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Investigating Multiple Intelligence-Based Instructions Approach on Performance Improvement of Indonesian Elementary Madrasah Teachers:

Investigating Multiple Intelligence-Based Instructions Approach on Performance Improvement of... This study was designed to promote teachers’ understanding of the learner-centered approach through training the multiple intelligences-based instructions, improve teachers’ performance in designing learner-oriented instruction, and improve teachers’ performance in implementing instruction. This study used proactive action research involving 126 teachers (informants) as trainees and instructional design members, came from 10 elementary Madrasah in Indonesia, 36 of them were mentored, and 192 students participated in a focus group discussion. There were 10 principals and two supervisors to be research collaborators. Teachers’ understanding and performance improvement through training multiple intelligence-based instructions, designing student-centered approach, and mentoring the implementation of student-centered learning indicated significant contribution. The teachers’ understanding of multiple intelligence-based instruction was the majority in the good category. The activity of designing the student-centered approach gave a good contribution to the capability of designing every single one of the multiple intelligences-based strategies. The mentoring system improved teachers’ performance greater than those of training and instructional design. Implementation of training, instructional design, and the mentoring system implies improving learning processes and outcomes. Strengthening the recruitment system of teachers and performance improvement, capacity building of educators to design models, approaches, strategies, methods, and learning activities, as well as establishing togetherness on all lines; government, principals, supervisors, community, and teachers as the primary element. Keywords teacher’s performance, multiple intelligences, training, designing, mentoring Multiple intelligence (MI) theory has attracted much atten- multiple intelligences (Campbell, Campbell, & Dickinson, tion in the field of education, although Howard Gardner as 1996) and multiple intelligences-based instructions (Yaumi, the inventor of this theory, does not intend to create it to 2013). Here, multiple intelligences-based instructions is a apply learning and instruction. The theory was directed at the learner-centered learning strategy, which focuses on identi- philosophy of developmental and cognitive psychology fying learners’ intelligence, talent, and learning preferences (Gardner, 2011) as a discipline he was interested in since the and providing the best way for learning. MI is the ability or beginning of his career. Eventually, MI theory became popu- talent possessed by a person (learner) that includes verbal- lar in educational practice. The typical studies, which con- linguistic, logical-mathematical, visual-spatial, musical- nect MI and education, are becoming multiple intelligences rhythmic, physical-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, in school (Hoerr, 2004), multiple intelligences in the elemen- tary school (Baum, Viens, & Slatin, 2005), and multiple Universitas Islam Negeri Alauddin, Makassar, Indonesia intelligences in the classroom (Armstrong, 2009). Later on, Sekolah Tinggi Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Makassar, Indonesia this study has evolved into a more specific discipline such as 3 Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia multiple intelligences and leadership (Riggio, Murphy, & Corresponding Author: Pirozzolo, 2001), and the multiple intelligences in the read- Andi Anto Patak, Department of English, Faculty of Languages ing and writing (Armstrong, 2003). and Literature, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Kampus FBS UNM In the field of learning and instruction, MI theory has Parangtambung, Makassar 90222, Indonesia. grown so popular, such as teaching and learning through Email: andiantopatak@unm.ac.id Creative Commons CC BY: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage). 2 SAGE Open naturalistic intelligence (Gardner, 2000), and spiritual intel- is inspired so that if one has spiritual intelligence, then every- ligence (McKenzie, 2005), or existential (Bowles, 2008). thing done will end up with something pleasant Verbal-linguistic intelligence is the ability to create using (Ramachandaran, Krauss, Hamzah, & Idris, 2017). However, spoken or written language. People with high verbal-linguistic all these multiple intelligence skills are not natural to con- intelligence are efficient at reading, writing, and telling sto- tribute to the performance of teachers, even Islamic School, ries. Teaching strategies for linguistic intelligence are story- who are viewed as having multiple intelligence, including telling, brainstorming, tape recording, journal writing, and spiritual and existential intelligence. publishing (Armstrong, 2009). Logical-mathematical intel- Performance improvement can be referred to the perspec- ligence is the ability to deal with a set of reasons, to recog- tives of Association for Educational Communication and nize patterns and rules. This intelligence refers to the ability Technology (AECT), where educational technology concerns to explore patterns, categories, and relationships by manipu- on the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and lating objects or symbols to experiment in a controlled and improving performance by creating, using, and managing orderly way (McKenzie, 2005). Musical-rhythmic Intelligence appropriate technological processes and resources (Januszewski is the ability and sensitivity to deal with sounds, rhythms, & Molenda, 2013). Improving performance in this definition tones, and music, and the ability to appreciate, distinguish, refers to the learning effectiveness and efficiency that lead to compose, and perform various musical forms (Gardner, the refinement of instructional processes that produces the high 2000). It is the capacity to think in music, listen to patterns level of learning achievement. It is characterized by effective and recognize, and perhaps manipulate them (Comeau, Lu, learning ability to apply their knowledge in the real world. Swirp, & Mielke, 2018; Snyder, 1997). Teachers’ performance improvement can be gauged through Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence is the aptitude of using the the appropriate lesson plan and good interpersonal skill (Gu, whole body to express ideas and feelings and use hands to Chen, Zhu, & Lin, 2015). Therefore, it is imperative to carry produce or transform things. This intelligence includes spe- out training, designing, and mentoring programs. cific skills such as coordination, balance, agility, strength, Training is a process directly tied to specific results that flexibility, and density (Tracey & Richey, 2007). Visual- focus on individual, group, and organizational improvement spatial intelligence or image intelligence or spatial intelli- (Whitfield, 2000). Training is also claimed as a process of gence is defined as the ability to accurately visualize the learning about the sequence of programmed behavior or a visual-spatial world and transform visual-spatial perceptions planned procedure designed to improve the effectiveness of in various forms (Rettig, 2005). Visual-spatial thinking is the people at work (Pardey, 2007). Training comprises the appli- ability to think regarding visualization, drawing, and three- cation of knowledge and giving awareness to people about dimensional shapes. rules and procedures to guide behavior, helping to bring pos- Interpersonal intelligence is defined as the ability to per- itive change to knowledge, skills, and attitudes (Hughes & ceive and differentiate others’ moods, intentions, motiva- Terrell, 2011). Training is a process of improving skills and tions, and desires, and the ability to respond appropriately to adding to existing knowledge to be able to do the work and moods, temperaments, motivations, and desires of others shaping the learner to complete more significant work. (DeNevers, 2014). Intrapersonal intelligence is the power Teachers’ training includes providing adequate knowledge of understanding oneself and act on them. The core compo- and skill on learner characteristics, designing instructional nents of intrapersonal intelligence accurate self-understand- strategies, and implementing a quality level of instruction. ing include strength and self-limitation; the intelligence of Therefore, teacher training relates to helping and guiding the mood, purpose, motivation, temperament, and desire; and individual teacher to provide and implement a high quality of self-discipline, understanding, and self-respect (Ingram, teaching that affects productive students. Peake, Stewart, & Watson, 2017). Naturalistic intelligence Seels and Richey (2012) defined design as “a process of is defined as the skill of recognizing and categorizing spe- specifying conditions for learning” (p. 30). The design is a cies, both flora and fauna, in the environment, and its ability process for generating plans or blueprints to develop learn- to cultivate and utilize nature, and preserve it (Morris, ing support materials (Gagne, Wager, Golas, Keller, & 2004). The core components of naturalistic intelligence are Russell, 2005, p. 26). Instructional design is a methodical the sensitivity to nature (flora, fauna, cloud formation, procedure for creating instruction based on scientific research mountains), the skill of distinguishing members of a spe- that produces effective, efficient, and reliable instruction cies, recognizing the existence of other species, and map- (Morrison, Ross, Kemp, & Kalman, 2013, p. 8). Instructional ping the relationship between some species both formally design covers an emerging profession, maintaining efficient and informally (Leaf et al., 2016). and effective performance, guiding a model, systematic, Beyond doubt, spiritual-existential intelligence is believed using open system theory, and creating the most cost-effective to be essential intelligence in human life compared with performance (Rothwell, Benscoter, King, & King, 2016). other kinds of intelligence such as intellectual, emotional Hence, training teachers to design instruction is the best way (Mayer & Geher, 1996), and social intelligence (Halama & to produce the most suitable learning resources for better Strizenec, 2004). Spiritual intelligence rests on the heart and performance. Yaumi et al. 3 Furthermore, mentoring is perceived as “an association 2014). First, the pattern of theoretical-oriented learning is involving two parties who are unrelated inside a underpinning the implementation of instructional activities, line-management structure, in which one party guides the whereas the teachers’ need is best practice in designing and other throughout a specified period and headed for an executing the instruction. Second, the duration of time is arranged purpose to be familiar with innovative circum- relatively short (1-year program), while there are dozens of stances” (Kay & Hinds, 2012, p. 17). Similarly, mentoring is courses that should be offered. Third, there is no sustain- a one-to-one relationship between the mentee and mentor, ability of the learning process after the program is com- which aims to support the mentee’s learning and develop- pleted, the possibility of teachers’ learning motivation ment (Hobson, Maxwell, Stevens, Doyle, & Malderez, changes to decline. Fourth, the program was not designed 2015). Mentoring includes highly personal interactions, con- to have classroom mentoring and coaching, and may cause ducted under different circumstances in different schools, teachers’ difficulty in bridging the suitability between the but the roles of mentoring cannot be rigidly specified. theories studied in TPE program and the real conditions in Nevertheless, good-quality mentoring in schools makes an the field of learning and instruction. essential input on the improved teaching performance for Realizing some weaknesses of the TPC and TPET pro- fresh teachers and experienced learning skills for pupils. grams, as well as the TPE program, it is deemed necessary to The commitment of Indonesian government to improve study teachers’ performance improvement through training, educational quality is currently viable. The idea of improve- designing, and mentoring teachers. We implement the stu- ment is commenced from rectifying the teachers’ perfor- dent-centered learning by promoting students’ multiple intel- mance that is considered as the key role of educational ligences (MI) or we call multiple intelligences-based development. The Ministry of Religious Affairs on Madrasah instructions. The training followed by mentoring contributes (K-12 Islamic schools) division is responsible for the educa- improvement and consistency of teachers’ performance in tional system; therefore, it has designed and executed vari- instructional implementation (Harris & Sass, 2011). The for- ous programs to achieve a better quality of teachers. The mal and informal mentoring is positively correlated with performance of Madrasah teachers, however, has not shown individual psychological support and teacher professional maximum results. Teachers’ professional competence, edu- development. cational insight, and instructional strategy understanding Training about the best way to develop students’ talent have not performed qualified standards (Sanaky, 2016). and creativity through multiple intelligences-based-learning Teachers who have been certified at the Madrasah Ibtidaiyah is a strategic step for implementing an independent instruc- Negeri and Madrasah Tsanawiyah Negeri (Public Islamic tion (Riggio & Pirozzolo, 2002). The implementation of Elementary School and Public Islamic Junior High Schools) multiple intelligences-based learning can support students’ in Indonesia have a moderate level of performance in the interest, and promote creativity and students’ excellence teaching and learning process (Hurmaini, 2011). The peda- (Chan, 2001; McClellan & Conti, 2008). Therefore, develop- gogical ability of the certified teachers is in a sufficient cat- ing teacher capacity is vitally important to the development egory (Suhandani & Julia, 2014). Thus, there is no difference of the school system (King, 2018). However, many teachers in performance between teachers who passed the certifica- disregard to address students’ characteristics and need when tion through portfolio collection and those who passed it designing and implementing the instructional process. through the Education and Teacher Professional Training Learners’ preference, interest, talent, and basic skills have programs (Khodijah, 2016). not been an integral part of curriculum development and There is, apparently, something amiss with the teachers’ tended to be separated with the cultivation of students’ hid- performance improvement programs. The certification pro- den excellence and the establishment of high competencies grams were initiated through Teachers’ Portfolio Collection of the coming generation. (TPC), Teacher Professional Education and Training (TPET), and currently formulated in the form of Teacher Professional Research Questions Education (TPE). This latter program began to be imple- mented in 2015 and is seen as a solution to the disadvantages Research Question 1: How is the teachers’ performance of implementing TPC and TPET (Buchory, 2015). However, after following the training of the multiple intelligences- some educational practitioners still feel restless and even based learning? dubious of the program fruitfulness. The consideration of Research Question 2: How is the teachers’ performance implementing TPE is still assumed unable to give a signifi- improvement after following the workshop on designing cant effect on teachers’ performance improvement as student-centered instruction as the implementation of expected. multiple intelligences-based learning? At least four leading indicators are characterizing the Research Question 3: How are the teachers’ performance potential weaknesses of the TPE program; improvement and the students’ response after implement- theoretical-oriented learning, limited time duration, learn- ing the mentoring system through multiple intelligences- ing sustainability, and lack of a mentoring system (Yaumi, based learning in the classroom setting? 4 SAGE Open Table 1. Performance of Teachers in the Implementation of Method Learning. The method of this research is action research, which is a Instructional activities research method that emphasizes social practice, aims toward improvement, a cyclical process, followed by systematic dis- Activities Observed informant covery, reflective process, participatory nature, and deter- A. BEGINNING ACTIVITY 1 2 3 4 mined by implementers (Kember, 2000). This type of action 1. Gaining attention — 75 42 9 research includes practical action research and is at the school 2. Informing learners of the objective 3 20 1 102 level (Schmuck, 2006). This study uses Elliott’s model with 3. Stimulating recall of prior learning 84 26 16 slight modifications, mainly reconnaissance (examination) B. MIDDLE ACTIVITY that is modified into the evaluation. The design of this study 4. Presenting the stimulus 2 96 18 10 was conducted with several cycles, and each cycle started 5. Providing learning guidance 16 93 17 with several stages such as (a) general plan of action, (b) 6. Eliciting performance 102 24 implementation of the plan, (c) monitoring the implementa- C. ENDING ACTIVITY tion and effects, and (d) evaluation. Before making a general 7. Providing feedback 40 72 14 plan of action in the first cycle, the researchers identified the 8. Assessing performance 77 38 11 initial ideas and reconnaissance or fact finding (Elliot, 1991). 9. Enhancing retention and transfer 87 21 18 The research was conducted in one area by randomly Note. selecting 126 teachers spread from 10 Madrasah Ibtidaiyah • Not meet standard in one regency of South Sulawesi, Indonesia as trainee and • Below standard instructional designer, and 36 teachers from six Madrasah as • Meet standard mentees. Training includes three components: (a) the con- • Above standard cept of multiple intelligence-based learning, (b) the strate- gies for identifying learners’ multiple intelligence, and (c) The indicator of performance success of action study is intelligence development strategies of learners. Then, the when there is 90 percent of respondents who have reached trainees are divided into 10 groups based on the category of the criteria “meet standards or above standards.” origin of the Madrasah to be involved in the learning strategy design activities to develop students’ multiple intelligences. The study continued with mentoring activities of 36 teachers Findings from six Madrasah who had attended training and learning Pre-Cycle design activities involving 10 principals and two supervisors as collaborators. The study also involved 192 students (six At this stage, the researcher along with the supervisor and classes from six Madrasah) taken from Grade IV to Class VI principal conducts observations on the learning implementa- to obtain information through focus group discussions. tion using Gagné’s Nine Events of Instruction (Kruse, 2009). The data were collected through the research instruments Gagné’s Nine Events of Instruction combined with the three including observation sheets, question guide for focus group learning activities of the Branch: beginning, middle, and discussion, and test. Data were analyzed qualitatively and ending activities. The details of the learning activities are quantitatively. Qualitative data analysis was conducted using presented in Table 1. the interactive model developed by Miles and Huberman, The results of observations on teacher performance in that is, data condensation, data display, conclusion drawing, the implementation of learning as illustrated in Table 1 and verification (Miles, Huberman, & Saldana, 2013). show that there is an average of 61.29% of teachers who Quantitative data are calculated based on assessment criteria have not met performance standards, and only 38.45% that do not meet standard = 1, below standard = 2, meet average that meet performance standards. This number standard = 3, and above standard = 4 to find the mean score indicates that teachers’ performance in implementing learn- or to calculate the percentage score of the respondents who ing is still quite low. Similarly, the learning strategies used got a particular score. To calculate the average score, the do not reflect the learning-oriented characteristics of learn- researchers used the following