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An Investigation of the Effects of Citation Instruction to Avoid Plagiarism in EFL Academic Writing Assignments:

An Investigation of the Effects of Citation Instruction to Avoid Plagiarism in EFL Academic... Plagiarism in ESL and EFL learning contexts has become a topic engaging many researchers in a hot debate in recent years. Comparisons of student-generated texts with their source texts have shown that students rely amply on source texts in their writings, using copying as a major strategy. The students themselves relate these problems to their confusion of how to cite. Nevertheless, little research has been conducted on what constitutes effective citation practices in student writing. The present study aims at measuring the effects of teaching anti-plagiarism strategy of proper citation on 19 postgraduate and 34 graduate students’ use of multiple sources in their writings. The instructional treatment conducted in 30 min per week for seven sessions, aimed at teaching correct quotation rules and different functions of citation (i.e., presenting the literature in the field, comparing the existing views, supporting the writer’s view, etc.), while emphasizing the recognition of these rules at work. The writing samples of the students were three citation tests and source-based writing tasks assigned before, during, and after the treatment. Then the effective citation strategies of the students were analyzed according to their use of standard citation in APA (American Psychological Association) style. The results of the assigned tasks and one survey question demonstrated students’ perceived growing confidence and significant improvements in their citation skills in their source-based writings. The results can yield insightful implications for writing course designers to treat significant problems of the students in their academic writings. Keywords plagiarism, EFL academic writing, citation skills, APA style text, in particular, has been the focus of much discussion and Introduction debate (e.g., Abasi & Graves, 2008; Elander, Pittam, Lusher, The importance of writing in today’s world is undeniable, Fox, & Payne, 2010; Keck, 2014). and the position and role of writing as an effective way of In this regard, plagiarism in English as a second language communication is obvious to all scholars. Writing in any lan- (ESL)/English as a foreign language (EFL) learning contexts guage is a significant way of expressing thoughts and ideas; is a topic engaging many researchers in recent years however, writing in a second language is still an acknowl- (Amsberry, 2010; Williams & Carroll, 2009; Yamada, 2003). edged difficulty for the majority of language learners. As stu- In the L1 context, plagiarism mainly has been judged as dents enter postgraduate career in English-related fields, “stealing” and “cheating,” whereas in ESL/EFL contexts, it their academic needs for improving this skill becomes more may be due to variations in cultural perceptions of texts and obvious. Thus, they should go through different processes to textual borrowing. Typically, in the context of higher educa- learn how to write appropriately. tion, as Yamada (2003) believes, student plagiarism is asso- Over the past decade, more attention has been paid to the ciated with “cheating” and “dishonesty” but educators who importance of academic writing tasks, and the need for work with developing writers argue that, for many students, advanced instruction, focusing on writing from sources plagiarism represents not an intention to deceive, but rather (Keck, 2006; Leki & Carson, 1997; Li & Casanave, 2012; Pecorari, 2013; Spack, 1997). In addition to describing the types of “text-responsible” writing tasks assigned in univer- Yazd University, Iran sity classrooms, researchers (e.g., Keck, 2006; Pecorari, Corresponding Author: 2003; Shi, 2004) have become more interested in investigat- Ali M. Fazilatfar, Department of English Language, Yazd University, ing how academic writers attempt to integrate source texts Safaeyeh, Yazd 8915818411, Iran. Email: afazilatfar@yazd.ac.ir into their own writing. Students’ inappropriate use of source Creative Commons CC BY: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage). 2 SAGE Open their developing competence in text-responsible writing As a way out, Pecorari (2003) suggests the teaching of (Currie, 1998; Elander et al., 2010; Keck, 2014). As a microskills of using sources. These include choosing the dynamic and multilayered phenomenon, some studies have most relevant parts of source texts when quoting, that is, also surveyed the attitudes of students toward plagiarism and using quotation marks and rewriting the source text pre- academic dishonesty (Pennycook, 1996; Sutherland, 2005). cisely; paraphrasing, that is, extensively rewording the Rodríguez, Yoplac-Lopez, Carpio-Tello, Sihuay-Torres, and source text, and not just sufficing with altering one or two Cósar-Quiroz (2017), investigating perception of academic words; and selecting suitable reporting words to introduce a plagiarism by dentistry students, concluded that the percep- source. Students should find a chance to scrutinize how other tion of plagiarism as a crime is relatively high. The students writers follow such techniques and to distinctively practice had an average level of knowledge of what academic plagia- these skills before they are required to present all of them rism is and poor level of knowledge about what paraphrasing together. Debnath (2016) examines plagiarism in the medical is. Hu and Lei (2016) in a study of plagiarism in English fraternity and discusses its various types, reasons for the academic writing, comparing Chinese university teachers’ growing number of reported occurrences of plagiarism, and students’ understandings and stances, found that the par- advantages and disadvantages of using plagiarism detection ticipants, though understanding plagiarism in English aca- tools for identifying plagiarism instances (also in Y. H. demic writing differently from Anglo-American academia, Zhang, 2016), and role of authors and editors in plagiarism plainly disapproved of identified cases of plagiarism. Their prevention/avoidance. It has been recommended to use pro- findings also highlighted complex and nuanced understand- fessional plagiarism detection tools regularly for similarity ings of plagiarism and the crucial role of academic socializa- checks to positively support the writers to reduce the risk of tion in shaping knowledge of and attitudes toward plagiarism. plagiarism in the manuscripts submitted. Others have taken a more ideological approach and have One of the most commonly recommended pedagogical questioned the presence of authorship of texts as well as the interventions is citation (Keck, 2006; Schuemann, 2008), relevance of plagiarism (Abasi, Akbari, & Graves, 2006; which is specified as the focus of this study. It is one of the Pennycook, 1996; Yamada, 2003) especially in connection to distinguishing features of academic writing and has been an writing habits of ESL/EFL writers whose cultural back- issue that has been of interest to employee assistance pro- grounds do not care valuing textual ownership (Yamada, gram (EAP) scholars (Dong, 1996; Hyland, 2000; Pecorari, 2003). Hence, as Sutherland (2005) points out the act of pla- 2006; Petric, 2007). Shi (2008) acknowledges the impor- giarism needs to be understood in relation to a specific con- tance of citation by emphasizing that citing a source text is text of academic conventions. Also, understandings of not merely adding a name and a date; it is a subjective pro- textual borrowing ethics are cultural-bond and it is inter- cedure through which the author determines how to create preted differently across cultures (Sowden, 2005). new meanings from the existing resources. It is approved A number of factors have been identified that might that the main role of citation in English for specific purposes explain why developing writers, who write in their native (ESP) discourse is both acknowledging others’ works and language or in ESL, copy from source texts. In the case of promoting as well as validating the author’s knowledge second language writers, differences in cultural attitudes claims. Berkenkotter and Huckin (1995) perfectly demon- regarding the use of source texts and language proficiency strate this by the title of their article “You Are What You are often discussed as likely explanations for students’ copy- Cite,” and even liken citations to weapons scientists use to ing (Bloch, 2008, 2012; Currie, 1998; Keck, 2014; Pecorari, transform previous literature in the field to work to their 2003). Surveys of Asian students have also found that the advantage (as cited in Petric, 2007). students receive limited exposure to writing from sources, In the studies dealing with citation and source use in stu- and little instruction in summary, paraphrase, and citation dent writing, especially in the second language, researchers (Keck, 2014; Shi, 2006). There was also evidence that inap- have predominantly focused on the challenging features, propriate use of citations was tied to students’ confusion such as students’ difficulties in paraphrasing and summariz- about how to cite, underdeveloped skills of reading compre- ing (Campbell, 1990; Petric, 2007), difficulties in expressing hension, lack of critical thinking in relation to the authors’ one’s voice including lack of having a trend toward the cited points of view, and limited content knowledge that hindered text, inappropriate criticizing of other authors, tendency to them from selecting relevant and important references conveying claims without referring to any previous work, (Bloch, 2012; Shi, 2008; Spack, 1997). Hence, numerous and imprecise division between one author’s own ideas and educators’ encounters with student plagiarism have those of others (Dong, 1996; Petric, 2007). Many other prompted them to conclude that university student plagia- researchers have tried to classify students’ citation strategies rism is “widespread,” and is a problem that must be in various disciplines, in different ways (e.g., Abasi & addressed in academic institutions (Hu & Sun, 2017; Graves, 2008; Berkenkotter & Huckin, 1995; Charles, 2006; Pecorari, 2003, 2008, 2013) Hyland, 2000). To identify effective citation strategies in Fazilatfar et al. 3 student writing, Petric (2007) compares citation strategies in In sum, research shows that students have problems in high- and low-rated master’s theses, classifying the rhetori- using sources in academically standard ways and that cal functions of citations in high- and low-rated theses into research on citation within applied linguistics has predomi- nine different categories. The findings show that citation use nantly examined disciplinary variations, cultural differences, related to higher grades is characterized by the use of citation and grammatical changes in citation use (Pennycook, 1996). for a greater variety of rhetorical functions as well as by Fewer studies have focused on the effects of using an inter- greater use of citation for functions other than attribution. In vention program in the form of instructions and conscious- another study, Charles (2006) underlies the importance of ness-raising workshops to EFL learners on improving their phraseological patterning that occurs in reporting clauses source-use attempts in their L2 academic writing assign- used to make references to others’ research, by drawing upon ments. Aiming to contribute to this growing literature, this two corpora of theses written by native speakers. study is interested in investigating the effects of teaching one Fewer researchers publishing in the library and ESL lit- anti-plagiarism strategy of citation on inexperienced writers’ erature offer practical tools on teaching proper strategies to use of multiple sources in their writings. The treatment aims avoid plagiarism. Among them, Garber, Berg, and Chester- at teaching correct citation rules, while emphasizing the rec- Fangman (2017) in a case study created an online academic ognition of these rules at work. Therefore, this study aims to honesty video tutorial, which could notify students about use empirical data to seek answers to the following research academic honesty and dishonesty, mainly emphasizing questions: responsible decision making rather than negative conse- quences. “Plagiarism: Making the Right Choices” video Research Question 1: How far does teaching of correct tutorial has been embedded in the university’s learning man- citation rules and functions through workshop sessions agement system, besides the library’s website, making it have any effects on postgraduate and undergraduate stu- available from a variety of electronic devices. Smedley, dents’ academic writings across different time intervals Crawford, and Cloete (2015) also evaluated the change in throughout the course? nursing student’s knowledge and awareness of plagiarism Research Question 2: How far does teaching of correct before and after an educational treatment in Sydney, citation rules and functions through workshop sessions Australia. They concluded that an educational intervention have any effects on students’ academic writings across can enhance knowledge and understanding of plagiarism different levels (i.e., postgraduate and undergraduate)? among nursing students. Research Question 3: How far does teaching of correct A great deal of the library literature centers around the citation rules and functions through workshop sessions ways through which instructors can help combat student have any effects on postgraduate and undergraduate stu- plagiarism by collaborating with faculty members in design- dents’ academic writings across different genders? ing research assignments, teaching information literacy, and Research Question 4: How far does teaching of correct supplying plagiarism prevention resources (e.g., Lambert’s citation rules and functions through workshop sessions [2014] Combating Student Plagiarism: An Academic have any effects on postgraduate and undergraduate stu- Librarian’s Guide). Many of the feasible guidelines for dents’ confidence in their academic writings, in terms of instruction focus more specifically on younger students or students’ perceptions? highlight reading and speaking instead of writing. Sowden (2005), for instance, recommends oral presentations with the aim of practicing appropriate summarizing skills. Hyland Method (2009) focuses on the reading comprehension element of summarizing. Moniz, Fine, and Bliss’s (2008) research The objectives of this study were achieved through follow- found no significant differences in a student’s perceptions ing different stages. At first, the effect of teaching one anti- about of plagiarism disregarding the specific teaching plagiarism strategy of citation on inexperienced writers’ use method. Hammill’s (2009) research study was based on of multiple sources in their writings was explored. The class sessions with a pre and post evaluations, including course which was conducted in 30 min per week for seven broad questions about the concept of plagiarism and ques- sessions, aimed at teaching correct citation rules and skills, tions on whether specific incidents were considered as illus- while emphasizing the recognition of these rules at work. trations of plagiarism. In addition, students had to compare The activities in the classroom were conducted along with an original piece to rewrites to identify the plagiarized ones teacher’s feedback and revisions of the