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Insecticide Resistance Bottle Bioassay Evaluation of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes From Coachella Valley, 2019

Insecticide Resistance Bottle Bioassay Evaluation of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes From... applyparastyle "fig//caption/p[1]" parastyle "FigCapt" applyparastyle "fig" parastyle "Figure" Arthropod Management T ests, 46(1), 2021, 1–2 doi: 10.1093/amt/tsab003 Section L: Laboratory Bioassays Insecticide Resistance Bottle Bioassay Evaluation of Culex HeadA=HeadB=HeadA=HeadB/HeadA quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes From Coachella Valley, 2019 HeadB=HeadC=HeadB=HeadC/HeadB HeadC=HeadD=HeadC=HeadD/HeadC 1, Kim Y. Hung, Christopher Cavanaugh, Gabriela Perezchica-Harvey, and Gerald Chuzel Extract3=HeadA=Extract1=HeadA Coachella Valley Mosquito and Vector Control District, Indio, CA 92201 and Corresponding author, e-mail: khung@cvmvcd.org History=Text=History=Text_First Section Editor: Michelle Brown EDI_HeadA=EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadA=EDI_HeadB/HeadA EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadC/HeadB Southern house mosquito | Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadD=EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadD/HeadC The objective of this study was to determine whether locally col- to allow the solvent to evaporate. Once the solvent evaporated, the EDI_Extract3=EDI_HeadA=EDI_Extract1=EDI_HeadA lected mosquitoes were resistant to adulticide products using the assays were conducted within 24 h. ERR_HeadA=ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadA=ERR_HeadB/HeadA CDC bottle bioassay. The Coachella Valley Mosquito and Vector For the assays, an average of 28 mosquitoes ranging from 13 to ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadC/HeadB Control District (hereafter, the District) evaluates adulticide resist- 41 mosquitoes were aspirated into each bottle. For each adulticide ance of field-collected mosquitoes to a susceptible colony strain on tested, four replicate bottles were used for each city’s sample popu- ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadD=ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadD/HeadC an annual basis. The results of these evaluations determined whether lation and the susceptible colony mosquitoes. Mosquito mortality ERR_Extract3=ERR_HeadA=ERR_Extract1=ERR_HeadA the products were appropriate for quickly bringing down the adult was assessed at 15 min after initial exposure and every 15 min there- mosquito abundance and disrupting virus transmission. after until all mosquitoes in a bottle were dead or the 2 h count was Wild Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were collected by placing completed. Mosquitoes were observed as knocked down or ‘dead’ if gravid water bait (water infused with Brewer’s yeast and ground al- they could no longer have controlled flight or stand. Results of mos- falfa pellets) in a plastic tub overnight and eggs were collected the quito mortality were analyzed using WHO guidelines for mosquito next morning. Mosquitoes were collected from the cities of Indio, mortality for bottle bioassays. We observed the mosquito mortality La Quinta, and Palm Desert. Three egg rafts were placed per larval of the wild strain when the colony strain reached 100% mortality. tray and larvae were fed daily a mixture of liver powder, ground fish Resistance was evident when fewer than 80% of the mosquitoes died flakes, brewer’s yeast, and ground alfalfa pellets. Larvae were kept at this diagnostic time. in rearing chambers at 55% relative humidity, 28°C, and 16:8 (L:D) This study documented evidence of resistance of local wild h cycle. During the pupal stage, preliminary pupae were removed to mosquitoes to adulticide products. Scourge 18 + 54 was used at the increase the female:male ratio and subsequent pupae were placed in a District in 2016 and 2017. This product registration was discon- cage for emergence. Adults were 3–5 d old with mixed sex (60F:40M tinued in 2015 but we had some remaining in storage purchased ratio) and fed 10% sugar water daily. The susceptible CQ1 colony prior to its discontinuation. Merus 3.0 was registered in CA in 2019 strain (originally collected as adults from Merced, CA in the 1950s) is and is labeled for use in organic areas, providing an advantage over kept in colony under similar rearing conditions. other adulticide products. This was our first evaluation of Merus 3.0. Two hundred fifty (250) milliliter glass Wheaton bottles were DeltaGard was registered in CA in 2018 and has been used at the coated with 1  ml of the pesticide product diluted in acetone. District for less than 1 yr. Aqua-Reslin has been in use at the District Formulations of these products were calculated using the concen- since 2015. tration of the active ingredient (a.i.) as indicated in the table. For The percent mortality at diagnostic dose are italicized in Table 1. the control, 1 ml of acetone solvent was added to the bottles. The All three mosquito strains demonstrated resistance to all adulticides inside of the bottles were fully coated before rolling in a fume hood tested. This research was supported by the Coachella Valley Mosquito and Vector Control District as part of the routine resistance management work. No special research funds were allocated for this work. © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. 1 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com 2 Arthropod Management T ests, 2021, Vol. 46, No. 1 Table 1. Strain Mean % mortality at time (min) after exposure Product (a.i.) (a.i. dose µg/ml) 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 Aqua-Reslin (Permethrin) (22) Colony 42.7 98.3 100 100 100 100 100 100 Indio 0.8 1.5 3.61 10.0 25.3 35.9 48.2 55.7 La Quinta 0 10.1 25.3 74.2 84.3 91.5 93.5 97.2 Palm Desert 0 0 13.3 68.3 88.6 97.2 100 98.9 DeltaGard (Deltamethrin) (7) Colony 6.8 74.1 95.0 96.7 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Indio 0.0 2.6 8.1 27.0 36.1 46.0 56.7 65.7 La Quinta 0.0 16.7 25.2 61.4 75.4 85.5 87.6 90.0 Palm Desert 0.0 4.0 12.0 44.6 66.1 81.8 76.5 82.5 Merus 3.0 (Pyrethrins) (10) Colony 51.5 59.9 66.9 91.9 96.1 97.5 98.4 100.0 Indio 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.8 1.4 3.2 3.9 La Quinta 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.9 Palm Desert 0.0 2.0 2.8 5.1 8.7 18.1 23.7 23.0 Scourge 18 + 54 (Resmethrin) (10) Colony 37.1 78.1 92.5 97.4 99.1 99.1 99.1 100.0 Indio 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.7 2.4 4.8 9.1 22.6 La Quinta 0.0 0.0 0.9 5.9 11.8 15.3 32.4 35.2 Palm Desert 0.6 0.6 0.6 6.9 9.4 20.2 44.3 47.5 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Arthropod Management Tests Oxford University Press

