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TIMING AND SPRAY VOLUME EFFICACY AGAINST RASPBERRY CROWN BORER, 2003 to 2005

TIMING AND SPRAY VOLUME EFFICACY AGAINST RASPBERRY CROWN BORER, 2003 to 2005 (C1) BLACKBERRY: Rubus hybrids, ‘Arapaho’ or ‘Apache’ Jackie A. McKern AGRI BLDG 320, Department of Entomology University of Arkansas Fayetteville, AR 72701 Phone: (479) 575-2501 Fax: (479) 575-2452 E-mail: dtjohnso@uark.edu Donn T. Johnson Barb A. Lewis Raspberry crown borer (RCB): Pennisetia marginata (Harris) The only recommended control tactic against RCB on caneberries is Guthion Solupak but its EPA registration on caneberries was cancelled in late summer 2005. The objectives of this study were to evaluate efficacy, timing and spray volume/acre of alternative control tactics against RCB larvae to minimize blackberry crown damage and yield loss. Each treatment plot had four or five blackberry plants in a CRB design with four or five replicates in a 5-yr-old blackberry planting of ‘Arapaho’ and ‘Apache’ in Conway, AR. These plots consisted of rows spaced 12 ft apart, plant spacing of 2 ft for 1815 plants/acre. All nematode and/or insecticide solutions were applied to the blackberry cane base/soil area on three separate dates to determine the efficacy and best timing of applications to reduce RCB larval counts per crown. On 23 Oct 2003 and 6 May 2004 (Table 1), treatment solutions at a rate of 200 gpa that were applied by a watering can included: Novaluron 10EC; Guthion Solupak; Lorsban 4E; Brigade WSB; Steinernema feltiae (IJ = infective juveniles); one S. feltiae-infested wax worm cadaver buried in soil by each crown (only in Oct 2003); and an untreated control. On 3 Nov 2004 (Table 2), treatments solutions at rate of 100 gal water/acre that were applied by a 4 gal Solo backpack sprayer included: DPX E2Y45, BAS 320 I, Novaluron 10EC and Brigade WSB each at half the recommended rate; and an untreated control. On 7 Apr 2005 (Table 3), treatments at a rate of 100 gpa that were applied by a watering can included: DPX E2Y45, BAS 320 I, Novaluron 10EC, and Brigade WSB each at the full recommended rate; Admire at half and full rates; and two solutions of nematodes, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and S. feltiae; and an untreated control. Two studies of spray volume/acre were conducted in 4-plant plots each with three replicates. On 3 Nov 2004 (Table 4), double, full or half recommended rates of Brigade were applied by a 4-gal Solo backpack sprayer using volumes of 50, 100 or 200 gpa, respectively. On 7 Apr (Table 5), the full recommended rate of Brigade WSG was applied by a watering can using volumes of 50, 100 or 200 gpa. Blackberry crowns were dug the summer following each fall or spring treatment on 24 Jun 2004, 1 or 15 Jun 2005. Each crown was split open with loppers and hand pruners and counts made of the number of RCB larvae per crown. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance and mean separation using the Waller-Duncan k- ratio t-test. Efficacy of treatments applied as a soil drench to cane base and soil around blackberry plants varied by treatment and date of application. Soon after RCB egg hatch on 23 Oct 2003, Guthion, Lorsban and Brigade treatments had significantly more control (> 89%) than did the nematode treated and untreated canes and Guthion and Lorsban were similar to 59% killed by Novaluron that was similar to 46% killed by S. feltiae-infested wax worm cadaver (Table 1). In contrast, the treatments delayed until 6 May 2004 had < 40% reduction in larval counts that were similar to the untreated canes (Table 1). Treatments applied on 3 Nov 2004 had percent RCB