formula: ers by exploring their talents, interests, and talents. This can be seen from the learning strategy observed jointly with the X head of the Madrasah with the supervisor, as shown in X = Figure 1. Figure 1 shows that teacher-centered learning such as lec- Where ture, memorizing, and writing and doing the test, and guided X = Scores learning still dominate the implementation of learning, while ∑ = Summation student-centered learning such as Socrates questioning, role N = Number of Scores play, inquiry, and quiz-based learning cannot be put into Yaumi et al. 5 practice correctly. Therefore, researchers, principals, and life. The fourth step is training accommodation on plural supervisors consider giving training to these teachers. intelligence. The next step is interaction in training fol- lowed by media use in training, then continues to the appli- cation of the training method. After that, these steps First Cycle followed by the agreement on discipline in training, a spa- tial arrangement in training, and arrangement as well as In this section, the researcher prepares a training plan that arrangements for the use of tools and resources. Finally, includes agenda, training materials, observation sheet, and the next observation steps are variations in spatial arrange- comprehension test to promote teachers’ understanding of ment, the role of the instructor in the monitoring of the learner-centered approach through multiple intelligences- learning process, and feedback to the trainees is the last based instructions. First, the 3-day training agenda consists step. of the first day of the theory and concept of multiple intelli- Fourth, the comprehension test consists of 50 items gences, the second day on how to identify multiple intelli- given on the third day or after training. All the tests have gences, and the third day about strategies to develop multiple been tested for validity and reliability. Test components intelligences. Second, training materials using the book on are divided into three domains: interactive, analytical, multiple intelligence-based learning, whose content has and introspective. The results of the participants’ ability depicted theory, intelligence identification instruments, and tests on multiplagiaristic learning can be presented in multiple intelligence-based learning strategies (Yaumi, Figure 2. 2013). Based on Figure 2, the highest score obtained by 105 Third, the observation sheet was developed for use by (83.33%) respondents (teachers) got a score between 75 and collaborators in observing the researcher during the train- 84 with the good category, 18 (14.29%) got a score of 85 to ing. The observation sheet includes some steps. The pri- 100 or excellence category, and only three (2.4%) got a score mary pace is the groundwork for the training materials. of 65 to 74 or enough category. There was no respondent got The involvement of the trainee is the second step. The third poor and fail score. Thus, the training outcomes contribute to step is the relationship of training materials with the real improve teachers’ performance. After completing the training, the teachers then return to their respective schools and carry out teaching assignments to apply the new knowledge received in training. At the same time, researchers, heads of Madrasah, and supervisors made observations using previous observational guidelines. Observation is also directed to the learning strategies that are applied during the learning process. Second Cycle In the second cycle, 126 informants are involved in the design of learning. Aspects that are designed are (a) lesson Figure 1. Teachers’ learning strategies. plan, (b) teaching materials, (c) and learning strategies. The Figure 2. Result of teachers’ comprehension test. 6 SAGE Open Table 2. Multiple Intelligence-Based Instructional Strategies. Multiple intelligences Instructional strategies 1. Verbal-linguistic Brainstorming, storytelling, journal writing, and reading biography 2. Logic-mathematic Critical thinking, experiment Socrates question, problem-solving 3. Visual-spatial Mind mapping, visualization, Colorful paper, painting, and sketching. 4. Bodily-kinesthetic Field trip, role play, pantomime, practice, demonstration. 5. Music-rhythmic Discography, instrumental, recording, playing super memory music or others 6. Interpersonal Jigsaw, peer teaching, teamwork, group study 7. Intrapersonal Personal task/study, reflection, self- directed learning, concentration. 8. Naturalistic Learning through nature, windows onto learning, plants as props, Pet-in-the-Classroom, imitating animal sounds 9. Existential-spiritual Responding real phenomena, charity and learning, reading the romantic poem, writing a reflective essay. Figure 3. Teachers’ performance before and after given action. lesson plan group is divided by school and grade or class, Third Cycle while for teaching materials and learning, strategies are In the third cycle, there were 36 teachers from six Madrasah. divided by class and may not be based on the origin of the Mentoring is done directly by the principal and supervisors as school. There are 30 lesson plans generated, six teaching collaborators under the coordination of researchers. The men- materials based on grade level, 24 learning strategies. The toring in this study mostly uses a one-on-one guidance strat- constructs of instructional materials developed are (a) intro- egy where teachers are given as many opportunities as duction, (b) concepts, (c) procedures, (d) tools or materials, possible to practice especially to apply the knowledge gained (e) exercises, and (f) student worksheets. The construct is through training and practice of the lesson plans, instructional formulated from the discussion and various inputs. Learning materials and instructional strategies that have been designed. strategy refers to learning based on multiple intelligences Each collaborator enters the classroom and observes the selected based on input from teachers based on their real-life execution of learning from opening lessons to closing les- experiences in the field. The learning strategy is referred to sons. Collaborators with the researchers made passive obser- as in Table 2. vations because they did not participate directly in the After designing lesson plans, instructional materials, learning activities. The observation shows improvements in and learning strategies, teachers continue teaching tasks as the performance both in designing the learning and in the usual. The researcher, together with the principal, and the implementation of learning. The categories used are far supervisor made the observation using the observation below standard, does not meet standards, meets standards, sheet made earlier. The results of observations indicate far above standards. In this report, we only use two catego- that there is an increase in performance including the ries, below standard and above standard. To know in detail application of various learning strategies. Although there about improvements in each cycle ranging from training, is an improvement in performance, there are some short- learning design, to mentoring, the following presented the comings of Nine Events of Instruction. That is why the teachers’ performance of Islamic public school throughout second cycle is followed by a third cycle that is an the cycle as in Figure 3. accompaniment. Yaumi et al. 7 Figure 3 above shows that teachers’ performance condi- learners. Teachers get a positive response from learners tions are in categories above standards and below standards. including proper attention, quick understanding, increased In pre-cycle, there were only 38.45% of the above standard confidence, and a level of satisfaction that is evenly distrib- and dominant category (61.29%) below standard. However, uted for almost all learners. The training had an impact on after training, designing, and mentoring, teacher perfor- improving teacher performance. mance showed significant improvement. After attending Teachers’ performance improvement in learner-oriented training, teacher performance in learning implementation instruction design can be observed from their ability to rose to 43.21 from above the standard category, then rose to design lesson plans, learning materials, and learning strate- 65.08% after following instructional design, and 86.38% gies. Teachers succeeded in formulating learning strategies after following the mentoring system. Thus, there is a defi- for each of the multiple intelligences. These multiple intelli- nite contribution to mentoring action to improve teacher per- gences covering (a) verbal-linguistic (Armstrong, 2009), (b) formance, which is 30.25%. logic-mathematic (McKenzie, 2005), (c) visual-spatial (Rettig, 2005), (d) bodily-kinesthetic (Tracey & Richey, 2007), (e) music-rhythmic (Gardner, 2000; Snyder, 1997) or Students’ Response musical prodigy (Comeau et al., 2018), (f) intrapersonal After providing training, designing, and mentoring, the (Ingram et al., 2017), (g) interpersonal (DeNevers, 2014), (h) researchers requested a response of 192 high school students naturalistic (Morris, 2004), and (i) existential-spiritual (fourth, fifth, and sixth grade) of six Madrasah on learning (Bowles, 2008; Halama & Strizenec, 2004; McKenzie, done by teachers after following the above activities. Student 2005). The result of the observation of the teacher designed responses are expressed in focus group discussions taken at the lesson showed that there was an improvement of 12.87% different times in each school. The questions asked range on teacher performance. Peer tutorials and the interaction from learning activities, learning materials, strategies, and between teachers and trainers can cast instructional materi- learning evaluations. Questions are also directed at their gen- als, lesson strategies, and lesson plans that help them create eral assessment (learners) relating to the attitudes and behav- exciting and fun learning. iors of teachers in the classroom. The results of the learners’ Teachers’ performance improvement in implementing the responses show that the overall learning applied in the class- learner-centered instruction through the mentoring system room is described as follows: contributes very well. The data show that there are 30.25% of teachers who get improved performance after following the •• Active Learning because it involves learners in