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Introduction

Introduction Introduction var callbackToken='5051F21D717F513'; var subCode='oupjournal_sub'; var gAuthTimeStamp = '2015-11-11T15:40:58.586-08:00'; var gSessionId = 'p6nAHbYzE7iaJnTyo9PaZg'; var gAuthzRequired = 'false'; var gAuthnMethods1 = 'ip'; var gAuthnMethods2 = 'ip'; var gAuthnIPs = '64.13.143.102'; var gAuthnIndividuals = ''; var gAuthnInstitutions = '151647456'; MathJax.Hub.Config({ tex2jax: { inlineMath: (("$","$"),("\\(","\\)")), processClass: "tex2jax_process|mathjax" } }); MathJax.Hub.Queue(function() { gColTempResize = true; fixColHeights(1); gColTempResize = false; }); var siqDOI = encodeURIComponent(""); var siqIsOpenAccess = encodeURIComponent(""); var siqPubDate = encodeURIComponent("19991201"); if (siqDOI.length == 0) { siqDOI = "UNKNOWN"; } if (gAuthnIndividuals.length != 0) { if (gAuthnInstitutions.length != 0) { authnEntity = encodeURIComponent(gAuthnIndividuals + ',' + gAuthnInstitutions); } else { authnEntity = encodeURIComponent(gAuthnIndividuals); } } else { authnEntity = encodeURIComponent(gAuthnInstitutions); } var commonString = 'authSessionId=' + gSessionId + String.fromCharCode(0x26) + 'authzRequired=' + gAuthzRequired + String.fromCharCode(0x26) + 'authentication_method=' + encodeURIComponent(gAuthnMethods2) + String.fromCharCode(0x26) + 'authnIPs=' + gAuthnIPs + String.fromCharCode(0x26) + 'authnInstitutions=' + authnEntity; var gPageId = "pageid-content"; var gVariant = "extract"; // Not completely done var eventType = "extract"; var accessType; if (siqIsOpenAccess == 'true') { accessType = 'SOA'; } else { accessType = 'subscription'; } var NTPT_PGEXTRA = commonString + String.fromCharCode(0x26) + 'event_type=' + eventType + String.fromCharCode(0x26) + 'publication_date=' + siqPubDate + String.fromCharCode(0x26) + 'access_type=' + accessType + String.fromCharCode(0x26) + 'doi=' + siqDOI ; // alert("NTPT_PGEXTRA is " + NTPT_PGEXTRA); We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Find out more Skip Navigation Oxford Journals Contact Us My Basket My Account JNCI Monographs About This Journal Contact This Journal Subscriptions View Current Issue (Volume 2015 Issue 51 May 2015) Archive Search Institution: :: Sign In as Personal Subscriber Oxford Journals Medicine & Health JNCI Monographs Volume 1999 Issue 26 Pp. 0vii-1. Introduction Daniela Seminara Affiliation of author: Epidemiology and Genetics Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD. Correspondence to: Daniela Seminara, Ph.D., M.P.H., National Institutes of Health, Executive Plaza South, Rm. 214, MSC-7147, Bethesda, MD 20892-7147. Past genetics and epidemiology research has suggested that cancer has a complex etiology, and that both susceptibility genes and environmental risk factors play a defined role in its development. More recently, this dichotomous theory has yielded to complex, interactive models, involving the temporal and metabolic interplay of both sets of causative agents. This novel conceptual framework entails the disciplinary integration necessary for the identification and characterization of cancer susceptibility genes, the definition of their interactions with nongenetic risk factors during the process of cancer development, and the application of this knowledge to the assessment of cancer risk in diverse populations. In addition to the conceptual integration from related but traditionally separated disciplines, studying the genetic and environmental causative interaction that determines cancer susceptibility in individuals, families, and populations involves considerable operational challenges, such as the selection (or de novo development) of study designs appropriate to the question(s) proposed, the integration of complex models into pertinent analytic strategies, and the interdisciplinary synergy to support and conduct such studies in connection with a rapidly evolving methodologic and scientific milieu. For example, genetic studies on cancer susceptibility usually focus on families at extreme high risk who are selected based on “unusual” family history, while epidemiologic studies of candidate genes or of gene-environment interactions mostly adopt population-based, case-control or cohort designs. The