control by half-rates of Brigade (100%), E2Y45 (100%) and BAS 320 (69%) that were significantly greater than that by Novaluron (11%) or the untreated canes (Table 2). Treatments applied on 7 Apr 2005 at full-rates had percent RCB control by E2Y45 (89%), Admire (86%; half rate at 81%), Brigade (83%), BAS 320 (64%) and Novaluron (59%) that all had significantly fewer RCB larvae than did the untreated canes (Table 3). The nematode solutions of H. bacteriophora (33%) or S. carpocapsae (53%) had RCB larval counts similar to those in all other treatments and the untreated canes (Table 3). Fall treatments at of Brigade (2×, full and 50% rates) caused similar ranges in percent control of RCB larvae as did full rates of Brigade applied in spring in three spray volumes of 50, 100 and 200 gpa, respectively: 92 to 99% when applied on 3 Nov 2004 (Table 4) and a slightly lower range from 84 to 90% when applied on 7 Apr 2005 (Table 5). In summary, shortly after egg hatch in late Oct to early Nov the RCB larvae can be controlled in Arkansas by applying an insecticide drench to the lower blackberry cane and adjacent soil using as little as 50 gpa. Slightly less control was achieved by sprays delayed until 6 Apr but no control of RCB larvae was achieved by treatments delayed to early May. Table 1. Treated 23 Oct 2003 Treated 6 May 2004 Treatment/ Rate amt formulation product/acre No. larvae % reduced No. larvae % reduced Untreated check -- 5.6a 0 3.9a 0 S. feltiae 60,000 IJ/crown 3.8ab 31 3.2a 17 S. feltiae 1 cadaver/crown 3.0b 46 -- -- Novaluron 10EC 408.5 ml 2.3bc 59 3.6a 9 Guthion Solupak 50% 0.5 lb (AI) 0.6cd 89 2.3a 40 Lorsban 4E 1.0 lb (AI) 0.3cd 95 3.4a 14 Brigade WSB 10% 0.1 lb (AI) 0.04d 99 2.6a 33 Means within columns not followed by the same letter are significantly different (Waller-Duncan k-ratio t-test, k-ratio=100). Steinernema feltiae nematode solution of infective juveniles (IJ) or an infested cadaver.s Table 2. Treated 3 Nov 2004 Treatment/ Rate amt formulation product/acre No. larvae % reduced Untreated check -- 5.9a 0 Novaluron 10EC 204.3 ml 5.2a 11 BAS 320 I 0.2 lb (AI) 1.8b 69 DPX E2Y45 0.03 lb (AI) 0.0b 100 Brigade WSB 10% 0.05 lb (AI) 0.0b 100 Means within columns not followed by the same letter are significantly different (Waller-Duncan k-ratio t-test, k-ratio=100). Table 3. Treated 7 Apr 2005 Treatment/ Rate amt formulation product/acre No. larvae % reduced Untreated check -- 3.7a 0 H. bacteriophora 60,000 IJ/crown 2.5ab 33 S. carpocapsae 60,000 IJ/crown 1.8ab 53 BAS 320 I 0.2 lb (AI) 1.3b 64 Novaluron 10EC 408.5 ml 1.0b 59 Admire 2F 466.9 ml 0.7b 81 Brigade WSB 10% 0.1 lb (AI) 0.6b 83 Admire 2F 700.4 ml 0.5b 86 DPX E2Y45 0.06 lb (AI) 0.5b 89 Means within columns not followed by the same letter are sssignificantly different (Waller-Duncan k-ratio t-test, k-ratio=100). Infective juveniles (IJ). Table 4. Treated 3 Nov 2004 Treatment/ Rate amt Volume formulation lb (AI)/acre gpa No. larvae % reduced Untreated check -- -- 5.9a 0.0 Brigade WSB 10% 0.2 50 0.4b 93.0 Brigade WSB 10% 0.1 100 0.5b 92.0 Brigade WSB 10% 0.05 200 0.01b 99.8 Means within columns not followed by the same letter are significantly different (Waller-Duncan k-ratio t-test, k-ratio=100). Table 5. Treated 7 Apr 2005 Treatment/ Rate Volume formulation lb (AI)/acre gpa No. larvae % reduced Untreated check -- -- 3.8a 0 Brigade WSB 10% 0.1 lb 50 0.5b 87 Brigade WSB 10% 0.1 lb 100 0.6b 84 Brigade WSB 10% 0.1 lb 200 0.4b 90 Means within columns not followed by the same letter are significantly different (Waller-Duncan k-ratio t-test, k-ratio=100). http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Arthropod Management Tests Oxford University Press