com- mentoring activities. The contribution of mentoring activi- pleting tasks. Teachers provide some tasks related to ties gave a much larger portion of training activities (4.76%) learning materials, then ask learners either in groups, and learning design activities (12.87%). Students’ response in pairs, or independently in completing the task. is positive on the teachers’ way of teaching after the teachers •• Exciting Learning because of the task is given by real attended the training, designing instruction, and mentoring conditions (real world) faced by learners in everyday system. The students have very good attention, retention, life. confidence, and satisfaction in learning. •• Fun learning because teachers are more open to direct- ing, fostering, and facilitating the development of The Limitation of the Research learners by identifying and directing learners’ abilities through games, pantomime, role play, and the like. The improvement of the teachers’ performance in this study •• Self-confident learning because it involves learners to just reached the specific aspects of the student-centered show the work and announce the achievements approach, especially those related to multiple intelligences- obtained to learners that lead to the pride that fosters based learning such as conceptual knowledge on how to students’ self-confidence. identify students’ intelligence and instructional strategies for •• Learning that gives satisfaction because the results of developing the intelligence, but does not lead to general hard efforts made learners always receive awards in aspects of pedagogical and professional competency of the form of certificates, asterisks, or exciting teaching and learning. This study also did not reach the stu- storybooks. dents’ learning outcomes as the indicator of teacher perfor- mance improvement in implementing the instruction, but revealed their attitudes and views in relation to the imple- Discussion mentation of multiple intelligence-based learning. The Teachers’ understanding of learner-centered approach involvement of the local government and stakeholders was through training of multiple intelligences-based instructions only in the part of opening ceremony, not in the process of shows results in both categories. The teacher’s performance training, designing, and mentoring sessions. The researchers after the training shows that it has been able to implement a were only assisted by two teachers’ supervisors and 10 prin- variety of learning strategies and fun by the talents of cipals as the collaborators. 8 SAGE Open Conclusion Implication for Further Research The results of this study indicate that training activities con- In general, the implementation of training, design or learning tribute to improving teachers’ performance. Teachers partici- planning, and mentoring system implies improving the pro- pate in multi-intelligence-based learning exercises wherein cess and learning outcomes by optimizing the application of training gets the material about the concept of intelligence. learning activities oriented to the development of intelli- Also, ways to identify and develop intelligence through gence, attitudes, and skills of learners. Specifically, the learning steps can contribute positively to the implementa- implementation of the training has implications for strength- tion of learning. The training directs teachers to implement ening the recruitment system of educators and academic student-centered learning including strategies and learning staff, as well as the continous improvement of the educa- methods that accommodate individual learner development tional quality. (Riggio & Pirozzolo, 2002). Teacher performance improve- Learning planning oriented to the characteristics and ment occurs because, during the training, teachers are needs of learners has an impact on improving the capacity directed to understand the concepts of multiple intelligences, of educators to design and produce models, approaches, how to identify intelligence and strategies for the develop- strategies, methods, and learning activities. The role and ment of each student’s intelligence to gain the diversity of function of educators do not only act as facilitators but also potential that each learner has. The diversity of learners’ as designers, engineer, or designer based on the latest find- intelligence and talents requires teachers to apply diverse ings obtained through in-depth study. Implementation of learning strategies so that individual learners can be well assistance in improving the performance of the impact on served. the establishment of togetherness and cohesion on all lines Performance improvements continue to occur after both from the side of the government is directly responsi- teachers design learning based on the uniqueness and diver- ble for the implementation of education, related elements sity of learners. The results showed that the design activi- such as school supervisors, and the community represented ties contributed to teacher performance after training and by the school committee. Thus, roles and responsibilities designing the lesson. In the comparison between the of the principal in building and developing the school improvement of teacher performance after being given model is an agent of change, especially the collaboration training and after being given activity of learning design, played by teachers as the primary element that directly the design activity contributes much more than training confronts the learners as the developed object. activity. It is acknowledged that design activity exhibits Declaration of Conflicting Interests much more detailed activities including preparing lesson plans, instructional materials, and learning strategies. The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. However, the interaction between teachers and trainers in the implementation of instructional designs has had a sig- Funding nificant impact on improving teaching materials. Teachers also get tutorials directly from peers when having difficulty The author(s) received no financial support for the research, author- ship, and/or publication of this article. in determining learning strategies to apply in classroom set- tings. Such interactions can provide meaningful improve- ORCID iD ments to the lesson plan to facilitate the implementation of learning. Andi Anto Patak https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8417-0493 After analyzing the contribution of training and design References in improving teacher performance, the mentoring system is also proven to contribute significantly to the implementa- Armstrong, T. (2003). The multiple intelligences of reading and tion of learning (Harris & Sass, 2011). The contribution of writing: Making the words come alive. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development mentoring activities gives a much more substantial portion (ASCD). of training activities and learning design activities. This is Armstrong, T. 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In dap peningkatan kinerja guru dalam proses pembelajaran: Studi Multiple intelligences and leadership (pp. 241-250). Mahwah, pada Madrasah Tsanawiyah Negeri Kota Jambi [The impact of NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. the implementation of teacher certification in improving teach- Rothwell, W. J., Benscoter, B., King, M., & King, S. B. (2016). er’s performance in the learning process: Study in the state Mastering the instructional design process: A systematic Madrasah Tsanawiyah of Jambi]. Media Akademika, 26(4). approach (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley. Ingram, A., Peake, W. O., Stewart, W., & Watson, W. (2017). Sanaky, H. A. H. (2016). Sertifikasi dan Profesionalisme Guru Emotional intelligence and venture performance. Journal of di Era Reformasi Pendidikan [Teachers’ Professional and Small Business Management. doi:10.1111/jsbm.12333 Certification in Education Reformation Era]. EL TARBAWI, Januszewski, A., & Molenda, M. (2013). Educational technology: 12, 29-48. A definition with commentary. New York, NY: Routledge. Schmuck, R. A. (2006). Practical action research for change. Kay, D., & Hinds, R. (2012). A practical guide to mentoring 5e: Arlington Heights, IL: Corwin Press. Down to earth guidance on making mentoring work for you. Seels, B. B., & Richey, R. C. (2012). Instructional technology: The London, England: Hachette UK. definition and domains of the field. Charlotte, NC: Information Kember, D. (2000). Action learning and action research: Improving Age Publishing (IAP). the quality of teaching and learning. London, England: Taylor Snyder, S. (1997). Developing musical intelligence: Why and how. Early Childhood Education Journal, 24, 165-171. and Francis UK. 10 SAGE Open Suhandani, D., & Julia, J. (2014). Identifikasi Kompetensi Guru seb- instructional media and technology, instructional design, model of agai Cerminan Profesionalisme Tenaga Pendidik di Kabupaten teaching, and research methodology. His research interest includes Sumedang: Kajian pada Kompetensi Pedagogik [Identification blended learning, distance education, instructional design models, of Teacher’s Competency as Refelction of Educator’s online learning, teacher’s performance improvement, learning Profesionalism: Study on Paedagogical Competency]. Mimbar organization, character education, service learning, and university Sekolah Dasar, 1, 128-141. community engagement. Tracey, M. W., & Richey, R. C. (2007). ID model construction Sitti Fatimah Sangkala Sirate is a senior lecturer of mathematics and validation: A multiple intelligences case. Educational education at the Mathematics Education Department Education and Technology Research and Development, 55, 369-390. Teaching Sciences Seminary, Ujungpandang Education Institution Whitfield, K. (2000). High-performance workplaces, training, and (STKIP-YPUP) Makassar, Indonesia. She teaches various courses, the distribution of skills. Industrial Relations, 39(1), 1-25. such as ethnomathematics, geometry, linear program, statistics, Yaumi, M. (2013). Pembelajaran Berbasis Kecerdasan Jamak educational research methodology, and educational media in math- [Multiple Intelligence-Based Learning]. Jakarta, Indonesia: ematics. Her research interest covers ethnomathematics, curriculum Kencana. development, blended learning, performance improvement, and Yaumi, M. (2014). Model Perbaikan Kinerja Guru dalam teaching and learning in mathematics. Pembelajaran (Model of Teacher’s Performance Improvement in Implementing the Instruction). Makassar, Indonesia: Alauddin Andi Anto Patak has completed his PhD in Measurement and Press. Evaluation at the Education faculty of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia in 2018. He has been working as an academic staff Author Biographies since 2007 at the Department of English, faculty of Languages and Literature, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia. His Muhammad Yaumi is an associate professor in Educational research interests are Writing Assessment, Research Design, Technology under the Department of Education and Teaching Educational Technology, Applied Linguistics, and Spirituals Sciences, Post Graduate Program of Alauddin State Islamic Group Training. University (UIN-Alauddin) of Makassar, Indonesia. He teaches http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png SAGE Open SAGE

