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At the Margins of Ideal Cities: The Dystopian Drift of Modern Utopias:

At the Margins of Ideal Cities: The Dystopian Drift of Modern Utopias: Contemporary political philosophy has critically reflected on—if not denounced—the theoretical constructions and political enterprises that have been encouraged by modern Utopian tradition. This process of critical reflection has constantly signaled the tension between the emancipatory aspirations of that thought and its dystopian drift. Many authors have highlighted the problems that affect the constitution of those ideal cities. However, this article will be focused on the exclusive and excluding character of those ideal narratives, of those unblemished ideal spaces, of those happy spaces that are, in the end, nonspaces. This article will explain the meanings of the modern utopias taking into account the postmodern point of view that shows the exclusion the modern utopias provoke. At the margins of the ideal cities live all those beings that the utopias have vomited out and expelled from their perfect world: monsters, abnormals, infamous, pariahs, and countryless refugees. Those beings— so well described by Arendt and Foucault, among others—are those who are not part of any ideal city; they are the stones that the builders of the perfect cities have used to build them or have discarded them. Keywords ideal cities, Utopia, dystopia, more, Foucault I have built this city for myself where I may exercise the what role do those ideal projects play in everyday reality. dictatorship Leaving aside the Desiderata aspect, we shall only analyze the political dimension of this issue and, more specifically, Andreae (2007, p. 140) its inherent dystopic turn (cf. Harvey, 2000). To place special emphasis on this feature, we shall explore the classic Utopias Political philosophy, as a kind of practical knowledge, has (from More to Andreae)—in other words, some of the spatial evolved as a reflection that, starting from experience, returns utopias (cf. Harvey, 2000)—because, in these, one can to concrete reality with the goal of acting upon it. The man- clearly see that—in all societies organized according to spa- ner in which it starts, and in which it returns to the daily tial principles (not social or temporal ones)—not only does existence of human beings in their political dimension, has disciplinary power not disappear but also it actually reaches varied greatly. A proof of this is the long history of political degrees that sometimes surpass those of cities that are neither philosophy and the large number of proposals and interpreta- ideal nor perfect. tions of the factum of politics and of the ideal regime. In all Thus, in this article, we will focus on one of the most rel- these cases, independently of the particular traits of each evant problems in modern utopian tradition: its dystopian theoretical model, what has remained constant is the need for character. This characteristic has already been pointed out by a theory to be developed and then to act on political reality. other scholars who have explored this issue. This article will Political philosophy is not political action, but aspires to focus on one single aspect, which has been less explored by change political reality, after having reflected on it. The those scholarly works: The ideal city leaves out or con- question is how one carries out, or how it is believed that one sciously expels all those human beings who do not fit well in should carry out, the modifications that improve the real situ- this world of light and harmony, in the same way that it uses ation of the human beings that actually live in political com- munities. It is clear that it is one thing to design a perfect 1 Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar, Chile world in theoretical terms and quite another—as history has Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain proven time and again—to achieve it in actual practice Corresponding Author: according to the promised plan. Felipe Schwember, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Avenida Padre Hurtado In this sense, it has been widely discussed whether or not 750, Viña del Mar 2581793, Chile. a political philosophy is possible without Utopias ; also, Email: felipe.schwember@uai.cl Creative Commons CC BY: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage). 2 SAGE Open other humans as means upon which to erect the buildings and Cioran’s line of reasoning, we will focus on the ambivalent pave the streets of this happy metropolis. That means that we nature of utopias, the dystopic opposite of those illusions will point out the exclusion and disciplinary power that are which provide inspiration for the ideal city. And, this despite implied in the concept of Utopia. Both are features inherent the fact that “Utopians, . . . always aim at the alleviation and in social dynamics, which a spatial utopia ignores because it elimination of the sources of exploitation and suffering, believes that, by applying more order to spaces and institu- rather than at the composition of blueprints for bourgeois tions (including schools), it will successfully transform soci- comfort” (Jameson, 2005, p. 12). As classic Utopias have ety. It, thus, overlooks the fact that social relations are—by already made plain, the remedies for this exploitation can definition—relations of power subject to the exclusion– only be applied to the detriment of those who will be deemed inclusion dynamic as well as control and surveillance (disci- the “others” within the ideal city. Thus, the purpose of this plinary power), spiritual guidance (pastoral power), and risk work is to emphasize the ambivalent nature of utopias to assessment (biopower). reflect upon power, the city, and marginality. All these forms of power are present in utopias and are Based on Foucault’s ideas, current interpretations of the what give rise to their dystopian turn: Some belong to ideal relationship between power, the city, and social organization cities and some do not. Those that do belong will have to demonstrate that we live in a world characterized by exclu- fulfill certain conditions and will live a life subjected to enor- sion and the creation of ghettoes located on the edge of the mous social control. However, the noncitizens will remain city, places whose inhabitants are second-rate citizens outside the gates. In other words, spatial utopias put into trapped in unhealthy living conditions without basic services actual practice produce dual cities (cf. Davis, 2006; Harvey, (cf. Wacquant, 2007), shantytowns wracked by great social 2000). violence, and where the “surplus” population lives (cf. Beaud From this point of view, employing the philosophical cat- & Pialoux, 2003). They all constitute the new nonpolitical egories proper to Arendt and Foucault (authors whose subjects in this era of globalization (cf. Sassen, 2006). This thought will not be presented in any great detail and of whom article is in keeping with the school of thought already estab- it is not said that they uphold similar political viewpoints), lished by these works and particularly focuses on the dys- we will read part of this modern Utopian tradition, in which, topic roots present in modern Utopias, given that designing in the distance, one can hear the grinding of teeth and the perfect cities without taking into account the social and his- suppressed cries of the noncitizens, of those beings con- torical dimensions of its inhabitants gives rise to spaces of no demned to live at the margins of the cities, in those places of hope (cf. Harvey, 2000). the nonhuman or those nonplaces of the human, depending on the point of view adopted (cf. Harvey, 1976). Virtue, Vice, and the Classical Utopias To put it another way, this is not about finding out whether it is feasible to build such cities or whether their full-fledged By coining the word “utopia,” More also gave birth to an inhabitants are happy and give their consent or not (a prob- ambiguity. On one hand, the prefix “oû,” which in Greek lem pinpointed by Popper). What we seek to do is show the means “no,” denies the possibility that the city described in exclusion, which every utopia inevitably generates and that, the book could exist anywhere. “Utopia” is, then, “no-place.” thus, constitutes a dystopia. Throughout this article, we will On the other hand, the prefix “eû” means “good,” and, thus, show that, in not a single case, do the classical utopias mange “utopia” can be understood as meaning “good place.” It is, to overcome that antagonistic, in–out dynamic, an aspect then, a case of a “good place” that, nevertheless, cannot be which the utopian thinkers observed but did not consider to found anywhere. But nonetheless, it plays a part. be a dystopian feature. In this sense, it is important to This “no-place” serves as a contrast to More’s England, emphasize that modern Utopian thought knows perfectly whose miseries he discusses in the first part of the work. well what it is excluding, who it is stigmatizing, and why it Since then, the concept of utopia has played the function of a is doing all this. Their great architects know the foundations critique, a way to denounce oppression and reject slavery on which they are erecting their utopian cities and they and other social injustices. Its mechanism, then, is the repre- choose them as such to create their happy worlds. sentation of an ideal, imaginary society that contrasts with Over the course of these pages, we will contrast, in vari- real society. The critique of this society is performed with the ous sections, modern utopian–dystopic discourse with those mere description of an ideal city: “Contemplate the alterna- contemporary objections that directly point out the high cost tive to the city that you possess. Other men have organized that these builders–dictators of cities make others pay (i.e., themselves better than you, with means that are similar to those who are not apt for living in the city or appearing in yours.” political space; cf. Arendt, 2004). In the case of More, for example, the imaginary alterna- Thus, this article distances itself from utopian studies, tive to the England he lived in is a society in which there is which delve into the form, content, and function of Utopias no poverty because all productive forces have been mobi- and also from anti-Utopian invective, which, as with Popper, lized, including those of women and children, private prop- prohibits any and all discourse about the ideal city. Following erty has been eliminated, and mechanisms have been Schwember and Urabayen 3 established to democratize the exercise of power. As a result, be tolerated from those that cannot. Here, Andreae affirms: not only have the material conditions of the inhabitants of “[y]et it must be confessed that human flesh cannot be com- Utopia been guaranteed but also the conditions and opportu- pletely conquered anywhere” (Andreae, 2007, p. 164). And, nities for the development of certain vices have been elimi- because certain vices must be punished, there must be in nated. As opposed to the state of things in England, in Christianopolis some kind of criminal law. Finally, and Utopia, there is no vanity, greed, or ambition, and matters of linked to the former two, the greatest difficulty consists in the State are not managed arbitrarily, as though they were imagining a utopia that would not be at the same time a just the expression of the interests of the one who governs. In dystopia. addition, in Utopia, work has been humanized: The working Compliance with these conditions seems to have guaran- day is 6 hr long, alternating with edifying leisure, especially teed the viability of the ideal city and the happiness of its a dedication to study ; there is religious toleration, so there inhabitants. In this way, the great builder or architect of this are no fanatics. utopia exercises power by means of his or her knowledge, More’s Utopian ideas became a constant presence in later enacting the laws that will make its inhabitants into optimal utopias: Their authors imagine certain conditions—optimal citizens and good human beings, even though this is purely but not impossible, as Aristotle would say (cf. Aristotle, and simply an exercise of tyranny (cf. Foucault, 1996). 