students’ writings in and the underlying reasons. As a final point, it comprised a the classroom. survey study to help improve the instruction. Unlike Moniz Then the writing samples of the students were analyzed et al.’s study, this research project was dedicated predomi- before, during, and after the treatment to find improvements in nantly to having students practice writing summaries of their citation skills. In fact, the study used a test–retest design. articles through using correct citation. The pre-, mid-, and post-test were three testing tasks at each 4 SAGE Open Table 1. Weekly Schedule. Week Topic Description 1 Pretest (Time 1) Citation test Introduction (Session 1) Introduction to the course 2 Citation (Session II) Plagiarism-related issues 3 Citation (Session III) Citation skills and referencing, common knowledge, citation guidelines, APA style 4 Midtest (Time 2) Citation test Practice (Session IV) Examples and practice 5 Citation (Session V) Rhetorical functions of citations 6 Quotation Tips to help with quoting, when and how much to quote, how to quote, how to (Session VI) incorporate quotation into writing, further in-class practice 7 Citation (Session VII) Concluding remarks Posttest (Time 3) Citation test Note. APA = American Psychological Association. stage checking the citation skills (see Table 1). The citing rules and the different functions of citation. Based on the behaviors of the students were analyzed based on the stan- method used by Sharpe (2013), the researcher focused on dards and mechanics of documentation proposed by Sharpe many different issues including (a) how to introduce the (2013) and Petric (2007). Hughes (2003) and O’Malley and source before quoting or paraphrasing and how to mark Valdez Pierce (1996) lay out components for testing writing; quotations, (b) how to apply different functions of citations these components, scoring guides, and sample rubrics were in writing, (c) how to use verbs to report ideas, and (d) addressed in the assessment sections. finally, how to mention the source appropriately. In addi- Finally, the students perceived improvements in their self- tion to these issues, the syllabus also included some intro- confidence in writing, after the treatments was also surveyed. ductory definitions as well as general remarks about The participants of the study were asked a question about plagiarism-related issues, for example, cultural issues, pen- how much they thought the course was helpful for them to alties, plagiarism checker software, and so on. Course improve their confidence in writing. In fact, this was aimed handouts in 40 pages (see sample classroom notes and exer- to reveal some information about students’ conceptual per- cises in Appendix A), adopted from different academic ceptions about the effectiveness of the courses on students’ writing resources, were prepared and submitted to students appropriate textual borrowing, in this academic context. during the treatment. The underlying reasons and benefits of adapting TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) exercises and other sources included assuring a measure of Participants structure, consistency, and logical progression in the class; The data of this study were collected from 53 students (19 allowing the learners to review material or preview other postgraduate and 34 undergraduate), who were studying in a lessons; meeting a learner’s needs or expectations of hav- spring term at the English department of Yazd University, ing something concrete to work from and taking home for Iran. The postgraduates were doing their studies for an MA further study; providing multiple resources, such as self- degree in teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL). study exercises, illustrative examples, and so on; and pro- Due to the nature of their studies and assignments (e.g., pub- viding the instructors with a comprehensive, step-by-step lishable term papers), these students were more dealing with procedure. academic texts and more in need of academic writing skills. As it was presented in Table 1, after an introduction to the The undergraduates were selected from junior students of course in which plagiarism-related issues and the importance English language and literature who were taking their essay of correct citation was emphasized, it was pointed out that writing course and were still in their early stages of learning citation is a means through which we give credit to the how to write research papers. All 53 students (43 females, 10 source. When we want to cite other people’s ideas, particu- males) were from different cities of the country, aging from larly when they are definitions, opinions, unique expres- 21 to 30 years, learning English as their L2 in an EFL sions, or research data, which are not considered as common context. knowledge, we need to introduce the source correctly. In this regard, a lot of information was provided for the students about the mechanics of citation, direct/indirect quotations, Procedure and referencing. The course of treatment was conducted in 30 min per week As an example, several phrases and clauses like “accord- for seven sessions. The aim was to teach correct citation ing to X,” “in the words of X,” “to quote X,” “as X puts it” Fazilatfar et al. 5 and others were introduced, which can be used to cite appro- A lot of information as well as many examples were also priately the source before paraphrases or quotation marks. presented in the classroom discussions to raise students’ consciousness about different rhetorical functions of cita- Example 1. tion. It was emphasized that the best academic writings are judged according to their use of citation for a higher Original: Professor Brown (2001): “A mirage is an optical variety of rhetorical functions based on Petric (2007). illusion in the atmosphere” (p. 22). Working examples were provided to show how citation is used for different functions including presenting the Written quote: To quote/According to Professor Brown (2001), literature in the field, comparing the existing views, and “A mirage is an optical illusion in the atmosphere” (p. 22). supporting the writer’s view. The treatment also provided examples of correct citation and how to properly integrate Another part of the discussions during the course, for someone else’s writings into a research paper from other example, aimed to present information about indirect quota- sources, such as The Everyday Writer (Lunsford, 2005). In tions. Using strong “verbs” to report the idea and convey the The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Writing (Ramage, Bean, & meaning was emphasized and practiced. The writers had to Johnson, 2014), a complete chapter is dedicated to using, choose verbs that expressed certainty (e.g., argue, assert, citing, and documenting sources. An article was selected conclude, confirm, etc.), neutrality (e.g., indicate, illustrate, from that chapter, and students are asked to reflect on how mention, note, etc.), or doubt (e.g., suggest, propose, assume, the material could be incorporated in a research article. believe, etc.) in their reports (Sharpe, 2013). Furthermore, some of the activities asked the students to read an article and write an acceptable summary including Example 2. appropriate quotations of the article. Quotation: Computer entrepreneur Gates (2005) said, “The key for Microsoft has always been hiring very clever people” (p. 10). Instruments Neutral report: Computer entrepreneur Gates (2005) indicated Three citation tests, adopted from TOEFL (iBT) guidebook that the important factor in Microsoft’s success had always been (Sharpe, 2013), and survey questions inquiring about stu- employing very smart people. National Museum of American dents’ confidence in writing (adopted from L. Zhang, Sheng, History, January 11, 2005. & Li, 2014) were used for the collection of the data. The tests were assigned to the learners on three occasions, to check for students’ achievements at different time intervals across the During the treatment, appropriate and proper citations course: first, just prior to the beginning of the treatment were also presented and discussed. For example, the appro- (Time 1); in the middle of the course, after 3 weeks (Time 2); priate pattern to mention the source more than one time was and 6 weeks later, toward the end of the treatment (Time 3). highlighted in the presentations and handouts. The point is Therefore, the items of each citation test were based on exemplified in the following citation: materials covered in the treatment. Based on the table of spec- Example 3. ifications of the course and to ensure content validity of the tests, in each 25-item test (see sample test items in Appendix Source: Maria Montessori (2011) B), five items referred to citing direct quotations and the use of phrases or clauses like “As X puts it” or “According to X.” -proposed educational model Seven items of each test were related to the use of “doubtful, neutral, and certain” categories of reporting verbs in indirect -not transmission knowledge quotations to convey the meanings that students wished to attribute to the idea. Seven items of the test covered the teach- -free to develop ing material of the course that required the students to form a meaningful mini passage and note how to appropriately men- -success child working independently tion the source more than one time (see Example 3 above). The final six scores were considered for citation summary The above parts can be rewritten as the following excerpt: tasks in which the students were asked to provide a brief sum- mary of a passage by attending to the original (primary and “Montessori (2011) proposed an educational model that has secondary) sources. The passage included different quota- become known as the Montessori Method. Montessori insisted tions from different authors. In these tasks, phrases conveying that education should not be merely the transmission of acknowledgment and source citations, such as “(Singer, knowledge but the freedom to develop as person. She felt her 1983),” were scored for their presence/absence and for greatest success was achieved when a child began working independently” (p. 124). whether they observed citation conventions properly. Also, 6 SAGE Open Table 2. Descriptive Statistics of the Students’ Performances on the Three Citation Tests. 95% confidence interval for M n M SD SE Lower bound Upper bound Pretest 53 15.6509 1.64312 .22,570 15.1980 16.1038 Midtest 53 20.1817 2.07935 .28,562 19.6086 20.7548 Posttest 53 20.9085 3.04905 .41,882 20.0681 21.7489 Total 159 18.9137 3.28882 .26,082 18.3986 19.4289 Table 3. One-Way ANOVA Results of the Three Citation Tests. Sum of squares df Mean square F Significance Between groups (Combined) 860.327 2 430.164 79.073 .000 Linear term Contrast 732.508 1 732.508 134.650 .000 Deviation 127.819 1 127.819 23.496 .000 Within groups 848.651 156 5.440 Total 1,708.979 158 were rated on a 5-point Likert-type scale (1-strongly disagree, Table 4. Within-Subjects Factors. 2-mildly disagree, 3-neutral, 4-mildly agree, 5-strongly agree). Value label No. The survey questions were included in the third citation test to measure the students’ perceived level of confidence toward Level writing in academic contexts. The questions read as follows: 1 Undergraduate 34 2 Graduate 19 Gender 1. I am more confident in writing after this course. 1 Boy 10 2. I can write academically (academic writing 2 Girl 43 conventions). 3. I develop research skills by writing the research paper. 4. This course helps me complete writing assignments Table 5. Between-Subjects Factors. of other subjects. Factor 1 Dependent variable Classroom observation was made throughout the course 1 Citation pretest_1 2 Citation midtest_1 to get more knowledge of how learners used citations in their 3 Citation posttest_1 source-based writings, or to generate explanations for some unusual phenomena occurring in the course. Two independent raters rated six randomly chosen tests the effective citation strategies of students, before and after at first. An interrater reliability check on scoring students’ the treatment, were analyzed and scored according to their citation practices in these essay-type tests, based on six use of citation for a high variety of rhetorical functions and randomly chosen tests, yielded 90% interrater reliability following the standard citation style. Therefore, the three tests on citation scores in the first six citation tests (Cohen’s were conducted based on (1-25) score system. Two indepen- kappa = .90). dent raters rated the three citation tests to ensure interrater The results of these three citation tests were analyzed using reliability of the tests results. High interrater agreement was ANOVA and chi-square. The ANOVA analyses provide infor- found for ratings of the citation tests (k = .86). mation about the differences between the students’ perfor- The survey questions were adopted from the second part of mances in different groups (postgraduate and undergraduate, questionnaire that originally was composed of three parts. Part male and female) and for the citation tests, at different time 2 was composed of 12 items about the students’ perceptions of intervals: pretest (Time 1), midtest (Time 2), and posttest (Time their improvement in different aspects of writing after taking 3). The chi-square analysis could furnish us with information the course. Four related items were chosen that were in line about the differences between the students’ perceived growing with the targets of the treatment in this study. Items in this part confidence in source-based writing after the treatments. Fazilatfar et al. 7 Table 6. Comparison Between Different Gender and Level Groups (Tests of Within-Subjects Effects Measure). Type III Source Sum of squares df Mean square F Significance Factor 1 491.780 2 245.890 56.299 .000 491.780 1.738 282.947 56.299 .000 491.780 1.907 257.913 56.299 .000 491.780 1.000 491.780 56.299 .000 Factor 1 × Level 16.928 2 8.464 1.938 .149 16.928 1.738 9.740 1.938 .156 16.928 1.907 8.878 1.938 .152 16.928 1.000 16.928 1.938 .170 Factor 1 × Gender 12.754 2 6.377 1.460 .237 12.754 1.738 7.338 1.460 .238 12.754 1.907 6.689 1.460 .238 12.754 1.000 12.754 1.460 .233 Factor 1 × Level × Gender 0.006 2 0.003 0.001 .999 0.006 1.738 0.004 0.001 .998 0.006 1.907 0.003 0.001 .999 0.006 1.000 0.006 0.001 .979 Error (Factor 1) 428.020 98 4.368 428.020 85.165 5.026 428.020 93.432 4.581 428.020 49.000 8.735 gender and different level groups of the students’ perfor- Results mances at the three tests (see Tables 4, 5, and 6). The results A Comparison of Students’ Citation Scores at show that the treatments could considerably affect all the dif- Three Different Time Intervals ferent groups, regardless of the gender and graduate levels (F = 56.29, df = 2) and p = .000, which is significant at p < .05. The analysis was conducted to reveal information about the Therefore, there was no significant difference between the first research question that aimed at exploring the effects of performances of different genders at three tasks, nor at the two teaching correct citation rules and functions on postgraduate levels (postgraduate and undergraduate) of the three tasks. and undergraduate students’ academic writings. The descrip- As can be seen from Table 6, the difference between the tive statistics of the students’ performances and the results of effects of the treatment on improvement of citation skills of one-way ANOVA comparing all 53 students’ performances different levels (undergraduate/postgraduate) of the students is at three citation tests (pretest, midtest, and posttest) are pre- not significant (F = 1.93, df = 2) at p < .05, because probability sented in Tables 2 and 3. level in this case is .149. This shows that the students’ educa- Table 2 shows that the students’ mean score (M = 15.65) tion level as a moderating factor, though they might have dif- at pretest (Time 1) is much lower than the mean scores at ferent motivation levels in learning to write source-based midtest (Time 2) and posttest (Time 3), which are 20.18 and assignments, has had no effects on their achievements from the 20.90, respectively, indicating students’ achievements in treatment. The same result was revealed with regard to gender their citation skills in the course of treatments. factor in the analysis. As it is shown in Table 6, the interaction As it is shown in Table 3, the results of a comparison between gender and treatment factor was not significant. between all of the 53 students’ performances at the three cita- tion tests show that their performances were significantly Analysis of the Students’ Answers to the Survey different (F = 79.07, df = 2) at p = .000, which is much lower than p < .05 set for the study. It shows that the treatment Questions About the Course Effects could significantly affect the students’ citation skills. To obtain information about the last research question, chi- square test was run to analyze students’ answers to the ques- tion about their perceptions regarding the effectiveness of the A Comparison of Students’ Performances at course and how much it could succeed in increasing students’ Different Gender and Level Groups self-confidence in their attempt to write good academic writ- In a further more complete analysis, running the ANOVA with ings. The students, either positive or negative, generally had repeated measures, a comparison was drawn between different similar ideas about all of the questions. 