Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.
Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy105/5124560 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 Influence of repeated trace mineral injections during gestation on beef heifer and subsequent calf performance Rebecca. S. Stokes, Frank. A. Ireland, and Daniel. W. Shike Department of Animal Sciences, College of ACES, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 ABSTRACT: Commercial Angus heifers (n = 190; collected. Heifer BW and BCS did not differ (P ≥ body weight (BW) = 315 ± 49.3 kg) were used to 0.72) throughout the experiment. Multimin heifers determine the effects of trace mineral injections dur- tended (P = 0.08) to have greater initial liver Se and ing gestation on heifer and subsequent calf perfor- tended to have decreased (P = 0.08) initial liver Zn mance. Heifers received three previous subcutaneous compared with CON. At calving, MM cows had trace mineral (Multimin 90 [MM]; n = 93) or steri- increased (P ≤ 0.01) liver Cu and Se. There was no lized physiological saline (CON; n = 97) injections difference (P ≥ 0.47) in Julian calving date, calving approximately 90 d apart. These treatments were percent, or unassisted births. Calf birth BW was maintained and subsequent injections were given lesser (P = 0.02) for MM than CON calves, and 205, 114, and 44 ± 26 d prepartum. Heifers were pro- MM calves had greater (P = 0.03) liver Cu concen- vided free-choice inorganic minerals. Heifer BW and trations at birth than CON calves. Despite MM body condition scores (BCS) were collected at trial cows having increased (P < 0.01) milk production, initiation (296 ± 26 d prepartum) and 5- to 10-week calf weaning BW and ADG were not different (P intervals thereafter. Liver samples were collected at ≥ 0.87). In addition, calf morbidity and mortality trial initiation, 5 and 176 ± 3 d postpartum from were not different (P ≥ 0.43) between treatments. a subset of cows to determine trace mineral status. Calf mineral status was not different (P ≥ 0.57) at Milk production was assessed on 80 cow–calf pairs the time of weaning regardless of treatment; how- (40/treatment) at 71 ± 15 d postpartum. Cows were ever, MM cows had decreased (P = 0.03) liver Zn. artificially inseminated (AI) 82 d postpartum and Multimin cows had decreased (P = 0.05) AI preg- then exposed to bulls for 38 d. Data were reported nancy rates, yet there was no difference (P = 0.34) in from 174 calves (n = 87 calves/treatment). Calf liver overall pregnancy rate. Supplementing an injectable samples were collected 5 and 147 ± 3 d postpartum trace mineral during heifer development and gesta- to determine trace mineral status. Calf weaning BW tion increased cow milk production and resulted in was collected at 159 ± 26 d postpartum. Calf per- decreased AI pregnancy rates; however, there was no formance including calving date, birth BW, weaning effect on overall pregnancy rates or preweaning calf BW, average daily gain (ADG), and health data were health or performance. Key words: beef calf, beef cow, fetal programming, injectable trace mineral, reproduction © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society of Animal Science. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org. Transl. Anim. Sci. 2018.XX:XX–XX doi: 10.1093/tas/txy105 INTRODUCTION Fetal programming is complex and can be Corresponding author: email@example.com influenced by numerous factors. The concept of Received June 25, 2018. Accepted September 28, 2018. trace mineral supplementation potentially altering 1 Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy105/5124560 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 2 Stokes et al. fetal growth and ultimately long-term health and trace mineral injections during gestation on beef performance of calves is a novel concept with lim- heifer and subsequent calf performance. ited research. Research has primarily focused on organic trace mineral supplementation in late ges- MATERIALS AND METHODS tation (Gunter et al., 2003; Jacometo et al., 2015). All experimental procedures were approved by Although trace minerals, such as Cu, Mn, Se, and the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Zn, may be of particular importance during the last of the University of Illinois (IACUC #16046) and 2 mo of gestation as 75% of fetal growth occurs followed the guidelines recommended in the Guide during this time, they may