1998, IV, 1323a)—in which political association is a happy From the Foucaultian point of view, these utopian cities enterprise, because the occasions and opportunities for vice have not achieved the emancipation sought after but rather have been eliminated. In their place, other conditions have are simply the expression of disciplinary power, of a power been implanted, which inspire virtue and foster peace, under- that produces reality in multiple forms and networks, from standing, and harmony. Two examples of later utopias very different organizations and institutions. This is so inspired by More’s vision are those of The City of the Sun by because, for the French philosopher, no human relationship Campanella and Christianopolis by Andreae. is free from the network of powers, and no so-called libera- In the first, there is no property, and work is performed in tion can be reached given that “machines of liberty” do not common, so that there is no stinginess, greed, or laziness. In exist (in this case, ideal designs for happy cities; cf. Foucault, addition, sexual relations are regulated. These regulations 2009, pp. 57-58). The French thinker not only emphasized are not just for promoting eugenics, as in Plato’s Republic, that power circulates and functions but also that it is produc- but also provide an orderly way to express sexual passions to tive of the individual himself or herself, who is seen as the avoid licentious and libertine behaviors. Finally, to eradicate first effect of power (cf. Foucault, 2003c). In addition, it ignorance, not only are the citizens granted an absolute free- affects the consequences of the idea of subjects that are dan- dom of study but also the inhabitants of the The City of the gerous (because they are vice ridden) for society (cf. Castel, Sun have a system of universal education as simple as it is 1991); he further notes that in addition to the fears that ini- (presumably) effective: On the various concentric walls of tially arose united to the processes of urbanization (the the city, all the knowledge of humanity has been represented. arrival of a floating population, poor and marginal), a differ- In this way, from a young age, pupils traverse this encyclope- ent kind of fear arises later: that which arises from produc- dia of stone accompanied by their pedagogues. tion, especially affecting those workers who, despite being in In Christianopolis, private property has also been abol- contact with wealth, do not possess it (cf. Foucault, 2013, ished—albeit not completely—for reasons similar to those French edition). These working subjects suffer from an given by Campanella and More. This abolition, together with absolute control of their time, body, and daily behavior, and work in common and the suppression of wealth, has made are forced to be responsible for contingencies (unemploy- way for a flourishing of virtue, which, in its turn, has fostered ment, poor health, accidents) by buying insurance (cf. Ewald, abundance (cf. Andreae, 2007). In addition, just as in More’s 1991). That is, their entire existence is controlled (cf. and Campanella’s utopias, that of Andreae’s describes a soci- Foucault, 2013). This is what classical utopias prescribe. ety in which the yoke that weighs women down has been These disciplines give rise to the creation of a society that removed. In the society of Andreae, for example, when con- is built on the kidnapping of the time of those human beings tracting marriage, the woman not need to be worry about the that are subjected to production cycles and to punishment for dowry (cf. Andreae, 2007). the irregularity of a behavior, rather than the infraction of a Even so, the inhabitants of the Utopian worlds are not bet- law (cf. Foucault, 1995). Again, there reappears the necessity ter than us. They are like us, with the single (but highly of developing a legal system, especially a criminal law. But important) difference being that they live under institutions this does not seek to be the planning of an ideal city, but that prevent the arising of vicious dispositions. The first dif- rather the description of disciplines that historically have ficulty derives, then, from imagining these institutions, in been and continue to be applied. describing their functioning and interaction, but without, in In addition, this disciplinary power has concretized, as the so doing, allowing the description of it to become a merely thinkers–tyrants–builders of utopias have dreamt, in biopo- fantastic digression. The second difficulty, related to the for- litical programs, which can become a Thanatos policy (cf. mer, is drawing the boundary that separates the vices that can Vila Viñas, 2014). Normally, however, it materializes by way 4 SAGE Open of a more “subtle” notion: human capital, both innate and own historical context. Despite this humanitarian pretense, acquired, which every individual must take charge of, opti- for the contemporary person, its more inhuman face is clear mizing its potential (cf. Foucault, 2008, pp. 267-289), a (cf. Berlin, 2002). notion that appears in its more biological dimension as one It is clear that the principal characteristic of utopias— of the pillars in The City of the Sun. Here, the door opens to which precisely has to do with the measures already indi- social engineering, which today is a reality, not a utopia cated in the previous section—is their isolation: The utopian understood as a nonplace. It is the dystopian realization of all city is located in another space, remote, out of the way, and eugenetic utopias: the place where the nonhuman, whether the protagonist of the tale stumbles upon the city. We do not subhuman or defective, either becomes an optimal human or know where Utopia, The City of the Sun, and New Atlantis else is cast away to a nonplace. are; we know little more than that they are islands in the From a virtuous, happy society lacking vices, we have ocean. In all cases, the reason for their inaccessibility is the moved to a society that observes, encloses, punishes, and same: Their blessed uniqueness is partly explained by isola- produces all individual and social violence (cf. Harvey, tion. To a large degree, the islands are happy because they 1996). This is a utopia that exists, it has occurred, but it is not have not permitted any regular and intense commerce with precisely a happy place: It is a great dystopian space in which the rest of the world that would be sufficient to permit the human beings are subjected to an orthopedics along with infiltration of unhealthy customs. For the same reason, and to constant control (cf. Harvey, 1996). preserve the happiness of its inhabitants, not just anyone can visit the city. Whenever a shipwrecked person or a visitor arrives, its inhabitants—jealous guardians of the character of The Kingdom of Virtue and the Price of their society—tell the newly arrived person about the island’s Perfection customs and explain what kinds of people are not welcome Utopias are the reflection of certain aspirations to political (cf. Andreae, 2007). emancipation: of the poor from the rich, of the women from These notifications are not just a kind of dissuasive mea- the men, of the weak from the powerful, and so forth. This sure against the foreigner but are also a hint for the reader aspiration is what moves the utopians to imagine cities in about the peculiarities of the island and, in particular, of the which there is no longer any private property, where power is purity of the customs that rule over it. For these reasons, uto- exercised in agreement with moral criteria. Finally, every- pias are—as is well known—closed societies. As a result, thing takes place according to the dictates of a mere political utopian cities are understood to be cloistered spaces; they are realism: Without property, there is no place for the urge to not places for wandering around. That is, all are subjected to become rich; without marriage, there is no adultery; without political and urbanistic models that arise prior to the second an absolute monarchy, there is no tyranny, and so forth. half of the 18th century and the first years of the 19th, when Readers may be able to sympathize with the political aspi- cities are opened, walls are torn down, and the problems of rations of a utopia, while doubting the efficacy or even the security are no longer united to territory, but rather to what plausibility of the means that are proposed to bring it about. circulates: goods, persons, diseases, and so forth. In the case Could it not be, for example, that the abolition of private of utopian cities, we have an isolated society that has adopted property or the establishment of community labor might be quarantine measures: dividing the city up on a grid, includ- the occasion for the arising of other vices, such as laziness ing its boroughs and common areas, vigilance and periodic and negligence? Might it not happen that with the suppres- reporting of the inhabitants and their state of health, total sion of games and other similar forms of enjoyment, a certain control of the daily habits of life; that is, “institutions of kid- happiness and vivacity among the inhabitants might be lost napping,” which are combined with a plague regime: expul- as well? Could it not happen, finally, that the incessant, jeal- sion to the city’s margins of all those who are not accepted ous pursuit of sexual purity, chastity, and so forth might end because they do not comply with the rules of normality up promoting other forms of depravity? (monsters, abnormal, infamous, pariahs, and refugees); and But beyond the issue of whether the concrete measures finally, the smallpox regime: control in the name of safety, to proposed for each utopia to combat vice are counterproduc- protect the population’s state of health and immunological tive or not, it is always a good idea to ask oneself about the compliance (cf. Foucault, 2007). desirability and justice of those measures. Given that the nar- To provide only one example of how the principles delin- rator of the utopia has the right to imagine that the inhabit- eated in classical utopias have taken shape and exercised ants of his ideal city are little better than us, he cannot claim influence over current political projects, we shall describe that there will be no vice (if it were so, there would also be the case of Baltimore analyzed by Harvey as a paradigm of no need for writing utopias). And, when confronted with this the dual-segregated city. According to Harvey, like so many difficulty, the utopias reveal, albeit involuntarily, their less other ones in the United States, this city has been the target friendly faces. This is despite the fact that the measures of different urban and social policies aimed at fighting pov- imagined or proposed to fight against vice and promote vir- erty, crime, and insecurity since the late 1960s (coinciding tue would be humanitarian, from the point of view of their with the assassination of Martin Luther King). In all the Schwember and Urabayen 5 cases, the theory of the underclass was brought on board and institution of public confession, a recurrent theme in some of two kinds of movements were promoted: on one hand, the the classical utopias. In Christianopolis, all its citizens are bourgeois utopia or suburban sprawl, which led to the cre- encouraged to confess their sins publicly (Andreae, 2007). ation of private urban enclaves in the outskirts of the city, And, although this exhortation does not, theoretically, and, on the other, gentrification that—with the return of the involve any kind of obligation, the failure to participate bourgeois population back to the downtown area of the exposes the recalcitrant and remiss to a variety of punish- city—imposed policies involving segregation, police con- ments that can culminate in expulsion (Andreae, 2007). trol, and rehousing the poor in villages in inner city settings, Something similar occurs in The City of the Sun, a hiero- in other words, suburban privatopias and urban gated com- cracy where everyone confesses to the principal officials. munities in inner city settings (cf. Harvey, 2000), in both These servants of the city, in turn, confess to the principal cases, closed and isolated spaces. magistrate, Sun, the metaphysician, who later confesses pub- The closure, in the utopian modern tradition, does not licly, both his own sins and those of all the citizens, before have to do just with the necessity of creating a common ethos proceeding to expurgatory sacrifices (Campanella, 1981). but also with the forms and rules that must be adopted to This is the role of the pastoral power: The pastor who cares preserve this ethos: those of the family (More, 2006). It is for and responds to each and every one of his sheep (Foucault, not an accident that ever since Plato utopias have blurred the 2014a). differences between political society and family, where prop- The exercise of disciplinary power—as Foucault noted, in erty does not exist and everything is held in common. For the reference to the historical situations of various European same reason, the unity and the links between family mem- countries—is, in utopias, largely granted to civil society as a bers are so close that the interests of one are the interests of whole. The lack of proportion between the demands of all the others. It is in the family that utopia finds, explicitly or mutual coexistence and the alleged frequency of penal pun- no, its model and predecessor. ishments is surely one of the most unlikely—in the sense of From this point on, one might say that the city has a dys- unrealistic—traits of classical utopias. This intervention— topian drift, not just because vigilance must be constant, but supposedly extraordinary or residual—is explained by the because of the nature of the infractions that must be punished deep support of their customs, the belief on the part of the and the type of punishment that must be inflicted. We find an citizens in the goodness and rectitude of their laws, and, example of all this in the following passage from Utopía: finally, because of the consequent collaboration that all law- abiding citizens offer, in the inspection of, and obedience to, So you see that nowhere is there any chance to loaf or any the laws. In Utopia, for example, parents are those who most pretext for evading work; there are no wine-bars, or ale-houses, closely watch over their children so that they will observe the or brothels; no chances for corruption; no hiding places; no spots laws about marriage and sexual behavior and “both the father for secret meetings. Because they live in the full view of all, they and mother of the household where the offence was commit- are bound to be either working at their usual trades or enjoying ted suffer public disgrace for having been remiss in their their leisure in a respectable way. (More, 2006, p. 145) duty” (More, 2006, p. 189). This, for Foucault, is the role of the bourgeois family that converts the child into a little per- The function of public streetlights in Christianopolis vert, whose sexual behaviors must be carefully watched over gives us an idea of the type of vigilance practiced and the because pleasure that does not come from normal sexuality is nature of the infractions that are punished: the cause of a whole series of abnormal behaviors that are considered to be aberrant, and susceptible to being psychia- They do not allow the night to be dark, but brighten it up with trized (cf. Foucault, 2003a). lighted lanterns, the object being to provide for the safety of the This conviction—which serves as a support for social city and to put a stop to useless wandering about, but also to control in the utopias—as well as the social uniformity that render the night watches