multifaceted nature of a relative young discipline, genetic epidemiology, provides the conceptual framework for the integration of these divergent approaches and for the development of innovative study designs and analytic strategies targeted to further our understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying cancer susceptibility. This monograph issue presents the proceedings of the conference: “Innovative Study Designs and Analytic Approaches to the Genetic Epidemiology of Cancer,” held in Seattle, WA, on May 27-29, 1998, and sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the … (Full Text of this Article) « Previous | Next Article » Table of Contents This Article J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr (1999) 1999 (26): 0vii-1. This article appears in: Innovative Study Designs and Analytic Approaches to the Genetic Epidemiology of Cancer » Extract Free Full Text (HTML) Free Full Text (PDF) Free Classifications Article Services Article metrics Alert me when cited Alert me if corrected Find similar articles Similar articles in Web of Science Add to my archive Download citation Request Permissions Citing Articles Load citing article information Citing articles via CrossRef Citing articles via Scopus Citing articles via Web of Science Citing articles via Google Scholar Google Scholar Articles by Seminara, D. Search for related content PubMed Articles by Seminara, D. Related Content Load related web page information Share Email this article CiteULike Delicious Facebook Google+ Mendeley Twitter What's this? Search this journal: Advanced » Current Issue May 2015 2015 (51) Alert me to new issues The Journal About this journal Rights & Permissions We are mobile – find out more Journals Career Network Editor-in-Chief Carmen J. Allegra View the JNCI editorial board For Authors Instructions to authors Author Self Archiving Policy Alerting Services Email table of contents CiteTrack XML RSS feed Corporate Services Advertising sales Reprints var taxonomies = ("MED00300"); Most Most Read Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Use of Integrative Therapies as Supportive Care in Patients Treated for Breast Cancer Descriptive Review of the Literature on Breast Cancer Outcomes: 1990 Through 2000 Prevalence of Depression in Patients With Cancer Biology of Oral Mucosa and Esophagus Chapter 6: Estrogen Metabolism by Conjugation » View all Most Read articles Most Cited Chapter 1: Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer--Burden and Assessment of Causality Chapter 4: Estrogens as Endogenous Genotoxic Agents--DNA Adducts and Mutations Prevalence of Depression in Patients With Cancer Preoperative Chemotherapy in Patients With Operable Breast Cancer: Nine-Year Results From National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-18 Overview of the Randomized Trials of Radiotherapy in Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast » View all Most Cited articles Online ISSN 1745-6614 - Print ISSN 1052-6773 Copyright © 2015 Oxford University Press Oxford Journals Oxford University Press Site Map Privacy Policy Cookie Policy Legal Notices Frequently Asked Questions Other Oxford University Press sites: Oxford University Press Oxford Journals China Oxford Journals Japan Academic & Professional books Children's & Schools Books Dictionaries & Reference Dictionary of National Biography Digital Reference English Language Teaching Higher Education Textbooks International Education Unit Law Medicine Music Online Products & Publishing Oxford Bibliographies Online Oxford Dictionaries Online Oxford English Dictionary Oxford Language Dictionaries Online Oxford Scholarship Online Reference Rights and Permissions Resources for Retailers & Wholesalers Resources for the Healthcare Industry Very Short Introductions World's Classics function fnc_onDomLoaded() { var query_context = getQueryContext(); PF_initOIUnderbar(query_context,":QS:default","","JRN"); PF_insertOIUnderbar(0); }; if (window.addEventListener) { window.addEventListener('load', fnc_onDomLoaded, false); } else if (window.attachEvent) { window.attachEvent('onload', fnc_onDomLoaded); } var gaJsHost = (("https:" == document.location.protocol) ? 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Introduction

