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NOVALURON RATE STUDY, 2001

NOVALURON RATE STUDY, 2001 (A38) APPLE: Malus domestica Borkhausen, 'Delicious', 'Golden Delicious', and 'Yorking' Larry A. Hull and Shawn P. Robertson Pennsylvania State Fruit Research and Extension Center Biglerville, PA 17307-0330 Phone: (717) 677-6116, ext. 215 Fax: (717) 677-4112 E-mail: lah4@psu.edu Codling moth (CM): Cydia pomonella (L.) European red mite (ERM): Panonychus ulmi (Koch) Lesser appleworm (LAW): Grapholita prunivora (Walsh) Predatory mite (SP): Stethorus punctum (LeConte) Predatory mite (ZM): Zetzellia mali (Ewing) Obliquebanded leafroller (OBL): Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) Oriental fruit moth (OFM): Grapholita molesta (Busck) Potato leafhopper (PLH): Empoasca fabae (Harris) Redbanded leafroller (RBL): Argyrotaenia velutinana (Walker) Spirea aphid (SA): Aphis spiraecola Patch Spotted tentiform leafminer (STLM): Phyllonorycter blancardella (F.) rnished plant bug (PB): Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) Tufted apple bud moth (TABM): Platynota idaeusalis (Walker) White apple leafhopper (WALH): Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of various rates and two formulations of the insecticide - Novaluron to control an array of internal lepidopterous pests of apple. All treatments were applied to single- tree plots in a randomized block design consisting of one replicate of 'Delicious,' two replicates of 'Golden Delicious', and two replicates of 'Yorking' with buffer trees between plots. All trees were planted to a spacing of 20 by 30 ft and were 17 yr old. All treatments were applied with a Durand-Wayland air blast sprayer calibrated to deliver 100 gpa at 2.4 mph. Applications dates for all materials are in Table 1. All applications were complete sprays. A routine schedule of fungicides (Benlate 50 DF, Dithane 75 DF, Nova 40 WP, and Ziram 76 WP) was maintained throughout the experiment. The effect of the sprays on WALH was evaluated by counting the number of nymphs/25 injured leaves/tree. PLH was sampled by counting the number of nymphs found on five terminals per tree. Effectiveness of the treatments on SA was evaluated by counting the number of aphid-infested leaves/10 actively growing shoots. The number of aphid natural enemies was determined by counting the number found on the same 10 shoots used for sampling SA. Effectiveness of the test chemicals on ERM and ZM was evaluated by counting the mites several times during the season on samples of 25 random leaves/tree, 125 leaves/treatment. The predator SP was observed by making 3-min counts of adults and larvae around the periphery of the trees. STLM was evaluated by counting the number of tissue-feeding mines present during a 5-min examination around the periphery of each plot tree. OFM shoot injury and apples showing frass were assessed by determining the number of injured shoots per tree or apples with frass in a 3- and 5-min examination, respectively. Effectiveness of chemicals on all fruit feeders was assessed by scoring for injury dropped apples on 9 and 24 Jul, and 15 Aug and a picked sample of 35 fruit per replication on 7 Aug, respectively. Russet evaluations were made on Golden Delicious fruits (35 per replicate). Each replicate (3) was rated as 0 (no russet), 1 (raised lenticels), 2 (1-10% russeted surface), 3 (11-25% russeted surface), 4 (26-50% russeted surface), or 5 (>51% russeted surface). The individual ratings were added to calculate a russet rating for each replicate. Possible ranges for the replicate russet ratings (and estimate of range of percentage of surface russeted) are 0-35 (none to raised lenticels) 36-70 (raised lenticels to 1-10% russeted surface), 71-105 (1-10 to 11-25% russeted surface, 106- 140 (11-25 to 26-50% russeted surface), and 141-175 (26-50 to >51% russeted surface). Pest pressure was high throughout the season. All rates of Novaluron reduced populations of WALH below that of the untreated check, except the lowest rate of Novaluron with Guthion, although the same rate of Guthion alone was more effective than the untreated check (Table 1). All treatments of Novaluron provided outstanding control in July and August (Table 1). Only the two highest rates of Novaluron 7.5 WG performed as well as Guthion to reduce OFM shoot counts compared with the untreated check, but all rates and formulations of Novaluron allowed fewer frass apples (Table 2). Neither Guthion nor Novaluron had any affect on the mean number of SA-infested leaves per terminal nor did they reduce natural enemy (NE) populations (Table 2). ERM populations were unaffected by any of the insecticide treatments and ZM numbers were not affected (Table 3). Novaluron did not appear to harm the adult mite predator SP; however, on four dates (1, 14, 17, and 22 Aug), larval SP numbers were very low compared with the Guthion and untreated check treatments (Table 4). All of the Novaluron rates and Guthion controlled leafrollers and prevented internal lepidopterous pest from causing entries, providing high levels of clean fruit (Table 5). http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Arthropod Management Tests Oxford University Press

