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Potential Biomarkers, Risk Factors and their Associations with IgE-mediated Food Allergy in Early Life: A Narrative Review

Potential Biomarkers, Risk Factors and their Associations with IgE-mediated Food Allergy in Early... Abstract Food allergy affects the quality of life of millions of people worldwide and presents a significant psychological and financial burden for both national and international public health. In the past few decades, the prevalence of allergic disease has been on the rise worldwide. Identified risk factors for food allergy include family history, mode of delivery, variations in infant feeding practices, prior diagnosis of other atopic diseases such as eczema, and social economic status. Identifying reliable biomarkers which predict the risk of developing food allergy in early life would be valuable in both preventing morbidity and mortality and by making current interventions available at the earliest opportunity. There is also the potential to identify new therapeutic targets. This narrative review provides details on the genetic, epigenetic, dietary and microbiome influences upon the development of food allergy and synthesizes the currently available data indicating potential biomarkers. While there is a large body of research evidence available within each field of potential risk factors, there are very limited number of studies which span multiple methodological fields, for example including immunology, microbiome, genetic/epigenetic factors and dietary assessment. We recommend that further collaborative research with detailed cohort phenotyping is required to identify biomarkers, and whether these vary between at-risk populations and the wider population. The low incidence of oral food challenge confirmed food allergy in the general population, and the complexities of designing nutritional intervention studies will provide challenges for researchers to address in generating high quality, reliable and reproducible research findings. Statement of significance Food allergy affects the quality of life of millions of people worldwide and presents a significant psychological and financial burden for both national and international public health. Identifying reliable biomarkers which predict the risk of developing food allergy would be valuable in both preventing morbidity and mortality and by making current interventions available at the earliest opportunity. This review provides details on the genetic, epigenetic, dietary and microbiome influences upon the development of food allergy. This helps in identifying reliable biomarkers to predict the risk of developing food allergy, which could be valuable in both preventing morbidity and mortality and by making interventions available at the earliest opportunity. ige mediated food allergy, biomarkers, pathways, risk factors, microbiota, nutrition, infant diet Notes CEC, DM, LU, and CG-G These authors share the first authorship as they had the lead and contributed equally to the development of this scientific article. This work was conducted by an expert group of the European branch of the International Life Sciences Institute, ILSI Europe. The research question addressed in this publication and potential contributing experts in the field were identified by the Nutrition, Immunity & Inflammation Task Force. Members of this task force are listed on the ILSI Europe website at www.ilsi.eu/task forces/nutrition/nutrition-immunity-and-inflammation/. According to ILSI Europe policies, the expert group is composed by at least 50% of external non-industry members. The research project was handed over to the experts to independently refine the research question and carry out the work, i.e., collecting/analysing data/information and writing the scientific paper independently of other activities of the Task Force. The research reported is the result of a scientific evaluation in line with ILSI Europe's framework to provide a precompetitive setting for public-private partnership. Experts are not paid for the time spent on this work. However, the non-industry members within the expert group were offered support for travel and accommodation costs from the Task Force to attend meetings to discuss the manuscript and a small compensatory sum (honorarium) with the option to decline. For further information about ILSI Europe, please email info@ilsieurope.be. Abbreviation used: CHILD, Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development; CMA, Cow's milk allergy; CRD, Component-resolved diagnostic; DBP, Vitamin D binding protein; EAACI, European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; EAT, Enquiring about tolerance; FA, Food Allergy; HLA-DQ, Human leukocyte antigen DQ isotype; HLA-DR, Human leukocyte antigen DR isotype; OFC, Oral food challenge; OIT, Oral immunotherapy; RCT, Randomized control trials; SERPINB, Clade B serpin; SPT, Skin prick test; Treg, T-regulatory. © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society for Nutrition. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Advances in Nutrition Oxford University Press

Potential Biomarkers, Risk Factors and their Associations with IgE-mediated Food Allergy in Early Life: A Narrative Review