JNCI Monographs , Volume 1999 (26) – Dec 1, 1999

Introduction

JNCI Monographs , Volume 1999 (26) – Dec 1, 1999

Abstract

Introduction var callbackToken='5051F21D717F513'; var subCode='oupjournal_sub'; var gAuthTimeStamp = '2015-11-11T15:40:58.586-08:00'; var gSessionId = 'p6nAHbYzE7iaJnTyo9PaZg'; var gAuthzRequired = 'false'; var gAuthnMethods1 = 'ip'; var gAuthnMethods2 = 'ip'; var gAuthnIPs = '64.13.143.102'; var gAuthnIndividuals = ''; var gAuthnInstitutions = '151647456'; MathJax.Hub.Config({ tex2jax: { inlineMath: (("$","$"),("\\(","\\)")), processClass: "tex2jax_process|mathjax" } }); MathJax.Hub.Queue(function() { gColTempResize = true; fixColHeights(1); gColTempResize = false; }); var siqDOI = encodeURIComponent(""); var siqIsOpenAccess = encodeURIComponent(""); var siqPubDate = encodeURIComponent("19991201"); if (siqDOI.length == 0) { siqDOI = "UNKNOWN"; } if (gAuthnIndividuals.length != 0) { if (gAuthnInstitutions.length != 0) { authnEntity = encodeURIComponent(gAuthnIndividuals + ',' + gAuthnInstitutions); } else { authnEntity = encodeURIComponent(gAuthnIndividuals); } } else { authnEntity = encodeURIComponent(gAuthnInstitutions); } var commonString = 'authSessionId=' + gSessionId + String.fromCharCode(0x26) + 'authzRequired=' + gAuthzRequired + String.fromCharCode(0x26) + 'authentication_method=' + encodeURIComponent(gAuthnMethods2) + String.fromCharCode(0x26) + 'authnIPs=' + gAuthnIPs + String.fromCharCode(0x26) + 'authnInstitutions=' + authnEntity; var gPageId = "pageid-content"; var gVariant = "extract"; // Not completely done var eventType = "extract"; var accessType; if (siqIsOpenAccess == 'true') { accessType = 'SOA'; } else { accessType = 'subscription'; } var NTPT_PGEXTRA = commonString + String.fromCharCode(0x26) + 'event_type=' + eventType + String.fromCharCode(0x26) + 'publication_date=' + siqPubDate + String.fromCharCode(0x26) + 'access_type=' + accessType + String.fromCharCode(0x26) + 'doi=' + siqDOI ; // alert("NTPT_PGEXTRA is " + NTPT_PGEXTRA); We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Find out more Skip Navigation Oxford Journals Contact Us My Basket My Account JNCI Monographs About This Journal Contact This Journal Subscriptions View Current Issue (Volume 2015 Issue 51 May 2015) Archive Search Institution: :: Sign In as Personal Subscriber Oxford Journals Medicine & Health JNCI Monographs Volume 1999 Issue 26 Pp. 0vii-1. Introduction Daniela Seminara Affiliation of author: Epidemiology and Genetics Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD. Correspondence to: Daniela Seminara, Ph.D., M.P.H., National Institutes of Health, Executive Plaza South, Rm. 214, MSC-7147, Bethesda, MD 20892-7147. Past genetics and epidemiology research has suggested that cancer has a complex etiology, and that both susceptibility genes and environmental risk factors play a defined role in its development. More recently, this dichotomous theory has yielded to complex, interactive models, involving the temporal and metabolic interplay of both sets of causative agents. This novel conceptual framework entails the disciplinary integration necessary for the identification and characterization of cancer susceptibility genes, the definition of their interactions with nongenetic risk factors during the process of cancer development, and the application of this knowledge to the assessment of cancer risk in diverse populations. In addition to the conceptual integration from related but traditionally separated disciplines, studying the genetic and environmental causative interaction that determines cancer susceptibility in individuals, families, and populations involves considerable operational challenges, such as the selection (or de novo development) of study designs appropriate to the question(s) proposed, the integration of complex models into pertinent analytic strategies, and the interdisciplinary synergy to support and conduct such studies in connection with a rapidly evolving methodologic and scientific milieu. For example, genetic studies on cancer susceptibility usually focus on families at extreme high risk who are selected based on “unusual” family history, while epidemiologic studies of candidate genes or of gene-environment interactions mostly adopt population-based, case-control or