8 SAGE Open Table 7. Descriptive Statistics About Students’ Perceptions Expressed in the Survey Questions. Degree of confidence Observed no. Expected no. Residual Strongly disagree 0 30 −3.5 Mildly disagree 28 30 16.5 Neutral 0 30 −3.5 Mildly agree 64 30 −5.5 Strongly agree 56 30 −7.5 Total 148 Table 8. Results of Chi-Square Test About Students’ improvements in students’ practice of writing summaries of Perceptions Expressed in the Survey Questions. articles using proper citation. The positive results of an inter- vention program in this study were also consistent with Survey questions Garber et al. (2017) and Smedley et al. (2015) studies. χ 43.64 Analysis of students’ performances at the citation pretest df 3 (Time 1) shows that most of the attributions or citations were Asymp. Sig. .000 integrated into the students summaries of the mini passages, without an accompanying reporting phrase or clause, and this was the case for both the postgraduate and undergradu- As it can be seen from Tables 7 and 8, chi-square is 43.64, ate writers. This suggests that while most students did not with df = 3, which is significant at p = .000. The significant feel it was necessary to cite the source text author every time result shows that while most of the students believed the they borrowed his or her language (i.e., each time they course could successfully help them very well to improve selected an excerpt for copying or paraphrase). their self-confidence in academic writing, few students It is important to note, however, that while individual selections thought that the course could not help them very much. None observed in this study were typically not accompanied by attribu- of the students had a negative view in answering this ques- tion at Time 1, most postgraduate and undergraduate writers men- tion, for nobody chose the choice strongly disagree among tioned the source text author at least once in their summaries at their answers. Not only did they believe they were more con- Time 2 and Time 3 after the treatment. In fact, many of the students fident in writing after this course and that they could write appropriately attributed the sources and added reporting phrases or academically (following academic writing conventions) but clauses to excerpts they had selected later in the course, when they they also had developed research skills by writing the were explicitly instructed about the mechanical rules and strategies research paper. Moreover, most of the learners assumed that of citation. It can be implied that these results may be due to the this course could help them complete writing assignments of fact that the mere consciousness-raising activities conducted at the other subjects as well. beginning sessions were sufficient enough to lead to the prime effects on the students’ performances. Generally speaking, stu- dents benefited from the course. Likewise, in L. Zhang et al.’s Discussion (2014) study, a large majority of students held the perception that A comparison of the analytic scores given by the raters on they became more confident in writing and their writing compe- each criterion used to assess the tests at pretest/posttest indi- tence had been improved academically. The instructions could cates an improvement in students’ skills in their writings draw the students’ attention to the importance of attending to the from sources and higher levels of cautiousness about cita- standards and rules of academic integrity, something that might tions and attributions in their source-based writings. They have been disregarded by them beforehand. This result may sup- followed correct rules and standards of citation, after the port the assumption that many of the international students may treatment at the second and third citation test times. It seems commit plagiarism unintentionally, due to their lack of knowledge that a significant improvement was achieved over the 7 about standard citational acts or because of their different cultural weeks of treatment. It may be that extensive practice in writ- perceptions about the conventional citing forms. ing assignments was sufficient, during a period of almost one The finding that, despite great improvement in their semester, to improve the learners’ knowledge of academic scores in the midtests (Time 2) and posttests (Time 3), some citation skills. These major findings are inconsistent with of the citations were still incorrect at Time 3 was to some Moniz et al.’s (2008) research that had resulted in no signifi- extent surprising considering the emphasis on correct cita- cant differences in a student’s general understanding of pla- tions in the course handouts. Pecorari (2006) suggests that giarism disregarding the teaching method. However, they are low possibility of the learners’ receiving of sufficient feed- in line with Hammill’s (2009) findings that was based on back on their incorrect citations from their instructors may class sessions with a pre- and post-assessment and revealed lead to a wrong assumption that their citations are correct. Fazilatfar et al. 9 She suggests that learners should be provided with explicit Appendix A feedback on inappropriate source use, and this was tried to be Sample Classroom Notes and Exercises attended to in the course of treatments in this study. All in all, this study confirms the importance of citation as one of the Citation and quotation. When citing or quoting other literature, distinguishing features of academic writing, which is consis- please use proper citation format and bibliographic style. tent with other researchers’ ideas (e.g., Berkenkotter & There are many legitimate formats. Here are a few APA Huckin, 1995; Dong, 1996; Hyland, 2000; Pecorari, 2006; (American Psychological Association) style options: Petric, 2007; Schuemann, 2008; Shi, 2008). In addition, with respect to students’ performances in dif- ferent groups, the findings suggest the girls performed 1. If citing text from an outside source, place source text inside quotation marks. slightly better, but not statistically significant, compared with the boys, which may be due to the unequal number of 1a. (Author, year, page), with bibliography at end of the boys and the girls in the population. Although the post- document graduate students received slightly higher scores compared As Michael Teitz observes, “Land-use planning has proved more durable than its critics and, more importantly, has shown a new with the undergraduates, the differences were not statisti- burst of creative energy in the past decade” (Teitz, 1996, p. 652). cally significant. In fact, in some of the tests, these two groups performed almost equally, which implies the impor- ----- tant fact that there is an urgent need in higher education, to Bibliography [placed at the end of the document] address these issues more seriously in the classrooms at dif- Teitz, M. B. (1996). American planning in the 1990s: Evolution, ferent levels, that is, the EFL students genuinely need greater debate and challenge. Urban Studies, 33(4/5), 649-71. focus on the rules of textual borrowing and intertextuality to be included in their research curricula, not only at BA levels 2. If referring to specific idea from an outside source but also at MA levels where the students will considerably (without directly quoting text), summarize in your own distinctive words and cite the source. (Note: do not use require to learn more about the conventions of academic this format if you are directly quoting the text. You writing, due to the nature of their practices. must use format 1a from above.) Furthermore, the results confirm students’ perceived grow- ing confidence in attempting academic writings. The fact that 2a. (Author, year, page), with bibliography at end of more than 80% of the EFL students, both undergraduate and document postgraduate, considered the course as very helpful and effec- Klosterman identifies four distinct justifications for planning tive in increasing their confidence in writing from the sources (Klosterman, 1996, p. 151). can considerably guide the academic writing course designers Note that the period comes after the citation. Also, for to detect which problematic areas are perceived as somehow chapters in edited books, please cite the actual author of more confusing for the learners and need to be highlighted in the piece (Klosterman), NOT the editor(s) of the collection the writing courses. On the contrary, the problem even may (Campbell and Fainstein), who are simply listed in the complete lie in the fact that focusing on these citation rules and strate- reference below. gies and academic literacy on the whole have not been dealt ----- with explicitly and well enough by the writing courses and Bibliography [placed at the end of the document] instructors; hence leaving the EFL writers with confusion and no other choice except committing unintentional plagiarism. Klosterman, R. (1996). Arguments for and against planning. In In conclusion, this study mainly aimed at expanding our Readings in planning theory, (eds.) S. Campbell & S. S. Fainstein understanding of EFL students’ citation problems and strate- (pp. 141-157). Cambridge, MA and Oxford, gies including both postgraduate and undergraduate writers. UK: Blackwell. In particular, the study has tried to demonstrate that, though much of our attention has recently been focused on instances of copying in students’ work, copying without proper How is citation used? (Rhetorical functions of citation) The acknowledgment is still one of the most common errors that different purposes for which citation can be used are numer- students, especially international writers, make when ous and too complex to go into exhaustively, but a few exam- attempting to use within text citation. A continuum of a wide ples are mentioned here: range of strategies, including major grammatical and lexical changes as well as citation skills can be offered to the stu- 1. Presenting the literature in the field dents to help them in their writing assignments. The signifi- cant results of this study are drawn from explicit focus on instruction of citation rules and skills that can shed more EXAMPLE: Britten (1998), in discussing preliminary train- lights on what the writing instructors can rely on more to ing for non-native speaker teachers, argues for a progression help students avoid committing plagiarism in their writings. from an initially . . . self-help approach. (p. 33) 10 SAGE Open Here, the writer is simply presenting an argument put forward Thus, the first sentence is the writer’s own assessment by an established author. The word “argues” tells us that this is that (many or at least some) critics question the approach. In Britten’s main idea and that he might therefore be assumed to be the second sentence, Horowitz is then brought in as one an authority whose opinion must be considered. Several lines example of a critic, and his criticisms of the approach under later, in fact, the writer goes on to say that Britten’s approach is discussion are outlined. Having started like this, the writer suitable to apply to his (the writer’s) particular situation. could now easily go on to mention other authors and their criticisms, so as to fully show the weaknesses of the approach. 2. Comparison of existing views The exact role of citation and its interrelation with voice in academic writing is very complex, and limited research EXAMPLE: One of Schön’s key arguments in his critique of has been done. The best way to improve your understanding the applied science model is . . . (several lines omitted) . . . of how to use citation without losing your own voice as This view is not at odds with Widdowson’s (1984, p. 89) writer is to pay attention as you do your reading to how comment that teachers who do not analyze . . . methodology. established writers cite others, and how they distinguish the On the contrary, Schön’s second requirement for effective ideas of other authors from their own so as to maintain their education (1983, p. 50) is precisely that . . . own voice. Again here in comparing two views of established authors and showing how they complement each other, the writer is To quote or not to quote? Having decided that research you adding authority to his argument. Note the phrases in (added) have done is helpful in presenting your position, and that you italics which the writer uses to make the cited authors, Schön want to cite that author, you still have to make a choice as to and Widdowson, “do what he wants”—in other words, it is in the best way of doing this. There are basically three issues to these phrases that we can hear the writer’s own voice. consider when using the work of others writers: 3. Support of the writer’s view •• whether or not to quote a writer’s words •• how to paraphrase or summarize a writer’s words if A common lexical marker in using sources for support of your you decide not to quote own view is the word “as” before the cited author’s name: •• whether or not to use the writer’s name in your sen- EXAMPLE: This traditional teaching cannot, moreover, tence, together with a reporting verb such as “notes” serve . . . in their own classes; on the contrary, as Britten or “suggests” to distinguish their ideas from your own points out (1988, p. 3), it is more likely . . . to encourage student teachers to go out and teach the way they were taught. Using direct quotation. In general, when writers choose to By using “as,” the writer claims ownership of the idea quote rather than paraphrase, they usually do so because the expressed but uses a citation of Britten who has said the same language in the text is vivid, provocative, unusual, or because thing to lend greater authority. the exact wording is historically or legally important; and this could possibly be lost in a paraphrase or summary. 