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TOMATO FOLIAR INSECTICIDE TRIAL, 2012

TOMATO FOLIAR INSECTICIDE TRIAL, 2012 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.E74 (E74) TOMATO: Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., ‘Florida 47’ J. F. Walgenbach Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center 455 Research Drive Mills River, NC 28759 (828) 684-3562 Email: jim_walgenbach@ncsu.edu S. C. Schoof Email: steve_schoof@ncsu.edu Flower thrips (FT): Frankliniella tritici (Fitch) Western flower thrips (FT): Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) Potato aphid (PA): Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) Twospotted spider mite (TSSM): Tetranychus urticae Koch Tomato fruitworm (TFW): Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) Brown stink bug (SB): Euschistus servus (Say) Green stink bug (SB): Acrosternum hilare (Say) Armyworms (AW): Spodoptera spp. This study was conducted at the Mountain Horticultural Crops Research Station in Mills River, NC. Six-wk-old ‘Florida 47’ tomato transplants were set on 5 Jun on black plastic mulch with drip irrigation. Plots consisted of single 25-ft long rows on 5-ft centers with treatment rows separated by single non-treated rows. Plants were spaced 1.5 ft within rows, and treatments were replicated four times and arranged in a RCB design. Tomatoes were staked and strung as needed and sprayed with a standard fungicide program. Insecticide treatments were applied on 22 and 29 Jun, 6, 13, 20 and 27 Jul, 3, 13, 21 and 28 Aug, and 10 and 25 Sep with a CO -powered backpack sprayer delivering 40 (2 nozzles/row) to 90 gpa (6 nozzles/row); gallons increased as plants grew. LI-700 was used as an adjuvant at 0.25% vol/vol for all treatment applications. Materials and rates are listed in the tables. FT were monitored by removing 10 flowers per plot, placing them in a vial of 50% ETOH, and counting dislodged adult and immature FT under a stereomicroscope. PA were sampled by observing 10 recent, fully-expanded leaves per plot, and recording the total number of apterous aphids. TSSM were counted on 10 terminal leaflets per plot. Mature fruit were harvested from the middle eight plants of each plot on 8 and 22 Aug, 5 and 17 Sep, and 3 Oct and weighed, graded for size and quality, and assessed for insect damage. All data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and means were separated by LSD (P = 0.05). Cumulative insect days on tomato plants treated with various insecticides at approximately weekly intervals from 22 Jun to 25 Sep are presented in Table 1. Insect populations, especially FT, PA, and TSSM, were low in this trial. FT counts on 18 Jul (data not shown) and season cumulative thrips days were the only instances where significant differences were observed, and populations were lowest in