also be important dur- for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animal in ing early fetal development when differentiation, Agricultural Research and Teaching (FASS, 2010). organogenesis, vascularization, and placental growth occur (Funston et al., 2010). Alterations to maternal nutrition during early gestation may Animals and Experimental Design have impacts not only on future growth of the fetus but also on future performance and health of the To determine the effects of repeated trace min- offspring. eral injections on gestating heifer and subsequent Injectable trace minerals may be advantageous calf performance, 190 Angus × Simmental primipa- when compared with traditional oral supplement rous heifers (315 ± 49.3 kg) were used. The develop- methods in that they provide a targeted delivery ment and reproductive performance of these heifers of specific amounts of trace minerals to individual was previously reported by Stokes et al. (2018). animals. This eliminates the variability associated Heifers received three previous subcutaneous trace with fluctuation in voluntary intake noted among mineral (MM; Multimin USA) or sterilized physio- cattle-provided free-choice mineral (Arthington logical saline (CON) injections approximately 90 d and Swenson, 2004). Ultimately, research needs to apart. These treatments were maintained and sub- be conducted to determine the role injectable trace sequent injections were given 205, 114, and 44 ± 26 mineral supplementation may play in the complex d prepartum (Figure 1). Heifers were artificially process of fetal development. The injectable trace inseminated (AI; 296 ± 26 d prepartum; November mineral, Multimin 90 (MM; Multimin USA, Fort 30, 2016). All heifers were confirmed pregnant (93 Collins, CO), is labeled for administration every MM and 97 CON heifers) by either AI (43 MM 90 d in heifers, and the effects of using this injecta- and 46 CON heifers) or clean-up bull (50 MM and ble trace mineral every 90 d in gestating heifers are 51 CON heifers). yet to be reported. Therefore, the objective of this Cattle were stratified by treatment to pastures, experiment was to evaluate the effects of repeated housed at the Dixon Springs Agricultural Center in Figure 1. Experimental timeline. Translate basic science to industry innovation Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy105/5124560 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 Injectable trace mineral and reproduction 3 Figure 2. Effect of an injectable trace mineral (Multimin 90) on heifer BW and BCS at trial initiation (296), 260, 205, 190, 114, and 44 ± 26 d prepartum and 53, 82, 123, 174 ± 26 d postpartum. Day 0 represents average calving date. Control cattle received a sterilized saline solution, and Multimin 90 (Multimin) cattle received injectable trace mineral at 205, 114, and 44 ± 26 d prepartum. For BW, treatment by day was not significant (P = 0.90), and the main effects of treatment and day were significant at P = 0.72 and P < 0.01, respectively. For BCS, treatment by day was not significant (P = 0.49), and the main effects of treatment and day were significant at P = 0.55 and P < 0.01, respectively. Simpson, IL, and grazed endophyte-infected fes- 110,179 IU/kg vitamin A, 3,084 IU/kg vitamin cue (Festuca arundinacea) and red clover pastures D, and 545 IU/kg vitamin E). Mineral consump- (Trifolium pratense; spring = 62% NDF, 37% ADF, tion was measured for two periods throughout the and 12.3% CP; summer = 62% neutral detergent experiment, with the first period representing ges- fiber (NDF), 35% acid detergent fiber (ADF), and tating heifers and the second period representing 9.6% crude protein (CP); fall = 69% NDF, 36% cow-calf pairs. Gestating heifers consumed 47.7 g/ ADF, and 7.5% CP). Pasture groups were rotated heifer/d of free-choice mineral and cow-calf pairs under the discretion of trained University of Illinois consumed 54.6 g/pair/d. Four cows (two CON and research personnel based on visual appraisal of two MM) were removed from the trial due to death forage availability. Cattle were supplemented with or poor performance. All analysis included cow corn distillers grains (2.7 kg/heifer/d; 43% NDF, performance data until the date they were removed 11% ADF, 10.5% fat, and 28.4% CP) from trial ini- from study. tiation until 90 ± 26 d postpartum. At this time, cattle were provided a total mixed ration (TMR) Sample Collection and Analytical