applyparastyle "fig//caption/p" parastyle "FigCapt" applyparastyle "fig" parastyle "Figure" Arthropod Management T ests, 46(1), 2021, 1–2 doi: 10.1093/amt/tsaa121 Section L: Laboratory Bioassays CITRUS: Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck Laboratory Screening of Selected Entomopathogenic HeadA=HeadB=HeadA=HeadB/HeadA Fungi, Bioinsecticide, and Insect Growth Regulator HeadB=HeadC=HeadB=HeadC/HeadB Against Hibiscus Mealybug, Nipaecoccus viridis HeadC=HeadD=HeadC=HeadD/HeadC Extract3=HeadA=Extract1=HeadA (Newstead) History=Text=History=Text_First 1,3 1 2 Lauren M. Diepenbrock, David O. Olabiyi, and Pasco B. Avery EDI_HeadA=EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadA=EDI_HeadB/HeadA 1 2 EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadC/HeadB Citrus Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Lake Alfred, FL 33850, Indian River Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, and Corresponding author, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadD=EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadD/HeadC EDI_Extract3=EDI_HeadA=EDI_Extract1=EDI_HeadA Section Editor: Michelle Brown ERR_HeadA=ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadA=ERR_HeadB/HeadA Orange | Citrus sinensi ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadC/HeadB Hibiscus mealybug | Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead) ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadD=ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadD/HeadC ERR_Extract3=ERR_HeadA=ERR_Extract1=ERR_HeadA The goal of this screening is to evaluate several biological and held under controlled conditions (25 ± 5°C; 70–80% RH and insecticides that are registered for use on various insect pests in 16:8 (L:D) h photoperiod). Mortality was assessed under a ster- Florida citrus production that are likely to have field efficacy for eomicroscope (Leica MZ6, Leica Microsystems Inc., IL, United a recently established invasive, highly damaging mealybug pest States) every 24 h for 168 h; mean number of mealybugs dead in citrus. We also tested an insect growth regulator, buprofezin, a per dish at 3, 5, and 7 DAT are presented here in Table 1. Five chitin synthesis inhibitor that is labeled for use in citrus that has replicate bioassays per product were performed for a total of 50 shown efficacy on native mealybugs. All tests were completed in mealybugs tested for each insecticide with a water control. Data the laboratory over the course of 8 mo (Dec 2019 to Jul 2020) with were analyzed using a 2-way ANOVA (R v4.0.0) with means a break in testing as our research station was closed temporarily separated with Fisher’s LSD at P ≤ 0.05. for COVID-19. Assays consisted of fully expanded but not hard- Materials tested had a range of efficacy for mortality of ened citrus leaves (cv. Valencia) that were dipped into a desig- Nipaecoccus viridis in controlled laboratory bioassays. BotaniGard nated insecticide at the maximum label rate and allowed to dry. MAXX (Beauveria bassiana strain GHA and pyrethrin) had Leaf petioles were then immersed in water in a 1.5 ml Eppendorf the highest mean mortality at all three time points. The two tube and secured with Parafilm™. Leaves were then placed into other materials with B. bassiana strain GHA, BoteGHA ES, and individual Petri dishes (Falcon Corning Petri Dish 150 × 15 mm, BotaniGard ES performed almost as well as BotaniGard MAXX. Fisher Scientific, United States) and ten 2nd to 3rd instar mealybug The lowest efficacy of any of the materials tested was PFR-97, which nymphs were transferred onto the leaf surfaces using a camel hair is used for control of several species of mealybugs in greenhouses. brush (#2 FM Brush Co., New York, United States). Petri dishes However, given the data presented here, PFR-97 does not look like a were sealed with Parafilm to prevent mealybugs from escaping viable option for control of N. viridis. This research was supported in part by industry gifts of pesticides, including entomopathenogenic fungi. © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. 1 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact email@example.com 2 Arthropod Management T ests, 2021, Vol. 46, No. 1 Table 1. Treatment Active ingredient Rate Number of 3 DAT mortality 5 DAT mortality 7 DAT mortality mealybugs (mean ± SD) (mean ± SD) (mean ± sd) added Water na na 10 0.63 ± 0.85c 1.1 ± 0.79d 2.0 ± 0.89e BotaniGard ES Beauveria bassiana strain GHA 3 qt/a 10 1.8 ± 0.84bc 6.4 ± 1.80ab 8.6 ± 1.50bc BoteGHA ES Beauveria bassiana strain GHA 1 qt/a 10 2.8 ± 1.92b 6.6 ± 2.3a 9.2 ± 0.84b BotaniGard MAXX Beauveria bassiana strain GHA and pyrethrin 2 qt/a 10 8.2 ± 1.10a 8.6 ± 0.89a 9.8 ± 0.45a PFR-97 20% WDG Paecilomyces fumosoroseus 2 lb/a 10 1.4 ± 0.89bc 2.2 ± 1.64cd 4.8 ± 2.68d (= Cordyceps fumosorosea) Grandevo Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1 3 lb/a 10 2.6 ± 1.34b 4.0 ± 0.71bc 6.0 ± 1.41cd Centaur Buprofezin 46 oz/a 10 2.2 ± 1.79bc 2.2 ± 1.79cd 7.8 ± 1.30cd Means within columns followed by a common letter are not significantly different (P ≤ 0.05, Fisher’s LSD). All products were tested at the maximum label rate recommended for mealybugs.
Arthropod Management Tests – Oxford University Press
Published: Jan 18, 2021
Keywords: Orange | Citrus sinensi; Hibiscus mealybug | Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead); Beauveria bassiana strain GHA; Paecilomyces fumosoroseus; Chromobacterium subtsugae; buprofezin; pyrethrin