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Performance of Selected Grain Protectants Against Maize/Rice Weevil in Stored Field Corn, 2020

Performance of Selected Grain Protectants Against Maize/Rice Weevil in Stored Field Corn, 2020 applyparastyle "fig//caption/p[1]" parastyle "FigCapt" applyparastyle "fig" parastyle "Figure" Arthropod Management T ests, 46(1), 2021, 1–2 doi: 10.1093/amt/tsab013 Section I: Postharvest Products FIELD CORN: Zea maize L., ‘hybrid unknown’ Performance of Selected Grain Protectants Against Maize/ HeadA=HeadB=HeadA=HeadB/HeadA Rice Weevil in Stored Field Corn, 2020 HeadB=HeadC=HeadB=HeadC/HeadB 1,3 1 1, 1 2 HeadC=HeadD=HeadC=HeadD/HeadC Don Cook, Meg Threet, Jeff Gore, Whitney Crow, and Angus Catchot Extract3=HeadA=Extract1=HeadA 1 2 Delta Research and Extension Center, Mississippi State University, Stoneville, MS 38776, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular History=Text=History=Text_First Biology, Entomology, and Plant Pathology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, and Corresponding author, e-mail: dcook@drec.msstate.edu EDI_HeadA=EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadA=EDI_HeadB/HeadA EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadC/HeadB Section Editor: Jonathan Babcock EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadD=EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadD/HeadC Corn (hybrid, maize, sweet) | Zea mays EDI_Extract3=EDI_HeadA=EDI_Extract1=EDI_HeadA Maize Weevil | Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky ERR_HeadA=ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadA=ERR_HeadB/HeadA Rice Weevil | Sitophilus oryzae (L.) ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadC/HeadB ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadD=ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadD/HeadC A trial was conducted at the Mississippi State University Delta report. Grain temperature was determined using a 12 inch digital ERR_Extract3=ERR_HeadA=ERR_Extract1=ERR_HeadA Research & Extension Center at Stoneville, MS to evaluate the thermometer. The thermometer was inserted ca. 11 inches into the efficacy of selected grain protectants against maize/rice weevil in grain mass. Grain samples were collected using a standard 40 inch stored field corn grain. Plots consisted of 30 gallon plastic drums. slotted grain probe. The probe was inserted into each plot (drum) Grain was obtained from corn grown at DREC during 2019. No at random locations to yield a total sample volume of 1 pint of attempt was made to get grain from an individual hybrid for this grain. Insects were separated from grain using a 0.0833 inch mesh trial. A  total of 200 lbs of grain was placed in each drum. The size sieve. Grain moisture was determined using a Dickey-John tops of drums were covered with hardware cloth to prevent in- 500XT grain analysis computer. Data for each sample date were trusion and disturbance by birds and rodents. However, the mesh subjected to analysis of variance and means separated according size was large enough for insects to access the grain. Plots (drums) to Fisher’s Protected LSD. were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four For samples collected on 8 Jan, 3 Feb, 3 Mar, 2 Apr, and 1 May, replications. no differences in grain temperature were observed among treatments Labeled rates of grain protectants (those applied directly to on any of the sample dates (data not shown). Grain temperatures the grain) are expressed as fluid oz of product with an applica- ranged from 50.3 to 67.9°F during this period. Also, no differences tion volume of 5 gal solution per 1,000 bu of grain. For stand- among treatments were observed for grain temperature on 1 Jun ardization, 1,000 bu was assumed to have a weight of 56,000 lb. (Table 1). Only Actellic, Sensat, and Suspend resulted in lower grain with the exception of Actellic, which assumes 1,000 bu is equiv- temperatures than that in the untreated check on 30 Jun, 4 Aug, alent to 60,000 lb. Grain protectants were applied on 26 Nov and 31 Aug. None of the insecticide treatments resulted in lower 2019 using a seed treater large enough to hold the entire 200 grain temperatures compared to the untreated check on 29 Sep. lb sample for each plot. A  colony of maize weevil was obtained Plots treated with Actellic or Sensat had lower temperatures than from the University of Georgia. Each drum was infested with 20 plots treated with Diacon IGR Plus. For samples collected from 8 maize weevil adults on 3 Apr 2020. Drums of grain for the ex- Jan to 29 Sep, no differences in grain moisture were observed among periment were stored under an open air equipment shed for rain treatments on any of the sample dates (data not shown). Grain protection and to allow natural infestations of insect pests. In this moisture content ranged from 12.1 to 14.5% during this period. trial natural infestations of both maize and rice weevil could have For samples collected on 8 Jan, 3 Feb, 3 Mar, 2 Apr, and 1 May, occurred. Weevils were not identified to species, but were identified no differences in weevil densities were observed among treatments to be either rice or maize weevil. Samples from each container on any of the sample dates (data not shown). During this period were collected ca. monthly from Jan to Sep 2020. Grain tem- weevil densities ranged from 0.0 to 0.8 per sample. On 1 Jun, only perature, moisture content, and weevil density were determined. Actellic and Sensat resulted in lower weevil densities compared to Other insects, including sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus the untreated check (Table 2). Only Actellic resulted in lower weevil surinamensis (L.); red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst); densities than the untreated check on 30 Jun and 4 Aug. On 31 Aug and sap beetles Carpophilus spp. were also collected, but at very and 29 Sep, only plots treated with Actellic or Sensat had fewer low numbers. Data for these species are not included in this weevils than the untreated check. This research was supported in part by industry gifts of pesticides, seed, and/or research funding and by the Mississippi Corn Promotion Board. © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. 1 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com 2 Arthropod Management T ests, 2021, Vol. 46, No. 1 Table 1. Treatment/formulation Rate/56,000 lb grain (oz. form) Grain temperature (°F) 1 Jun 30 Jun 4 Aug 31 Aug 29 Sep Actellic 5E 12.3 76.7a 84.0c 84.5d 85.5c 73.5b Sensat 0.73F 9.8 76.1a 85.8bc 85.6cd 86.8c 73.5b Suspend 0.42SC 8.53 77.2a 87.9b 87.1c 91.0b 76.6a Diacon IGR Plus 1.4EC 18.0 76.7a 93.1a 92.6a 94.2a 77.7a Untreated Check - 77.6a 91.4a 91.1b 93.9a 76.1ab P>F 0.16 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.04 Means within columns followed by a common letter are not significantly different (FPLSD, α = 0.05). oz form. per 60,000 lb of grain. Table 2. Treatment/formulation Rate/56,000 lb grain (oz. form) No. weevils / pint of grain b c c 1 Jun 30 Jun 4 Aug 31 Aug 29 Sep Actellic 5E 12.3 0.0c 0.8c 1.6d 0.9c 0.4c Sensat 0.73F 9.8 0.0c 2.0bc 5.9cd 1.2c 3.1b Suspend 0.42SC 8.53 0.5bc 3.5bc 19.9b 7.1b 30.8a Diacon IGR Plus 1.4EC 18.0 3.0a 7.5a 55.1a 27.1a 21.6a Untreated Check - 2.0ab 5.0ab 16.1bc 10.4ab 25.4a P>F 0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 Means within columns followed by a common letter are not significantly different (FPLSD, α = 0.05). oz. form. per 60,000 lb of grain. Data square root transformed, actual means presented. Data log transformed, actual means presented. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Arthropod Management Tests Oxford University Press