Insecticide Resistance Bottle Bioassay Evaluation of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes From Coachella Valley, 2019

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Oxford University Press
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© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.
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2155-9856
DOI
10.1093/amt/tsab003
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Abstract

applyparastyle "fig//caption/p[1]" parastyle "FigCapt" applyparastyle "fig" parastyle "Figure" Arthropod Management T ests, 46(1), 2021, 1–2 doi: 10.1093/amt/tsab003 Section L: Laboratory Bioassays Insecticide Resistance Bottle Bioassay Evaluation of Culex HeadA=HeadB=HeadA=HeadB/HeadA quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes From Coachella Valley, 2019 HeadB=HeadC=HeadB=HeadC/HeadB HeadC=HeadD=HeadC=HeadD/HeadC 1, Kim Y. Hung, Christopher Cavanaugh, Gabriela Perezchica-Harvey, and Gerald Chuzel Extract3=HeadA=Extract1=HeadA Coachella Valley Mosquito and Vector Control District, Indio, CA 92201 and Corresponding author, e-mail: khung@cvmvcd.org History=Text=History=Text_First Section Editor: Michelle Brown EDI_HeadA=EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadA=EDI_HeadB/HeadA EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadC/HeadB Southern house mosquito | Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadD=EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadD/HeadC The objective of this study was to determine whether locally col- to allow the solvent to evaporate. Once the solvent evaporated, the EDI_Extract3=EDI_HeadA=EDI_Extract1=EDI_HeadA lected mosquitoes were resistant to adulticide products using the assays were conducted within 24 h. ERR_HeadA=ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadA=ERR_HeadB/HeadA CDC bottle bioassay. The Coachella Valley Mosquito and Vector For the assays, an average of 28 mosquitoes ranging from 13 to ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadC/HeadB Control District (hereafter, the District) evaluates adulticide resist- 41 mosquitoes were aspirated into each bottle. For each adulticide ance of field-collected mosquitoes to a susceptible colony strain on tested, four replicate bottles were used for each city’s sample popu- ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadD=ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadD/HeadC an annual basis. The results of these evaluations determined whether lation and the susceptible colony mosquitoes. Mosquito mortality ERR_Extract3=ERR_HeadA=ERR_Extract1=ERR_HeadA the products were appropriate for quickly bringing down the adult was assessed at 15 min after initial exposure and every 15 min there- mosquito abundance and disrupting virus transmission. after until all mosquitoes in a bottle were dead or the 2 h count was Wild Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were collected by placing completed. Mosquitoes were observed as knocked down or ‘dead’ if gravid water bait (water infused with Brewer’s yeast and ground al- they could no longer have controlled flight or stand. Results of mos- falfa pellets) in a plastic tub overnight and eggs were collected the quito mortality were analyzed using WHO guidelines for mosquito next morning. Mosquitoes were collected from the cities of Indio, mortality for bottle bioassays. We observed the mosquito mortality La Quinta, and Palm Desert. Three egg rafts were placed per larval of the wild strain when the colony strain reached 100% mortality. tray and larvae