TIMING AND SPRAY VOLUME EFFICACY AGAINST RASPBERRY CROWN BORER, 2003 to 2005

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Abstract

(C1) BLACKBERRY: Rubus hybrids, ‘Arapaho’ or ‘Apache’ Jackie A. McKern AGRI BLDG 320, Department of Entomology University of Arkansas Fayetteville, AR 72701 Phone: (479) 575-2501 Fax: (479) 575-2452 E-mail: dtjohnso@uark.edu Donn T. Johnson Barb A. Lewis Raspberry crown borer (RCB): Pennisetia marginata (Harris) The only recommended control tactic against RCB on caneberries is Guthion Solupak but its EPA registration on caneberries was cancelled in late summer 2005. The objectives of this study were to evaluate efficacy, timing and spray volume/acre of alternative control tactics against RCB larvae to minimize blackberry crown damage and yield loss. Each treatment plot had four or five blackberry plants in a CRB design with four or five replicates in a 5-yr-old blackberry planting of ‘Arapaho’ and ‘Apache’ in Conway, AR. These plots consisted of rows spaced 12 ft apart, plant spacing of 2 ft for 1815 plants/acre. All nematode and/or insecticide solutions were applied to the blackberry cane base/soil area on three separate dates to determine the efficacy and best timing of applications to reduce RCB larval counts per crown. On 23 Oct 2003 and 6 May 2004 (Table 1), treatment solutions at a rate of 200 gpa that were applied by a watering can included: Novaluron 10EC; Guthion Solupak; Lorsban 4E; Brigade WSB; Steinernema feltiae (IJ = infective juveniles); one S. feltiae-infested wax worm cadaver buried in soil by each crown (only in Oct 2003); and an untreated control. On 3 Nov 2004 (Table 2), treatments solutions at rate of 100 gal water/acre that were applied by a 4 gal Solo backpack sprayer included: DPX E2Y45, BAS 320 I, Novaluron 10EC and Brigade WSB each at half the recommended rate; and an untreated control. On 7 Apr 2005 (Table 3), treatments at a rate of 100 gpa that were applied by a watering can included: DPX E2Y45, BAS 320 I, Novaluron 10EC, and Brigade WSB each at the full recommended rate; Admire at half and full rates; and two solutions of nematodes, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and S. feltiae; and an untreated control. Two studies of spray volume/acre were conducted in 4-plant plots each with three replicates. On 3 Nov 2004 (Table 4), double, full or half recommended rates of Brigade were applied by a 4-gal Solo backpack sprayer using volumes of 50, 100 or 200 gpa, respectively. On 7 Apr (Table 5), the full recommended rate of Brigade WSG was applied by a watering can using volumes of 50, 100 or 200 gpa. Blackberry crowns were dug the summer following each fall or spring treatment on 24 Jun 2004, 1 or 15 Jun 2005. Each crown was split open with loppers and hand pruners and counts made of the number of RCB larvae per crown. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance and mean separation using the Waller-Duncan k- ratio t-test. Efficacy of treatments applied as a soil drench to cane base and soil around blackberry plants varied by treatment and date of application. Soon after RCB egg hatch on 23 Oct 2003, Guthion, Lorsban and Brigade treatments had significantly more control (> 89%) than did the nematode treated and untreated canes and Guthion and Lorsban were similar to 59% killed by Novaluron that was similar to 46% killed by S. feltiae-infested wax worm cadaver (Table 1). In contrast, the treatments delayed until 6 May 2004 had < 40% reduction in larval counts that were similar to the untreated canes (Table 1). Treatments applied on 3 Nov 2004 had percent RCB control by half-rates of Brigade (100%), E2Y45 (100%) and BAS 320 (69%) that were significantly greater than that by Novaluron (11%) or the untreated canes (Table 2). Treatments applied on 7 Apr 2005 at full-rates had percent RCB control by E2Y45 (89%), Admire (86%; half rate at 81%), Brigade (83%), BAS 320 (64%) and Novaluron (59%) that all had significantly fewer RCB larvae than did the untreated canes (Table 3). The nematode solutions of H. bacteriophora (33%) or S. carpocapsae (53%) had RCB larval counts similar to those in all other treatments and the untreated canes (Table 3). Fall treatments at of Brigade (2×, full and 50% rates) caused similar ranges in percent control of RCB larvae as did full rates of Brigade applied in spring in three spray volumes of 50, 100 and 200 gpa, respectively: 92 to 99% when applied on 3 Nov 2004 (Table 4) and a slightly lower range from 84 to 90% when applied on 7 Apr 2005 (Table 5). In summary, shortly after egg hatch in late Oct to early Nov the RCB larvae can be controlled in Arkansas by applying an insecticide drench to the lower blackberry cane and adjacent soil using as little as 50 gpa. Slightly less control was achieved by sprays delayed until 6 Apr but no control of RCB larvae was achieved by treatments delayed to early May. Table 1. Treated 23 Oct 2003 Treated 6 May 2004 Treatment/ Rate amt formulation product/acre No. larvae % reduced No. larvae % reduced Untreated check -- 5.6a 0 3.9a 0 S. feltiae 60,000 IJ/crown 3.8ab 31 3.2a 17 S. feltiae 1 cadaver/crown 3.0b 46 -- -- Novaluron 10EC 408.5 ml 2.3bc 59 3.6a 9 Guthion Solupak 50% 0.5 lb (AI) 0.6cd 89 2.3a 40 Lorsban 4E 1.0 lb (AI) 0.3cd 95 3.4a 14 Brigade WSB 10% 0.1 lb (AI) 0.04d 99 2.6a 33 Means within columns not followed by the same letter are significantly different (Waller-Duncan k-ratio t-test, k-ratio=100). Steinernema feltiae nematode solution of infective juveniles (IJ) or an infested cadaver.s Table 2. Treated 3 Nov 2004 Treatment/ Rate amt formulation product/acre No. larvae % reduced Untreated check -- 5.9a 0 Novaluron 10EC 204.3 ml 5.2a 11 BAS 320 I 0.2 lb (AI) 1.8b 69 DPX E2Y45 0.03 lb (AI) 0.0b 100 Brigade WSB 10% 0.05 lb (AI) 0.0b 100 Means within columns not followed by the same letter are significantly different (Waller-Duncan k-ratio t-test, k-ratio=100). Table 3. Treated 7 Apr 2005 Treatment/ Rate amt formulation product/acre No. larvae % reduced Untreated check -- 3.7a 0 H. bacteriophora 60,000 IJ/crown 2.5ab 33 S. carpocapsae 60,000 IJ/crown 1.8ab 53 BAS 320 I 0.2 lb (AI) 1.3b 64 Novaluron 10EC 408.5 ml 1.0b 59 Admire 2F 466.9 ml 0.7b 81 Brigade WSB 10% 0.1 lb (AI) 0.6b 83 Admire 2F 700.4 ml 0.5b 86 DPX E2Y45 0.06 lb (AI) 0.5b 89 Means within columns not followed by the same letter are sssignificantly different (Waller-Duncan k-ratio t-test, k-ratio=100). Infective juveniles (IJ). Table 4. Treated 3 Nov 2004 Treatment/ Rate amt Volume formulation lb (AI)/acre gpa No. larvae % reduced Untreated check -- -- 5.9a 0.0 Brigade WSB 10% 0.2 50 0.4b 93.0 Brigade WSB 10% 0.1 100 0.5b 92.0 Brigade WSB 10% 0.05 200 0.01b 99.8 Means within columns not followed by the same letter are significantly different (Waller-Duncan k-ratio t-test, k-ratio=100). Table 5. Treated 7 Apr 2005 Treatment/ Rate Volume formulation lb (AI)/acre gpa No. larvae % reduced Untreated check -- -- 3.8a 0 Brigade WSB 10% 0.1 lb 50 0.5b 87 Brigade WSB 10% 0.1 lb 100 0.6b 84 Brigade WSB 10% 0.1 lb 200 0.4b 90 Means within columns not followed by the same letter are significantly different (Waller-Duncan k-ratio t-test, k-ratio=100).

Journal

Arthropod Management TestsOxford University Press

Published: Jan 1, 2006

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