Investigating Multiple Intelligence-Based Instructions Approach on Performance Improvement of Indonesian Elementary Madrasah Teachers:

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Abstract

This study was designed to promote teachers’ understanding of the learner-centered approach through training the multiple intelligences-based instructions, improve teachers’ performance in designing learner-oriented instruction, and improve teachers’ performance in implementing instruction. This study used proactive action research involving 126 teachers (informants) as trainees and instructional design members, came from 10 elementary Madrasah in Indonesia, 36 of them were mentored, and 192 students participated in a focus group discussion. There were 10 principals and two supervisors to be research collaborators. Teachers’ understanding and performance improvement through training multiple intelligence-based instructions, designing student-centered approach, and mentoring the implementation of student-centered learning indicated significant contribution. The teachers’ understanding of multiple intelligence-based instruction was the majority in the good category. The activity of designing the student-centered approach gave a good contribution to the capability of designing every single one of the multiple intelligences-based strategies. The mentoring system improved teachers’ performance greater than those of training and instructional design. Implementation of training, instructional design, and the mentoring system implies improving learning processes and outcomes. Strengthening the recruitment system of teachers and performance improvement, capacity building of educators to design models, approaches, strategies, methods, and learning activities, as well as establishing togetherness on all lines; government, principals, supervisors, community, and teachers as the primary element. Keywords teacher’s performance, multiple intelligences, training, designing, mentoring Multiple intelligence (MI) theory has attracted much atten- multiple intelligences (Campbell, Campbell, & Dickinson, tion in the field of education, although Howard Gardner as 1996) and multiple intelligences-based instructions (Yaumi, the inventor of this theory, does not intend to create it to 2013). Here, multiple intelligences-based instructions is a apply learning and instruction. The theory was directed at the learner-centered learning strategy, which focuses on identi- philosophy of developmental and cognitive psychology fying learners’ intelligence, talent, and learning preferences (Gardner, 2011) as a discipline he was interested in since the and providing the best way for learning. MI is the ability or beginning of his career. Eventually, MI theory became popu- talent possessed by a person (learner) that includes verbal- lar in educational practice. The typical studies, which con- linguistic, logical-mathematical, visual-spatial, musical- nect MI and education, are becoming multiple intelligences rhythmic, physical-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, in school (Hoerr, 2004), multiple intelligences in the elemen- tary school (Baum, Viens, & Slatin, 2005), and multiple Universitas Islam Negeri Alauddin, Makassar, Indonesia intelligences in the classroom (Armstrong, 2009). Later on, Sekolah Tinggi Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Makassar, Indonesia this study has evolved into a more specific discipline such as 3 Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia multiple intelligences and leadership (Riggio, Murphy, & Corresponding Author: Pirozzolo, 2001), and the multiple intelligences in the read- Andi Anto Patak, Department of English, Faculty of Languages ing and writing (Armstrong, 2003). and Literature, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Kampus FBS UNM In the field of learning and instruction, MI theory has Parangtambung, Makassar 90222, Indonesia. grown so popular, such as teaching and learning through Email: andiantopatak@unm.ac.id Creative Commons CC BY: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage). 2 SAGE Open naturalistic intelligence (Gardner, 2000), and spiritual intel- is inspired so that if one has spiritual intelligence, then every- ligence (McKenzie, 2005), or existential (Bowles, 2008). thing done will end up with something pleasant Verbal-linguistic intelligence is the ability to create using (Ramachandaran, Krauss, Hamzah, & Idris, 2017). However, spoken or written language. People with high verbal-linguistic all these multiple intelligence skills are not natural to con- intelligence are efficient at reading, writing, and telling sto- tribute to the performance of teachers, even Islamic School, ries. Teaching strategies for linguistic intelligence are story- who are viewed as having multiple intelligence, including telling, brainstorming, tape recording, journal writing, and spiritual and existential intelligence. publishing (Armstrong, 2009). Logical-mathematical intel- Performance improvement can be referred to the perspec- ligence is the ability to deal with a set of reasons, to recog- tives of Association for Educational Communication and nize patterns and rules. This intelligence refers to the ability Technology (AECT), where educational technology concerns to explore patterns, categories, and relationships by manipu- on the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and lating objects or symbols to experiment in a controlled and improving performance by creating, using, and managing orderly way (McKenzie, 2005). Musical-rhythmic Intelligence appropriate technological processes and resources (Januszewski is the ability and sensitivity to deal with sounds, rhythms, & Molenda, 2013). Improving performance in this definition tones, and music, and the ability to appreciate, distinguish, refers to the learning effectiveness and efficiency that lead to compose, and perform various musical forms (Gardner, the refinement of instructional processes that produces the high 2000). It is the capacity to think in music, listen to patterns level of learning achievement. It is characterized by effective and recognize, and perhaps manipulate them (Comeau, Lu, learning ability to apply their knowledge in the real world. Swirp, & Mielke, 2018; Snyder, 1997). Teachers’ performance improvement can be gauged through Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence is the aptitude of using the the appropriate lesson plan and good interpersonal skill (Gu, whole body to express ideas and feelings and use hands to Chen, Zhu, & Lin, 2015). Therefore, it is imperative to carry produce or transform things. This intelligence includes spe- out training, designing, and mentoring programs. cific skills such as coordination, balance, agility, strength, Training is a process directly tied to specific results that flexibility, and density (Tracey & Richey, 2007). Visual- focus on individual, group, and organizational improvement spatial intelligence or image intelligence or spatial intelli- (Whitfield, 2000). Training is also claimed as a process of gence is defined as the ability to accurately visualize the learning about the sequence of programmed behavior or a visual-spatial world and transform visual-spatial perceptions planned procedure designed to improve the effectiveness of in various forms (Rettig, 2005). Visual-spatial thinking is the people at work (Pardey, 2007). Training comprises the appli- ability to think regarding visualization, drawing, and three- cation of knowledge and giving awareness to people about dimensional shapes. rules and procedures to guide behavior, helping to bring pos- Interpersonal intelligence is defined as the ability to per- itive change to knowledge, skills, and attitudes (Hughes & ceive and differentiate others’ moods, intentions, motiva- Terrell, 2011). Training is a process of improving skills and tions, and desires, and the ability to respond appropriately to adding to existing knowledge to be able to do the work and moods, temperaments, motivations, and desires of others shaping the learner to complete more significant work. (DeNevers, 2014). Intrapersonal intelligence is the power Teachers’ training includes providing adequate knowledge of understanding oneself and act on them. The core compo- and skill on learner characteristics, designing instructional nents of intrapersonal intelligence accurate self-understand- strategies, and implementing a quality level of instruction. ing include strength and self-limitation; the intelligence of Therefore, teacher training relates to helping and guiding the mood, purpose, motivation, temperament, and desire; and individual teacher to provide and implement a high quality of self-discipline, understanding, and self-respect (Ingram, teaching that affects productive students. Peake, Stewart, & Watson, 2017). Naturalistic intelligence Seels and Richey (2012) defined design as “a process of is defined as the skill of recognizing and categorizing spe- specifying conditions for learning” (p. 30). The design is a cies, both flora and fauna, in the environment, and its ability process for generating plans or blueprints to develop learn- to cultivate and utilize nature, and preserve it (Morris, ing support materials (Gagne, Wager, Golas, Keller, & 2004). The core components of naturalistic intelligence are Russell, 2005, p. 26). Instructional design is a methodical the sensitivity