4. Referring EXAMPLE: “Life is not determined by consciousness, but consciousness by life.” It is common for researchers not to reiterate the basic details In such cases, especially where the original to be quoted of a study related to what they are writing about, but simply is short and pithy, it is probably better not to paraphrase. to refer the reader to read the study themselves if they want more information. In these cases, the reference is often pre- How do you know when and how much to quote? Research ceded by “see” or “cf.” into the use of citation in research articles suggests that quo- EXAMPLE: Thus, Americans speaking at normal volume tations are relatively rare compared with summary or para- might be considered rather quiet in some parts of Africa and phrase. Hyland’s (2000) figures suggest that even in the rather loud in some parts of the Far East (cf. Applegate, 1975). humanities, only 8% to 12% of citations involve quotation. If your paper focuses on some primary source such as a sig- 5. Exemplifying/providing evidence nificant speech, an important manuscript, or some govern- ment document or legislation, you may need to quote more Often a writer will present an argument or outline a general extensively from the original, explaining such matters as the position, then follow it up with evidence from the research of content, tone, wording, and structure of that work. Second- others. ary sources, however, such as critics who have commented EXAMPLE: Critics also question whether . . . According on the primary source or experts in related fields, should be to Horowitz (1986a), the approach “creates a classroom situ- quoted much less frequently. Again, to maintain your own ation that bears little resemblance to the situations in which voice, if you quote someone, do not just leave your reader to [students’ writing] will eventually be exercised” (p. 144). He work out for themselves why you quoted that person; follow goes on to suggest that . . . Fazilatfar et al. 11 up the quotation with a comment of your own which ties it Correct citation and quotation. To avoid plagiarism it is nec- into your argument. essary to know how to cite works correctly and use quota- tions: 1-Ideally, authors of works of original scholarship How to incorporate quotation into your writing present their arguments in their own words. 2-Whenever authors paraphrase or quote from sources directly, they a. Enclose all quoted material in quotation marks (“ ”) should give credit to the words and ideas taken from others. and cite the exact source immediately after the quota- 3-Commonly known facts, available in numerous sources, tion, even if you have mentioned this source earlier. should not be enclosed in quotation marks or given a source If you need to quote longer passages (usually more citation unless the wording is taken directly from another. than four lines), set the quotation off in an indented, Also not treated as quotations are proverbial, biblical, and single-spaced block (called a “block quotation”). If well-known literary expressions used as part of the author’s you do this, you no longer need to use quotation text. (The Chicago Manual of Style, 1982, p. 282) marks. Although these comments are very helpful, many people b. Sometimes, for the sake of clarity or length, you may might be left wondering when they ought to use quotation want to alter a direct quotation in some way to elimi- marks. The accepted rule of thumb is after four words. That nate unnecessary detail. If so, enclose any changed or means you must use quotation marks for any passage copied added words in square brackets [ ], and indicate any from another work containing five or more words. To help deletions with three ellipsis points (. . .). Be especially students avoid such problems many university departments careful that any changes you make in a quotation do publish essay guides or APA style manuals. These should be not alter its essential meaning. In addition, use these carefully read. marks sparingly: too many brackets and ellipsis points make for difficult reading. Appendix B Sample Citation Test Items Plagiarism using a citation: An example I-Try to report each quotation. The first one is completed to give you an example. •• Here although the real author is acknowledged, pla- EXAMPLE: Original: Professor Brown: A mirage is an giarism takes place because the original text is repro- optical illusion in the atmosphere. duced with only minor changes without using either Written quote: To quote/According to Professor quotation marks or footnotes: Brown (2001), “A mirage is an optical illusion in the •• Original: atmosphere.”(p. 22) But Hertzog recognized the danger and . . . The politics of the 1. A study by Professor Carter (2004): Patients can nationalists, were in the view of Het Westen, unquestionably lower their blood pressure by losing weight and Christian. The Afrikaner People were Christian people, decreasing their intake of salt. (p. 166) therefore . . . (1) 2. Davison (1998): Ben Johnson may be the author of several plays attributed to William Shakespeare. (p. 58) (1) Irving Hexham, The Irony of Apartheid (Lewiston: Edwin Mellen, 1981), p. 185. II-Try to report each quotation. Choose a verb to express doubt (e.g., suggest, propose, assume, believe, etc.), neutral- Plagiarism: ity (e.g., indicate, illustrate, mention, note, etc.), or certainty Professor Hexham brilliantly observes that Hertzog rec- (e.g., argue, assert, conclude, confirm, etc.). The first one is ognized the danger and . . . The politics of the nationalists, completed to give you an example. were in the view of Het Westen, unquestionably Christian. EXAMPLE: Quotation: Psychologist Rogers (2008) said, The Afrikaner People were Christian people, therefore . . . “Negative feedback causes people to develop a poor self- concept.” (p. 68) •• Correct usage: Certain Report: Rogers (2008) argued that negative feed- back caused people to develop a poor self-concept. Professor Hexham (1981) observes that “Hertzog recognized Also correct: Rogers (2008) maintained that negative the danger and . . . The politics of the nationalists, were in the feedback caused people to develop a poor self-concept. view of Het Westen, unquestionably Christian. The Afrikaner People were a Christian people, therefore . . .” (p. 185) (1) 1. Astrophysicist Carl Sagan said, “Even a relatively small nuclear war may be capable of producing a (1) Irving Hexham, The Irony of Apartheid (Lewiston: global climatic catastrophe.” Speech before the com- Edwin Mellen, 1981), p. 185. monwealth Club, February 8, 1985. (p. 89) 12 SAGE Open Certain report:. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . Funding .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . The author(s) received no financial support for the research, author- ship, and/or publication of this article. 2. Computer entrepreneur Bill Gates said, “The key for Microsoft has always been hiring very smart people.” References Transcript of video history interview (p. 10), National Abasi, A. R., Akbari, N., & Graves, B. (2006). Discourse appro- Museum of American History, January 11, 2005. priation, construction of identities, and the complex issue of plagiarism: ESL students writing in graduate school. Journal Neutral report: . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. of Second Language Writing, 15, 102-117. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Abasi, A. R., & Graves, B. (2008). Academic literacy and pla- giarism: Conversations with international graduate students 3. Geneticists James Watson and Francis Crick (1953) and disciplinary professors. Journal of English for Academic said, “DNA structure has two helical chains each coiled Purposes, 7, 221-233. around the same axis.” “A Structure for Deoxyribose Amsberry, D. (2010). Deconstructing plagiarism: International Nucleic Acid,” Nature, 171 (April 2), p. 7337. students and textual borrowing practices. The Reference Librarian, 51, 31-44. Berkenkotter, T., & Huckin, T. N. (1995). Genre knowledge in dis- Doubtful report:. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. ciplinary communication: Cognition, culture, power. Hillsdale, . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. III-Try to report the information in the notes. Cite the source Bloch, J. (2008). Plagiarism across cultures: Is there a difference? appropriately. The first report is completed to give an example. In M. Vicinus & C. Eisner (Eds.), Originality, imitation, and EXAMPLE: Source: Edwin Hubble (man) astronomer plagiarism: Teaching writing in the digital age (pp. 219-230). (1995) Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Bloch, J. (2012). Plagiarism, intellectual property and the teaching •• demonstrated Andromeda nebula located outside our of L2 writing. New York, NY: Multilingual Matters. galaxy Campbell, C. (1990). Writing with others’ words: Using back- •• established the islands universe theory = galaxies ground reading text in academic compositions. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Second language writing: Research insights for class- exist outside our own room (pp. 211-230). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University •• study resulted in Hubble’s constant = standard relation- Press. ship/galaxy’s distance from Earth and speed recession Charles, M. (2006). Phraseological patterns in reporting clauses used in citation: A corpus-based study of theses in two disci- Astronomer Hubble (1995) demonstrated that the Andromeda plines. English for Specific Purposes, 25, 310-331. nebula was located outside our galaxy. Hubble established the Currie, P. (1998). Staying out of trouble: Apparent plagia- islands universe theory, which states that galaxies exist out- rism and academic survival. Journal of Second Language side our own. He published a study that resulted in what is Writing, 7, 1-18. now called Hubble’s constant, a standard relationship between Debnath, J. (2016). Plagiarism: A silent epidemic in scientific writ- a galaxy’s distance from Earth and its speed of recession. ing—Reasons, recognition and remedies. Medical Journal Armed Forces India, 72, 164-167. Dong, Y. R. (1996). Learning how to use citations for knowledge 1. Source: Margaret Mead (woman) (1989) transformation: Non-native doctoral students’ dissertation writing in science. Research in the Teaching of English, 30, •• first fieldwork in Samoa 1925 428-457. •• book Coming of Age in Samoa best seller-translated Elander, J., Pittam, G., Lusher, J., Fox, P., & Payne, N. (2010). to many languages Evaluation of an intervention to help students avoid unin- •• still one/most well-known anthropologists tentional plagiarism by improving their authorial identity. •• people/simple societies provide valuable lessons/ Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 35, 151-171. industrialized Garber, G., Berg, E., & Chester-Fangman, C. (2017). Rethinking plagiarism in information literacy instruction: A case study 2. Source: Peter Drucker (man) author (2011) on cross-campus collaboration in the creation of an online academic honesty video tutorial. In T. Maddison & M. Kumaran (Eds.), Distributed learning: Pedagogy and technol- •• “Management Challenges” for the 21st century ogy in online information literacy instruction (pp. 341-360). •• introduced five transforming forces Cambridge, MA: Chandos Publishing. •• believed trends have major implications for long-term Hammill, S. J. (2009). Challenging ESL students to avoid plagia- strategies of companies rism and properly summarize and cite articles. Works of the FIU Libraries, 19, 1-34. Declaration of Conflicting Interests Hu, G. W., & Lei, J. (2016). Plagiarism in English academic writ- ing: A comparison of Chinese university teachers’ and stu- The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect dents’ understandings and stances. System, 46, 107-118. to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. Fazilatfar et al. 13 Hu, G. W., & Sun, X. (2017). Institutional policies on plagiarism: académico en estudiantes de Odontología [The study of the The case of eight Chinese universities of foreign languages/ perceptions of academic plagiarism in the students of den- international studies. System, 66, 56-68. tistry]. Educación Médica (Article in Press). Hughes, A. (2003). Testing for language teachers (2nd ed.). Schuemann, C. M. (2008). Myth 2: Teaching citation is someone Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. else’s job. In J. M. Reid (Ed.), Writing myths: Applying sec- Hyland, K. (2000). Disciplinary discourses: Social interactions in ond language research to classroom teaching (pp. 18-40). Ann academic writing. Harlow, UK: Longman. Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Hyland, K. (2009). Academic discourse. London, England: Sharpe, P. (2013). Barron’s TOEFL iBT: Internet-based test. New Continuum. York, NY: Barron’s Educational Series. Keck, C. (2006). The use of paraphrase in summary writing: A Shi, L. (2004). Textual borrowing in second language writing. comparison of L1 and L2 writers. Journal of Second Language Written Communication, 21, 171-200. Writing, 15, 262-278. Shi, L. (2006). Cultural backgrounds and textual appropriation. Keck, C. (2014). Copying, paraphrasing, and academic writing Language Awareness, 15, 264-282. development: An examination of L1 and L2 summarization Shi, L. (2008). Textual appropriation and citing behaviors of uni- practices. Journal of Second Language Writing, 25, 4-22. versity undergraduates. Applied Linguistics, 31, 1-24. Lampert, L. (2014). Combating student plagiarism: An academic Smedley, A., Crawford, T., & Cloete, L. (2015). An intervention librarian’s guide. UK: Oxford. aimed at reducing plagiarism in undergraduate nursing stu- Leki, I., & Carson, J. (1997). “Completely different worlds”: EAP dents. Nurse Education in Practice, 15, 168-173. and the writing experiences of ESL students in university Sowden, C. (2005). Plagiarism and the culture of multilingual stu- courses. TESOL Quarterly, 31, 39-69. dents in higher education abroad. ELT Journal, 59, 226-233. Li, Y., & Casanave, C. P. (2012). Two first-year students’ strategies Spack, R. (1997). The acquisition of academic literacy in a second for writing from sources: Patchwriting or plagiarism? Journal language: A longitudinal case study. Written Communication, of Second Language Writing, 21, 165-180. 14, 3-62. Lunsford, A. A. (2005). The everyday writer (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Sutherland, S. W. (2005). Pandora’s box: Academic perceptions of Bedford/St. Martin’s. student plagiarism in writing. Journal of English for Academic Moniz, R., Fine, J., & Bliss, L. (2008). The effectiveness of Purposes, 4, 83-95. direct-instruction and student-centered teaching methods on Williams, K., & Carroll, J. (2009). Understanding referencing and students’ functional understanding of plagiarism. College & plagiarism. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. Undergraduate Libraries, 15, 255-279. Yamada, K. (2003). What prevents ESL/EFL writers from avoiding O’Malley, J. M., & Valdez Pierce, L. (1996). Authentic assess- plagiarism? Analyses of 10 North-American websites. System, ment for English language learners: Practical approaches for 31, 247-258. teachers. New York, NY: Addison-Wesley. Zhang, L., Sheng, Y., & Li, L. (2014). Evaluating an academic writ- Pecorari, D. (2003). Good and original: Plagiarism and patchwrit- ing course based on an integrated model. The Journal of Asia ing in academic second-language writing. Journal of Second TEFL, 11, 95-124. Language Writing, 12, 317-345. Zhang, Y. H. (2016). Against plagiarism–A guide for editors and Pecorari, D. (2006). Visible and occluded citation features in authors. Switzerland, Geneva: Springer. postgraduate second-language writing. English for Specific Purposes, 25, 4-29. Author Biographies Pecorari, D. (2008). Academic writing and plagiarism: A linguistic analysis. London, England: Continuum. Ali M. Fazilatfar is an associate professor of TEFL in English Pecorari, D. (2013). Teaching to avoid plagiarism: How to promote Department of Yazd University in Iran. He is the head of English good source use. New York, NY: Open University Press. Department and his main research intersts are teaching methodol- Pennycook, A. (1996). Borrowing others’ words: Text, ownership, ogy and teaching language skills. memory and plagiarism. TESOL Quarterly, 30, 201-230. Petric, B. (2007). Rhetorical functions of citations in high- and S. E. Elhambakhsh has recently received her PhD in TEFL and low-rated master’s theses. Journal of English for Academic teaches general English courses at Yazd University. Her main reser- Purposes, 6, 238-253. ach areas are teaching methodology and discourse analysis. Ramage, J. D., Bean, J. C., & Johnson, J. (2014). The Allyn and Bacon guide to writing, brief edition (7th ed.). Newyork, NJ: Pearson. Hamid Allami is an associate professor of Applied Linguistics in Rodríguez, Y. C., Yoplac-Lopez, B., Carpio-Tello, A., Sihuay- English Department of Yazd University. His main research areas Torres, K., & Cósar-Quiroz, J. (2017). Percepción del plagio include sociolinguistics and discourse analysis. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png SAGE Open SAGE