Performance of Selected Grain Protectants Against Maize/Rice Weevil in Stored Field Corn, 2020

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Oxford University Press
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© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.
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2155-9856
DOI
10.1093/amt/tsab013
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Abstract

applyparastyle "fig//caption/p[1]" parastyle "FigCapt" applyparastyle "fig" parastyle "Figure" Arthropod Management T ests, 46(1), 2021, 1–2 doi: 10.1093/amt/tsab013 Section I: Postharvest Products FIELD CORN: Zea maize L., ‘hybrid unknown’ Performance of Selected Grain Protectants Against Maize/ HeadA=HeadB=HeadA=HeadB/HeadA Rice Weevil in Stored Field Corn, 2020 HeadB=HeadC=HeadB=HeadC/HeadB 1,3 1 1, 1 2 HeadC=HeadD=HeadC=HeadD/HeadC Don Cook, Meg Threet, Jeff Gore, Whitney Crow, and Angus Catchot Extract3=HeadA=Extract1=HeadA 1 2 Delta Research and Extension Center, Mississippi State University, Stoneville, MS 38776, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular History=Text=History=Text_First Biology, Entomology, and Plant Pathology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, and Corresponding author, e-mail: dcook@drec.msstate.edu EDI_HeadA=EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadA=EDI_HeadB/HeadA EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadC/HeadB Section Editor: Jonathan Babcock EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadD=EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadD/HeadC Corn (hybrid, maize, sweet) | Zea mays EDI_Extract3=EDI_HeadA=EDI_Extract1=EDI_HeadA Maize Weevil | Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky ERR_HeadA=ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadA=ERR_HeadB/HeadA Rice Weevil | Sitophilus oryzae (L.) ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadC/HeadB ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadD=ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadD/HeadC A trial was conducted at the Mississippi State University Delta report. Grain temperature was determined using a 12 inch digital ERR_Extract3=ERR_HeadA=ERR_Extract1=ERR_HeadA Research & Extension Center at Stoneville, MS to evaluate the thermometer. The thermometer was inserted ca. 11 inches into the efficacy of selected grain protectants against maize/rice weevil in grain mass. Grain samples were collected using a standard 40 inch stored field corn grain. Plots consisted of 30 gallon plastic drums. slotted grain probe. The probe was inserted into each plot (drum) Grain was obtained from corn grown at DREC during 2019. No at random locations to yield a total sample volume of 1 pint of attempt was made to get grain from an individual hybrid for this grain. Insects were separated from grain using a 0.0833 inch mesh trial. A  total of 200 lbs of grain was placed in each drum. The size sieve. Grain moisture was determined using a Dickey-John tops of drums were covered with hardware cloth to prevent in- 500XT grain analysis computer. Data for each sample date were trusion and disturbance by birds and rodents. However, the mesh subjected to analysis of variance and means separated according size was large enough for insects to access the grain. Plots (drums) to Fisher’s Protected LSD. were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four For samples collected on 8 Jan, 3 Feb, 3 Mar, 2 Apr, and 1 May, replications. no differences in grain temperature were observed among treatments Labeled rates of grain protectants (those applied directly to on any of the sample dates (data not shown). Grain temperatures the grain) are expressed as fluid oz of product with an applica- ranged from 50.3 to 67.9°F during this period. Also, no differences tion volume of 5 gal solution per 1,000 bu of grain. For stand- among treatments were observed for grain temperature on 1 Jun ardization, 1,000 bu was assumed to have a weight of 56,000 lb. (Table 1). Only Actellic, Sensat, and Suspend resulted in lower grain