to nature (flora, fauna, cloud formation, procedure for creating instruction based on scientific research mountains), the skill of distinguishing members of a spe- that produces effective, efficient, and reliable instruction cies, recognizing the existence of other species, and map- (Morrison, Ross, Kemp, & Kalman, 2013, p. 8). Instructional ping the relationship between some species both formally design covers an emerging profession, maintaining efficient and informally (Leaf et al., 2016). and effective performance, guiding a model, systematic, Beyond doubt, spiritual-existential intelligence is believed using open system theory, and creating the most cost-effective to be essential intelligence in human life compared with performance (Rothwell, Benscoter, King, & King, 2016). other kinds of intelligence such as intellectual, emotional Hence, training teachers to design instruction is the best way (Mayer & Geher, 1996), and social intelligence (Halama & to produce the most suitable learning resources for better Strizenec, 2004). Spiritual intelligence rests on the heart and performance. Yaumi et al. 3 Furthermore, mentoring is perceived as “an association 2014). First, the pattern of theoretical-oriented learning is involving two parties who are unrelated inside a underpinning the implementation of instructional activities, line-management structure, in which one party guides the whereas the teachers’ need is best practice in designing and other throughout a specified period and headed for an executing the instruction. Second, the duration of time is arranged purpose to be familiar with innovative circum- relatively short (1-year program), while there are dozens of stances” (Kay & Hinds, 2012, p. 17). Similarly, mentoring is courses that should be offered. Third, there is no sustain- a one-to-one relationship between the mentee and mentor, ability of the learning process after the program is com- which aims to support the mentee’s learning and develop- pleted, the possibility of teachers’ learning motivation ment (Hobson, Maxwell, Stevens, Doyle, & Malderez, changes to decline. Fourth, the program was not designed 2015). Mentoring includes highly personal interactions, con- to have classroom mentoring and coaching, and may cause ducted under different circumstances in different schools, teachers’ difficulty in bridging the suitability between the but the roles of mentoring cannot be rigidly specified. theories studied in TPE program and the real conditions in Nevertheless, good-quality mentoring in schools makes an the field of learning and instruction. essential input on the improved teaching performance for Realizing some weaknesses of the TPC and TPET pro- fresh teachers and experienced learning skills for pupils. grams, as well as the TPE program, it is deemed necessary to The commitment of Indonesian government to improve study teachers’ performance improvement through training, educational quality is currently viable. The idea of improve- designing, and mentoring teachers. We implement the stu- ment is commenced from rectifying the teachers’ perfor- dent-centered learning by promoting students’ multiple intel- mance that is considered as the key role of educational ligences (MI) or we call multiple intelligences-based development. The Ministry of Religious Affairs on Madrasah instructions. The training followed by mentoring contributes (K-12 Islamic schools) division is responsible for the educa- improvement and consistency of teachers’ performance in tional system; therefore, it has designed and executed vari- instructional implementation (Harris & Sass, 2011). The for- ous programs to achieve a better quality of teachers. The mal and informal mentoring is positively correlated with performance of Madrasah teachers, however, has not shown individual psychological support and teacher professional maximum results. Teachers’ professional competence, edu- development. cational insight, and instructional strategy understanding Training about the best way to develop students’ talent have not performed qualified standards (Sanaky, 2016). and creativity through multiple intelligences-based-learning Teachers who have been certified at the Madrasah Ibtidaiyah is a strategic step for implementing an independent instruc- Negeri and Madrasah Tsanawiyah Negeri (Public Islamic tion (Riggio & Pirozzolo, 2002). The implementation of Elementary School and Public Islamic Junior High Schools) multiple intelligences-based learning can support students’ in Indonesia have a moderate level of performance in the interest, and promote creativity and students’ excellence teaching and learning process (Hurmaini, 2011). The peda- (Chan, 2001; McClellan & Conti, 2008). Therefore, develop- gogical ability of the certified teachers is in a sufficient cat- ing teacher capacity is vitally important to the development egory (Suhandani & Julia, 2014). Thus, there is no difference of the school system (King, 2018). However, many teachers in performance between teachers who passed the certifica- disregard to address students’ characteristics and need when tion through portfolio collection and those who passed it designing and implementing the instructional process. through the Education and Teacher Professional Training Learners’ preference, interest, talent, and basic skills have programs (Khodijah, 2016). not been an integral part of curriculum development and There is, apparently, something amiss with the teachers’ tended to be separated with the cultivation of students’ hid- performance improvement programs. The certification pro- den excellence and the establishment of high competencies grams were initiated through Teachers’ Portfolio Collection of the coming generation. (TPC), Teacher Professional Education and Training (TPET), and currently formulated in the form of Teacher Professional Research Questions Education (TPE). This latter program began to be imple- mented in 2015 and is seen as a solution to the disadvantages Research Question 1: How is the teachers’ performance of implementing TPC and TPET (Buchory, 2015). However, after following the training of the multiple intelligences- some educational practitioners still feel restless and even based learning? dubious of the program fruitfulness. The consideration of Research Question 2: How is the teachers’ performance implementing TPE is still assumed unable to give a signifi- improvement after following the workshop on designing cant effect on teachers’ performance improvement as student-centered instruction as the implementation of expected. multiple intelligences-based learning? At least four leading indicators are characterizing the Research Question 3: How are the teachers’ performance potential weaknesses of the TPE program; improvement and the students’ response after implement- theoretical-oriented learning, limited time duration, learn- ing the mentoring system through multiple intelligences- ing sustainability, and lack of a mentoring system (Yaumi, based learning in the classroom setting? 4 SAGE Open Table 1. Performance of Teachers in the Implementation of Method Learning. The method of this research is action research, which is a Instructional activities research method that emphasizes social practice, aims toward improvement, a cyclical process, followed by systematic dis- Activities Observed informant covery, reflective process, participatory nature, and deter- A. BEGINNING ACTIVITY 1 2 3 4 mined by implementers (Kember, 2000). This type of action 1. Gaining attention — 75 42 9 research includes practical action research and is at the school 2. Informing learners of the objective 3 20 1 102 level (Schmuck, 2006). This study uses Elliott’s model with 3. Stimulating recall of prior learning 84 26 16 slight modifications, mainly reconnaissance (examination) B. MIDDLE ACTIVITY that is modified into the evaluation. The design of this study 4. Presenting the stimulus 2 96 18 10 was conducted with several cycles, and each cycle started 5. Providing learning guidance 16 93 17 with several stages such as (a) general plan of action, (b) 6. Eliciting performance 102 24 implementation of the plan, (c) monitoring the implementa- C. ENDING ACTIVITY tion and effects, and (d) evaluation. Before making a general 7. Providing feedback 40 72 14 plan of action in the first cycle, the researchers identified the 8. Assessing performance 77 38 11 initial ideas and reconnaissance or fact finding (Elliot, 1991). 9. Enhancing retention and transfer 87 21 18 The research was conducted in one area by randomly Note. selecting 126 teachers spread from 10 Madrasah Ibtidaiyah • Not meet standard in one regency of South Sulawesi, Indonesia as trainee and • Below standard instructional designer, and 36 teachers from six Madrasah as • Meet standard mentees. Training includes three components: (a) the con- • Above standard cept of multiple intelligence-based learning, (b) the strate- gies for identifying learners’ multiple intelligence, and (c) The indicator of performance success of action study is intelligence development strategies of learners. Then, the when there is 90 percent of respondents who have reached trainees are divided into 10 groups based on the category of the criteria “meet standards or above standards.” origin of the Madrasah to be involved in the learning strategy design activities to develop students’ multiple intelligences. The study continued with mentoring activities of 36 teachers Findings from six Madrasah who had attended training and learning Pre-Cycle design activities involving 10 principals and two supervisors as collaborators. The study also involved 192 students (six At this stage, the researcher along with the supervisor and classes from six Madrasah) taken from Grade IV to Class VI principal conducts observations on the learning implementa- to obtain information through focus group discussions. tion using Gagné’s Nine Events of Instruction (Kruse, 2009). The data were collected through the research instruments Gagné’s Nine Events of Instruction combined with the three including observation sheets, question guide for focus group learning activities of the Branch: beginning, middle, and discussion, and test. Data were analyzed qualitatively and ending activities. The details of the learning activities are quantitatively. Qualitative data analysis was conducted using presented in Table 1. the interactive model developed by Miles and