An Investigation of the Effects of Citation Instruction to Avoid Plagiarism in EFL Academic Writing Assignments:

SAGE Open , Volume 8 (2): 1 – Apr 11, 2018

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Abstract

Plagiarism in ESL and EFL learning contexts has become a topic engaging many researchers in a hot debate in recent years. Comparisons of student-generated texts with their source texts have shown that students rely amply on source texts in their writings, using copying as a major strategy. The students themselves relate these problems to their confusion of how to cite. Nevertheless, little research has been conducted on what constitutes effective citation practices in student writing. The present study aims at measuring the effects of teaching anti-plagiarism strategy of proper citation on 19 postgraduate and 34 graduate students’ use of multiple sources in their writings. The instructional treatment conducted in 30 min per week for seven sessions, aimed at teaching correct quotation rules and different functions of citation (i.e., presenting the literature in the field, comparing the existing views, supporting the writer’s view, etc.), while emphasizing the recognition of these rules at work. The writing samples of the students were three citation tests and source-based writing tasks assigned before, during, and after the treatment. Then the effective citation strategies of the students were analyzed according to their use of standard citation in APA (American Psychological Association) style. The results of the assigned tasks and one survey question demonstrated students’ perceived growing confidence and significant improvements in their citation skills in their source-based writings. The results can yield insightful implications for writing course designers to treat significant problems of the students in their academic writings. Keywords plagiarism, EFL academic writing, citation skills, APA style text, in particular, has been the focus of much discussion and Introduction debate (e.g., Abasi & Graves, 2008; Elander, Pittam, Lusher, The importance of writing in today’s world is undeniable, Fox, & Payne, 2010; Keck, 2014). and the position and role of writing as an effective way of In this regard, plagiarism in English as a second language communication is obvious to all scholars. Writing in any lan- (ESL)/English as a foreign language (EFL) learning contexts guage is a significant way of expressing thoughts and ideas; is a topic engaging many researchers in recent years however, writing in a second language is still an acknowl- (Amsberry, 2010; Williams & Carroll, 2009; Yamada, 2003). edged difficulty for the majority of language learners. As stu- In the L1 context, plagiarism mainly has been judged as dents enter postgraduate career in English-related fields, “stealing” and “cheating,” whereas in ESL/EFL contexts, it their academic needs for improving this skill becomes more may be due to variations in cultural perceptions of texts and obvious. Thus, they should go through different processes to textual borrowing. Typically, in the context of higher educa- learn how to write appropriately. tion, as Yamada (2003) believes, student plagiarism is asso- Over the past decade, more attention has been paid to the ciated with “cheating” and “dishonesty” but educators who importance of academic writing tasks, and the need for work with developing writers argue that, for many students, advanced instruction, focusing on writing from sources plagiarism represents not an intention to deceive, but rather (Keck, 2006; Leki & Carson, 1997; Li & Casanave, 2012; Pecorari, 2013; Spack, 1997). In addition to describing the types of “text-responsible” writing tasks assigned in univer- Yazd University, Iran sity classrooms, researchers (e.g., Keck, 2006; Pecorari, Corresponding Author: 2003; Shi, 2004) have become more interested in investigat- Ali M. Fazilatfar, Department of English Language, Yazd University, ing how academic writers attempt to integrate source texts Safaeyeh, Yazd 8915818411, Iran. Email: afazilatfar@yazd.ac.ir into their own writing. Students’ inappropriate use of source Creative Commons CC BY: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage). 2 SAGE Open their developing competence in text-responsible writing As a way out, Pecorari (2003) suggests the teaching of (Currie, 1998; Elander et al., 2010; Keck, 2014). As a microskills of using sources. These include choosing the dynamic and multilayered phenomenon, some studies have most relevant parts of source texts when quoting, that is, also surveyed the attitudes of students toward plagiarism and using quotation marks and rewriting the source text pre- academic dishonesty (Pennycook, 1996; Sutherland, 2005). cisely; paraphrasing, that is, extensively rewording the Rodríguez, Yoplac-Lopez, Carpio-Tello, Sihuay-Torres, and source text, and not just sufficing with altering one or two Cósar-Quiroz (2017), investigating perception of academic words; and selecting suitable reporting words to introduce a plagiarism by dentistry students, concluded that the percep- source. Students should find a chance to scrutinize how other tion of plagiarism as a crime is relatively high. The students writers follow such techniques and to distinctively practice had an average level of knowledge of what academic plagia- these skills before they are required to present all of them rism is and poor level of knowledge about what paraphrasing together. Debnath (2016) examines plagiarism in the medical is. Hu and Lei (2016) in a study of plagiarism in English fraternity and discusses its various types, reasons for the academic writing, comparing Chinese university teachers’ growing number of reported occurrences of plagiarism, and students’ understandings and stances, found that the par- advantages and disadvantages of using plagiarism detection ticipants, though understanding plagiarism in English aca- tools for identifying plagiarism instances (also in Y. H. demic writing differently from Anglo-American academia, Zhang, 2016), and role of authors and editors in plagiarism plainly disapproved of identified cases of plagiarism. Their prevention/avoidance. It has been recommended to use pro- findings also highlighted complex and nuanced understand- fessional plagiarism detection tools regularly for similarity ings of plagiarism and the crucial role of academic socializa- checks to positively support the writers to reduce the risk of tion in shaping knowledge of and attitudes toward plagiarism. plagiarism in the manuscripts submitted. Others have taken a more ideological approach and have One of the most commonly recommended pedagogical questioned the presence of authorship of texts as well as the interventions is citation (Keck, 2006; Schuemann, 2008), relevance of plagiarism (Abasi, Akbari, & Graves, 2006; which is specified as the focus of this study. It is one of the Pennycook, 1996; Yamada, 2003) especially in connection to distinguishing features of academic writing and has been an writing habits of ESL/EFL writers whose cultural back- issue that has been of interest to employee assistance pro- grounds do not care valuing textual ownership (Yamada, gram (EAP) scholars (Dong, 1996; Hyland, 2000; Pecorari, 2003). Hence, as Sutherland (2005) points out the act of pla- 2006; Petric, 2007). Shi (2008) acknowledges the impor- giarism needs to be understood in relation to a specific con- tance of citation by emphasizing that citing a source text is text of academic conventions. Also, understandings of not merely adding a name and a date; it is a subjective pro- textual borrowing ethics are cultural-bond and it is inter- cedure through which the author determines how to create preted differently across cultures (Sowden, 2005). new meanings from the existing resources. It is approved A number of factors have been identified that might that the main role of citation in English for specific purposes explain why developing writers, who write in their native (ESP) discourse is both acknowledging others’ works and language or in ESL, copy from source texts. In the case of promoting as well as validating the author’s knowledge second language writers, differences in cultural attitudes claims. Berkenkotter and Huckin (1995) perfectly demon- regarding the use of source texts and language proficiency strate this by the title of their article “You Are What You are often discussed as likely explanations for students’ copy- Cite,” and even liken citations to weapons scientists use to ing (Bloch, 2008, 2012; Currie, 1998; Keck, 2014; Pecorari, transform previous literature in the field to work to their 2003). Surveys of Asian students have also found that the advantage (as cited in Petric, 2007). students receive limited exposure to writing from sources, In the studies dealing with citation and source use in stu- and little instruction in summary, paraphrase, and citation dent writing, especially in the second language, researchers (Keck, 2014; Shi, 2006). There was also evidence that inap- have predominantly focused on the challenging features, propriate use of citations was tied to students’ confusion such as students’ difficulties in paraphrasing and summariz- about how to cite, underdeveloped skills of reading compre- ing (Campbell, 1990; Petric, 2007), difficulties in expressing hension, lack of critical thinking in relation to the authors’ one’s voice including lack of having a trend toward the cited points of view, and limited content knowledge that hindered text, inappropriate criticizing of other authors, tendency to them from selecting relevant and important references conveying claims without referring to any previous work, (Bloch, 2012; Shi, 2008; Spack, 1997). Hence, numerous and imprecise division between one author’s own ideas and educators’ encounters with student plagiarism have those of others (Dong, 1996; Petric, 2007). Many other prompted them to conclude that university student plagia- researchers have tried to classify students’ citation strategies rism is “widespread,” and is a problem that must be in various disciplines, in different ways (e.g., Abasi & addressed in academic institutions (Hu & Sun, 2017; Graves, 2008; Berkenkotter & Huckin, 1995; Charles, 2006; Pecorari, 2003, 2008, 2013) Hyland, 2000). To identify effective citation strategies in Fazilatfar et al. 3 student writing, Petric (2007) compares citation strategies in In sum, research shows that students have problems in high- and low-rated master’s theses, classifying the rhetori- using sources in academically standard ways and that cal functions of citations in high- and low-rated theses into research on citation within applied linguistics has predomi- nine different categories. The findings show that citation use nantly examined disciplinary variations, cultural differences, related to higher grades is characterized by the use of citation and grammatical changes in citation use (Pennycook, 1996). for a greater variety of rhetorical functions as well as by Fewer studies have focused on the effects of using an inter- greater use of citation for functions other than attribution. In vention program in the form of instructions and conscious- another study, Charles (2006) underlies the importance of ness-raising workshops to EFL learners on improving their phraseological patterning that occurs in reporting clauses source-use attempts in their L2 academic writing assign- used to make references to others’ research, by drawing upon ments. Aiming to contribute to this growing literature, this two corpora of theses written by native speakers. study is interested in investigating the effects of teaching one Fewer researchers publishing in the library and ESL lit- anti-plagiarism strategy of citation on inexperienced writers’ erature offer practical tools on teaching proper strategies to use of multiple sources in their writings. The treatment aims avoid plagiarism. Among them, Garber, Berg, and Chester- at teaching correct citation rules, while emphasizing the rec- Fangman (2017) in a case study created an online academic ognition of these rules at work. Therefore, this study aims to honesty video tutorial, which could notify students about use empirical data to seek answers to the following research academic honesty and dishonesty, mainly emphasizing questions: responsible decision making rather than negative conse- quences. “Plagiarism: Making the Right Choices” video Research Question 1: How far does teaching of correct tutorial has been embedded in the university’s learning man- citation rules and functions through workshop sessions agement system, besides the library’s website, making it have any effects on postgraduate and undergraduate stu- available from a variety of electronic devices. Smedley, dents’ academic writings across different time intervals Crawford, and Cloete (2015) also evaluated the change in throughout the course? nursing student’s knowledge and awareness of plagiarism Research Question 2: How far does teaching of correct before and after an educational treatment in Sydney, citation rules and functions through workshop sessions Australia. They concluded that an educational intervention have any effects on students’ academic writings across can enhance knowledge and understanding of plagiarism different levels (i.e., postgraduate and undergraduate)? among nursing students. Research Question 3: How far does teaching of correct A great deal of the library literature centers around the citation rules and functions through workshop sessions ways through which instructors can help combat student have any effects on postgraduate and undergraduate stu- plagiarism by collaborating with faculty members in design- dents’ academic writings across different genders? ing research assignments, teaching