Procedures for the remainder of the experiment consisting of corn silage, mixed grass hay, corn distillers grains, Cattle body weights (BW) and body condition and soybean hull pellets (54% NDF, 34% ADF, scores [BCS; emaciated = 1; obese = 9; as described 2.7% fat, and 10.7% CP). In addition, heifers were by Wagner et al. ) were collected at trial ini- given access to free-choice inorganic trace miner- tiation (296 d prepartum), 260, 205, 190, 114, and als (Renaissance Nutrition, Roaring Springs, PA; 44 ± 26 d prepartum (Figure 2), and 53, 82, 123, 0.24% S, 21.37% Ca as calcium carbonate, 2.99% P 174 ± 26 d postpartum. Previously mineral status– as monocalcium phosphate, 24.5% salt, 9.35% Na, determined (Stokes et al., 2018) heifers (38) and 5.84% Mg as magnesium oxide, 0.06% K, 2,214 mg/ their subsequent calves were used for additional kg Fe as iron oxide, 2,000 mg/kg Mn as manganous sampling. Liver and blood samples were collected oxide, 2,500 mg/kg Zn as zinc oxide, 1,500 mg/kg from these heifers 8 d before the start of the experi- Cu as copper sulfate, 27 mg/kg Co as cobalt car- ment (308 ± 3 d prepartum), and 5 and 176 ± 3 bonate, 36 mg/kg I, 26 mg/kg Se as sodium selenite, d postpartum and from their calves 5 ± 3 d after Translate basic science to industry innovation Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy105/5124560 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 4 Stokes et al. calving for trace mineral determination. At the time a trained technician via ultrasonography (Aloka of calving, an additional 30 cow (15/treatment) and 500 instrument; Hitachi Aloka Medical America, their AI sired bull calves were selected for additional Inc., Wallingford, CT; 7.5 MHz general purpose blood and liver biopsies. Blood and liver biopsies transducer array). were collected from calves 5 ± 3 d and 147 ± 3 d Calf BW was collected using a hand scale postpartum. Liver biopsy samples were collected within 48 h of birth. Bull calves were surgically using the method of Engle and Spears (2000) with castrated at birth. All calves were weighed at wean- the modification that all heifers were given an intra- ing (159 ± 26 d postpartum) and calf overall aver- dermal 5 mL of Lidocaine Injectable-2% (MWI age daily gain (ADG) was calculated from birth Animal Health, Boise, ID) at the site of the biopsy. to weaning. Before weaning, calves were vacci- Following the biopsy, samples were transported to nated with Bovishield Gold FP5 VL5 HB (Zoetis, the laboratory on ice and were frozen at –20°C for Florham Park, NJ), Covexin 8 (Merck Animal subsequent trace mineral analysis. Blood was col- Health, Madison, NJ), and Pulmo-Guard MpB lected at the time of biopsy via jugular venipuncture (AgriLabs, St. Joseph, MO). Calf health was moni- into trace element serum vacuum tubes (6.0 mL; tored throughout the experiment by trained univer- Becton, Dickinson and Company, Franklin Lakes, sity farm personnel. Data were reported from 174 NJ). Blood samples were centrifuged at 1,300 × g calves (87 calves/treatment; CON = 41 heifers and for 20 min at 4°C and plasma was stored at –20°C 46 steers; MM = 34 heifers and 53 steers). Twenty- for subsequent trace mineral analysis. Milk sam- three calves (11 CON and 12 MM) were removed ples were collected at 69 ± 3 d postpartum for trace throughout the experiment due to death or chronic mineral analysis. These samples were collected illness. All analysis included calf performance data using a method previously described by Clements until the date they were removed from the study. et al. (2017) with the modification that cows were For nutrient composition analysis, feed and for- administered 1 mL/cow oxytocin intramuscularly age samples were collected monthly and compos- (MWI Animal Health) to stimulate milk letdown. ited and dried at 55°C for a minimum of 3 d and Cows were then hand milked to obtain a 50-mL ground through a 1-mm screen using a Wiley Mill sample. Following collection, samples were stored (Arthur H. Thomas, Philadelphia, PA). Ground on ice and transported to the laboratory where samples were analyzed for CP (TruMac; LECO they were centrifuged at 218 × g for 10 min at 4°C. Corporation, St. Joseph, MI), NDF and ADF using The skim portion was removed and stored at 2°C an Ankom 200 Fiber Analyzer (Ankom Technology, for 24 h until shipped for analysis. Blood, liver, Macedon, NY), and for crude fat using an Ankom and milk samples were shipped to