Huberman, The results of observations on teacher performance in that is, data condensation, data display, conclusion drawing, the implementation of learning as illustrated in Table 1 and verification (Miles, Huberman, & Saldana, 2013). show that there is an average of 61.29% of teachers who Quantitative data are calculated based on assessment criteria have not met performance standards, and only 38.45% that do not meet standard = 1, below standard = 2, meet average that meet performance standards. This number standard = 3, and above standard = 4 to find the mean score indicates that teachers’ performance in implementing learn- or to calculate the percentage score of the respondents who ing is still quite low. Similarly, the learning strategies used got a particular score. To calculate the average score, the do not reflect the learning-oriented characteristics of learn- researchers used the following formula: ers by exploring their talents, interests, and talents. This can be seen from the learning strategy observed jointly with the X head of the Madrasah with the supervisor, as shown in X = Figure 1. Figure 1 shows that teacher-centered learning such as lec- Where ture, memorizing, and writing and doing the test, and guided X = Scores learning still dominate the implementation of learning, while ∑ = Summation student-centered learning such as Socrates questioning, role N = Number of Scores play, inquiry, and quiz-based learning cannot be put into Yaumi et al. 5 practice correctly. Therefore, researchers, principals, and life. The fourth step is training accommodation on plural supervisors consider giving training to these teachers. intelligence. The next step is interaction in training fol- lowed by media use in training, then continues to the appli- cation of the training method. After that, these steps First Cycle followed by the agreement on discipline in training, a spa- tial arrangement in training, and arrangement as well as In this section, the researcher prepares a training plan that arrangements for the use of tools and resources. Finally, includes agenda, training materials, observation sheet, and the next observation steps are variations in spatial arrange- comprehension test to promote teachers’ understanding of ment, the role of the instructor in the monitoring of the learner-centered approach through multiple intelligences- learning process, and feedback to the trainees is the last based instructions. First, the 3-day training agenda consists step. of the first day of the theory and concept of multiple intelli- Fourth, the comprehension test consists of 50 items gences, the second day on how to identify multiple intelli- given on the third day or after training. All the tests have gences, and the third day about strategies to develop multiple been tested for validity and reliability. Test components intelligences. Second, training materials using the book on are divided into three domains: interactive, analytical, multiple intelligence-based learning, whose content has and introspective. The results of the participants’ ability depicted theory, intelligence identification instruments, and tests on multiplagiaristic learning can be presented in multiple intelligence-based learning strategies (Yaumi, Figure 2. 2013). Based on Figure 2, the highest score obtained by 105 Third, the observation sheet was developed for use by (83.33%) respondents (teachers) got a score between 75 and collaborators in observing the researcher during the train- 84 with the good category, 18 (14.29%) got a score of 85 to ing. The observation sheet includes some steps. The pri- 100 or excellence category, and only three (2.4%) got a score mary pace is the groundwork for the training materials. of 65 to 74 or enough category. There was no respondent got The involvement of the trainee is the second step. The third poor and fail score. Thus, the training outcomes contribute to step is the relationship of training materials with the real improve teachers’ performance. After completing the training, the teachers then return to their respective schools and carry out teaching assignments to apply the new knowledge received in training. At the same time, researchers, heads of Madrasah, and supervisors made observations using previous observational guidelines. Observation is also directed to the learning strategies that are applied during the learning process. Second Cycle In the second cycle, 126 informants are involved in the design of learning. Aspects that are designed are (a) lesson Figure 1. Teachers’ learning strategies. plan, (b) teaching materials, (c) and learning strategies. The Figure 2. Result of teachers’ comprehension test. 6 SAGE Open Table 2. Multiple Intelligence-Based Instructional Strategies. Multiple intelligences Instructional strategies 1. Verbal-linguistic Brainstorming, storytelling, journal writing, and reading biography 2. Logic-mathematic Critical thinking, experiment Socrates question, problem-solving 3. Visual-spatial Mind mapping, visualization, Colorful paper, painting, and sketching. 4. Bodily-kinesthetic Field trip, role play, pantomime, practice, demonstration. 5. Music-rhythmic Discography, instrumental, recording, playing super memory music or others 6. Interpersonal Jigsaw, peer teaching, teamwork, group study 7. Intrapersonal Personal task/study, reflection, self- directed learning, concentration. 8. Naturalistic Learning through nature, windows onto learning, plants as props, Pet-in-the-Classroom, imitating animal sounds 9. Existential-spiritual Responding real phenomena, charity and learning, reading the romantic poem, writing a reflective essay. Figure 3. Teachers’ performance before and after given action. lesson plan group is divided by school and grade or class, Third Cycle while for teaching materials and learning, strategies are In the third cycle, there were 36 teachers from six Madrasah. divided by class and may not be based on the origin of the Mentoring is done directly by the principal and supervisors as school. There are 30 lesson plans generated, six teaching collaborators under the coordination of researchers. The men- materials based on grade level, 24 learning strategies. The toring in this study mostly uses a one-on-one guidance strat- constructs of instructional materials developed are (a) intro- egy where teachers are given as many opportunities as duction, (b) concepts, (c) procedures, (d) tools or materials, possible to practice especially to apply the knowledge gained (e) exercises, and (f) student worksheets. The construct is through training and practice of the lesson plans, instructional formulated from the discussion and various inputs. Learning materials and instructional strategies that have been designed. strategy refers to learning based on multiple intelligences Each collaborator enters the classroom and observes the selected based on input from teachers based on their real-life execution of learning from opening lessons to closing les- experiences in the field. The learning strategy is referred to sons. Collaborators with the researchers made passive obser- as in Table 2. vations because they did not participate directly in the After designing lesson plans, instructional materials, learning activities. The observation shows improvements in and learning strategies, teachers continue teaching tasks as the performance both in designing the learning and in the usual. The researcher, together with the principal, and the implementation of learning. The categories used are far supervisor made the observation using the observation below standard, does not meet standards, meets standards, sheet made earlier. The results of observations indicate far above standards. In this report, we only use two catego- that there is an increase in performance including the ries, below standard and above standard. To know in detail application of various learning strategies. Although there about improvements in each cycle ranging from training, is an improvement in performance, there are some short- learning design, to mentoring, the following presented the comings of Nine Events of Instruction. That is why the teachers’ performance of Islamic public school throughout second cycle is followed by a third cycle that is an the cycle as in Figure 3. accompaniment. Yaumi et al. 7 Figure 3 above shows that teachers’ performance condi- learners. Teachers get a positive response from learners tions are in categories above standards and below standards. including proper attention, quick understanding, increased In pre-cycle, there were only 38.45% of the above standard confidence, and a level of satisfaction that is evenly distrib- and dominant category (61.29%) below standard. However, uted for almost all learners. The training had an impact on after training, designing, and mentoring, teacher perfor- improving teacher performance. mance showed significant improvement. After attending Teachers’ performance improvement in learner-oriented training, teacher performance in learning implementation instruction design can be observed from their ability to rose to 43.21 from above the standard category, then rose to design lesson plans, learning materials, and learning strate- 65.08% after following instructional design, and 86.38% gies. Teachers succeeded in formulating learning strategies after following the mentoring system. Thus, there is a defi- for each of the multiple intelligences. These multiple intelli- nite contribution to mentoring action to improve teacher per- gences covering (a) verbal-linguistic (Armstrong, 2009), (b) formance, which is 30.25%. logic-mathematic (McKenzie, 2005), (c) visual-spatial (Rettig, 2005), (d) bodily-kinesthetic (Tracey & Richey, 2007), (e) music-rhythmic (Gardner, 2000; Snyder, 1997) or Students’ Response musical prodigy (Comeau et al., 2018), (f) intrapersonal After providing training, designing, and mentoring, the (Ingram et al., 2017), (g) interpersonal (DeNevers, 2014), (h) researchers requested a response of 192 high school students naturalistic (Morris, 2004), and (i) existential-spiritual (fourth, fifth, and sixth grade) of six Madrasah on learning (Bowles, 2008; Halama & Strizenec, 2004; McKenzie, done by teachers after following the above activities. Student 2005). The result of the observation of the teacher designed responses are expressed in focus group discussions taken at the lesson showed that there was an improvement