information literacy, and Research Question 4: How far does teaching of correct supplying plagiarism prevention resources (e.g., Lambert’s citation rules and functions through workshop sessions [2014] Combating Student Plagiarism: An Academic have any effects on postgraduate and undergraduate stu- Librarian’s Guide). Many of the feasible guidelines for dents’ confidence in their academic writings, in terms of instruction focus more specifically on younger students or students’ perceptions? highlight reading and speaking instead of writing. Sowden (2005), for instance, recommends oral presentations with the aim of practicing appropriate summarizing skills. Hyland Method (2009) focuses on the reading comprehension element of summarizing. Moniz, Fine, and Bliss’s (2008) research The objectives of this study were achieved through follow- found no significant differences in a student’s perceptions ing different stages. At first, the effect of teaching one anti- about of plagiarism disregarding the specific teaching plagiarism strategy of citation on inexperienced writers’ use method. Hammill’s (2009) research study was based on of multiple sources in their writings was explored. The class sessions with a pre and post evaluations, including course which was conducted in 30 min per week for seven broad questions about the concept of plagiarism and ques- sessions, aimed at teaching correct citation rules and skills, tions on whether specific incidents were considered as illus- while emphasizing the recognition of these rules at work. trations of plagiarism. In addition, students had to compare The activities in the classroom were conducted along with an original piece to rewrites to identify the plagiarized ones teacher’s feedback and revisions of the students’ writings in and the underlying reasons. As a final point, it comprised a the classroom. survey study to help improve the instruction. Unlike Moniz Then the writing samples of the students were analyzed et al.’s study, this research project was dedicated predomi- before, during, and after the treatment to find improvements in nantly to having students practice writing summaries of their citation skills. In fact, the study used a test–retest design. articles through using correct citation. The pre-, mid-, and post-test were three testing tasks at each 4 SAGE Open Table 1. Weekly Schedule. Week Topic Description 1 Pretest (Time 1) Citation test Introduction (Session 1) Introduction to the course 2 Citation (Session II) Plagiarism-related issues 3 Citation (Session III) Citation skills and referencing, common knowledge, citation guidelines, APA style 4 Midtest (Time 2) Citation test Practice (Session IV) Examples and practice 5 Citation (Session V) Rhetorical functions of citations 6 Quotation Tips to help with quoting, when and how much to quote, how to quote, how to (Session VI) incorporate quotation into writing, further in-class practice 7 Citation (Session VII) Concluding remarks Posttest (Time 3) Citation test Note. APA = American Psychological Association. stage checking the citation skills (see Table 1). The citing rules and the different functions of citation. Based on the behaviors of the students were analyzed based on the stan- method used by Sharpe (2013), the researcher focused on dards and mechanics of documentation proposed by Sharpe many different issues including (a) how to introduce the (2013) and Petric (2007). Hughes (2003) and O’Malley and source before quoting or paraphrasing and how to mark Valdez Pierce (1996) lay out components for testing writing; quotations, (b) how to apply different functions of citations these components, scoring guides, and sample rubrics were in writing, (c) how to use verbs to report ideas, and (d) addressed in the assessment sections. finally, how to mention the source appropriately. In addi- Finally, the students perceived improvements in their self- tion to these issues, the syllabus also included some intro- confidence in writing, after the treatments was also surveyed. ductory definitions as well as general remarks about The participants of the study were asked a question about plagiarism-related issues, for example, cultural issues, pen- how much they thought the course was helpful for them to alties, plagiarism checker software, and so on. Course improve their confidence in writing. In fact, this was aimed handouts in 40 pages (see sample classroom notes and exer- to reveal some information about students’ conceptual per- cises in Appendix A), adopted from different academic ceptions about the effectiveness of the courses on students’ writing resources, were prepared and submitted to students appropriate textual borrowing, in this academic context. during the treatment. The underlying reasons and benefits of adapting TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) exercises and other sources included assuring a measure of Participants structure, consistency, and logical progression in the class; The data of this study were collected from 53 students (19 allowing the learners to review material or preview other postgraduate and 34 undergraduate), who were studying in a lessons; meeting a learner’s needs or expectations of hav- spring term at the English department of Yazd University, ing something concrete to work from and taking home for Iran. The postgraduates were doing their studies for an MA further study; providing multiple resources, such as self- degree in teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL). study exercises, illustrative examples, and so on; and pro- Due to the nature of their studies and assignments (e.g., pub- viding the instructors with a comprehensive, step-by-step lishable term papers), these students were more dealing with procedure. academic texts and more in need of academic writing skills. As it was presented in Table 1, after an introduction to the The undergraduates were selected from junior students of course in which plagiarism-related issues and the importance English language and literature who were taking their essay of correct citation was emphasized, it was pointed out that writing course and were still in their early stages of learning citation is a means through which we give credit to the how to write research papers. All 53 students (43 females, 10 source. When we want to cite other people’s ideas, particu- males) were from different cities of the country, aging from larly when they are definitions, opinions, unique expres- 21 to 30 years, learning English as their L2 in an EFL sions, or research data, which are not considered as common context. knowledge, we need to introduce the source correctly. In this regard, a lot of information was provided for the students about the mechanics of citation, direct/indirect quotations, Procedure and referencing. The course of treatment was conducted in 30 min per week As an example, several phrases and clauses like “accord- for seven sessions. The aim was to teach correct citation ing to X,” “in the words of X,” “to quote X,” “as X puts it” Fazilatfar et al. 5 and others were introduced, which can be used to cite appro- A lot of information as well as many examples were also priately the source before paraphrases or quotation marks. presented in the classroom discussions to raise students’ consciousness about different rhetorical functions of cita- Example 1. tion. It was emphasized that the best academic writings are judged according to their use of citation for a higher Original: Professor Brown (2001): “A mirage is an optical variety of rhetorical functions based on Petric (2007). illusion in the atmosphere” (p. 22). Working examples were provided to show how citation is used for different functions including presenting the Written quote: To quote/According to Professor Brown (2001), literature in the field, comparing the existing views, and “A mirage is an optical illusion in the atmosphere” (p. 22). supporting the writer’s view. The treatment also provided examples of correct citation and how to properly integrate Another part of the discussions during the course, for someone else’s writings into a research paper from other example, aimed to present information about indirect quota- sources, such as The Everyday Writer (Lunsford, 2005). In tions. Using strong “verbs” to report the idea and convey the The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Writing (Ramage, Bean, & meaning was emphasized and practiced. The writers had to Johnson, 2014), a complete chapter is dedicated to using, choose verbs that expressed certainty (e.g., argue, assert, citing, and documenting sources. An article was selected conclude, confirm, etc.), neutrality (e.g., indicate, illustrate, from that chapter, and students are asked to reflect on how mention, note, etc.), or doubt (e.g., suggest, propose, assume, the material could be incorporated in a research article. believe, etc.) in their reports (Sharpe, 2013). Furthermore, some of the activities asked the students to read an article and write an acceptable summary including Example 2. appropriate quotations of the article. Quotation: Computer entrepreneur Gates (2005) said, “The key for Microsoft has always been hiring very clever people” (p. 10). Instruments Neutral report: Computer entrepreneur Gates (2005) indicated Three citation tests, adopted from TOEFL (iBT) guidebook that the important factor in Microsoft’s success had always been (Sharpe, 2013), and survey questions inquiring about stu- employing very smart people. National Museum of American dents’ confidence in writing (adopted from L. Zhang, Sheng, History, January 11, 2005. & Li, 2014) were used for the collection of the data. The tests were assigned to the learners on three occasions, to check for students’ achievements at different time intervals across the During the treatment, appropriate and proper citations course: first, just prior to the beginning of the treatment were also presented and discussed. For example, the appro- (Time 1); in the middle of the course, after 3 weeks (Time 2); priate pattern to mention the source more than one time was and 6 weeks later, toward the end of the treatment (Time 3). highlighted in the presentations and handouts. The point is Therefore, the items of each citation test were based on exemplified in the following citation: materials covered in the treatment. Based on the table of spec- Example 3. ifications of the course and to ensure content validity of the tests, in each 25-item test (see sample test items in Appendix Source: Maria Montessori (2011) B), five items referred to citing direct quotations and the use of phrases or clauses like “As X puts it” or “According to X.” -proposed educational model Seven items of each test were related to the use of “doubtful, neutral, and certain” categories of reporting verbs in indirect -not transmission knowledge quotations to convey the meanings that students wished to attribute to the idea. Seven items of the test covered the teach- -free to develop ing material of the course that required the students to form a meaningful mini passage and note how to appropriately men- -success child working independently tion the source more than one time (see Example 3 above). The final six scores were considered for citation summary The above parts can be rewritten as the following excerpt: tasks in which the students were asked to provide a brief sum- mary of a passage by attending to the original (primary and “Montessori (2011) proposed an educational model that has secondary) sources. The passage included different quota- become known as the Montessori Method. Montessori insisted tions from different authors. In these tasks, phrases conveying that education should not be merely the transmission of acknowledgment and source citations, such as “(Singer, knowledge but the freedom to develop as person. She felt her 1983),” were scored for their presence/absence and for greatest success was achieved when a child began working independently” (p. 124). whether they observed citation conventions properly. Also, 6 SAGE Open Table 2. Descriptive Statistics of the Students’ Performances on the Three Citation Tests. 95% confidence interval for M n M SD SE Lower bound Upper bound Pretest 53 15.6509 1.64312 .22,570 15.1980 16.1038 Midtest 53 20.1817 2.07935 .28,562 19.6086 20.7548 Posttest 53 20.9085 3.04905 .41,882 20.0681 21.7489 Total 159 18.9137 3.28882 .26,082 18.3986 19.4289 Table 3. One-Way ANOVA Results of the Three Citation Tests. Sum of squares df Mean square F Significance Between groups (Combined) 860.327 2 430.164 79.073 .000 Linear term Contrast 732.508 1 732.508 134.650 .000 Deviation 127.819 1 127.819 23.496 .000 Within groups 848.651 156 5.440 Total 1,708.979 158 were rated on a 5-point Likert-type scale (1-strongly disagree, Table 4. Within-Subjects Factors. 2-mildly disagree, 3-neutral, 4-mildly agree, 5-strongly agree). Value label No. The survey questions were included in the third citation test to measure the students’ perceived level of confidence toward Level writing in academic contexts. The questions read as follows: 1 Undergraduate 34 2 Graduate 19 Gender 1. I am more confident in writing after this course. 1 Boy 10 2. I can write academically (academic writing 2 Girl 43 conventions). 3. I develop research skills by writing the research paper. 