less unpleasant. (Andreae, 2007, p. follows on it, is assumed to an absurd degree in The City of 172) the Sun. Once these techniques of control have been defeated, we have come to the moment of punishment by death, a pun- This is, in fact, the idea of the Panopticon (cf. Bentham, ishment that is never imposed without the acquiescence of 1995). The moralist orientation of ideal cities demands the entire city. Everybody stones the transgressor or burns imposing a scrupulous watchfulness over a variety of activi- him, but not without seeking to persuade him, employing all ties: sexual life, opinions, the use of free time, working meth- the pertinent arguments about the rightness of the punish- ods, and the conscience of the citizens. That is, they possess ment that is being inflicted on him. The goal is that the con- all the traits of the disciplinary societies described in the pre- demned accept the sentence and “admits that it is merited” vious section. These more general prohibitions are joined by (Campanella, 1981, p. 99). a condemnation of idle chatter and, in the The City of the The fact that the efficacy of social control makes capital Sun, food portions are watched (Campanella, 1981). The punishment rare would make the tale of utopia a sweet one, examination of conscience is present, above all, in the were it not for the obsession of the inhabitants with severely 6 SAGE Open punishing certain piddling behaviors or proposing extreme counterparts, its punishments are less severe and less gory. In punishments for infractions that real societies punish with addition, torture is neither part of the regular proceedings of lesser severity or which lack any other punishment than the trials nor used as a means of testing the accused person. reproach of society. Thus, for example, in The City of the From this point of view, the system of punishments of the Sun, “It is a capital offense for women to use cosmetics, . . . different ideal cities are still utopian (ideal) compared with or to wear high heels and gowns with trains to cover the those of their own times. heels” (Campanella, 1981, p. 61), and in Utopia, “[v]iolators Nevertheless, in addition to the system of punishments, in of the marriage bond are punished with the strictest form of the various utopias we find groups of people that either do slavery,” whereas reoffenders are punished with death (More, not participate in the utopia and are, thus, more or less a pri- 2006, pp. 191-193). ori outside the city (the excluded), or those who are employed This peculiarity of criminal law is explained because the as means of constructing the utopias, and do not have the system of punishments in utopia tends to criminalize exactly same rights as the other inhabitants (the pariahs). In this lat- the opposite infractions than their real counterparts. For the ter case, we are talking of the rights of individuals at whose time being, it is not necessary to punish infractions against expense the utopia prospers. In modern utopias, we find for- property, because it does not exist, and when it does exist, it eigners and atheists in the first category. In the second class, is not a primordial legal good. Following this logic, explains we encounter slaves, and, in the case of The City of Sun, ster- Andreae, that “the judges of the Christian City observe this ile women. custom especially, that they punish most severely those mis- Those excluded from the utopias are the people who are deeds which are directed straight against God, less severely not admitted into the city. What the great utopian thinkers those which injure men, and lightest of all those which harm seem to not take into account is that every human community only property” (Andreae, 2007, pp. 164-165). is constituted as a “we” that excludes a “you.” In that very act But the most unsettling characteristic of the criminal law of noninclusion or explicit expulsion, the utopia ceases to in these ideal cities—and in this regard, we must recognize appear a happy place, but rather as a place that accumulates that their creators did not know how to extricate themselves at its margins human beings who, as Brecht said, cannot par- from the prejudices of their own times—is the undefined ticipate in the festival of life. The excluded are human beings nature of the punishment associated with a given crime. In who are as worthy, or even more worthy than the others, to Utopia, “[n]o other crimes carry fixed penalties; the senate inhabit that city that they have no access to. The cases are decrees a specific punishment for each misdeed, as it is con- quite broad, and are susceptible to different classifications. sidered atrocious or venial” (More, 2006, p. 193). To follow our chosen presentation structure to the end, we When the punishment is not death, it will be admonitory, will only pay attention to those pointed out by modern uto- seeking to stigmatize the criminal (More, 2006). But some- pian thinkers. We will then proceed to discuss the contempo- times, the mere drawing of attention to the delinquent is rary reply. insufficient. On those occasions, it is appropriate to also The first type of people excluded from the utopias were make clear what crime the guilty person is being punished foreigners. The foreigner could find himself or herself in dif- for. That is, punishments are applied, which—in contrast ferent situations. As a visitor, stated More, the foreigner with those contained in the law codes that have arisen out of would be received with suspicion, because foreign elements the work of the great political theorists, and from the could damage the utopian social order. If he or she were Napoleonic and post-Napoleonic codes—do not separate admitted, it would be with reservations and only after pass- legality from morality, crime from sin. This is why they ing a number of tests. But there are other foreigners than just involve ridicule and stigmatization—even expulsion from the visitor. They can also be citizens of other towns. the society that considers itself to be under attack (cf. Regarding these people, classical utopias describe an attitude Foucault, 2003c). The logic that is applied in those utopian that is more or less isolationist and instrumental. In the case cities is that of normalization, not that of legality (cf. of the New Atlantis, for example, contact with foreigners is Donzelot, 1991). This means that disciplinary power did not limited to seeking information about scientific discoveries only continue to be applied in utopias but also, in some cases, and technological innovations. Apart from the travels for sci- was even greater than that exercised in nonutopian cities of entific research that took place every 12 years, the Neo- the time. Atlantians were prohibited from leaving the territories of their realm. In Utopia and The City of the Sun, ordinary com- merce is allowed. However, it was prohibited to engage in any cultural exchange that was broader than what they Perfection at the Expense of Others: learned from Greco–Latin philosophy or the doctrines of The Excluded and the Pariahs of the Christianity, upon which both systems, utopians later erected Ideal City their own ideal societies. We can, however, concede that the criminal law of the classic The foreigner can also be, in the case of the Utopia of utopias is not only more humanitarian than its real More, a member of an indigenous people who was colonized Schwember and Urabayen 7 or displaced. The excess population in Utopia emigrates to as just a foreigner (stateless for many years)—emphasizes other islands to establish colonies. The natives of the place the perplexity of the law. One might suppose that human colonized are invited to become part of the new utopian city. rights are natural, but in the precise moment in which people Those who refuse to live under the Utopians’ laws are lose their citizenship, they lose all the protection of the law, expelled from the frontiers they themselves established. War because there is now nobody in the entire world (including is prosecuted against those who put up resistance (cf. More, international law, which was then nearly nonexistent; it is 2006). As Arendt (2004) held, “the ‘allien’ is a frightening now better developed but remains equally incapable of act- symbol of the fact of difference as such, of individuality as ing in the face of the grave humanitarian crisis suffered by such, and indicates those realms in which man cannot change refugees) that could guarantee them (cf. Arendt, 2004). and cannot act and in which, therefore, he has a distinct ten- The atheists are the second category of persons expelled dency to destroy” (p. 383). from utopian cities. Although all classical utopias proposed The case of the native peoples who have been displaced some form of tolerance, in all of them, the touchstone of that can fall—depending on what the legitimate manners of tolerance was atheism (More, 2006). The positions of the acquisition of soil are—under the second category sketched classical utopias coincide and can be summed up citing the out here, that is, pariahs. Utopias, such as existing political opinion that Locke would later maintain: All beliefs can be communities, are suspicious of this different human being, tolerated except for atheism. Utopus, for example, left all who is not one of our own, and who, as such, is an undesir- individuals free to believe what they wanted, but able in the city. So, the foreigner, as defined by Simmel, “is not understood here as wanderer, the sense in which the term the only exception was a solemn and strict law against anyone was used many times up to now, one who arrives today and who should sink so far below the dignity of human nature as to think that the soul perishes with the body, or that the universe is leaves tomorrow, but as one who comes today and stays ruled by blind chance, not divine providence. (More, 2006, pp. tomorrow” (Simmel, 2009, p. 601), but in staying, he or she 223-225) becomes a pariah, a human being who is pointed out and treated differently. There are many, too many, human beings who are found The reason for this prohibition is, ultimately, the same in this situation in real countries and who, more and more, offered by Locke: The atheist has no reason to act morally face a xenophobic and racist social response: The foreigners, and, thus, has no reason for obeying social norms. Atheists those who come from outside and are invading our land, our are, therefore, especially repudiated, and should be seen as society, our world are dangerous (criminals, thieves, rapists); enemies of the State (cf. More, 2006). For contemporary they are poor people who become an economic burden for thinkers, this is just one more motive for exclusion, but in the real and native residents, and take jobs away from citi- a secularized and globalized world, it is not usually the zens, who are those who have the right to everything (cf. trait that provokes the greatest rejection, except among Foucault, 2003c; Procacci, 1991). certain fundamentalist political projects, where political The social mechanism of the utopias is, in sum, the same and religious power combine to adopt the form of a as that of all real communities: Either they integrate the other theocracy. foreigners, obligating them to take on the way of life of the The final dystopian category is that of people who are not island, or else, they expel them, to institutions designed to full citizens. Pariahs are those groups or persons who live in receive them, normalize them, isolate them from the rest of ideal cities, and in real communities, but they are second- the population either internally (mental institutions, hospi- class citizens. They are undesirable beings whose existence tals, prisons, internment, or detention camps; cf. Foucault, is merely tolerated, provided they keep within certain limits 1978, 1979, 1980, 1995, 1998, 2003a, 2003b) or externally (physical or geographical, moral, professional, etc.). They (to the no-man’s land of present-day refugee camps, to the are people who do not have the same civil or social rights as extermination camps of other times; cf. Arendt, 1994, 2004). others do. Only when the story is told from the point of view of the The works of utopian thinkers also classify those people people who are not inhabitants of the light city does it show who should not exist in ideal cities. Servants and slaves are the other face of the place made for happiness. the first. Perhaps, the greatest progress in classical utopias When the other, the expelled person, is the one who tells regarding slavery is their lack of any institution such as what his or her tale, the shadows are more than obvious: A new Aristotle called “slavery by nature” (Aristotle, 1998, I, pp. class of human beings has been created, a group of people 2-7). Certainly, there is slavery in nearly all classical utopias, who are confined in concentration camps by their enemies but it is something imposed by convention. Normally, these and in internment camps by their friends, and have to forget slaves had been captured during war, but there are also those their past (Arendt, 1994). Arendt, on a number of occa- who are guilty of some crime, and who are given the harshest sions—basing herself on her own experience as an internal labor. In Utopia, for example, the slaves perform the worst foreigner (a Jew in Nazi Germany), a foreign enemy (a jobs (cf. More, 2006) or they perform heavy work outside the German refugee in France during the Second World War), or city (cf. Campanella, 1981). 