those treatments that included Radiant or Entrust (Table 1). There were no differences among treatments in PA densities, and TSSM differed on the last sample date of 27 Sep (data not shown), but not in cumulative mite days. Total tomato yield averaged 37.8 tons/acre across all treatments, and although there were no differences among treatments in total yield (Table 2), the MBI-203 plus Radiant treatment did have significantly higher total marketable yield than the untreated check. Total damage due to lepidopteran pests (primarily TFW) and SB was highly variable. MBI-203 and MBI-206 applied alone were the only treatments that did not significantly reduce total lepidopteran damage below the untreated check, and Dipel and Entrust were most effective at minimizing lepidopteran damage. There were no significant differences among treatments in SB damage. This research was supported by industry gifts of pesticide and research funding. 1 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.E74 Table 1. FT / 10 flowers PA / leaflet TSSM / leaflet Rate amt/product Cumulative Cumulative Cumulative Treatment/formulation Acre Thrips Days Aphid Days Mite Days MBI-203 DF2 1 lb 160.0abcde 21.9a 153.9a MBI-203 DF2 2 lb 189.4bcde 24.9a 117.1a MBI-203 DF2 1 lb 124.6abc 137.6a 84.8a + Radiant SC 6 oz MBI-206 1 gal 243.8e 22.3a 103.5a MBI-206 2 gal 188.6abcde 25.2a 134.7a MBI-203 DF2, 1 lb 108.3ab 41.2a 124.1a rotate with Radiant SC 6 oz MBI-206, 1 gal 143.1abcd 10.1a 110.8a rotate with Radiant SC 6 oz Dipel DF 1 lb 216.5de 61.7a 92.4a Entrust SC 6 oz 97.5a 21.9a 107.6a Untreated Check — 207.4cde 58.9a 127.6a Means within the same column followed by the same letter are not significantly different by LSD (P = 0.05). Table 2. % Marketable fruit % insect damaged Total Rate amt Yield Stink Treatment/formulation product/acre (tons/acre) Total Jumbo XL L M Lep bug Thrips MBI-203 DF2 1 lb 36.3a 65.1ab 14.8a 33.6a 13.8a 2.9a 6.5cd 16.5a 0.8a MBI-203 DF2 2 lb 35.1a 69.5ab 19.6a 33.1a 14.4a 2.3a 8.8cd 12.5a 0.8a MBI-203 DF2 1 lb 37.8a 81.3c 21.1a 39.0a 17.1a 4.0a 5.7bc 5.0a 0.1a + Radiant SC 6 oz MBI-206 1 gal 39.0a 70.5abc 14.1a 41.5a 12.2a 2.8a 5.6bc 15.2a 0.5a MBI-206 2 gal 38.7a 61.8a 18.7a 32.4a 9.3a 1.4a 7.1cd 19.0a 0.3a MBI-203 DF2, rotate 1 lb 39.2a 72.5abc 16.4a 33.4a 20.4a 2.3a 3.2ab 15.2a 0.3a with Radiant SC 6 oz MBI-206, 1 gal 37.6a 75.4bc 16.1a 39.8a 17.0a 2.5a 5.5bc 10.9a 0.4a rotate with Radiant 6 oz SC Dipel DF 1 lb 39.0a 65.8ab 18.3a 32.6a 11.8a 3.0a 2.7ab 22.1a 1.6a Entrust SC 6 oz 37.6a 74.8bc 16.3a 40.0a 15.9a 2.6a 2.2a 12.2a 0.1a Untreated Check — 37.9a 67.0ab 18.3a 34.4a 11.2a 3.0a 9.9d 14.6a 0.4a Means within the same column followed by the same letter are not significantly different by LSD (P = 0.05). http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Arthropod Management Tests Oxford University Press