NOVALURON RATE STUDY, 2001

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10.1093/amt/27.1.A38
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Abstract

(A38) APPLE: Malus domestica Borkhausen, 'Delicious', 'Golden Delicious', and 'Yorking' Larry A. Hull and Shawn P. Robertson Pennsylvania State Fruit Research and Extension Center Biglerville, PA 17307-0330 Phone: (717) 677-6116, ext. 215 Fax: (717) 677-4112 E-mail: lah4@psu.edu Codling moth (CM): Cydia pomonella (L.) European red mite (ERM): Panonychus ulmi (Koch) Lesser appleworm (LAW): Grapholita prunivora (Walsh) Predatory mite (SP): Stethorus punctum (LeConte) Predatory mite (ZM): Zetzellia mali (Ewing) Obliquebanded leafroller (OBL): Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) Oriental fruit moth (OFM): Grapholita molesta (Busck) Potato leafhopper (PLH): Empoasca fabae (Harris) Redbanded leafroller (RBL): Argyrotaenia velutinana (Walker) Spirea aphid (SA): Aphis spiraecola Patch Spotted tentiform leafminer (STLM): Phyllonorycter blancardella (F.) rnished plant bug (PB): Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) Tufted apple bud moth (TABM): Platynota idaeusalis (Walker) White apple leafhopper (WALH): Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of various rates and two formulations of the insecticide - Novaluron to control an array of internal lepidopterous pests of apple. All treatments were applied to single- tree plots in a randomized block design consisting of one replicate of 'Delicious,' two replicates of 'Golden Delicious', and two replicates of 'Yorking' with buffer trees between plots. All trees were planted to a spacing of 20 by 30 ft and were 17 yr old. All treatments were applied with a Durand-Wayland air blast sprayer calibrated to deliver 100 gpa at 2.4 mph. Applications dates for all materials are in Table 1. All applications were complete sprays. A routine schedule of fungicides (Benlate 50 DF, Dithane 75 DF, Nova 40 WP, and Ziram 76 WP) was maintained throughout the experiment. The effect of the sprays on WALH was evaluated by counting the number of nymphs/25 injured leaves/tree. PLH was sampled by counting the number of nymphs found on five terminals per tree. Effectiveness of the treatments on SA was evaluated by counting the number of aphid-infested leaves/10 actively growing shoots. The number of aphid natural enemies was determined by counting the number found on the same 10 shoots used for sampling SA. Effectiveness of the test chemicals on ERM and ZM was evaluated by counting the mites several times during the season on samples of 25 random leaves/tree, 125 leaves/treatment. The predator SP was observed by making 3-min counts of adults and larvae around the periphery of the trees. STLM was evaluated by counting the number of tissue-feeding mines present during a 5-min examination around the periphery of each plot tree. OFM shoot injury and apples showing frass were assessed by determining the number of injured shoots per tree or apples with frass in a 3- and 5-min examination, respectively. Effectiveness of chemicals on all fruit feeders was assessed by scoring for injury dropped apples on 9 and 24 Jul, and 15 Aug and a picked sample of 35 fruit per replication on 7 Aug, respectively. Russet evaluations were made on Golden Delicious fruits (35 per replicate). Each replicate (3) was rated as 0 (no russet), 1 (raised lenticels), 2 (1-10% russeted surface), 3 (11-25% russeted surface), 4 (26-50% russeted surface), or 5 (>51% russeted surface). The individual ratings were added to calculate a russet rating for each replicate. Possible ranges for the replicate russet ratings (and estimate of range of percentage of surface russeted) are 0-35 (none to raised lenticels) 36-70 (raised lenticels to 1-10% russeted surface), 71-105 (1-10 to 11-25% russeted surface, 106- 140 (11-25 to 26-50% russeted surface), and 141-175 (26-50 to >51% russeted surface). Pest pressure was high throughout the season. All rates of Novaluron reduced populations of WALH below that of the untreated check, except the lowest rate of Novaluron with Guthion, although the same rate of Guthion alone was more effective than the untreated check (Table 1). All treatments of Novaluron provided outstanding control in July and August (Table 1). Only the two highest rates of Novaluron 7.5 WG performed as well as Guthion to reduce OFM shoot counts compared with the untreated check, but all rates and formulations of Novaluron allowed fewer frass apples (Table 2). Neither Guthion nor Novaluron had any affect on the mean number of SA-infested leaves per terminal nor did they reduce natural enemy (NE) populations (Table 2). ERM populations were unaffected by any of the insecticide treatments and ZM numbers were not affected (Table 3). Novaluron did not appear to harm the adult mite predator SP; however, on four dates (1, 14, 17, and 22 Aug), larval SP numbers were very low compared with the Guthion and untreated check treatments (Table 4). All of the Novaluron rates and Guthion controlled leafrollers and prevented internal lepidopterous pest from causing entries, providing high levels of clean fruit (Table 5).

Journal

Arthropod Management TestsOxford University Press

Published: Jan 1, 2002

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