cohort designs. The multifaceted nature of a relative young discipline, genetic epidemiology, provides the conceptual framework for the integration of these divergent approaches and for the development of innovative study designs and analytic strategies targeted to further our understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying cancer susceptibility. This monograph issue presents the proceedings of the conference: “Innovative Study Designs and Analytic Approaches to the Genetic Epidemiology of Cancer,” held in Seattle, WA, on May 27-29, 1998, and sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the … (Full Text of this Article) « Previous | Next Article » Table of Contents This Article J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr (1999) 1999 (26): 0vii-1. This article appears in: Innovative Study Designs and Analytic Approaches to the Genetic Epidemiology of Cancer » Extract Free Full Text (HTML) Free Full Text (PDF) Free Classifications Article Services Article metrics Alert me when cited Alert me if corrected Find similar articles Similar articles in Web of Science Add to my archive Download citation Request Permissions Citing Articles Load citing article information Citing articles via CrossRef Citing articles via Scopus Citing articles via Web of Science Citing articles via Google Scholar Google Scholar Articles by Seminara, D. Search for related content PubMed Articles by Seminara, D. Related Content Load related web page information Share Email this article CiteULike Delicious Facebook Google+ Mendeley Twitter What's this? Search this journal: Advanced » Current Issue May 2015 2015 (51) Alert me to new issues The Journal About this journal Rights & Permissions We are mobile – find out more Journals Career Network Editor-in-Chief Carmen J. Allegra View the JNCI editorial board For Authors Instructions to authors Author Self Archiving Policy Alerting Services Email table of contents CiteTrack XML RSS feed Corporate Services Advertising sales Reprints var taxonomies = ("MED00300"); Most Most Read Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Use of Integrative Therapies as Supportive Care in Patients Treated for Breast Cancer Descriptive Review of the Literature on Breast Cancer Outcomes: 1990 Through 2000 Prevalence of Depression in Patients With Cancer Biology of Oral Mucosa and Esophagus Chapter 6: Estrogen Metabolism by Conjugation » View all Most Read articles Most Cited Chapter 1: Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer--Burden and Assessment of Causality Chapter 4: Estrogens as Endogenous Genotoxic Agents--DNA Adducts and Mutations Prevalence of Depression in Patients With Cancer Preoperative Chemotherapy in Patients With Operable Breast Cancer: Nine-Year Results From National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-18 Overview of the Randomized Trials of Radiotherapy in Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast » View all Most Cited articles Online ISSN 1745-6614 - Print ISSN 1052-6773 Copyright © 2015 Oxford University Press Oxford Journals Oxford University Press Site Map Privacy Policy Cookie Policy Legal Notices Frequently Asked Questions Other Oxford University Press sites: Oxford University Press Oxford Journals China Oxford Journals Japan Academic & Professional books Children's & Schools Books Dictionaries & Reference Dictionary of National Biography Digital Reference English Language Teaching Higher Education Textbooks International Education Unit Law Medicine Music Online Products & Publishing Oxford Bibliographies Online Oxford Dictionaries Online Oxford English Dictionary Oxford Language Dictionaries Online Oxford Scholarship Online Reference Rights and Permissions Resources for Retailers & Wholesalers Resources for the Healthcare Industry Very Short Introductions World's Classics function fnc_onDomLoaded() { var query_context = getQueryContext(); PF_initOIUnderbar(query_context,":QS:default","","JRN"); PF_insertOIUnderbar(0); }; if (window.addEventListener) { window.addEventListener('load', fnc_onDomLoaded, false); } else if (window.attachEvent) { window.attachEvent('onload', fnc_onDomLoaded); } var gaJsHost = (("https:" == document.location.protocol) ? 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Abstract