8 SAGE Open Work in the utopian republics has been humanized and Even so, the sterile woman has a compensation: She is has become less onerous for its inhabitants, who have easier the only woman in The City of the Sun who is permitted to workdays. Nevertheless, this progress has been possible, to a give herself freely to the love of her beloved (cf. Campanella, large degree, thanks to the fact that slaves are forced to per- 1981). This is a strange privilege for a woman who is use- form the most thankless and/or degrading work. less for her supposed natural purpose: to be fertile and gen- One need not be suspicious to recognize in these affirma- erate an increase in social wealth in the form of a healthy tions a profound dystopia that lives in the heart of the uto- and perfect population for a world that is happy and pias, just as in real societies. There are countless human prosperous. beings who work as slaves or as semislaves at the service of In conclusion, our reflection on utopias has shown that the a global economic market, whose goods are only enjoyed by ambiguity of the term has become real in a way contrary to a certain number of privileged people, who want to shut their what was expected: “Eû” has turned out to not exist, because eyes to reality. They believe themselves to be living in an some of the measures that have been proposed have not pre- ideal society in which, by law, there is no slavery, and every- cisely made them into happy places. In contrast, “oû” has body obtains what he or she deserves according to the fruit of turned out to be a nonplace that exists and has taken the form his or her labor and his or her effort. Those are anarcho– of those institutions and spaces in which the human has been capitalist songs that, in the ears of the excluded people, are treated as nonhuman. The utopias, as places dreamed of with the songs of the swan that dies from exhaustion (cf. Davis, humanitarian aims, and with the objective of playing a criti- 2006). This occurs, however, always at the margins of ideal cal role in the face of existent cities, have become real places cities (in the shacks, in depressed sectors, at the other side of inhabited by thousands of human beings who are not the world, in underdeveloped countries, in other places). Utopians, Solars, or Atlantans, but people who live terrible This is the other face of the utopia–reality offered up by ideal lives at the margins of ideal cities. That is to say, what was cities built with spatial criteria, which generate dual, segre- once the measure for criticism is today criticized as being gated, and fragmented spaces where a major portion of the dystopian. inhabitants are considered noninhabitants or inhabitants of The classic utopias are proposals for social reform, which places-not-fit-to-be-inhabited (Davis, 2006; Harvey, 1976, were designed without taking into account the close relation- 1996, 2000, 2005). ship between the city and its inhabitants: The city is its The sterile woman is another symbol of the pariah who inhabitants. inhabits the utopias. For example, in The City of the Sun, Thus, when it is pointed out that the city (its spatial plan- Campanella describes a society organized according to ning) is what defines the citizen, then dystopias are inevita- Platonic principles: Goods and women are held in common. bly generated. First because those designs seek to eliminate Just as in the Republic, eugenics is systematically practiced anomie and alterity or otherness from the city–society, in The City of the Sun. The makeup of the couples, as well as which is both impossible and undesirable. Second because the opportunity for and frequency of coitus, are scrupulously not only does this exclude part of the population but also determined and controlled by one of the principal magis- keeps other social groups within the category of semiciti- trates of the city: love (cf. Campanella, 1981). zens as well as subjecting all the citizens to disciplinary, The Solars are subjected to an obsessive control over pastoral, and biopolitical control that they have internal- hygiene and sexual relations, a control which has, for men, ized. And, finally, they seek to stabilize the social order and the compensation of having sex with sterile women. Although prevent any historical process from introducing social it is prohibited for men to have sexual relations before 21 changes. For example, “in Bacon’s New Atlantis . . . the years of age, some are authorized “to have intercourse with King decides that society has achieved such a state of per- barren pregnant women so as to avoid illicit usages” fection that no further social change is needed” (Harvey, (Campanella, 1981, p. 53). 2000, p. 160). In this manner, the dystopic turn of utopias The sterile woman in The City of the Sun, thus, fulfills a does not occur because—when it materializes—the utopia dual role in the preservation of health and virtue: She is a decays or is destroyed but because this dystopic turn lies in means not only for letting off steam among the young men the very heart of the utopia. but also serves as a protection against sodomy and similar If we are to learn a lesson from the modern utopias, it is practices that are against nature. In The City of the Sun, the this: Social reality is much more complex than what the sterile woman is not her own owner—after all, in the City, Utopian thinkers first believed, that is, that the city is defined nobody possesses his or her own self—but in addition, she by its social relationships. cannot aspire to the recognition afforded to women among Therefore, any idea that attempts to avoid the dystopic the Solars (cf. Campanella, 1981). The sterile woman has no turn of spatial utopias must at some point face the fact that constructive function in The City of the Sun and the only the right to being part of a city is far different from living in thing left to her, as a result, is to be the object of sexual a remote corner of a walled/isolated city defended from ano- necessity for men (cf. Campanella, 1981). mie and the rabble outside. Schwember and Urabayen 9 Declaration of Conflicting Interests between classic utopias, contractualism, and Enlightenment philosophy. Also, in German is a study by Höffe (2016), which The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect explores classic utopias. to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. 5. Compare Popper (1962) and Popper (2011), also, Hayek (1988). Funding 6. “The dreams of utopia have for the most part been realized, but in an entirely different spirit from the one in which they The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for had been conceived; what was perfection for utopia is for us a the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This work flaw.” Cioran (1987, p. 86) was supported by the Spanish Government (Ministerio de Economía 7. It is paternalistic (cf. Berlin, 2002), despotic and dystopian to y Competitividad, Programa de I+D+i orientada a los Retos de la confer upon one’s own society or one of its leading members Sociedad) through the grant “Mapa de Riesgo Social” (Reference: the control over morals, habits, customs, and ways of life. This CSO2013-42576-R) and by Chile’s Research Program: proyecto is the function, which Foucault attributes to pastoral power, Fondecyt number. 1160982 “Crítica y recepción de las utopías y del which, at some point in time, starts to be considered as yet utopismo en el liberalismo libertario y en el liberalismo another dimension of biopolitical power and, through the socialdemócrata del siglo XX: Popper, Hayek, Nozick y Rawls.” police figure, proposes to take care of all the aspects of every- day life, as seen precisely in the classical utopias (cf. Foucault, Notes 2008). We must not forget—as some have interpreted—that the 1. Oscar Wilde wrote, “a map of the world that does not include lifestyle of Utopia’s inhabitants (such as the lunches and din- Utopia is not even worth glancing at, for it leaves out the one ners taken in the public dining halls) replicate the Carthusian country at which Humanity is always landing,” The Soul of way of life. In other words, it is not only disciplinary power Man Under Socialism (https://www.marxists.org/reference/ but pastoral power as well. archive/wilde-oscar/soul-man/index.htm). However, one 8. Concern for the conditions of labor becomes more acute as could argue that any map of the world that contains the word the model of industrial production advances. This results in, “Utopia” has, in effect, betrayed the emancipating nature of for instance, Marx’s denunciation (cf. Marx & Engels, 2010). the context from which Utopia sprang. Facing this situation, he proposed that the workers emphasize 2. It would be interesting to explore the utopian side of Marxism that the duty of every man consists in developing himself in all whose spatial aspects to a large degree are similar to those his natural dispositions (Marx, 2000). in liberalism where Marx developed his ideas (cf. Balibar & 9. As is well known, these three classic utopias were aimed at Wallerstein, 1991). However, because Marxism is mainly a denouncing the moral evils of their time and that are also ours school of thought whose most Utopian characteristic is of a today: poverty, avarice, greed, corruption, and so forth. They temporal–social sort (cf. Harvey, 2000), delving into this issue were all clearly influenced by Plato: the abolition of private goes far beyond the scope of this work. Still, one might take property and the peculiar, painstakingly careful education on some non-Western utopias, such as Al-Farabi’s perfect state given to their inhabitants eradicated those evils and paved the or simply more practical utopias such as Butler’s Erewhon. way toward virtue. In Utopia and The City of the Sun, uto- But that would probably involve possibly losing the thread that pia has taken shape within a pagan society, thereby suggest- runs throughout this work. ing that natural reason brims with emancipating possibilities. 3. The German thinker unites this racist theory to imperialism, Cristianopolis, however, is a Christian (Protestant) utopia. For which became an instrument for the conquest and the extermi- an analysis of these different classic utopias, their context, and nation of the other. Arendt writes that the logic of imperialism so forth, cf. Höffe (2016). In any case, the exercise we have establishes the idea that the value of a human being is the price carried out here with the classic utopias can be done with any established by the buyer, whereas power is an accumulated subsequent utopia. Thus, for example, in Herland, the price dominion over public opinion, which is what permits fixing paid for living in peace and harmony is the exclusion of all prices, thus becoming the fundamental desire of all human males and the use of asexual reproduction (Gilman, 1979). In beings. In addition, this means that all human beings are equal Looking Backward, capitalism is substituted for a socialist, in their desire for power, because they are all equally capable militarized society where, despite everything, females play a of killing the other. Therefore the best way to avoid having more junior role (Bellamy, 2000). people kill each other is to delegate this power to the State, 10. Discipline is above all an analysis of space; it is the individu- which will exercise a monopoly on the ability to kill, which, alization by space (cf. Foucault, 1979, 1995). in turn, will provide the security of the law (cf. Arendt, 2004; 11. In addition, moralization campaigns are prepared for the Hill, 1979). working classes, to avoid illegalities caused by dissipation 4. The pioneering work on utopia-as-desire was Bloch’s (1995). (cf. Foucault, 2013). All this involves the perfect continuity Mannheim’s (1979) work is also crucial and—counter to ideol- between the punitive and the penal. ogy—it sees progressive and transformative attributes in uto- 12. This is the criticism of Aristotle and Plato (cf. Aristotle, pia. Levitas (2011) provides a systematic study of utopia and 1998). utopianism. For an exhaustive study in historical and concep- 13. Bacon refers expressly to this question, to toss it aside. He tual terms, see Kumar (1987, 1991). For different approaches defends the necessity of proscribing prostitution and provid- to utopia and utopianism within modern thought, see Manuel ing incentives for chastity. Bacon holds that the proposal that and Manuel (2009). For works in German, see Saage (1989, sees in the depenalization of prostitution a lesser evil, has a 1997) who—among other things—explores the relationships “preposterous wisdom” (cf. Bacon, 2008, p. 174). 10 SAGE Open 14. The Utopian way of thinking has wielded great influence over 25. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for the urban form and urban planning of many cities (cf. Harvey, Human Rights (OHCHR), created in 1950, currently provides 2000). Moreover, we must not forget that the Utopian think- humanitarian aid to more than 36 million people. ers wished to build real cities: Owen, Fourier, Chambless, and 26. In Christianopolis—it must be said—there is no slavery. Cabet. 27. Foucault studied the hygienic medical practices of Ancient 15. For Arendt, the domestic community arises out of necessity Greece in Foucault (1978). and is ruled by the necessities of life. House is, therefore, a prepolitical realm, which has nothing to do with the chaotic References state of nature of the political theories of the 17th century (cf. Arendt, 1958). In second place, in this domain, things lack Andreae, J. V. (2007). Christianopolis: An ideal of the 17th century duration or stability, and, as a result, cannot create a world. (F. E. Held, Trans.). New York, NY: Cosimo Classics. To confuse or reduce human life to biology is, therefore, to Arendt, H. (1958). The human condition. Chicago, IL: The impoverish the human and to commit an error that brings grave University of Chicago Press. consequences (cf. Pitkin, 1998). This is the explanation of the Arendt, H. (1994). We refugees. In M. Robinson (Ed.), Altogether distinction Arendt maintains between Zoe and bios, and her elsewhere: Writers on exile (pp. 111-119). 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Un marco para la teoría social y política contemporánea. Harvey, D. (1976). Social justice and the city. London, England: Zaragoza, Spain: Prensas de la Universidad de Zaragoza. Edward Arnold. Wacquant, L. (2007). Parias urbains. Ghetto, banlieues, État. Harvey, D. (1996). Justice, nature and the geography of difference. Paris, France: La Découverte. Cambridge, UK: Edward Arnold. Harvey, D. (2000). Spaces of hope. Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh Author Biographies University Press. Felipe Schwember is a full professor (University Adolfo Ibáñez. Harvey, D. (2005). The new imperialism. Oxford, UK: Oxford Chile). He has given numerous seminars and conferences. He has University Press. published a lot articles in national and international journals. Hayek, F. (1988). The fatal conceit: The errors of socialism. London, England: Routledge. Julia Urabayen is a full professor (University of Navarra. Spain). Hill, M. A. (Ed.). (1979). Hannah Arendt: The recovery of the pub- She has given numerous seminars and conferences. She has pub- lic world. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press. lished a lot articles in national and international journals. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png SAGE Open SAGE