4. This course helps me complete writing assignments Table 5. Between-Subjects Factors. of other subjects. Factor 1 Dependent variable Classroom observation was made throughout the course 1 Citation pretest_1 2 Citation midtest_1 to get more knowledge of how learners used citations in their 3 Citation posttest_1 source-based writings, or to generate explanations for some unusual phenomena occurring in the course. Two independent raters rated six randomly chosen tests the effective citation strategies of students, before and after at first. An interrater reliability check on scoring students’ the treatment, were analyzed and scored according to their citation practices in these essay-type tests, based on six use of citation for a high variety of rhetorical functions and randomly chosen tests, yielded 90% interrater reliability following the standard citation style. Therefore, the three tests on citation scores in the first six citation tests (Cohen’s were conducted based on (1-25) score system. Two indepen- kappa = .90). dent raters rated the three citation tests to ensure interrater The results of these three citation tests were analyzed using reliability of the tests results. High interrater agreement was ANOVA and chi-square. The ANOVA analyses provide infor- found for ratings of the citation tests (k = .86). mation about the differences between the students’ perfor- The survey questions were adopted from the second part of mances in different groups (postgraduate and undergraduate, questionnaire that originally was composed of three parts. Part male and female) and for the citation tests, at different time 2 was composed of 12 items about the students’ perceptions of intervals: pretest (Time 1), midtest (Time 2), and posttest (Time their improvement in different aspects of writing after taking 3). The chi-square analysis could furnish us with information the course. Four related items were chosen that were in line about the differences between the students’ perceived growing with the targets of the treatment in this study. Items in this part confidence in source-based writing after the treatments. Fazilatfar et al. 7 Table 6. Comparison Between Different Gender and Level Groups (Tests of Within-Subjects Effects Measure). Type III Source Sum of squares df Mean square F Significance Factor 1 491.780 2 245.890 56.299 .000 491.780 1.738 282.947 56.299 .000 491.780 1.907 257.913 56.299 .000 491.780 1.000 491.780 56.299 .000 Factor 1 × Level 16.928 2 8.464 1.938 .149 16.928 1.738 9.740 1.938 .156 16.928 1.907 8.878 1.938 .152 16.928 1.000 16.928 1.938 .170 Factor 1 × Gender 12.754 2 6.377 1.460 .237 12.754 1.738 7.338 1.460 .238 12.754 1.907 6.689 1.460 .238 12.754 1.000 12.754 1.460 .233 Factor 1 × Level × Gender 0.006 2 0.003 0.001 .999 0.006 1.738 0.004 0.001 .998 0.006 1.907 0.003 0.001 .999 0.006 1.000 0.006 0.001 .979 Error (Factor 1) 428.020 98 4.368 428.020 85.165 5.026 428.020 93.432 4.581 428.020 49.000 8.735 gender and different level groups of the students’ perfor- Results mances at the three tests (see Tables 4, 5, and 6). The results A Comparison of Students’ Citation Scores at show that the treatments could considerably affect all the dif- Three Different Time Intervals ferent groups, regardless of the gender and graduate levels (F = 56.29, df = 2) and p = .000, which is significant at p < .05. The analysis was conducted to reveal information about the Therefore, there was no significant difference between the first research question that aimed at exploring the effects of performances of different genders at three tasks, nor at the two teaching correct citation rules and functions on postgraduate levels (postgraduate and undergraduate) of the three tasks. and undergraduate students’ academic writings. The descrip- As can be seen from Table 6, the difference between the tive statistics of the students’ performances and the results of effects of the treatment on improvement of citation skills of one-way ANOVA comparing all 53 students’ performances different levels (undergraduate/postgraduate) of the students is at three citation tests (pretest, midtest, and posttest) are pre- not significant (F = 1.93, df = 2) at p < .05, because probability sented in Tables 2 and 3. level in this case is .149. This shows that the students’ educa- Table 2 shows that the students’ mean score (M = 15.65) tion level as a moderating factor, though they might have dif- at pretest (Time 1) is much lower than the mean scores at ferent motivation levels in learning to write source-based midtest (Time 2) and posttest (Time 3), which are 20.18 and assignments, has had no effects on their achievements from the 20.90, respectively, indicating students’ achievements in treatment. The same result was revealed with regard to gender their citation skills in the course of treatments. factor in the analysis. As it is shown in Table 6, the interaction As it is shown in Table 3, the results of a comparison between gender and treatment factor was not significant. between all of the 53 students’ performances at the three cita- tion tests show that their performances were significantly Analysis of the Students’ Answers to the Survey different (F = 79.07, df = 2) at p = .000, which is much lower than p < .05 set for the study. It shows that the treatment Questions About the Course Effects could significantly affect the students’ citation skills. To obtain information about the last research question, chi- square test was run to analyze students’ answers to the ques- tion about their perceptions regarding the effectiveness of the A Comparison of Students’ Performances at course and how much it could succeed in increasing students’ Different Gender and Level Groups self-confidence in their attempt to write good academic writ- In a further more complete analysis, running the ANOVA with ings. The students, either positive or negative, generally had repeated measures, a comparison was drawn between different similar ideas about all of the questions. 8 SAGE Open Table 7. Descriptive Statistics About Students’ Perceptions Expressed in the Survey Questions. Degree of confidence Observed no. Expected no. Residual Strongly disagree 0 30 −3.5 Mildly disagree 28 30 16.5 Neutral 0 30 −3.5 Mildly agree 64 30 −5.5 Strongly agree 56 30 −7.5 Total 148 Table 8. Results of Chi-Square Test About Students’ improvements in students’ practice of writing summaries of Perceptions Expressed in the Survey Questions. articles using proper citation. The positive results of an inter- vention program in this study were also consistent with Survey questions Garber et al. (2017) and Smedley et al. (2015) studies. χ 43.64 Analysis of students’ performances at the citation pretest df 3 (Time 1) shows that most of the attributions or citations were Asymp. Sig. .000 integrated into the students summaries of the mini passages, without an accompanying reporting phrase or clause, and this was the case for both the postgraduate and undergradu- As it can be seen from Tables 7 and 8, chi-square is 43.64, ate writers. This suggests that while most students did not with df = 3, which is significant at p = .000. The significant feel it was necessary to cite the source text author every time result shows that while most of the students believed the they borrowed his or her language (i.e., each time they course could successfully help them very well to improve selected an excerpt for copying or paraphrase). their self-confidence in academic writing, few students It is important to note, however, that while individual selections thought that the course could not help them very much. None observed in this study were typically not accompanied by attribu- of the students had a negative view in answering this ques- tion at Time 1, most postgraduate and undergraduate writers men- tion, for nobody chose the choice strongly disagree among tioned the source text author at least once in their summaries at their answers. Not only did they believe they were more con- Time 2 and Time 3 after the treatment. In fact, many of the students fident in writing after this course and that they could write appropriately attributed the sources and added reporting phrases or academically (following academic writing conventions) but clauses to excerpts they had selected later in the course, when they they also had developed research skills by writing the were explicitly instructed about the mechanical rules and strategies research paper. Moreover, most of the learners assumed that of citation. It can be implied that these results may be due to the this course could help them complete writing assignments of fact that the mere consciousness-raising activities conducted at the other subjects as well. beginning sessions were sufficient enough to lead to the prime effects on the students’ performances. Generally speaking, stu- dents benefited from the course. Likewise, in L. Zhang et al.’s Discussion (2014) study, a large majority of students held the perception that A comparison of the analytic scores given by the raters on they became more confident in writing and their writing compe- each criterion used to assess the tests at pretest/posttest indi- tence had been improved academically. The instructions could cates an improvement in students’ skills in their writings draw the students’ attention to the importance of attending to the from sources and higher levels of cautiousness about cita- standards and rules of academic integrity, something that might tions and attributions in their source-based writings. They have been disregarded by them beforehand. This result may sup- followed correct rules and standards of citation, after the port the assumption that many of the international students may treatment at the second and third citation test times. It seems commit plagiarism unintentionally, due to their lack of knowledge that a significant improvement was achieved over the 7 about standard citational acts or because of their different cultural weeks of treatment. It may be that extensive practice in writ- perceptions about the conventional citing forms. ing assignments was sufficient, during a period of almost one The finding that, despite great improvement in their semester, to improve the learners’ knowledge of academic scores in the midtests (Time 2) and posttests (Time 3), some citation skills. These major findings are inconsistent with of the citations were still incorrect at Time 3 was to some Moniz et al.’s (2008) research that had resulted in no signifi- extent surprising considering the emphasis on correct cita- cant differences in a student’s general understanding of pla- tions in the course handouts. Pecorari (2006) suggests that giarism disregarding the teaching method. However, they are low possibility of the learners’ receiving of sufficient feed- in line with Hammill’s (2009) findings that was based on back on their incorrect citations from their instructors may class sessions with a pre- and post-assessment and revealed lead to a wrong assumption that their citations are correct. Fazilatfar et al. 9 She suggests that learners should be provided with explicit Appendix A feedback on inappropriate source use, and this was tried to be Sample Classroom Notes and Exercises attended to in the course of treatments in this study. All in all, this study confirms the importance of citation as one of the Citation and quotation. When citing or quoting other literature, distinguishing features of academic writing, which is consis- please use proper citation format and bibliographic style. tent with other researchers’ ideas (e.g., Berkenkotter & There are many legitimate formats. Here are a few APA Huckin, 1995; Dong, 1996; Hyland, 2000; Pecorari, 2006; (American Psychological Association) style options: Petric, 2007; Schuemann, 2008; Shi, 2008). In addition, with respect to students’ performances in dif- ferent groups, the findings suggest the girls performed 1. If citing text from an outside source, place source text inside quotation marks. slightly better, but not statistically significant, compared with the boys, which may be due to the unequal number of 1a. (Author, year, page), with bibliography at end of the boys and the girls in the population. Although the post- document graduate students received slightly higher scores compared As Michael Teitz observes, “Land-use planning has proved more durable than its critics and, more importantly, has shown a new with the undergraduates, the differences were not statisti- burst of creative energy in the past decade” (Teitz, 1996, p. 652). cally significant. In fact, in some of the tests, these two groups performed almost equally, which implies the impor- ----- tant fact that there is an urgent need in higher education, to Bibliography [placed at the end of the document] address these issues more seriously in the classrooms at dif- Teitz, M. B. (1996). American planning in the 1990s: Evolution, ferent levels, that is, the EFL students genuinely need greater debate and challenge. Urban Studies, 33(4/5), 649-71. focus on the rules of textual borrowing and intertextuality to be included in their research curricula, not only at BA levels 2. If referring to specific idea from an outside source but also at MA levels where the students will considerably (without directly quoting text), summarize in your own distinctive words and cite the source. (Note: do not use require to learn more about the conventions of academic this format if you are directly quoting the text. You writing, due to the nature of their practices. must use format 1a from above.) Furthermore, the results confirm students’ perceived grow- ing confidence in attempting academic writings. The fact that 2a. (Author, year, page), with bibliography at end of more than 80% of the EFL students, both undergraduate and document postgraduate, considered the course as very helpful and effec- Klosterman identifies four distinct justifications for planning tive in increasing their confidence in writing from the sources (Klosterman, 1996, p. 151). can considerably guide the academic writing course designers Note that the period comes after the citation. Also, for to detect which problematic areas are perceived as somehow chapters in edited books, please cite the actual author of more confusing for the learners and need to be highlighted in the piece (Klosterman), NOT the editor(s) of the collection the writing courses. On the contrary, the problem even may (Campbell and Fainstein), who are simply listed in the complete lie in the fact that focusing on these citation rules and strate- reference below. gies and academic literacy on the whole have not been dealt ----- with explicitly and well enough by the writing courses and Bibliography [placed at the end of the document] instructors; hence leaving the EFL writers with confusion and no other choice except committing unintentional plagiarism. Klosterman, R. (1996). Arguments for and against planning. In In conclusion, this study mainly aimed at expanding our Readings in planning theory, (eds.) S. Campbell & S. S. Fainstein understanding of EFL students’ citation problems and strate- (pp. 141-157). Cambridge, MA and Oxford, gies including both postgraduate and undergraduate writers. UK: Blackwell. In particular, the study has tried to demonstrate that, though much of our attention has recently been focused on instances of copying in students’ work, copying without proper How is citation used? (Rhetorical functions of citation) The acknowledgment is still one of the most common errors that different purposes for which citation can be used are numer- students, especially international writers, make when ous and too complex to go into exhaustively, but a few exam- attempting to use within text citation. A continuum of a wide ples are mentioned here: range of strategies, including major grammatical and lexical changes as well as citation skills can be offered to the stu- 1. Presenting the literature in the field dents to help them in their writing assignments. The signifi- cant results of this study are drawn from explicit focus on instruction of citation rules and skills that can shed more EXAMPLE: Britten (1998), in discussing preliminary train- lights on what the writing instructors can rely on more to ing for non-native speaker teachers, argues for a progression help students avoid committing plagiarism in their writings. from an initially . . . self-help approach. (p. 33) 10 SAGE Open Here, the writer is simply presenting an argument put forward Thus, the first sentence is the writer’s own assessment by an established author. The word “argues” tells us that this is that (many or at least some) critics question the approach. In Britten’s main idea and that he might therefore be assumed to be the second sentence, Horowitz is then brought in as one an authority whose opinion must be considered. Several lines example of a critic, and his criticisms of the approach under later, in fact, the writer goes on to say that Britten’s approach is discussion are outlined. Having started like this, the writer suitable to apply to his (the writer’s) particular situation. could now easily go on to mention other authors and their criticisms, so as to fully show the weaknesses of the approach. 