Michigan State XT10 fat extractor (Ankom Technology). University Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health (East Lansing, MI), and concentra- Statistical Analysis tions of Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn were analyzed using an Cow and calf BW, BCS, calf Julian birth date, Agilent 7500ce Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass calf ADG, milk production, and plasma, liver, and Spectrometer (Agilent Technologies, Inc., Santa milk mineral were analyzed using the MIXED pro- Clara, CA) via procedures described previously cedures of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC). The (Wahlen et al., 2005). model included the fixed effects of treatment and Milk production was assessed on 80 cow–calf pasture. Calf parameters included the fixed effects pairs (40/treatment) at 71 ± 15 d postpartum via of sire and sex. Cow BW and BCS were analyzed the weigh-suckle-weigh technique as described as repeated measures with the fixed effects of treat- by Beal et al. (1990), with age and sex of calf ment, pasture, day, and the interaction between equally represented across treatments. Cows were treatment and day. For all repeated variables, the enrolled in a 7-d CO-Synch + controlled internal unstructured covariance structure was used, as it drug release (CIDR) procedure (Johnson et al., provided the smallest Akaike information criterion. 2013) 73 ± 26 d postpartum and AI 82 ± 26 d Day was the repeated effect for all repeated meas- postpartum. Sire and AI technician were stratified ures. All binary data, including calving percent, across treatments. Ten days following AI, cows percent of unassisted births, calf morbidity and were placed with six bulls (three bulls/pasture) mortality, and AI and overall pregnancy rates, were that had previously passed a breeding soundness analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. exam for a 38-d breeding season. First-service AI The model included the fixed effect of treatment conception rates and overall pregnancy rates were and pasture for all binary variables. Technician and determined at 123 and 174 ± 26 d postpartum by Translate basic science to industry innovation Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy105/5124560 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 Injectable trace mineral and reproduction 5 AI sire were not significant for AI pregnancy rates concentrations of trace minerals are often regu- and thus were removed from the model. Animal lated by homeostatic mechanisms until reserves served as the experimental unit for all analyses. become substantially depleted (Miller, 1975). In Treatment effects were considered significant at P ≤ addition, adequate markers of Zn status have yet 0.05, and tendencies were noted at 0.05 < P ≤ 0.10. to be established as both plasma and liver concen- Means reported in tables are least squares means ± trations can vary based on immune status and age SEM. (Kincaid, 2000). Despite these initial differences in Zn concentrations, there was no difference (P ≥ RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 0.81) in liver or plasma Zn at the time of calving. There was also no difference (P ≥ 0.45) in plasma or During development, Stokes et al. (2018) liver Mn at the time of calving. It is also important reported that these heifers had no difference in BW to note that throughout the experiment, cow Mn and BCS despite the increased Cu and Se status of and Zn status remained well within adequate levels MM-treated heifers. As CON cows were considered as defined by Kincaid (2000). marginally Se deficient according to Kincaid (2000) Plasma and liver Cu and liver Se concentra- at trial initiation, the authors’ hypothesized poten- tions were greater (P ≤ 0.01) for MM cows than tial differences in performance parameters should CON cows, and plasma Se concentrations tended have been noted. However, BW and BCS were not (P = 0.08) to be greater for MM cows than CON different (P ≥ 0.49; Figure 2) throughout the experi- cows. At the time of calving, liver Cu concentra- ment between MM and CON cows. In other work tions of MM cows had decreased by 28%, and by Stokes et al. (2017), in one of three experiments CON cows had decreased liver Cu concentrations there was no difference in BW and BCS between by almost 80% compared to initial status. This heifers receiving an injection of MM or sterilized change in liver Cu status resulted