were fed daily a mixture of liver powder, ground fish Resistance was evident when fewer than 80% of the mosquitoes died flakes, brewer’s yeast, and ground alfalfa pellets. Larvae were kept at this diagnostic time. in rearing chambers at 55% relative humidity, 28°C, and 16:8 (L:D) This study documented evidence of resistance of local wild h cycle. During the pupal stage, preliminary pupae were removed to mosquitoes to adulticide products. Scourge 18 + 54 was used at the increase the female:male ratio and subsequent pupae were placed in a District in 2016 and 2017. This product registration was discon- cage for emergence. Adults were 3–5 d old with mixed sex (60F:40M tinued in 2015 but we had some remaining in storage purchased ratio) and fed 10% sugar water daily. The susceptible CQ1 colony prior to its discontinuation. Merus 3.0 was registered in CA in 2019 strain (originally collected as adults from Merced, CA in the 1950s) is and is labeled for use in organic areas, providing an advantage over kept in colony under similar rearing conditions. other adulticide products. This was our first evaluation of Merus 3.0. Two hundred fifty (250) milliliter glass Wheaton bottles were DeltaGard was registered in CA in 2018 and has been used at the coated with 1  ml of the pesticide product diluted in acetone. District for less than 1 yr. Aqua-Reslin has been in use at the District Formulations of these products were calculated using the concen- since 2015. tration of the active ingredient (a.i.) as indicated in the table. For The percent mortality at diagnostic dose are italicized in Table 1. the control, 1 ml of acetone solvent was added to the bottles. The All three mosquito strains demonstrated resistance to all adulticides inside of the bottles were fully coated before rolling in a fume hood tested. This research was supported by the Coachella Valley Mosquito and Vector Control District as part of the routine resistance management work. No special research funds were allocated for this work. © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. 1 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com 2 Arthropod Management T ests, 2021, Vol. 46, No. 1 Table 1. Strain Mean % mortality at time (min) after exposure Product (a.i.) (a.i. dose µg/ml) 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 Aqua-Reslin (Permethrin) (22) Colony 42.7 98.3 100 100 100 100 100 100 Indio 0.8 1.5 3.61 10.0 25.3 35.9 48.2 55.7 La Quinta 0 10.1 25.3 74.2 84.3 91.5 93.5 97.2 Palm Desert 0 0 13.3 68.3 88.6 97.2 100 98.9 DeltaGard (Deltamethrin) (7) Colony 6.8 74.1 95.0 96.7 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Indio 0.0 2.6 8.1 27.0 36.1 46.0 56.7 65.7 La Quinta 0.0 16.7 25.2 61.4 75.4 85.5 87.6 90.0 Palm Desert 0.0 4.0 12.0 44.6 66.1 81.8 76.5 82.5 Merus 3.0 (Pyrethrins) (10) Colony 51.5 59.9 66.9 91.9 96.1 97.5 98.4 100.0 Indio 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.8 1.4 3.2 3.9 La Quinta 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.9 Palm Desert 0.0 2.0 2.8 5.1 8.7 18.1 23.7 23.0 Scourge 18 + 54 (Resmethrin) (10) Colony 37.1 78.1 92.5 97.4 99.1 99.1 99.1 100.0 Indio 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.7 2.4 4.8 9.1 22.6 La Quinta 0.0 0.0 0.9 5.9 11.8 15.3 32.4 35.2 Palm Desert 0.6 0.6 0.6 6.9 9.4 20.2 44.3 47.5

Journal

Arthropod Management TestsOxford University Press

Published: Feb 6, 2021

Keywords: Southern house mosquito | Culex quinquefasciatus (Say); permethrin; deltamethrin/decamethrin; pyrethrin; resmethrin; piperonyl butoxide

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