At the Margins of Ideal Cities: The Dystopian Drift of Modern Utopias:

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Abstract

Contemporary political philosophy has critically reflected on—if not denounced—the theoretical constructions and political enterprises that have been encouraged by modern Utopian tradition. This process of critical reflection has constantly signaled the tension between the emancipatory aspirations of that thought and its dystopian drift. Many authors have highlighted the problems that affect the constitution of those ideal cities. However, this article will be focused on the exclusive and excluding character of those ideal narratives, of those unblemished ideal spaces, of those happy spaces that are, in the end, nonspaces. This article will explain the meanings of the modern utopias taking into account the postmodern point of view that shows the exclusion the modern utopias provoke. At the margins of the ideal cities live all those beings that the utopias have vomited out and expelled from their perfect world: monsters, abnormals, infamous, pariahs, and countryless refugees. Those beings— so well described by Arendt and Foucault, among others—are those who are not part of any ideal city; they are the stones that the builders of the perfect cities have used to build them or have discarded them. Keywords ideal cities, Utopia, dystopia, more, Foucault I have built this city for myself where I may exercise the what role do those ideal projects play in everyday reality. dictatorship Leaving aside the Desiderata aspect, we shall only analyze the political dimension of this issue and, more specifically, Andreae (2007, p. 140) its inherent dystopic turn (cf. Harvey, 2000). To place special emphasis on this feature, we shall explore the classic Utopias Political philosophy, as a kind of practical knowledge, has (from More to Andreae)—in other words, some of the spatial evolved as a reflection that, starting from experience, returns utopias (cf. Harvey, 2000)—because, in these, one can to concrete reality with the goal of acting upon it. The man- clearly see that—in all societies organized according to spa- ner in which it starts, and in which it returns to the daily tial principles (not social or temporal ones)—not only does existence of human beings in their political dimension, has disciplinary power not disappear but also it actually reaches varied greatly. A proof of this is the long history of political degrees that sometimes surpass those of cities that are neither philosophy and the large number of proposals and interpreta- ideal nor perfect. tions of the factum of politics and of the ideal regime. In all Thus, in this article, we will focus on one of the most rel- these cases, independently of the particular traits of each evant problems in modern utopian tradition: its dystopian theoretical model, what has remained constant is the need for character. This characteristic has already been pointed out by a theory to be developed and then to act on political reality. other scholars who have explored this issue. This article will Political philosophy is not political action, but aspires to focus on one single aspect, which has been less explored by change political reality, after having reflected on it. The those scholarly works: The ideal city leaves out or con- question is how one carries out, or how it is believed that one sciously expels all those human beings who do not fit well in should carry out, the modifications that improve the real situ- this world of light and harmony, in the same way that it uses ation of the human beings that actually live in political com- munities. It is clear that it is one thing to design a perfect 1 Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar, Chile world in theoretical terms and quite another—as history has Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain proven time and again—to achieve it in actual practice Corresponding Author: according to the promised plan. Felipe Schwember, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Avenida Padre Hurtado In this sense, it has been widely discussed whether or not 750, Viña del Mar 2581793, Chile. a political philosophy is possible without Utopias ; also, Email: felipe.schwember@uai.cl Creative Commons CC BY: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage). 2 SAGE Open other humans as means upon which to erect the buildings and Cioran’s line of reasoning, we will focus on the ambivalent pave the streets of this happy metropolis. That means that we nature of utopias, the dystopic opposite of those illusions will point out the exclusion and disciplinary power that are which provide inspiration for the ideal city. And, this despite implied in the concept of Utopia. Both are features inherent the fact that “Utopians, . . . always aim at the alleviation and in social dynamics, which a spatial utopia ignores because it elimination of the sources of exploitation and suffering, believes that, by applying more order to spaces and institu- rather than at the composition of blueprints for bourgeois tions (including schools), it will successfully transform soci- comfort” (Jameson, 2005, p. 12). As classic Utopias have ety. It, thus, overlooks the fact that social relations are—by already made plain, the remedies for this exploitation can definition—relations of power subject to the exclusion– only be applied to the detriment of those who will be deemed inclusion dynamic as well as control and surveillance (disci- the “others” within the ideal city. Thus, the purpose of this plinary power), spiritual guidance (pastoral power), and risk work is to emphasize the ambivalent nature of utopias to assessment (biopower). reflect upon power, the city, and marginality. All these forms of power are present in utopias and are Based on Foucault’s ideas, current interpretations of the what give rise to their dystopian turn: Some belong to ideal relationship between power, the city, and social organization cities and some do not. Those that do belong will have to demonstrate that we live in a world characterized by exclu- fulfill certain conditions and will live a life subjected to enor- sion and the creation of ghettoes located on the edge of the mous social control. However, the noncitizens will remain city, places whose inhabitants are second-rate citizens outside the gates. In other words, spatial utopias put into trapped in unhealthy living conditions without basic services actual practice produce dual cities (cf. Davis, 2006; Harvey, (cf. Wacquant, 2007), shantytowns wracked by great social 2000). violence, and where the “surplus” population lives (cf. Beaud From this point of view, employing the philosophical cat- & Pialoux, 2003). They all constitute the new nonpolitical egories proper to Arendt and Foucault (authors whose subjects in this era of globalization (cf. Sassen, 2006). This thought will not be presented in any great detail and of whom article is in keeping with the school of thought already estab- it is not said that they uphold similar political viewpoints), lished by these works and particularly focuses on the dys- we will read part of this modern Utopian tradition, in which, topic roots present in modern Utopias, given that designing in the distance, one can hear the grinding of teeth and the perfect cities without taking into account the social and his- suppressed cries of the noncitizens, of those beings con- torical dimensions of its inhabitants gives rise to spaces of no demned to live at the margins of the cities, in those places of hope (cf. Harvey, 2000). the nonhuman or those nonplaces of the human, depending on the point of view adopted (cf. Harvey, 1976). Virtue, Vice, and the Classical Utopias To put it another way, this is not about finding out whether it is feasible to build such cities or whether their full-fledged By coining the word “utopia,” More also gave birth to an inhabitants are happy and give their consent or not (a prob- ambiguity. On one hand, the prefix “oû,” which in Greek lem pinpointed by Popper). What we seek to do is show the means “no,” denies the possibility that the city described in exclusion, which every utopia inevitably generates and that, the book could exist anywhere. “Utopia” is, then, “no-place.” thus, constitutes a dystopia. Throughout this article, we will On the other hand, the prefix “eû” means “good,” and, thus, show that, in not a single case, do the classical utopias mange “utopia” can be understood as meaning “good place.” It is, to overcome that antagonistic, in–out dynamic, an aspect then, a case of a “good place” that, nevertheless, cannot be which the utopian thinkers observed but did not consider to found anywhere. But nonetheless, it plays a part. be a dystopian feature. In this sense, it is important to This “no-place” serves as a contrast to More’s England, emphasize that modern Utopian thought knows perfectly whose miseries he discusses in the first part of the work. well what it is excluding, who it is stigmatizing, and why it Since then, the concept of utopia has played the function of a is doing all this. Their great architects know the foundations critique, a way to denounce oppression and reject slavery on which they are erecting their utopian cities and they and other social injustices. Its mechanism, then, is the repre- choose them as such to create their happy worlds. sentation of an ideal, imaginary society that contrasts with Over the course of these pages, we will contrast, in vari- real society. The critique of this society is performed with the ous sections, modern utopian–dystopic discourse with those mere description of an ideal city: “Contemplate the alterna- contemporary objections that directly point out the high cost tive to the city that you possess. Other men have organized that these builders–dictators of cities make others pay (i.e., themselves better than you, with means that are similar to those who are not apt for living in the city or appearing in yours.” political space; cf. Arendt, 2004). In the case of More, for example, the imaginary alterna- Thus, this article distances itself from utopian studies, tive to the England he lived in is a society in which there is which delve into the form, content, and function of Utopias no poverty because all productive forces have been mobi- and also from anti-Utopian invective, which, as with Popper, lized, including those of women and children, private prop- prohibits any and all discourse about the ideal city. Following erty has been eliminated, and mechanisms have been Schwember and Urabayen 3 established to democratize the exercise of power. As a result, be tolerated from those that cannot. Here, Andreae affirms: not only have the material conditions of the inhabitants of “[y]et it must be confessed that human flesh cannot be com- Utopia been guaranteed but also the conditions and opportu- pletely conquered anywhere” (Andreae, 2007, p. 164). And, nities for the development of certain vices have been elimi- because certain vices must be punished, there must be in nated. As opposed to the state of things in England, in Christianopolis some kind of criminal law. Finally, and Utopia, there is no vanity, greed, or ambition, and matters of linked to the former two, the greatest difficulty consists in the State are not managed arbitrarily, as though they were imagining a utopia that would not be at the same time a just the expression of the interests of the one who governs. In dystopia. addition, in Utopia, work has been humanized: The working Compliance with these conditions seems to have guaran- day is 6 hr long, alternating with edifying leisure, especially teed the viability of the ideal city and the happiness of its a dedication to study ; there is religious toleration, so there inhabitants. In this way, the great builder or architect of this are no fanatics. utopia exercises power by means of his or her knowledge, More’s Utopian ideas became a constant presence in later enacting the laws that will make its inhabitants into optimal utopias: Their authors imagine certain conditions—optimal citizens and good human beings, even though this is purely but not impossible, as Aristotle would say (cf. Aristotle, and simply an exercise of tyranny (cf. Foucault, 1996). 