in CON cattle saline. However, in the other two experiments, one being classified as deficient according to Kincaid noted an increased BCS for control cattle at the time (2000). Deficiencies in Cu can result in a variety of breeding, and the other reported an increased of clinical symptoms including infertility, anemia, BCS for MM-treated cattle at the time of breed- and suppression of immune function (Underwood ing. Gadberry and Baldridge (2013) also noted no and Suttle, 1999). Though dramatic, this decrease difference in BW or BCS when Angus cows were in Cu status at calving was expected as status of administered two dose of an injectable trace min- the cow is affected by the demand for Cu from the eral, one before calving and another before breed- fetus. Small (1996) used 26 Hereford-cross multip- ing. Conversely, Mundell et al. (2012) reported a arous cows and primparous heifers to investigate greater BCS increase in cows between calving and the effect parturition had on serum Cu concentra- AI when treated with an injectable trace mineral tion and noted that Cu concentrations were lesser 105 d before calving and again 30 d before fixed- (Serum Cu = 0.47 mg/ L) at parturition than at time AI. Drawing comparisons across these exper- iments is challenging, as time and frequency of 7 d before or after calving (Serum Cu = 0.58 and injectable trace mineral administration is variable, 0.66 mg/L, respectively). Xin et al. (1993) used 18 multiparous Holstein cows supplemented with and mineral status of cattle is often not reported. three levels of dietary Cu, 5.5 mg/kg of Cu, 10 mg/ Previously, heifers enrolled in this study had kg of Cu, and 20 mg/kg of Cu, and assessed the received similar treatments of either an injectable changes of Cu concentrations in the blood and liver trace mineral or saline at approximately 221, 319, from 8 wks prepartum to 8 wks postpartum. Liver and 401 d of age (Stokes et al., 2018). In this experi- Cu concentrations declined continuously in these ment, initial liver Cu and Mn were not different (P cattle with the least concentration noted at partu- ≥ 0.11; Table 1) between treatments; however, liver rition, with a 49% decrease in liver Cu from cattle Se tended (P = 0.08) to be greater for MM cows than CON cows. Multimin-supplemented cows also supplemented only 5.5 mg/kg of Cu daily. In add- tended (P = 0.08) to have decreased liver Zn and ition, as with the cows used in this experiment, sup- had decreased (P = 0.04) plasma Zn. Similar results plementing additional Cu at either 10 or 20 mg/kg were noted in these heifers during development, seemed to mitigate the drastic decrease in cow liver with MM-treated heifers having decreased liver Zn Cu concentrations. before breeding (Stokes et al., 2018). Blood meas- At birth (5 ± 3 d of age) calf plasma Cu, Mn, ures, such as plasma Zn, may provide little infor- Se, and Zn were not different (P ≥ 0.17; Table 2) mation regarding trace mineral status as circulating between treatments. In addition, liver Mn and Zn Translate basic science to industry innovation Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy105/5124560 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 6 Stokes et al. Table 1. Influence of an injectable trace mineral supplementation on dam mineral status Treatment Item Control MM SEM P value Plasma mineral Initial n = 16 n = 22 Cu, mg/L 0.75 0.84 0.047 0.19 Mn, µg/L 1.75 1.63 0.126 0.52 Se, µg/L 68.4 75.8 1.74 0.52 Zn, mg/L 1.04 0.90 0.045 0.04 Calving n = 31 n = 37 Cu, mg/L 0.55 0.86 0.037 <0.01 Mn, µg/L 3.51 2.71 0.738 0.45 Se, µg/L 57.6 62.0 1.75 0.08 Zn, mg/L 0.79 0.77 0.033 0.83 Weaning n = 16 n = 22 Cu, mg/L 0.83 0.80 0.033 0.47 Mn, µg/L 3.82 3.89 0.441 0.90 Se, µg/L 92.7 87.4 1.96 0.07 Zn, mg/L 1.11 0.99 0.036 0.03 Liver mineral, mg/kg Initial n = 16 n = 22 Cu 132.3 175.3 18.18 0.11 Mn 9.98 10.03 0.258 0.91 Se 1.06 1.55 0.190 0.08 Zn 111.0 103.6 2.81 0.08 Calving n = 31 n = 37 Cu 25.7 126.9 10.14 <0.01 Mn 9.73 9.71 0.298 0.96 Se 0.98 1.42 0.048 <0.01 Zn 120.5 123.5 8.58 0.81 Weaning n = 16 n = 22 Cu 180.9 216.8 23.94 0.31 Mn 11.56 11.66 0.389 0.86 Se 1.63 1.60 0.082 0.81 Zn 127.3 112.9 4.43 0.03 Control cattle received a sterilized saline solution, and multimin (MM) cattle received injectable trace mineral at 205, 114, and 44 ± 26 d prepartum. 308 ± 3 d prepartum; samples were collected from 22 MM and 16 CON heifers. 