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Publisher
Oxford University Press
Copyright
Copyright © 2021 American Society for Nutrition
ISSN
2161-8313
eISSN
2156-5376
DOI
10.1093/advances/nmab122
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Food allergy affects the quality of life of millions of people worldwide and presents a significant psychological and financial burden for both national and international public health. In the past few decades, the prevalence of allergic disease has been on the rise worldwide. Identified risk factors for food allergy include family history, mode of delivery, variations in infant feeding practices, prior diagnosis of other atopic diseases such as eczema, and social economic status. Identifying reliable biomarkers which predict the risk of developing food allergy in early life would be valuable in both preventing morbidity and mortality and by making current interventions available at the earliest opportunity. There is also the potential to identify new therapeutic targets. This narrative review provides details on the genetic, epigenetic, dietary and microbiome influences upon the development of food allergy and synthesizes the currently available data indicating potential biomarkers. While there is a large body of research evidence available within each field of potential risk factors, there are very limited number of studies which span multiple methodological fields, for example including immunology, microbiome, genetic/epigenetic factors and dietary assessment. We recommend that further collaborative research with detailed cohort phenotyping is required to identify biomarkers, and whether these vary between at-risk populations and the wider population. The low incidence of oral food challenge confirmed food allergy in the general population, and the complexities of designing nutritional intervention studies will provide challenges for researchers to address in generating high quality, reliable and reproducible research findings. Statement of significance Food allergy affects the quality of life of millions of people worldwide and presents a significant psychological and financial burden for both national and international public health. Identifying reliable biomarkers which predict the risk of developing food allergy would be valuable in both preventing morbidity and mortality and by making current interventions available at the earliest opportunity. This review provides details on the genetic, epigenetic, dietary and microbiome influences upon the development of food allergy. This helps in identifying reliable biomarkers to predict the risk of developing food allergy, which could be valuable in both preventing morbidity and mortality and by making interventions available at the earliest opportunity. ige mediated food allergy, biomarkers, pathways, risk factors, microbiota, nutrition, infant diet Notes CEC, DM, LU, and CG-G These authors share the first authorship as they had the lead and contributed equally to the development of this scientific article. This work was conducted by an expert group of the European branch of the International Life Sciences Institute, ILSI Europe. The research question addressed in this publication and potential contributing experts in the field were identified by the Nutrition, Immunity & Inflammation Task Force. Members of this task force are listed on the ILSI Europe website at www.ilsi.eu/task forces/nutrition/nutrition-immunity-and-inflammation/. According to ILSI Europe policies, the expert group is composed by at least 50% of external non-industry members. The research project was handed over to the experts to independently refine the research question and carry out the work, i.e., collecting/analysing data/information and writing the scientific paper independently of other activities of the Task Force. The research reported is the result of a scientific evaluation in line with ILSI Europe's framework to provide a precompetitive setting for public-private partnership. Experts are not paid for the time spent on this work. However, the non-industry members within the expert group were offered support for travel and accommodation costs from the Task Force to attend meetings to discuss the manuscript and a small compensatory sum (honorarium) with the option to decline. For further information about ILSI Europe, please email info@ilsieurope.be. Abbreviation used: CHILD, Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development; CMA, Cow's milk allergy; CRD, Component-resolved diagnostic; DBP, Vitamin D binding protein; EAACI, European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; EAT, Enquiring about tolerance; FA, Food Allergy; HLA-DQ, Human leukocyte antigen DQ isotype; HLA-DR, Human leukocyte antigen DR isotype; OFC, Oral food challenge; OIT, Oral immunotherapy; RCT, Randomized control trials; SERPINB, Clade B serpin; SPT, Skin prick test; Treg, T-regulatory. © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society for Nutrition. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

Journal

Advances in NutritionOxford University Press

Published: Oct 1, 2021

Keywords: diet; biological markers; food allergy; immunoglobulin e; narrative review; microbiome

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