with the exception of Actellic, which assumes 1,000 bu is equiv- temperatures than that in the untreated check on 30 Jun, 4 Aug, alent to 60,000 lb. Grain protectants were applied on 26 Nov and 31 Aug. None of the insecticide treatments resulted in lower 2019 using a seed treater large enough to hold the entire 200 grain temperatures compared to the untreated check on 29 Sep. lb sample for each plot. A  colony of maize weevil was obtained Plots treated with Actellic or Sensat had lower temperatures than from the University of Georgia. Each drum was infested with 20 plots treated with Diacon IGR Plus. For samples collected from 8 maize weevil adults on 3 Apr 2020. Drums of grain for the ex- Jan to 29 Sep, no differences in grain moisture were observed among periment were stored under an open air equipment shed for rain treatments on any of the sample dates (data not shown). Grain protection and to allow natural infestations of insect pests. In this moisture content ranged from 12.1 to 14.5% during this period. trial natural infestations of both maize and rice weevil could have For samples collected on 8 Jan, 3 Feb, 3 Mar, 2 Apr, and 1 May, occurred. Weevils were not identified to species, but were identified no differences in weevil densities were observed among treatments to be either rice or maize weevil. Samples from each container on any of the sample dates (data not shown). During this period were collected ca. monthly from Jan to Sep 2020. Grain tem- weevil densities ranged from 0.0 to 0.8 per sample. On 1 Jun, only perature, moisture content, and weevil density were determined. Actellic and Sensat resulted in lower weevil densities compared to Other insects, including sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus the untreated check (Table 2). Only Actellic resulted in lower weevil surinamensis (L.); red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst); densities than the untreated check on 30 Jun and 4 Aug. On 31 Aug and sap beetles Carpophilus spp. were also collected, but at very and 29 Sep, only plots treated with Actellic or Sensat had fewer low numbers. Data for these species are not included in this weevils than the untreated check. This research was supported in part by industry gifts of pesticides, seed, and/or research funding and by the Mississippi Corn Promotion Board. © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. 1 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com 2 Arthropod Management T ests, 2021, Vol. 46, No. 1 Table 1. Treatment/formulation Rate/56,000 lb grain (oz. form) Grain temperature (°F) 1 Jun 30 Jun 4 Aug 31 Aug 29 Sep Actellic 5E 12.3 76.7a 84.0c 84.5d 85.5c 73.5b Sensat 0.73F 9.8 76.1a 85.8bc 85.6cd 86.8c 73.5b Suspend 0.42SC 8.53 77.2a 87.9b 87.1c 91.0b 76.6a Diacon IGR Plus 1.4EC 18.0 76.7a 93.1a 92.6a 94.2a 77.7a Untreated Check - 77.6a 91.4a 91.1b 93.9a 76.1ab P>F 0.16 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.04 Means within columns followed by a common letter are not significantly different (FPLSD, α = 0.05). oz form. per 60,000 lb of grain. Table 2. Treatment/formulation Rate/56,000 lb grain (oz. form) No. weevils / pint of grain b c c 1 Jun 30 Jun 4 Aug 31 Aug 29 Sep Actellic 5E 12.3 0.0c 0.8c 1.6d 0.9c 0.4c Sensat 0.73F 9.8 0.0c 2.0bc 5.9cd 1.2c 3.1b Suspend 0.42SC 8.53 0.5bc 3.5bc 19.9b 7.1b 30.8a Diacon IGR Plus 1.4EC 18.0 3.0a 7.5a 55.1a 27.1a 21.6a Untreated Check - 2.0ab 5.0ab 16.1bc 10.4ab 25.4a P>F 0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 Means within columns followed by a common letter are not significantly different (FPLSD, α = 0.05). oz. form. per 60,000 lb of grain. Data square root transformed, actual means presented. Data log transformed, actual means presented.

Journal

Arthropod Management TestsOxford University Press

Published: Feb 9, 2021

Keywords: Corn (hybrid, maize, sweet) | Zea mays; Maize Weevil | S itophilus zeamais Motschulsky; Rice Weevil | Sitophilus oryzae (L.); pirimiphos-methyl; spinosad; deltamethrin/decamethrin; methoprene

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