Introduction var callbackToken='5051F21D717F513'; var subCode='oupjournal_sub'; var gAuthTimeStamp = '2015-11-11T15:40:58.586-08:00'; var gSessionId = 'p6nAHbYzE7iaJnTyo9PaZg'; var gAuthzRequired = 'false'; var gAuthnMethods1 = 'ip'; var gAuthnMethods2 = 'ip'; var gAuthnIPs = '64.13.143.102'; var gAuthnIndividuals = ''; var gAuthnInstitutions = '151647456'; MathJax.Hub.Config({ tex2jax: { inlineMath: (("$","$"),("\\(","\\)")), processClass: "tex2jax_process|mathjax" } }); MathJax.Hub.Queue(function() { gColTempResize = true; fixColHeights(1); gColTempResize = false; }); var siqDOI = encodeURIComponent(""); var siqIsOpenAccess = encodeURIComponent(""); var siqPubDate = encodeURIComponent("19991201"); if (siqDOI.length == 0) { siqDOI = "UNKNOWN"; } if (gAuthnIndividuals.length != 0) { if (gAuthnInstitutions.length != 0) { authnEntity = encodeURIComponent(gAuthnIndividuals + ',' + gAuthnInstitutions); } else { authnEntity = encodeURIComponent(gAuthnIndividuals); } } else { authnEntity = encodeURIComponent(gAuthnInstitutions); } var commonString = 'authSessionId=' + gSessionId + String.fromCharCode(0x26) + 'authzRequired=' + gAuthzRequired + String.fromCharCode(0x26) + 'authentication_method=' + encodeURIComponent(gAuthnMethods2) + String.fromCharCode(0x26) + 'authnIPs=' + gAuthnIPs + String.fromCharCode(0x26) + 'authnInstitutions=' + authnEntity; var gPageId = "pageid-content"; var gVariant = "extract"; // Not completely done var eventType = "extract"; var accessType; if (siqIsOpenAccess == 'true') { accessType = 'SOA'; } else { accessType = 'subscription'; } var NTPT_PGEXTRA = commonString + String.fromCharCode(0x26) + 'event_type=' + eventType + String.fromCharCode(0x26) + 'publication_date=' + siqPubDate + String.fromCharCode(0x26) + 'access_type=' + accessType + String.fromCharCode(0x26) + 'doi=' + siqDOI ; // alert("NTPT_PGEXTRA is " + NTPT_PGEXTRA); We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Find out more Skip Navigation Oxford Journals Contact Us My Basket My Account JNCI Monographs About This Journal Contact This Journal Subscriptions View Current Issue (Volume 2015 Issue 51 May 2015) Archive Search Institution: :: Sign In as Personal Subscriber Oxford Journals Medicine & Health JNCI Monographs Volume 1999 Issue 26 Pp. 0vii-1. Introduction Daniela Seminara Affiliation of author: Epidemiology and Genetics Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD. Correspondence to: Daniela Seminara, Ph.D., M.P.H., National Institutes of Health, Executive Plaza South, Rm. 214, MSC-7147, Bethesda, MD 20892-7147. Past genetics and epidemiology research has suggested that cancer has a complex etiology, and that both susceptibility genes and environmental risk factors play a defined role in its development. More recently, this dichotomous theory has yielded to complex, interactive models, involving the temporal and metabolic interplay of both sets of causative agents. This novel conceptual framework entails the disciplinary integration necessary for the identification and characterization of cancer susceptibility genes, the definition of their interactions with nongenetic risk factors during the process of cancer development, and the application of this knowledge to the assessment of cancer risk in diverse populations. In addition to the conceptual integration from related but traditionally separated disciplines, studying the genetic and environmental causative interaction that determines cancer susceptibility in individuals, families, and populations involves considerable operational challenges, such as the selection (or de novo development) of study designs appropriate to the question(s) proposed, the integration of complex models into pertinent analytic strategies, and the interdisciplinary synergy to support and conduct such studies in connection with a rapidly evolving methodologic and scientific milieu. For example, genetic studies on cancer susceptibility usually focus on families at extreme high risk who are selected based on “unusual” family history, while epidemiologic studies of candidate genes or of gene-environment interactions mostly adopt population-based, case-control or cohort designs. The multifaceted nature of a relative young discipline, genetic epidemiology, provides the conceptual framework for the integration of these divergent approaches and for the development of innovative study designs and analytic strategies