5 ± 3 d postpartum; samples were collected from 34 MM and 30 CON cows. 176 ± 3 d postpartum; samples were collected from 20 MM and 13 CON cows. were not different (P ≥ 0.78) in calves at the time of deficiencies. Cattle in this study were given access birth. As dam Mn status was considered adequate to free-choice mineral, containing Mn, and this and not different throughout the experiment, the was likely sufficient to overcome any deficiencies as authors hypothesized that little to no difference severe as those reported by Hansen et al. (2006). would be noted in calf Mn status. Though limited Foreshadowed by the difference in maternal Cu research has been conducted regarding Mn trace and Se status, calves from MM-supplemented dams mineral supplementation and fetal development, also had increased (P ≤ 0.03) liver Cu and Se con- Hansen et al. (2006) did report that calves born to centrations at birth. In addition, calves from both heifers consuming a diet of 16.6 mg of Mn/kg of treatments had over two times the liver Cu concen- diet had decreased birth BW and exhibited varying tration than that of their dams. These data suggest signs of Mn deficiency. This occurred even though that the calf may see an even greater benefit from Cu dams from both treatments had similar whole-blood supplementation during late gestation as the calf Mn concentrations and similar serum cholesterol appears to receive precedence over the dam for Cu concentrations. These data suggest that gestating accumulation and storage. Although the accumu- heifers require additional Mn to overcome fetal lation of fetal liver Cu has been well established in Translate basic science to industry innovation Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy105/5124560 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 Injectable trace mineral and reproduction 7 Table 2. Influence of maternal injectable trace mineral supplementation on calf mineral status Treatment Item Control MM SEM P value Plasma mineral Birth n = 28 n = 33 Cu, mg/L 0.60 0.61 0.035 0.92 Mn, µg/L 1.63 1.98 0.174 0.17 Se, µg/L 48.2 50.2 2.89 0.63 Zn, mg/L 0.91 0.90 0.065 0.91 Liver mineral, mg/kg Birth n =28 n = 33 Cu 182.6 302.2 21.28 <0.01 Mn 9.09 9.30 0.524 0.78 Se 1.13 1.38 0.079 0.03 Zn 274.1 269.7 29.67 0.92 Weaning n = 15 n = 15 Cu 108.2 103.8 15.77 0.85 Mn 8.77 9.02 0.698 0.66 Se 1.22 1.41 0.223 0.57 Zn 125.1 123.0 5.99 0.81 Control dams received a sterilized saline solution, and multimin (MM) dams received injectable trace mineral at 205, 114, and 44 ± 26 d prepartum. 5 ± 3 d postpartum; samples were collected from 33 MM and 27 CON calves. 147 ± 3 d postpartum; samples were collected from 15 MM and 14 CON calves. the literature (Gooneratne and Christensen, 1988; status. Pogge et al. (2012) demonstrated that within Graham et al., 1994), it is perhaps more important 15 d of administration, an injectable trace mineral to note that calf liver Cu and Se status mimicked is an effective way to improve liver trace mineral that of their dams. This increase in calf liver Cu status of cattle, particularly Cu and Se. Although and Se status may be critical for proper immune administration of an injectable trace mineral did function and inflammatory response as these trace also increase initial plasma Zn and Mn concen- elements are a key component of an animal’s health trations, by 24 h after injection both plasma min- and productivity (Berry et al., 2000; Arthington erals had returned to similar values as that of the et al., 2014; Genther-Schroeder and Hansen, 2015). control (Pogge et al., 2012). Though little research Final trace mineral status was determined has been conducted regarding trace mineral sta- approximately 176 d postpartum, and at this point tus of cattle following the withdrawal or removal cows had not been supplemented with an inject- from an injectable trace mineral supplementation able trace mineral for 220 d. Likely due to the program, it is likely that differences in mineral sta- amount of time since supplementation, plasma Cu tus would be ablated 220 d after supplementation. and Mn and liver Cu, Mn, and Se were not dif- Stockdale and Gill (2011) supplemented dairy ferent (P ≥ 0.31) between treatments. Plasma and cows with either 20, 30, 40, or 60 mg of Se from liver Zn were lesser (P = 0.03) in MM cows than Se yeast for 6 wks and monitored blood and milk CON cows. This is consistent with previous data Se concentrations for 21 wks following the with- from these heifers, that even when