2. Comparison of existing views The exact role of citation and its interrelation with voice in academic writing is very complex, and limited research EXAMPLE: One of Schön’s key arguments in his critique of has been done. The best way to improve your understanding the applied science model is . . . (several lines omitted) . . . of how to use citation without losing your own voice as This view is not at odds with Widdowson’s (1984, p. 89) writer is to pay attention as you do your reading to how comment that teachers who do not analyze . . . methodology. established writers cite others, and how they distinguish the On the contrary, Schön’s second requirement for effective ideas of other authors from their own so as to maintain their education (1983, p. 50) is precisely that . . . own voice. Again here in comparing two views of established authors and showing how they complement each other, the writer is To quote or not to quote? Having decided that research you adding authority to his argument. Note the phrases in (added) have done is helpful in presenting your position, and that you italics which the writer uses to make the cited authors, Schön want to cite that author, you still have to make a choice as to and Widdowson, “do what he wants”—in other words, it is in the best way of doing this. There are basically three issues to these phrases that we can hear the writer’s own voice. consider when using the work of others writers: 3. Support of the writer’s view •• whether or not to quote a writer’s words •• how to paraphrase or summarize a writer’s words if A common lexical marker in using sources for support of your you decide not to quote own view is the word “as” before the cited author’s name: •• whether or not to use the writer’s name in your sen- EXAMPLE: This traditional teaching cannot, moreover, tence, together with a reporting verb such as “notes” serve . . . in their own classes; on the contrary, as Britten or “suggests” to distinguish their ideas from your own points out (1988, p. 3), it is more likely . . . to encourage student teachers to go out and teach the way they were taught. Using direct quotation. In general, when writers choose to By using “as,” the writer claims ownership of the idea quote rather than paraphrase, they usually do so because the expressed but uses a citation of Britten who has said the same language in the text is vivid, provocative, unusual, or because thing to lend greater authority. the exact wording is historically or legally important; and this could possibly be lost in a paraphrase or summary. 4. Referring EXAMPLE: “Life is not determined by consciousness, but consciousness by life.” It is common for researchers not to reiterate the basic details In such cases, especially where the original to be quoted of a study related to what they are writing about, but simply is short and pithy, it is probably better not to paraphrase. to refer the reader to read the study themselves if they want more information. In these cases, the reference is often pre- How do you know when and how much to quote? Research ceded by “see” or “cf.” into the use of citation in research articles suggests that quo- EXAMPLE: Thus, Americans speaking at normal volume tations are relatively rare compared with summary or para- might be considered rather quiet in some parts of Africa and phrase. Hyland’s (2000) figures suggest that even in the rather loud in some parts of the Far East (cf. Applegate, 1975). humanities, only 8% to 12% of citations involve quotation. If your paper focuses on some primary source such as a sig- 5. Exemplifying/providing evidence nificant speech, an important manuscript, or some govern- ment document or legislation, you may need to quote more Often a writer will present an argument or outline a general extensively from the original, explaining such matters as the position, then follow it up with evidence from the research of content, tone, wording, and structure of that work. Second- others. ary sources, however, such as critics who have commented EXAMPLE: Critics also question whether . . . According on the primary source or experts in related fields, should be to Horowitz (1986a), the approach “creates a classroom situ- quoted much less frequently. Again, to maintain your own ation that bears little resemblance to the situations in which voice, if you quote someone, do not just leave your reader to [students’ writing] will eventually be exercised” (p. 144). He work out for themselves why you quoted that person; follow goes on to suggest that . . . Fazilatfar et al. 11 up the quotation with a comment of your own which ties it Correct citation and quotation. To avoid plagiarism it is nec- into your argument. essary to know how to cite works correctly and use quota- tions: 1-Ideally, authors of works of original scholarship How to incorporate quotation into your writing present their arguments in their own words. 2-Whenever authors paraphrase or quote from sources directly, they a. Enclose all quoted material in quotation marks (“ ”) should give credit to the words and ideas taken from others. and cite the exact source immediately after the quota- 3-Commonly known facts, available in numerous sources, tion, even if you have mentioned this source earlier. should not be enclosed in quotation marks or given a source If you need to quote longer passages (usually more citation unless the wording is taken directly from another. than four lines), set the quotation off in an indented, Also not treated as quotations are proverbial, biblical, and single-spaced block (called a “block quotation”). If well-known literary expressions used as part of the author’s you do this, you no longer need to use quotation text. (The Chicago Manual of Style, 1982, p. 282) marks. Although these comments are very helpful, many people b. Sometimes, for the sake of clarity or length, you may might be left wondering when they ought to use quotation want to alter a direct quotation in some way to elimi- marks. The accepted rule of thumb is after four words. That nate unnecessary detail. If so, enclose any changed or means you must use quotation marks for any passage copied added words in square brackets [ ], and indicate any from another work containing five or more words. To help deletions with three ellipsis points (. . .). Be especially students avoid such problems many university departments careful that any changes you make in a quotation do publish essay guides or APA style manuals. These should be not alter its essential meaning. In addition, use these carefully read. marks sparingly: too many brackets and ellipsis points make for difficult reading. Appendix B Sample Citation Test Items Plagiarism using a citation: An example I-Try to report each quotation. The first one is completed to give you an example. •• Here although the real author is acknowledged, pla- EXAMPLE: Original: Professor Brown: A mirage is an giarism takes place because the original text is repro- optical illusion in the atmosphere. duced with only minor changes without using either Written quote: To quote/According to Professor quotation marks or footnotes: Brown (2001), “A mirage is an optical illusion in the •• Original: atmosphere.”(p. 22) But Hertzog recognized the danger and . . . The politics of the 1. A study by Professor Carter (2004): Patients can nationalists, were in the view of Het Westen, unquestionably lower their blood pressure by losing weight and Christian. The Afrikaner People were Christian people, decreasing their intake of salt. (p. 166) therefore . . . (1) 2. Davison (1998): Ben Johnson may be the author of several plays attributed to William Shakespeare. (p. 58) (1) Irving Hexham, The Irony of Apartheid (Lewiston: Edwin Mellen, 1981), p. 185. II-Try to report each quotation. Choose a verb to express doubt (e.g., suggest, propose, assume, believe, etc.), neutral- Plagiarism: ity (e.g., indicate, illustrate, mention, note, etc.), or certainty Professor Hexham brilliantly observes that Hertzog rec- (e.g., argue, assert, conclude, confirm, etc.). The first one is ognized the danger and . . . The politics of the nationalists, completed to give you an example. were in the view of Het Westen, unquestionably Christian. EXAMPLE: Quotation: Psychologist Rogers (2008) said, The Afrikaner People were Christian people, therefore . . . “Negative feedback causes people to develop a poor self- concept.” (p. 68) •• Correct usage: Certain Report: Rogers (2008) argued that negative feed- back caused people to develop a poor self-concept. Professor Hexham (1981) observes that “Hertzog recognized Also correct: Rogers (2008) maintained that negative the danger and . . . The politics of the nationalists, were in the feedback caused people to develop a poor self-concept. view of Het Westen, unquestionably Christian. The Afrikaner People were a Christian people, therefore . . .” (p. 185) (1) 1. Astrophysicist Carl Sagan said, “Even a relatively small nuclear war may be capable of producing a (1) Irving Hexham, The Irony of Apartheid (Lewiston: global climatic catastrophe.” Speech before the com- Edwin Mellen, 1981), p. 185. monwealth Club, February 8, 1985. (p. 89) 12 SAGE Open Certain report:. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . Funding .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . The author(s) received no financial support for the research, author- ship, and/or publication of this article. 2. Computer entrepreneur Bill Gates said, “The key for Microsoft has always been hiring very smart people.” References Transcript of video history interview (p. 10), National Abasi, A. R., Akbari, N., & Graves, B. (2006). Discourse appro- Museum of American History, January 11, 2005. priation, construction of identities, and the complex issue of plagiarism: ESL students writing in graduate school. Journal Neutral report: . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. of Second Language Writing, 15, 102-117. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. Abasi, A. R., & Graves, B. (2008). Academic literacy and pla- giarism: Conversations with international graduate students 3. Geneticists James Watson and Francis Crick (1953) and disciplinary professors. Journal of English for Academic said, “DNA structure has two helical chains each coiled Purposes, 7, 221-233. around the same axis.” “A Structure for Deoxyribose Amsberry, D. (2010). Deconstructing plagiarism: International Nucleic Acid,” Nature, 171 (April 2), p. 7337. students and textual borrowing practices. The Reference Librarian, 51, 31-44. Berkenkotter, T., & Huckin, T. N. (1995). Genre knowledge in dis- Doubtful report:. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. ciplinary communication: Cognition, culture, power. Hillsdale, . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. III-Try to report the information in the notes. Cite the source Bloch, J. (2008). Plagiarism across cultures: Is there a difference? appropriately. The first report is completed to give an example. In M. Vicinus & C. Eisner (Eds.), Originality, imitation, and EXAMPLE: Source: Edwin Hubble (man) astronomer plagiarism: Teaching writing in the digital age (pp. 219-230). (1995) Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Bloch, J. (2012). Plagiarism, intellectual property and the teaching •• demonstrated Andromeda nebula located outside our of L2 writing. New York, NY: Multilingual Matters. galaxy Campbell, C. (1990). Writing with others’ words: Using back- •• established the islands universe theory = galaxies ground reading text in academic compositions. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Second language writing: Research insights for class- exist outside our own room (pp. 211-230). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University •• study resulted in Hubble’s constant = standard relation- Press. ship/galaxy’s distance from Earth and speed recession Charles, M. (2006). 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Kumaran (Eds.), Distributed learning: Pedagogy and technol- •• “Management Challenges” for the 21st century ogy in online information literacy instruction (pp. 341-360). •• introduced five transforming forces Cambridge, MA: Chandos Publishing. •• believed trends have major implications for long-term Hammill, S. J. (2009). Challenging ESL students to avoid plagia- strategies of companies rism and properly summarize and cite articles. Works of the FIU Libraries, 19, 1-34. Declaration of Conflicting Interests Hu, G. W., & Lei, J. (2016). Plagiarism in English academic writ- ing: A comparison of Chinese university teachers’ and stu- The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect dents’ understandings and stances. System, 46, 107-118. to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. Fazilatfar et al. 13 Hu, G. W., & Sun, X. (2017). 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Plagiarism and the culture of multilingual stu- courses. TESOL Quarterly, 31, 39-69. dents in higher education abroad. ELT Journal, 59, 226-233. Li, Y., & Casanave, C. P. (2012). Two first-year students’ strategies Spack, R. (1997). The acquisition of academic literacy in a second for writing from sources: Patchwriting or plagiarism? Journal language: A longitudinal case study. Written Communication, of Second Language Writing, 21, 165-180. 14, 3-62. Lunsford, A. A. (2005). The everyday writer (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Sutherland, S. W. (2005). Pandora’s box: Academic perceptions of Bedford/St. Martin’s. student plagiarism in writing. Journal of English for Academic Moniz, R., Fine, J., & Bliss, L. (2008). The effectiveness of Purposes, 4, 83-95. direct-instruction and student-centered teaching methods on Williams, K., & Carroll, J. (2009). Understanding referencing and students’ functional understanding of plagiarism. College & plagiarism. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. Undergraduate Libraries, 15, 255-279. Yamada, K. (2003). What prevents ESL/EFL writers from avoiding O’Malley, J. M., & Valdez Pierce, L. (1996). Authentic assess- plagiarism? Analyses of 10 North-American websites. System, ment for English language learners: Practical approaches for 31, 247-258. teachers. New York, NY: Addison-Wesley. Zhang, L., Sheng, Y., & Li, L. (2014). Evaluating an academic writ- Pecorari, D. (2003). Good and original: Plagiarism and patchwrit- ing course based on an integrated model. The Journal of Asia ing in academic second-language writing. Journal of Second TEFL, 11, 95-124. Language Writing, 12, 317-345. Zhang, Y. H. (2016). Against plagiarism–A guide for editors and Pecorari, D. (2006). Visible and occluded citation features in authors. Switzerland, Geneva: Springer. postgraduate second-language writing. English for Specific Purposes, 25, 4-29. Author Biographies Pecorari, D. (2008). Academic writing and plagiarism: A linguistic analysis. London, England: Continuum. Ali M. Fazilatfar is an associate professor of TEFL in English Pecorari, D. (2013). Teaching to avoid plagiarism: How to promote Department of Yazd University in Iran. He is the head of English good source use. New York, NY: Open University Press. Department and his main research intersts are teaching methodol- Pennycook, A. (1996). Borrowing others’ words: Text, ownership, ogy and teaching language skills. memory and plagiarism. TESOL Quarterly, 30, 201-230. Petric, B. (2007). Rhetorical functions of citations in high- and S. E. Elhambakhsh has recently received her PhD in TEFL and low-rated master’s theses. Journal of English for Academic teaches general English courses at Yazd University. Her main reser- Purposes, 6, 238-253. ach areas are teaching methodology and discourse analysis. Ramage, J. D., Bean, J. C., & Johnson, J. (2014). The Allyn and Bacon guide to writing, brief edition (7th ed.). Newyork, NJ: Pearson. Hamid Allami is an associate professor of Applied Linguistics in Rodríguez, Y. C., Yoplac-Lopez, B., Carpio-Tello, A., Sihuay- English Department of Yazd University. His main research areas Torres, K., & Cósar-Quiroz, J. (2017). Percepción del plagio include sociolinguistics and discourse analysis.

Journal

SAGE OpenSAGE

Published: Apr 11, 2018

Keywords: plagiarism; EFL academic writing; citation skills; APA style

References