1998, IV, 1323a)—in which political association is a happy From the Foucaultian point of view, these utopian cities enterprise, because the occasions and opportunities for vice have not achieved the emancipation sought after but rather have been eliminated. In their place, other conditions have are simply the expression of disciplinary power, of a power been implanted, which inspire virtue and foster peace, under- that produces reality in multiple forms and networks, from standing, and harmony. Two examples of later utopias very different organizations and institutions. This is so inspired by More’s vision are those of The City of the Sun by because, for the French philosopher, no human relationship Campanella and Christianopolis by Andreae. is free from the network of powers, and no so-called libera- In the first, there is no property, and work is performed in tion can be reached given that “machines of liberty” do not common, so that there is no stinginess, greed, or laziness. In exist (in this case, ideal designs for happy cities; cf. Foucault, addition, sexual relations are regulated. These regulations 2009, pp. 57-58). The French thinker not only emphasized are not just for promoting eugenics, as in Plato’s Republic, that power circulates and functions but also that it is produc- but also provide an orderly way to express sexual passions to tive of the individual himself or herself, who is seen as the avoid licentious and libertine behaviors. Finally, to eradicate first effect of power (cf. Foucault, 2003c). In addition, it ignorance, not only are the citizens granted an absolute free- affects the consequences of the idea of subjects that are dan- dom of study but also the inhabitants of the The City of the gerous (because they are vice ridden) for society (cf. Castel, Sun have a system of universal education as simple as it is 1991); he further notes that in addition to the fears that ini- (presumably) effective: On the various concentric walls of tially arose united to the processes of urbanization (the the city, all the knowledge of humanity has been represented. arrival of a floating population, poor and marginal), a differ- In this way, from a young age, pupils traverse this encyclope- ent kind of fear arises later: that which arises from produc- dia of stone accompanied by their pedagogues. tion, especially affecting those workers who, despite being in In Christianopolis, private property has also been abol- contact with wealth, do not possess it (cf. Foucault, 2013, ished—albeit not completely—for reasons similar to those French edition). These working subjects suffer from an given by Campanella and More. This abolition, together with absolute control of their time, body, and daily behavior, and work in common and the suppression of wealth, has made are forced to be responsible for contingencies (unemploy- way for a flourishing of virtue, which, in its turn, has fostered ment, poor health, accidents) by buying insurance (cf. Ewald, abundance (cf. Andreae, 2007). In addition, just as in More’s 1991). That is, their entire existence is controlled (cf. and Campanella’s utopias, that of Andreae’s describes a soci- Foucault, 2013). This is what classical utopias prescribe. ety in which the yoke that weighs women down has been These disciplines give rise to the creation of a society that removed. In the society of Andreae, for example, when con- is built on the kidnapping of the time of those human beings tracting marriage, the woman not need to be worry about the that are subjected to production cycles and to punishment for dowry (cf. Andreae, 2007). the irregularity of a behavior, rather than the infraction of a Even so, the inhabitants of the Utopian worlds are not bet- law (cf. Foucault, 1995). Again, there reappears the necessity ter than us. They are like us, with the single (but highly of developing a legal system, especially a criminal law. But important) difference being that they live under institutions this does not seek to be the planning of an ideal city, but that prevent the arising of vicious dispositions. The first dif- rather the description of disciplines that historically have ficulty derives, then, from imagining these institutions, in been and continue to be applied. describing their functioning and interaction, but without, in In addition, this disciplinary power has concretized, as the so doing, allowing the description of it to become a merely thinkers–tyrants–builders of utopias have dreamt, in biopo- fantastic digression. The second difficulty, related to the for- litical programs, which can become a Thanatos policy (cf. mer, is drawing the boundary that separates the vices that can Vila Viñas, 2014). Normally, however, it materializes by way 4 SAGE Open of a more “subtle” notion: human capital, both innate and own historical context. Despite this humanitarian pretense, acquired, which every individual must take charge of, opti- for the contemporary person, its more inhuman face is clear mizing its potential (cf. Foucault, 2008, pp. 267-289), a (cf. Berlin, 2002). notion that appears in its more biological dimension as one It is clear that the principal characteristic of utopias— of the pillars in The City of the Sun. Here, the door opens to which precisely has to do with the measures already indi- social engineering, which today is a reality, not a utopia cated in the previous section—is their isolation: The utopian understood as a nonplace. It is the dystopian realization of all city is located in another space, remote, out of the way, and eugenetic utopias: the place where the nonhuman, whether the protagonist of the tale stumbles upon the city. We do not subhuman or defective, either becomes an optimal human or know where Utopia, The City of the Sun, and New Atlantis else is cast away to a nonplace. are; we know little more than that they are islands in the From a virtuous, happy society lacking vices, we have ocean. In all cases, the reason for their inaccessibility is the moved to a society that observes, encloses, punishes, and same: Their blessed uniqueness is partly explained by isola- produces all individual and social violence (cf. Harvey, tion. To a large degree, the islands are happy because they 1996). This is a utopia that exists, it has occurred, but it is not have not permitted any regular and intense commerce with precisely a happy place: It is a great dystopian space in which the rest of the world that would be sufficient to permit the human beings are subjected to an orthopedics along with infiltration of unhealthy customs. For the same reason, and to constant control (cf. Harvey, 1996). preserve the happiness of its inhabitants, not just anyone can visit the city. Whenever a shipwrecked person or a visitor arrives, its inhabitants—jealous guardians of the character of The Kingdom of Virtue and the Price of their society—tell the newly arrived person about the island’s Perfection customs and explain what kinds of people are not welcome Utopias are the reflection of certain aspirations to political (cf. Andreae, 2007). emancipation: of the poor from the rich, of the women from These notifications are not just a kind of dissuasive mea- the men, of the weak from the powerful, and so forth. This sure against the foreigner but are also a hint for the reader aspiration is what moves the utopians to imagine cities in about the peculiarities of the island and, in particular, of the which there is no longer any private property, where power is purity of the customs that rule over it. For these reasons, uto- exercised in agreement with moral criteria. Finally, every- pias are—as is well known—closed societies. As a result, thing takes place according to the dictates of a mere political utopian cities are understood to be cloistered spaces; they are realism: Without property, there is no place for the urge to not places for wandering around. That is, all are subjected to become rich; without marriage, there is no adultery; without political and urbanistic models that arise prior to the second an absolute monarchy, there is no tyranny, and so forth. half of the 18th century and the first years of the 19th, when Readers may be able to sympathize with the political aspi- cities are opened, walls are torn down, and the problems of rations of a utopia, while doubting the efficacy or even the security are no longer united to territory, but rather to what plausibility of the means that are proposed to bring it about. circulates: goods, persons, diseases, and so forth. In the case Could it not be, for example, that the abolition of private of utopian cities, we have an isolated society that has adopted property or the establishment of community labor might be quarantine measures: dividing the city up on a grid, includ- the occasion for the arising of other vices, such as laziness ing its boroughs and common areas, vigilance and periodic and negligence? Might it not happen that with the suppres- reporting of the inhabitants and their state of health, total sion of games and other similar forms of enjoyment, a certain control of the daily habits of life; that is, “institutions of kid- happiness and vivacity among the inhabitants might be lost napping,” which are combined with a plague regime: expul- as well? Could it not happen, finally, that the incessant, jeal- sion to the city’s margins of all those who are not accepted ous pursuit of sexual purity, chastity, and so forth might end because they do not comply with the rules of normality up promoting other forms of depravity? (monsters, abnormal, infamous, pariahs, and refugees); and But beyond the issue of whether the concrete measures finally, the smallpox regime: control in the name of safety, to proposed for each utopia to combat vice are counterproduc- protect the population’s state of health and immunological tive or not, it is always a good idea to ask oneself about the compliance (cf. Foucault, 2007). desirability and justice of those measures. Given that the nar- To provide only one example of how the principles delin- rator of the utopia has the right to imagine that the inhabit- eated in classical utopias have taken shape and exercised ants of his ideal city are little better than us, he cannot claim influence over current political projects, we shall describe that there will be no vice (if it were so, there would also be the case of Baltimore analyzed by Harvey as a paradigm of no need for writing utopias). And, when confronted with this the dual-segregated city. According to Harvey, like so many difficulty, the utopias reveal, albeit involuntarily, their less other ones in the United States, this city has been the target friendly faces. This is despite the fact that the measures of different urban and social policies aimed at fighting pov- imagined or proposed to fight against vice and promote vir- erty, crime, and insecurity since the late 1960s (coinciding tue would be humanitarian, from the point of view of their with the assassination of Martin Luther King). In all the Schwember and Urabayen 5 cases, the theory of the underclass was brought on board and institution of public confession, a recurrent theme in some of two kinds of movements were promoted: on one hand, the the classical utopias. In Christianopolis, all its citizens are bourgeois utopia or suburban sprawl, which led to the cre- encouraged to confess their sins publicly (Andreae, 2007). ation of private urban enclaves in the outskirts of the city, And, although this exhortation does not, theoretically, and, on the other, gentrification that—with the return of the involve any kind of obligation, the failure to participate bourgeois population back to the downtown area of the exposes the recalcitrant and remiss to a variety of punish- city—imposed policies involving segregation, police con- ments that can culminate in expulsion (Andreae, 2007). trol, and rehousing the poor in villages in inner city settings, Something similar occurs in The City of the Sun, a hiero- in other words, suburban privatopias and urban gated com- cracy where everyone confesses to the principal officials. munities in inner city settings (cf. Harvey, 2000), in both These servants of the city, in turn, confess to the principal cases, closed and isolated spaces. magistrate, Sun, the metaphysician, who later confesses pub- The closure, in the utopian modern tradition, does not licly, both his own sins and those of all the citizens, before have to do just with the necessity of creating a common ethos proceeding to expurgatory sacrifices (Campanella, 1981). but also with the forms and rules that must be adopted to This is the role of the pastoral power: The pastor who cares preserve this ethos: those of the family (More, 2006). It is for and responds to each and every one of his sheep (Foucault, not an accident that ever since Plato utopias have blurred the 2014a). differences between political society and family, where prop- The exercise of disciplinary power—as Foucault noted, in erty does not exist and everything is held in common. For the reference to the historical situations of various European same reason, the unity and the links between family mem- countries—is, in utopias, largely granted to civil society as a bers are so close that the interests of one are the interests of whole. The lack of proportion between the demands of all the others. It is in the family that utopia finds, explicitly or mutual coexistence and the alleged frequency of penal pun- no, its model and predecessor. ishments is surely one of the most unlikely—in the sense of From this point on, one might say that the city has a dys- unrealistic—traits of classical utopias. This intervention— topian drift, not just because vigilance must be constant, but supposedly extraordinary or residual—is explained by the because of the nature of the infractions that must be punished deep support of their customs, the belief on the part of the and the type of punishment that must be inflicted. We find an citizens in the goodness and rectitude of their laws, and, example of all this in the following passage from Utopía: finally, because of the consequent collaboration that all law- abiding citizens offer, in the inspection of, and obedience to, So you see that nowhere is there any chance to loaf or any the laws. In Utopia, for example, parents are those who most pretext for evading work; there are no wine-bars, or ale-houses, closely watch over their children so that they will observe the or brothels; no chances for corruption; no hiding places; no spots laws about marriage and sexual behavior and “both the father for secret meetings. Because they live in the full view of all, they and mother of the household where the offence was commit- are bound to be either working at their usual trades or enjoying ted suffer public disgrace for having been remiss in their their leisure in a respectable