Control Banding for Risk Management of Source Chemical Agents and Other Occupational Hazards by Stephanie Chalupka, EdD, RN, PHCNS-BC, FAAOHN recommendations for PPE based on a In the absence of occupational exposure limits. control banding may be a qualitative assessment of the chemical useful strategy for assessing and controlling occupational hazards as part of a exposure. The use of R-phrases or their comprehensive safety and health program. equivalents in the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) for Classification and ost chemical substances in tional Health and Safety, 2008). Based Labeling of chemicals in CB is helpful, commerce have no estab on these factors, appropriate control but is not intended to replace OELs, ex strategies (risk management options) lished occupational expo M posure assessment, or classic industrial are determined for each of these group sure limits (OELs). In the absence hygiene protocol (NIOSH, 2009). ings. CB is not intended to eliminate of established OELs, employers and CB is not currently appropriate for the need for environmental monitoring workers often lack the necessary guid many situations, including "hot" pro or replace industrial hygiene expertise. ance on the extent to which occupa cesses, open spray applications, gases, In fact, sometimes CB advice directly tional exposures should be controlled. and pesticides. These situations involve guides employers to seek industrial Control banding (CB) is a qualitative more complex exposures requiring ad hygiene expertise. Specific operating strategy for assessing and managing ditional considerations not yet fully knowledge and professional judgment hazards associated with chemical ex addressed by current CB strategies. In are required to implement the best posures in the workplace when there addition, CB does not yet cover safety combination of controls that are "rea are no established relevant OELs. The hazards, environmental issues, or ergo sonably practicable" and to minimize strategy involves a process to group nomic issues (NIOSH, 2010). risks to workers. CB strategies may workplace risks into control bands CB is being increasingly applied be useful for providing hazard control based on combinations of hazard and worldwide. It has been incorporated guidance to small and medium orga exposure information (National In by the United Kingdom into the Con nizations. Larger businesses may find stitute for Occupational Safety and trol of Substances Hazardous to Health CB strategies of the greatest use in the Health [NIOSH], 2009). Control band (COSHH). CB has been international prioritization of hazards and for hazard ized by the Intemational Labour Orga strategies are not intended to be pre communication (NIOSH, 2009). nization (ILO). dictive exposure models. In one of the least complex forms CB was originally developed by The International Programme on of CB, a four-level hierarchy of risk the pharmaceutical industry as a way to Chemical Safety (IPCS), including o _ safely work with new chemicals having manacement options for controlling t~le ILO, the World Health Organiza exposures to chemicals includes: (I) et non (WHO), and the United Nations little or no toxicity information. These Environment Programme (UNEP), new chemicals were classified into fective occupational hygiene practices, has published the International Chem "bands" based on other, more-studied which may be supplemented by using ical Control Toolkit on the ILO web materials' toxicity and anticipated safe appropriate personal protective equip site (www.ilo.org). A useful feature work practices, taking into consider ment (PPE); (2) engineering controls, of the Toolkit is the table showing the ation exposure assessments. including local exhaust ventilation; (3) correspondence between European CB groups chemical exposures ac containment; and (4) seeking specialist R-phrases and the GHS hazard clas cording to similar physical and chemi advice (NIOSH, 2009). sifications. cal characteristics, intended processes To determine the appropriate con or handling, and anticipated exposure trol strategy, the characteristics of a par REFERENCES scenarios (Canadian Centre for Occupa- ticular chemical substance and the po Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and tential for exposure (based on quantity Safety. (2008). Control banding. Retrieved ABOUT THE AUTHOR in use, volatility [for liquids], or dusti from www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/chemicals/ Or. Chalupka is Professor and Director, M.S. in ness [for solids] and the relative hazard control_banding.html Nursing Program, Worcester State University, as described in what is known as a risk Worcester; and Visiting Scientist, Environmen National Institute for Occupational Safety and tal and Occupational Medicine and Epidemiol Health. (2009). Qualitative risk character phrase [R-phraseJ) are analyzed. Un ogy Program, Harvard School of Public Health, iunion and management of occupational derstanding the potential exposures for Boston, MA. hazards: Control banding (CB). A litera The author discloses that she has no significant airborne particulates or vapors involves ture review and critical analysis. Retrieved financial interests in any product or class of characterizing the process or activity in from www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs!2009-)52/ products discussed directly or indirectly in this which the chemical substance is used. pdfs!2009-l52.pdf activity, including research support. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Address correspondence to Stephanie Chalupka. Work processes help in assigning the EdD. RN, PHCNS-BC, FAAOHN, Worcester State Health. (2010). Control banding FAQS. chemical substance to a control band. University, 486 Chandler Street, Worcester, MA Retrieved from www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/ These control bands provide guid 01602. E-mail: schalupk@hsplJ.harvard.edu. ctrlbanding/ctrlbandingfaq.html#7 doi:10.3928/08910 162-20100826-04 ance for various control options and Copyright © American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, Inc.
AAOHN Journal – SAGE
Published: Apr 9, 2019