of 12.87% different times in each school. The questions asked range on teacher performance. Peer tutorials and the interaction from learning activities, learning materials, strategies, and between teachers and trainers can cast instructional materi- learning evaluations. Questions are also directed at their gen- als, lesson strategies, and lesson plans that help them create eral assessment (learners) relating to the attitudes and behav- exciting and fun learning. iors of teachers in the classroom. The results of the learners’ Teachers’ performance improvement in implementing the responses show that the overall learning applied in the class- learner-centered instruction through the mentoring system room is described as follows: contributes very well. The data show that there are 30.25% of teachers who get improved performance after following the •• Active Learning because it involves learners in com- mentoring activities. The contribution of mentoring activi- pleting tasks. Teachers provide some tasks related to ties gave a much larger portion of training activities (4.76%) learning materials, then ask learners either in groups, and learning design activities (12.87%). Students’ response in pairs, or independently in completing the task. is positive on the teachers’ way of teaching after the teachers •• Exciting Learning because of the task is given by real attended the training, designing instruction, and mentoring conditions (real world) faced by learners in everyday system. The students have very good attention, retention, life. confidence, and satisfaction in learning. •• Fun learning because teachers are more open to direct- ing, fostering, and facilitating the development of The Limitation of the Research learners by identifying and directing learners’ abilities through games, pantomime, role play, and the like. The improvement of the teachers’ performance in this study •• Self-confident learning because it involves learners to just reached the specific aspects of the student-centered show the work and announce the achievements approach, especially those related to multiple intelligences- obtained to learners that lead to the pride that fosters based learning such as conceptual knowledge on how to students’ self-confidence. identify students’ intelligence and instructional strategies for •• Learning that gives satisfaction because the results of developing the intelligence, but does not lead to general hard efforts made learners always receive awards in aspects of pedagogical and professional competency of the form of certificates, asterisks, or exciting teaching and learning. This study also did not reach the stu- storybooks. dents’ learning outcomes as the indicator of teacher perfor- mance improvement in implementing the instruction, but revealed their attitudes and views in relation to the imple- Discussion mentation of multiple intelligence-based learning. The Teachers’ understanding of learner-centered approach involvement of the local government and stakeholders was through training of multiple intelligences-based instructions only in the part of opening ceremony, not in the process of shows results in both categories. The teacher’s performance training, designing, and mentoring sessions. The researchers after the training shows that it has been able to implement a were only assisted by two teachers’ supervisors and 10 prin- variety of learning strategies and fun by the talents of cipals as the collaborators. 8 SAGE Open Conclusion Implication for Further Research The results of this study indicate that training activities con- In general, the implementation of training, design or learning tribute to improving teachers’ performance. Teachers partici- planning, and mentoring system implies improving the pro- pate in multi-intelligence-based learning exercises wherein cess and learning outcomes by optimizing the application of training gets the material about the concept of intelligence. learning activities oriented to the development of intelli- Also, ways to identify and develop intelligence through gence, attitudes, and skills of learners. Specifically, the learning steps can contribute positively to the implementa- implementation of the training has implications for strength- tion of learning. The training directs teachers to implement ening the recruitment system of educators and academic student-centered learning including strategies and learning staff, as well as the continous improvement of the educa- methods that accommodate individual learner development tional quality. (Riggio & Pirozzolo, 2002). Teacher performance improve- Learning planning oriented to the characteristics and ment occurs because, during the training, teachers are needs of learners has an impact on improving the capacity directed to understand the concepts of multiple intelligences, of educators to design and produce models, approaches, how to identify intelligence and strategies for the develop- strategies, methods, and learning activities. The role and ment of each student’s intelligence to gain the diversity of function of educators do not only act as facilitators but also potential that each learner has. The diversity of learners’ as designers, engineer, or designer based on the latest find- intelligence and talents requires teachers to apply diverse ings obtained through in-depth study. Implementation of learning strategies so that individual learners can be well assistance in improving the performance of the impact on served. the establishment of togetherness and cohesion on all lines Performance improvements continue to occur after both from the side of the government is directly responsi- teachers design learning based on the uniqueness and diver- ble for the implementation of education, related elements sity of learners. The results showed that the design activi- such as school supervisors, and the community represented ties contributed to teacher performance after training and by the school committee. Thus, roles and responsibilities designing the lesson. In the comparison between the of the principal in building and developing the school improvement of teacher performance after being given model is an agent of change, especially the collaboration training and after being given activity of learning design, played by teachers as the primary element that directly the design activity contributes much more than training confronts the learners as the developed object. activity. It is acknowledged that design activity exhibits Declaration of Conflicting Interests much more detailed activities including preparing lesson plans, instructional materials, and learning strategies. The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. However, the interaction between teachers and trainers in the implementation of instructional designs has had a sig- Funding nificant impact on improving teaching materials. Teachers also get tutorials directly from peers when having difficulty The author(s) received no financial support for the research, author- ship, and/or publication of this article. in determining learning strategies to apply in classroom set- tings. Such interactions can provide meaningful improve- ORCID iD ments to the lesson plan to facilitate the implementation of learning. Andi Anto Patak https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8417-0493 After analyzing the contribution of training and design References in improving teacher performance, the mentoring system is also proven to contribute significantly to the implementa- Armstrong, T. (2003). The multiple intelligences of reading and tion of learning (Harris & Sass, 2011). The contribution of writing: Making the words come alive. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development mentoring activities gives a much more substantial portion (ASCD). of training activities and learning design activities. This is Armstrong, T. 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His research interest includes Sumedang: Kajian pada Kompetensi Pedagogik [Identification blended learning, distance education, instructional design models, of Teacher’s Competency as Refelction of Educator’s online learning, teacher’s performance improvement, learning Profesionalism: Study on Paedagogical Competency]. Mimbar organization, character education, service learning, and university Sekolah Dasar, 1, 128-141. community engagement. Tracey, M. W., & Richey, R. C. (2007). ID model construction Sitti Fatimah Sangkala Sirate is a senior lecturer of mathematics and validation: A multiple intelligences case. Educational education at the Mathematics Education Department Education and Technology Research and Development, 55, 369-390. Teaching Sciences Seminary, Ujungpandang Education Institution Whitfield, K. (2000). High-performance workplaces, training, and (STKIP-YPUP) Makassar, Indonesia. She teaches various courses, the distribution of skills. Industrial Relations, 39(1), 1-25. such as ethnomathematics, geometry, linear program, statistics, Yaumi, M. (2013). Pembelajaran Berbasis Kecerdasan Jamak educational research methodology, and educational media in math- [Multiple Intelligence-Based Learning]. Jakarta, Indonesia: ematics. Her research interest covers ethnomathematics, curriculum Kencana. development, blended learning, performance improvement, and Yaumi, M. (2014). Model Perbaikan Kinerja Guru dalam teaching and learning in mathematics. Pembelajaran (Model of Teacher’s Performance Improvement in Implementing the Instruction). Makassar, Indonesia: Alauddin Andi Anto Patak has completed his PhD in Measurement and Press. Evaluation at the Education faculty of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia in 2018. He has been working as an academic staff Author Biographies since 2007 at the Department of English, faculty of Languages and Literature, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia. His Muhammad Yaumi is an associate professor in Educational research interests are Writing Assessment, Research Design, Technology under the Department of Education and Teaching Educational Technology, Applied Linguistics, and Spirituals Sciences, Post Graduate Program of Alauddin State Islamic Group Training. University (UIN-Alauddin) of Makassar, Indonesia. He teaches

Journal

SAGE OpenSAGE

Published: Oct 29, 2018

Keywords: teacher’s performance; multiple intelligences; training; designing; mentoring

References