way. (More, 2006, p. 145) duty” (More, 2006, p. 189). This, for Foucault, is the role of the bourgeois family that converts the child into a little per- The function of public streetlights in Christianopolis vert, whose sexual behaviors must be carefully watched over gives us an idea of the type of vigilance practiced and the because pleasure that does not come from normal sexuality is nature of the infractions that are punished: the cause of a whole series of abnormal behaviors that are considered to be aberrant, and susceptible to being psychia- They do not allow the night to be dark, but brighten it up with trized (cf. Foucault, 2003a). lighted lanterns, the object being to provide for the safety of the This conviction—which serves as a support for social city and to put a stop to useless wandering about, but also to control in the utopias—as well as the social uniformity that render the night watches less unpleasant. (Andreae, 2007, p. follows on it, is assumed to an absurd degree in The City of 172) the Sun. Once these techniques of control have been defeated, we have come to the moment of punishment by death, a pun- This is, in fact, the idea of the Panopticon (cf. Bentham, ishment that is never imposed without the acquiescence of 1995). The moralist orientation of ideal cities demands the entire city. Everybody stones the transgressor or burns imposing a scrupulous watchfulness over a variety of activi- him, but not without seeking to persuade him, employing all ties: sexual life, opinions, the use of free time, working meth- the pertinent arguments about the rightness of the punish- ods, and the conscience of the citizens. That is, they possess ment that is being inflicted on him. The goal is that the con- all the traits of the disciplinary societies described in the pre- demned accept the sentence and “admits that it is merited” vious section. These more general prohibitions are joined by (Campanella, 1981, p. 99). a condemnation of idle chatter and, in the The City of the The fact that the efficacy of social control makes capital Sun, food portions are watched (Campanella, 1981). The punishment rare would make the tale of utopia a sweet one, examination of conscience is present, above all, in the were it not for the obsession of the inhabitants with severely 6 SAGE Open punishing certain piddling behaviors or proposing extreme counterparts, its punishments are less severe and less gory. In punishments for infractions that real societies punish with addition, torture is neither part of the regular proceedings of lesser severity or which lack any other punishment than the trials nor used as a means of testing the accused person. reproach of society. Thus, for example, in The City of the From this point of view, the system of punishments of the Sun, “It is a capital offense for women to use cosmetics, . . . different ideal cities are still utopian (ideal) compared with or to wear high heels and gowns with trains to cover the those of their own times. heels” (Campanella, 1981, p. 61), and in Utopia, “[v]iolators Nevertheless, in addition to the system of punishments, in of the marriage bond are punished with the strictest form of the various utopias we find groups of people that either do slavery,” whereas reoffenders are punished with death (More, not participate in the utopia and are, thus, more or less a pri- 2006, pp. 191-193). ori outside the city (the excluded), or those who are employed This peculiarity of criminal law is explained because the as means of constructing the utopias, and do not have the system of punishments in utopia tends to criminalize exactly same rights as the other inhabitants (the pariahs). In this lat- the opposite infractions than their real counterparts. For the ter case, we are talking of the rights of individuals at whose time being, it is not necessary to punish infractions against expense the utopia prospers. In modern utopias, we find for- property, because it does not exist, and when it does exist, it eigners and atheists in the first category. In the second class, is not a primordial legal good. Following this logic, explains we encounter slaves, and, in the case of The City of Sun, ster- Andreae, that “the judges of the Christian City observe this ile women. custom especially, that they punish most severely those mis- Those excluded from the utopias are the people who are deeds which are directed straight against God, less severely not admitted into the city. What the great utopian thinkers those which injure men, and lightest of all those which harm seem to not take into account is that every human community only property” (Andreae, 2007, pp. 164-165). is constituted as a “we” that excludes a “you.” In that very act But the most unsettling characteristic of the criminal law of noninclusion or explicit expulsion, the utopia ceases to in these ideal cities—and in this regard, we must recognize appear a happy place, but rather as a place that accumulates that their creators did not know how to extricate themselves at its margins human beings who, as Brecht said, cannot par- from the prejudices of their own times—is the undefined ticipate in the festival of life. The excluded are human beings nature of the punishment associated with a given crime. In who are as worthy, or even more worthy than the others, to Utopia, “[n]o other crimes carry fixed penalties; the senate inhabit that city that they have no access to. The cases are decrees a specific punishment for each misdeed, as it is con- quite broad, and are susceptible to different classifications. sidered atrocious or venial” (More, 2006, p. 193). To follow our chosen presentation structure to the end, we When the punishment is not death, it will be admonitory, will only pay attention to those pointed out by modern uto- seeking to stigmatize the criminal (More, 2006). But some- pian thinkers. We will then proceed to discuss the contempo- times, the mere drawing of attention to the delinquent is rary reply. insufficient. On those occasions, it is appropriate to also The first type of people excluded from the utopias were make clear what crime the guilty person is being punished foreigners. The foreigner could find himself or herself in dif- for. That is, punishments are applied, which—in contrast ferent situations. As a visitor, stated More, the foreigner with those contained in the law codes that have arisen out of would be received with suspicion, because foreign elements the work of the great political theorists, and from the could damage the utopian social order. If he or she were Napoleonic and post-Napoleonic codes—do not separate admitted, it would be with reservations and only after pass- legality from morality, crime from sin. This is why they ing a number of tests. But there are other foreigners than just involve ridicule and stigmatization—even expulsion from the visitor. They can also be citizens of other towns. the society that considers itself to be under attack (cf. Regarding these people, classical utopias describe an attitude Foucault, 2003c). The logic that is applied in those utopian that is more or less isolationist and instrumental. In the case cities is that of normalization, not that of legality (cf. of the New Atlantis, for example, contact with foreigners is Donzelot, 1991). This means that disciplinary power did not limited to seeking information about scientific discoveries only continue to be applied in utopias but also, in some cases, and technological innovations. Apart from the travels for sci- was even greater than that exercised in nonutopian cities of entific research that took place every 12 years, the Neo- the time. Atlantians were prohibited from leaving the territories of their realm. In Utopia and The City of the Sun, ordinary com- merce is allowed. However, it was prohibited to engage in any cultural exchange that was broader than what they Perfection at the Expense of Others: learned from Greco–Latin philosophy or the doctrines of The Excluded and the Pariahs of the Christianity, upon which both systems, utopians later erected Ideal City their own ideal societies. We can, however, concede that the criminal law of the classic The foreigner can also be, in the case of the Utopia of utopias is not only more humanitarian than its real More, a member of an indigenous people who was colonized Schwember and Urabayen 7 or displaced. The excess population in Utopia emigrates to as just a foreigner (stateless for many years)—emphasizes other islands to establish colonies. The natives of the place the perplexity of the law. One might suppose that human colonized are invited to become part of the new utopian city. rights are natural, but in the precise moment in which people Those who refuse to live under the Utopians’ laws are lose their citizenship, they lose all the protection of the law, expelled from the frontiers they themselves established. War because there is now nobody in the entire world (including is prosecuted against those who put up resistance (cf. More, international law, which was then nearly nonexistent; it is 2006). As Arendt (2004) held, “the ‘allien’ is a frightening now better developed but remains equally incapable of act- symbol of the fact of difference as such, of individuality as ing in the face of the grave humanitarian crisis suffered by such, and indicates those realms in which man cannot change refugees) that could guarantee them (cf. Arendt, 2004). and cannot act and in which, therefore, he has a distinct ten- The atheists are the second category of persons expelled dency to destroy” (p. 383). from utopian cities. Although all classical utopias proposed The case of the native peoples who have been displaced some form of tolerance, in all of them, the touchstone of that can fall—depending on what the legitimate manners of tolerance was atheism (More, 2006). The positions of the acquisition of soil are—under the second category sketched classical utopias coincide and can be summed up citing the out here, that is, pariahs. Utopias, such as existing political opinion that Locke would later maintain: All beliefs can be communities, are suspicious of this different human being, tolerated except for atheism. Utopus, for example, left all who is not one of our own, and who, as such, is an undesir- individuals free to believe what they wanted, but able in the city. So, the foreigner, as defined by Simmel, “is not understood here as wanderer, the sense in which the term the only exception was a solemn and strict law against anyone was used many times up to now, one who arrives today and who should sink so far below the dignity of human nature as to think that the soul perishes with the body, or that the universe is leaves tomorrow, but as one who comes today and stays ruled by blind chance, not divine providence. (More, 2006, pp. tomorrow” (Simmel, 2009, p. 601), but in staying, he or she 223-225) becomes a pariah, a human being who is pointed out and treated differently. There are many, too many, human beings who are found The reason for this prohibition is, ultimately, the same in this situation in real countries and who, more and more, offered by Locke: The atheist has no reason to act morally face a xenophobic and racist social response: The foreigners, and, thus, has no reason for obeying social norms. Atheists those who come from outside and are invading our land, our are, therefore, especially repudiated, and should be seen as society, our world are dangerous (criminals, thieves, rapists); enemies of the State (cf. More, 2006). For contemporary they are poor people who become an economic burden for thinkers, this is just one more motive for exclusion, but in the real and native residents, and take jobs away from citi- a secularized and globalized world, it is not usually the zens, who are those who have the right to everything (cf. trait that provokes the greatest rejection, except among Foucault, 2003c; Procacci, 1991). certain fundamentalist political projects, where political The social mechanism of the utopias is, in sum, the same and religious power combine to adopt the form of a as that of all real communities: Either they integrate the other theocracy. foreigners, obligating them to take on the way of life of the The final dystopian category is that of people who are not island, or else, they expel them, to institutions designed to full citizens. Pariahs are those groups or persons who live in receive them, normalize them, isolate them from the rest of ideal cities, and in real communities, but they are second- the population either internally (mental institutions, hospi- class citizens. They are undesirable beings whose existence tals, prisons, internment, or detention camps; cf. Foucault, is merely tolerated, provided they keep within certain limits 1978, 1979, 1980, 1995, 1998, 2003a, 2003b) or externally (physical or geographical, moral, professional, etc.). They (to the no-man’s land of present-day refugee camps, to the are people who do not have the same civil or social rights as extermination camps of other times; cf. Arendt, 1994, 2004). others do. Only when the story is told from the point of view of the The works of utopian thinkers also classify those people people who are not inhabitants of the light city does it show who should not exist in ideal cities. Servants and slaves are the other face of the place made for happiness. the first. Perhaps, the greatest progress in classical utopias When the other, the expelled person, is the one who tells regarding slavery is their lack of any institution such as what his or her tale, the shadows are more than obvious: A new Aristotle called “slavery by nature” (Aristotle, 1998, I, pp. class of human beings has been created, a group of people 2-7). Certainly, there is slavery in nearly all classical utopias, who are confined in concentration camps by their enemies but it is something imposed by convention. Normally, these and in internment camps by their friends, and have to forget slaves had been captured during war, but there are also those their past (Arendt, 1994). Arendt, on a number of occa- who are guilty of some crime, and who are given the harshest sions—basing herself on her own experience as an internal labor. In Utopia, for example, the slaves perform the worst foreigner (a Jew in Nazi Germany), a foreign enemy (a jobs (cf. More, 2006) or they perform heavy work outside the German refugee in France during the Second World War), or city (cf. Campanella, 1981). 