TOMATO FOLIAR INSECTICIDE TRIAL, 2012

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Abstract

Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.E74 (E74) TOMATO: Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., ‘Florida 47’ J. F. Walgenbach Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center 455 Research Drive Mills River, NC 28759 (828) 684-3562 Email: jim_walgenbach@ncsu.edu S. C. Schoof Email: steve_schoof@ncsu.edu Flower thrips (FT): Frankliniella tritici (Fitch) Western flower thrips (FT): Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) Potato aphid (PA): Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) Twospotted spider mite (TSSM): Tetranychus urticae Koch Tomato fruitworm (TFW): Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) Brown stink bug (SB): Euschistus servus (Say) Green stink bug (SB): Acrosternum hilare (Say) Armyworms (AW): Spodoptera spp. This study was conducted at the Mountain Horticultural Crops Research Station in Mills River, NC. Six-wk-old ‘Florida 47’ tomato transplants were set on 5 Jun on black plastic mulch with drip irrigation. Plots consisted of single 25-ft long rows on 5-ft centers with treatment rows separated by single non-treated rows. Plants were spaced 1.5 ft within rows, and treatments were replicated four times and arranged in a RCB design. Tomatoes were staked and strung as needed and sprayed with a standard fungicide program. Insecticide treatments were applied on 22 and 29 Jun, 6, 13, 20 and 27 Jul, 3, 13, 21 and 28 Aug, and 10 and 25 Sep with a CO -powered backpack sprayer delivering 40 (2 nozzles/row) to 90 gpa (6 nozzles/row); gallons increased as plants grew. LI-700 was used as an adjuvant at 0.25% vol/vol for all treatment applications. Materials and rates are listed in the tables. FT were monitored by removing 10 flowers per plot, placing them in a vial of 50% ETOH, and counting dislodged adult and immature FT under a stereomicroscope. PA were sampled by observing 10 recent, fully-expanded leaves per plot, and recording the total number of apterous aphids. TSSM were counted on 10 terminal leaflets per plot. Mature fruit were harvested from the middle eight plants of each plot on 8 and 22 Aug, 5 and 17 Sep, and 3 Oct and weighed, graded for size and quality, and assessed for insect damage. All data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and means were separated by LSD (P = 0.05). Cumulative insect days on tomato plants treated with various insecticides at approximately weekly intervals from 22 Jun to 25 Sep are presented in Table 1. Insect populations, especially FT, PA, and TSSM, were low in this trial. FT counts on 18 Jul (data not shown) and season cumulative thrips days were the only instances where significant differences were observed, and populations were lowest in those treatments that included Radiant or Entrust (Table 1). There were no differences among treatments in PA densities, and TSSM differed on the last sample date of 27 Sep (data not shown), but not in cumulative mite days. Total tomato yield averaged 37.8 tons/acre across all treatments, and although there were no differences among treatments in total yield (Table 2), the MBI-203 plus Radiant treatment did have significantly higher total marketable yield than the untreated check. Total damage due to lepidopteran pests (primarily TFW) and SB was highly variable. MBI-203 and MBI-206 applied alone were the only treatments that did not significantly reduce total lepidopteran damage below the untreated check, and Dipel and Entrust were most effective at minimizing lepidopteran damage. There were no significant differences among treatments in SB damage. This research was supported by industry gifts of pesticide and research funding. 1 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.E74 Table 1. FT / 10 flowers PA / leaflet TSSM / leaflet Rate amt/product Cumulative Cumulative Cumulative Treatment/formulation Acre Thrips Days Aphid Days Mite Days MBI-203 DF2 1 lb 160.0abcde 21.9a 153.9a MBI-203 DF2 2 lb 189.4bcde 24.9a 117.1a MBI-203 DF2 1 lb 124.6abc 137.6a 84.8a + Radiant SC 6 oz MBI-206 1 gal 243.8e 22.3a 103.5a MBI-206 2 gal 188.6abcde 25.2a 134.7a MBI-203 DF2, 1 lb 108.3ab 41.2a 124.1a rotate with Radiant SC 6 oz MBI-206, 1 gal 143.1abcd 10.1a 110.8a rotate with Radiant SC 6 oz Dipel DF 1 lb 216.5de 61.7a 92.4a Entrust SC 6 oz 97.5a 21.9a 107.6a Untreated Check — 207.4cde 58.9a 127.6a Means within the same column followed by the same letter are not significantly different by LSD (P = 0.05). Table 2. % Marketable fruit % insect damaged Total Rate amt Yield Stink Treatment/formulation product/acre (tons/acre) Total Jumbo XL L M Lep bug Thrips MBI-203 DF2 1 lb 36.3a 65.1ab 14.8a 33.6a 13.8a 2.9a 6.5cd 16.5a 0.8a MBI-203 DF2 2 lb 35.1a 69.5ab 19.6a 33.1a 14.4a 2.3a 8.8cd 12.5a 0.8a MBI-203 DF2 1 lb 37.8a 81.3c 21.1a 39.0a 17.1a 4.0a 5.7bc 5.0a 0.1a + Radiant SC 6 oz MBI-206 1 gal 39.0a 70.5abc 14.1a 41.5a 12.2a 2.8a 5.6bc 15.2a 0.5a MBI-206 2 gal 38.7a 61.8a 18.7a 32.4a 9.3a 1.4a 7.1cd 19.0a 0.3a MBI-203 DF2, rotate 1 lb 39.2a 72.5abc 16.4a 33.4a 20.4a 2.3a 3.2ab 15.2a 0.3a with Radiant SC 6 oz MBI-206, 1 gal 37.6a 75.4bc 16.1a 39.8a 17.0a 2.5a 5.5bc 10.9a 0.4a rotate with Radiant 6 oz SC Dipel DF 1 lb 39.0a 65.8ab 18.3a 32.6a 11.8a 3.0a 2.7ab 22.1a 1.6a Entrust SC 6 oz 37.6a 74.8bc 16.3a 40.0a 15.9a 2.6a 2.2a 12.2a 0.1a Untreated Check — 37.9a 67.0ab 18.3a 34.4a 11.2a 3.0a 9.9d 14.6a 0.4a Means within the same column followed by the same letter are not significantly different by LSD (P = 0.05).

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Arthropod Management TestsOxford University Press

Published: Jan 1, 2013

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