of mode (2, 2): (a) real mode and (b) complex mode. Figure 9. Mode shape of mode (1, 3): (a) real mode and (b) complex mode. Example 3 In this example we compute the radiation efﬁciencies of a benchmark model of a submarine. The model is much more complicated than those in example 1 and example 2. The size of the benchmark model is about 62.0 × 7.5 × 11.0 m, and steel material properties (ρ = 7850 kg/m , E = 210 GPa, ν = 0.3) are deﬁned. The FEM model of the structure is of free boundary condition. Equation (18) is used to calculate the mutual-radiation efﬁciencies of the real modes in example 3, the three acoustic powers in the equation should be computed, and the velocity of the structural surface is used as the boundary condition when calculating each acoustic power by BEM. The speciﬁc operation process is as follows: First, the mode shapes of the structure are calculated by FEM, then the numerical values needed are applied to each node of the FEM model Wei and Li 9 Figure 10. Benchmark model of the submarine. Figure 11. The modes selected to calculate the radiation efﬁciencies: (a) Mode 1, f = 15.78 Hz and (b) Mode 2, f = 16.44 Hz. 1 2 Figure 12. The amplitudes of the self- and mutual-radiation efﬁciencies. by looping statement in ANSYS. After the FEM model is imported into BEM software, BEM software can read the node information in the FEM model, convert the node information to the velocities of acoustic elements, then use the velocities as the boundary condition of BEM. Its shape is shown in Figure 10. The vibration modes under ﬂuid loading are calculated by FEM, the radiated acoustic powers are calculated by BEM, then the mutual-radiation efﬁciencies of the modes are calculated by the method presented in this paper. The selected two vibration modes are shown in Figure 11, the self- radiation efﬁciencies of the modes and the mutual-radiation efﬁciencies between the modes are shown in Figure 12. In Figure 12 we can see that the self- and mutual-radiation efﬁciencies are of the same order of magnitude, which indicates that there is an obvious coupling of the two modes when radiating sound power. The example also shows that it is feasible to calculate the mutual-radiation efﬁciencies of complicated structures by the method presented in this note. Discussion In order to better understand the effect of the coupling between modes on the radiated sound power. First, we take the plate in example 1 as the study object, and assume that the damping ratio of the material is 0.01. We can get the actual modal coordinates of forced vibration by applying an excitation on the structure, and then analyze the results. Set the center of the plate as the origin of coordinates, apply a vertical force F =1 N at (0.087, 0.0762), calculate the ﬁrst 24 real modes and 0 10 Journal of Low Frequency Noise, Vibration and Active Control 0(0) Figure 13. Sound power with and without the coupling effect considered. Figure 14. The sound power caused by the coupling of mode (1, 1) with mode (3, 1) at 50 Hz. The modal coordinates are assumed. The modal coordinate of mode (1, 1) remains unchanged, and the modal coordinate of mode (3, 1) has a unit amplitude, and its phase angle changes from 0° to 360°. their modal coordinates at each frequency point. Figure 13 shows the radiated sound power between 200 Hz and 600 Hz with P P P N N N and without the coupling between vibration modes considered respectively, where W ¼ W and W ¼ W . ij Vd ii i¼1 j¼1 i¼1 In Figure 13 we can ﬁnd the coupling effect of modes may increase or decrease the total radiated acoustic power. The difference between W and W is more than 20 dB at 242 Hz. The difference is about 3 dB at the peak of 557 Hz, which Vd means the coupling effect should not always be neglected at resonant frequencies. This result is similar as that in Reference 10. W and W are different at the peak of 557 Hz, because the force mainly leads to the vibration of mode (3, 4), but the Vd resonant frequency of mode (5, 2) is near that of mode (3, 4), and the two modes are of similar type so the coupling exists, which inﬂuences the total acoustic power. As a result the interaction between modes should not be ignored when calculating the acoustic power at 557 Hz. Furthermore, for complicated structures of large size, the interval between their natural frequencies is small, it is more likely that the two modes with close frequencies have strong acoustic radiation coupling. Therefore, the inﬂuence of the coupling effect between modes at the resonance frequencies may not be ignored. In order to better understand the mutual-radiation efﬁciency of complex modes, we see the plate in example 2. We assume that, at 50 Hz, the modal coordinate of mode (1, 1) remains unchanged (a = 1). Assume the modal coordinate of mode (3, 1) has a unit amplitude, and its phase angle changes from 0°to 360° (a = cos θ + i sin θ). Use equation (15)to calculate the sound power caused by the interaction of the two modes, and Figure 14 shows how W changes with θ. m Wei and Li 11 From Figure 14 we can see that, when the structure is forced to vibrate and radiate sound, the coupling between vibration modes may increase or decrease the total radiated acoustic power, and the actual inﬂuence is greatly related to the speciﬁc values of modal coordinates a and a . According to equations (11) and (15), then considering the algorithm for complex 1 2 ∗ ∗ numbers that ja M a j¼ ja jjM jja j, we know the physical meaning of jσ j is the maximum value of W =ðρ cS Þ 12 2 12 2 12 m 0 T 1 1 when the modal coordinates a and a are both of unit amplitude (their phase angle may varies from 0°to 360°). Therefore, 1 2 in the case of complex modes, it is reasonable to use the amplitude of mutual-radiation efﬁciency as the index to measure the acoustic coupling ability between different modes. Then, compare the amplitudes of mutual-radiation efﬁciencies in Figures 6 and 7, we know that the acoustic coupling ability of mode (1, 1) with (3, 1) is stronger than that of mode (2, 2) with (1, 3). Conclusions In this note, the meaning of the mutual-radiation efﬁciencies in the condition of complex modes is discussed. A method for estimating the mutual-radiation efﬁciency between vibration modes is presented, which can be well combined with FEM and BEM software to calculate the efﬁciencies of complicated structures in practice. Examples are given to validate the method. Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11772080, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (DUT20LAB308) and the Funds of Science and Technology on Underwater Test and Control Laboratory (6142407190106). Declaration of conﬂicting interests The author(s) declared no potential conﬂicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. Funding The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following ﬁnancial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: The authors would like to express their gratitude to National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11772080), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (DUT20LAB308) and the Funds of Science and Technology on Underwater Test and Control Laboratory (6142407190106). ORCID iD Lai Wei https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8038-095X References 1. 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"Journal of Low Frequency Noise, Vibration and Active Control" – SAGE
Published: Jan 24, 2022
Keywords: Acoustic radiation; complex vibration modes; mutual-radiation efficiency; acoustic power
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