8 SAGE Open Work in the utopian republics has been humanized and Even so, the sterile woman has a compensation: She is has become less onerous for its inhabitants, who have easier the only woman in The City of the Sun who is permitted to workdays. Nevertheless, this progress has been possible, to a give herself freely to the love of her beloved (cf. Campanella, large degree, thanks to the fact that slaves are forced to per- 1981). This is a strange privilege for a woman who is use- form the most thankless and/or degrading work. less for her supposed natural purpose: to be fertile and gen- One need not be suspicious to recognize in these affirma- erate an increase in social wealth in the form of a healthy tions a profound dystopia that lives in the heart of the uto- and perfect population for a world that is happy and pias, just as in real societies. There are countless human prosperous. beings who work as slaves or as semislaves at the service of In conclusion, our reflection on utopias has shown that the a global economic market, whose goods are only enjoyed by ambiguity of the term has become real in a way contrary to a certain number of privileged people, who want to shut their what was expected: “Eû” has turned out to not exist, because eyes to reality. They believe themselves to be living in an some of the measures that have been proposed have not pre- ideal society in which, by law, there is no slavery, and every- cisely made them into happy places. In contrast, “oû” has body obtains what he or she deserves according to the fruit of turned out to be a nonplace that exists and has taken the form his or her labor and his or her effort. Those are anarcho– of those institutions and spaces in which the human has been capitalist songs that, in the ears of the excluded people, are treated as nonhuman. The utopias, as places dreamed of with the songs of the swan that dies from exhaustion (cf. Davis, humanitarian aims, and with the objective of playing a criti- 2006). This occurs, however, always at the margins of ideal cal role in the face of existent cities, have become real places cities (in the shacks, in depressed sectors, at the other side of inhabited by thousands of human beings who are not the world, in underdeveloped countries, in other places). Utopians, Solars, or Atlantans, but people who live terrible This is the other face of the utopia–reality offered up by ideal lives at the margins of ideal cities. That is to say, what was cities built with spatial criteria, which generate dual, segre- once the measure for criticism is today criticized as being gated, and fragmented spaces where a major portion of the dystopian. inhabitants are considered noninhabitants or inhabitants of The classic utopias are proposals for social reform, which places-not-fit-to-be-inhabited (Davis, 2006; Harvey, 1976, were designed without taking into account the close relation- 1996, 2000, 2005). ship between the city and its inhabitants: The city is its The sterile woman is another symbol of the pariah who inhabitants. inhabits the utopias. For example, in The City of the Sun, Thus, when it is pointed out that the city (its spatial plan- Campanella describes a society organized according to ning) is what defines the citizen, then dystopias are inevita- Platonic principles: Goods and women are held in common. bly generated. First because those designs seek to eliminate Just as in the Republic, eugenics is systematically practiced anomie and alterity or otherness from the city–society, in The City of the Sun. The makeup of the couples, as well as which is both impossible and undesirable. Second because the opportunity for and frequency of coitus, are scrupulously not only does this exclude part of the population but also determined and controlled by one of the principal magis- keeps other social groups within the category of semiciti- trates of the city: love (cf. Campanella, 1981). zens as well as subjecting all the citizens to disciplinary, The Solars are subjected to an obsessive control over pastoral, and biopolitical control that they have internal- hygiene and sexual relations, a control which has, for men, ized. And, finally, they seek to stabilize the social order and the compensation of having sex with sterile women. Although prevent any historical process from introducing social it is prohibited for men to have sexual relations before 21 changes. For example, “in Bacon’s New Atlantis . . . the years of age, some are authorized “to have intercourse with King decides that society has achieved such a state of per- barren pregnant women so as to avoid illicit usages” fection that no further social change is needed” (Harvey, (Campanella, 1981, p. 53). 2000, p. 160). In this manner, the dystopic turn of utopias The sterile woman in The City of the Sun, thus, fulfills a does not occur because—when it materializes—the utopia dual role in the preservation of health and virtue: She is a decays or is destroyed but because this dystopic turn lies in means not only for letting off steam among the young men the very heart of the utopia. but also serves as a protection against sodomy and similar If we are to learn a lesson from the modern utopias, it is practices that are against nature. In The City of the Sun, the this: Social reality is much more complex than what the sterile woman is not her own owner—after all, in the City, Utopian thinkers first believed, that is, that the city is defined nobody possesses his or her own self—but in addition, she by its social relationships. cannot aspire to the recognition afforded to women among Therefore, any idea that attempts to avoid the dystopic the Solars (cf. Campanella, 1981). The sterile woman has no turn of spatial utopias must at some point face the fact that constructive function in The City of the Sun and the only the right to being part of a city is far different from living in thing left to her, as a result, is to be the object of sexual a remote corner of a walled/isolated city defended from ano- necessity for men (cf. Campanella, 1981). mie and the rabble outside. Schwember and Urabayen 9 Declaration of Conflicting Interests between classic utopias, contractualism, and Enlightenment philosophy. Also, in German is a study by Höffe (2016), which The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect explores classic utopias. to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. 5. Compare Popper (1962) and Popper (2011), also, Hayek (1988). Funding 6. “The dreams of utopia have for the most part been realized, but in an entirely different spirit from the one in which they The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for had been conceived; what was perfection for utopia is for us a the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This work flaw.” Cioran (1987, p. 86) was supported by the Spanish Government (Ministerio de Economía 7. It is paternalistic (cf. Berlin, 2002), despotic and dystopian to y Competitividad, Programa de I+D+i orientada a los Retos de la confer upon one’s own society or one of its leading members Sociedad) through the grant “Mapa de Riesgo Social” (Reference: the control over morals, habits, customs, and ways of life. This CSO2013-42576-R) and by Chile’s Research Program: proyecto is the function, which Foucault attributes to pastoral power, Fondecyt number. 1160982 “Crítica y recepción de las utopías y del which, at some point in time, starts to be considered as yet utopismo en el liberalismo libertario y en el liberalismo another dimension of biopolitical power and, through the socialdemócrata del siglo XX: Popper, Hayek, Nozick y Rawls.” police figure, proposes to take care of all the aspects of every- day life, as seen precisely in the classical utopias (cf. Foucault, Notes 2008). We must not forget—as some have interpreted—that the 1. Oscar Wilde wrote, “a map of the world that does not include lifestyle of Utopia’s inhabitants (such as the lunches and din- Utopia is not even worth glancing at, for it leaves out the one ners taken in the public dining halls) replicate the Carthusian country at which Humanity is always landing,” The Soul of way of life. In other words, it is not only disciplinary power Man Under Socialism (https://www.marxists.org/reference/ but pastoral power as well. archive/wilde-oscar/soul-man/index.htm). However, one 8. Concern for the conditions of labor becomes more acute as could argue that any map of the world that contains the word the model of industrial production advances. This results in, “Utopia” has, in effect, betrayed the emancipating nature of for instance, Marx’s denunciation (cf. Marx & Engels, 2010). the context from which Utopia sprang. Facing this situation, he proposed that the workers emphasize 2. It would be interesting to explore the utopian side of Marxism that the duty of every man consists in developing himself in all whose spatial aspects to a large degree are similar to those his natural dispositions (Marx, 2000). in liberalism where Marx developed his ideas (cf. Balibar & 9. As is well known, these three classic utopias were aimed at Wallerstein, 1991). However, because Marxism is mainly a denouncing the moral evils of their time and that are also ours school of thought whose most Utopian characteristic is of a today: poverty, avarice, greed, corruption, and so forth. They temporal–social sort (cf. Harvey, 2000), delving into this issue were all clearly influenced by Plato: the abolition of private goes far beyond the scope of this work. Still, one might take property and the peculiar, painstakingly careful education on some non-Western utopias, such as Al-Farabi’s perfect state given to their inhabitants eradicated those evils and paved the or simply more practical utopias such as Butler’s Erewhon. way toward virtue. In Utopia and The City of the Sun, uto- But that would probably involve possibly losing the thread that pia has taken shape within a pagan society, thereby suggest- runs throughout this work. ing that natural reason brims with emancipating possibilities. 3. The German thinker unites this racist theory to imperialism, Cristianopolis, however, is a Christian (Protestant) utopia. For which became an instrument for the conquest and the extermi- an analysis of these different classic utopias, their context, and nation of the other. Arendt writes that the logic of imperialism so forth, cf. Höffe (2016). In any case, the exercise we have establishes the idea that the value of a human being is the price carried out here with the classic utopias can be done with any established by the buyer, whereas power is an accumulated subsequent utopia. Thus, for example, in Herland, the price dominion over public opinion, which is what permits fixing paid for living in peace and harmony is the exclusion of all prices, thus becoming the fundamental desire of all human males and the use of asexual reproduction (Gilman, 1979). In beings. In addition, this means that all human beings are equal Looking Backward, capitalism is substituted for a socialist, in their desire for power, because they are all equally capable militarized society where, despite everything, females play a of killing the other. Therefore the best way to avoid having more junior role (Bellamy, 2000). people kill each other is to delegate this power to the State, 10. Discipline is above all an analysis of space; it is the individu- which will exercise a monopoly on the ability to kill, which, alization by space (cf. Foucault, 1979, 1995). in turn, will provide the security of the law (cf. Arendt, 2004; 11. In addition, moralization campaigns are prepared for the Hill, 1979). working classes, to avoid illegalities caused by dissipation 4. The pioneering work on utopia-as-desire was Bloch’s (1995). (cf. Foucault, 2013). All this involves the perfect continuity Mannheim’s (1979) work is also crucial and—counter to ideol- between the punitive and the penal. ogy—it sees progressive and transformative attributes in uto- 12. This is the criticism of Aristotle and Plato (cf. Aristotle, pia. Levitas (2011) provides a systematic study of utopia and 1998). utopianism. For an exhaustive study in historical and concep- 13. Bacon refers expressly to this question, to toss it aside. He tual terms, see Kumar (1987, 1991). For different approaches defends the necessity of proscribing prostitution and provid- to utopia and utopianism within modern thought, see Manuel ing incentives for chastity. Bacon holds that the proposal that and Manuel (2009). For works in German, see Saage (1989, sees in the depenalization of prostitution a lesser evil, has a 1997) who—among other things—explores the relationships “preposterous wisdom” (cf. Bacon, 2008, p. 174). 10 SAGE Open 14. The Utopian way of thinking has wielded great influence over 25. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for the urban form and urban planning of many cities (cf. Harvey, Human Rights (OHCHR), created in 1950, currently provides 2000). Moreover, we must not forget that the Utopian think- humanitarian aid to more than 36 million people. ers wished to build real cities: Owen, Fourier, Chambless, and 26. In Christianopolis—it must be said—there is no slavery. Cabet. 27. Foucault studied the hygienic medical practices of Ancient 15. 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Hannah Arendt: The recovery of the pub- She has given numerous seminars and conferences. She has pub- lic world. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press. lished a lot articles in national and international journals.

Journal

SAGE OpenSAGE

Published: Oct 4, 2018

Keywords: ideal cities; Utopia; dystopia; more; Foucault

References