targeted to further our understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying cancer susceptibility. This monograph issue presents the proceedings of the conference: “Innovative Study Designs and Analytic Approaches to the Genetic Epidemiology of Cancer,” held in Seattle, WA, on May 27-29, 1998, and sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the … (Full Text of this Article) « Previous | Next Article » Table of Contents This Article J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr (1999) 1999 (26): 0vii-1. This article appears in: Innovative Study Designs and Analytic Approaches to the Genetic Epidemiology of Cancer » Extract Free Full Text (HTML) Free Full Text (PDF) Free Classifications Article Services Article metrics Alert me when cited Alert me if corrected Find similar articles Similar articles in Web of Science Add to my archive Download citation Request Permissions Citing Articles Load citing article information Citing articles via CrossRef Citing articles via Scopus Citing articles via Web of Science Citing articles via Google Scholar Google Scholar Articles by Seminara, D. Search for related content PubMed Articles by Seminara, D. Related Content Load related web page information Share Email this article CiteULike Delicious Facebook Google+ Mendeley Twitter What's this? Search this journal: Advanced » Current Issue May 2015 2015 (51) Alert me to new issues The Journal About this journal Rights & Permissions We are mobile – find out more Journals Career Network Editor-in-Chief Carmen J. Allegra View the JNCI editorial board For Authors Instructions to authors Author Self Archiving Policy Alerting Services Email table of contents CiteTrack XML RSS feed Corporate Services Advertising sales Reprints var taxonomies = ("MED00300"); Most Most Read Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Use of Integrative Therapies as Supportive Care in Patients Treated for Breast Cancer Descriptive Review of the Literature on Breast Cancer Outcomes: 1990 Through 2000 Prevalence of Depression in Patients With Cancer Biology of Oral Mucosa and Esophagus Chapter 6: Estrogen Metabolism by Conjugation » View all Most Read articles Most Cited Chapter 1: Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer--Burden and Assessment of Causality Chapter 4: Estrogens as Endogenous Genotoxic Agents--DNA Adducts and Mutations Prevalence of Depression in Patients With Cancer Preoperative Chemotherapy in Patients With Operable Breast Cancer: Nine-Year Results From National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-18 Overview of the Randomized Trials of Radiotherapy in Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast » View all Most Cited articles Online ISSN 1745-6614 - Print ISSN 1052-6773 Copyright © 2015 Oxford University Press Oxford Journals Oxford University Press Site Map Privacy Policy Cookie Policy Legal Notices Frequently Asked Questions Other Oxford University Press sites: Oxford University Press Oxford Journals China Oxford Journals Japan Academic & Professional books Children's & Schools Books Dictionaries & Reference Dictionary of National Biography Digital Reference English Language Teaching Higher Education Textbooks International Education Unit Law Medicine Music Online Products & Publishing Oxford Bibliographies Online Oxford Dictionaries Online Oxford English Dictionary Oxford Language Dictionaries Online Oxford Scholarship Online Reference Rights and Permissions Resources for Retailers & Wholesalers Resources for the Healthcare Industry Very Short Introductions World's Classics function fnc_onDomLoaded() { var query_context = getQueryContext(); PF_initOIUnderbar(query_context,":QS:default","","JRN"); PF_insertOIUnderbar(0); }; if (window.addEventListener) { window.addEventListener('load', fnc_onDomLoaded, false); } else if (window.attachEvent) { window.attachEvent('onload', fnc_onDomLoaded); } var gaJsHost = (("https:" == document.location.protocol) ? "https://ssl." : "http://www."); document.write(unescape("%3Cscript src='" + gaJsHost + "google-analytics.com/ga.js' type='text/javascript'%3E%3C/script%3E")); try { var pageTracker = _gat._getTracker("UA-189672-16"); pageTracker._setDomainName(".oxfordjournals.org"); pageTracker._trackPageview(); } catch(err) {}

Journal

JNCI MonographsOxford University Press

Published: Dec 1, 1999

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