supplemented, drawal from supplementation. Blood and milk Se MM-treated heifers had decreased liver Zn concen- concentrations were markedly increased by week 6 trations compared to controls at the time of breed- of supplementation; however by 21 wks after sup- ing (Stokes et al., 2018). This persistent difference plementation Se concentrations were not different. in liver Zn, even after supplementation, suggests Stockdale and Gill (2011) stopped assessing Se sta- that this differences in status may be specific to this tus at this point and so it is unclear if they would group of cattle. Interestingly, MM cows tended to have seen similar results at 25 wk after supplemen- have decreased (P = 0.07) plasma Se concentra- tation, with supplemented cows having decreased tions compared to controls at the time of weaning. plasma Se concentrations. Despite these differ- Though there tended to be differences in plasma ences in cow mineral status at the time of weaning, Se, both treatment groups did have adequate Se calf liver mineral concentrations were not different Translate basic science to industry innovation Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy105/5124560 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 8 Stokes et al. (P ≥ 0.57) regardless of maternal treatment. This production by 0.93 kg/d. Contrastingly, Machado lack of difference in calf weaning mineral status et al. (2013) administered Holstein dairy cows a was not overly surprising as treatments were only trace mineral injection (5 mL containing 300 mg administered to dams, and calves would have been of Zn, 50 mg of Mn, 25 mg of Se, and 75 mg of relying on stores of trace minerals built up during copper) at 230 and 260 d of gestation and again 35 gestation and milk mineral content. d postpartum and noted no differences in milk pro- Cow milk production and milk mineral com- duction. However, due to the variability in breed of position data were collected at 71 ± 15 d postpartum cattle and type of mineral supplementation, draw- and 69 ± 3 d postpartum, respectively. Dams supple- ing comparisons across these experiments becomes mented with MM had 1.57 kg/d greater (P < 0.01; challenging. Despite differences in milk produc- Table 3) 24 h milk production compared to their tion, milk Mn and Se concentrations were not dif- CON counterparts (6.13 and 4.56 kg/d for MM and ferent (P ≥ 0.65) between treatments. There was a CON, respectively). Supplementing injectable trace tendency for increased (P = 0.08) milk Zn concen- mineral increased liver Cu and Se stores of dams tration in MM-treated cows than CON cows. Milk postpartum. These trace minerals are required for Cu concentrations were below detectable limits; numerous biochemical processes and are key com- however, this is commonly noted as milk Cu con- ponents of structural proteins (Suttle, 2010). The centrations are typically as low as 0.1–0.2 mg/L increased stores of trace minerals postpartum may (Lonnerdal et al., 1981). have allowed cattle to better maintain peak lacta- Calving percent, Julian calving date, and per- tion as observed in this experiment. In a meta-anal- cent unassisted births were not different (P ≥ 0.47) ysis, Rabiee et al. (2010) reported that organic trace between CON and MM-supplemented dams. minerals supplemented to dairy cows increased milk However, calf birth BW was lesser (P = 0.02; Table 3. Influence of an injectable trace mineral on cow calving, milk production, milk mineral compos- ition, and subsequent reproduction Treatment Item Control MM SEM P value Calving n = 87 n = 87 Calving, % 91 94 — 0.47 Calving date, Julian d 266 264 2.8 0.61 Unassisted birth, % 98 97 — 0.65 Milk production, kg/d 4.56 6.13 0.346 <0.01 Milk composition n = 31 n = 37 Cu, mg/L — — — — Mn, µg/L 23.2 24.1 1.56 0.65 Se, µg/L 18.4 18.5 0.55 0.93 Zn, mg/L 4.49 5.02 0.22 0.08 Artificial insemination pregnancy rate, % 67 53 — 0.05 Overall pregnancy rate, % 96 93 — 0.34 Control dams received a sterilized saline solution, and multimin (MM) dams received injectable trace mineral at 205, 114, and 44 ± 26 d prepartum. 71 ± 15 d postpartum; 40 cows/treatment. 69 ± 3 d postpartum. Copper milk concentrations were below detectable limits. Table 4. Influence of maternal injectable trace mineral supplementation on calf performance and health Treatment Item Control MM SEM P value Birth BW, kg 30.5 28.7 0.55 0.02 Weaning BW, kg 164.6 163.9 2.78 0.87 ADG, kg 0.81 0.81 0.015 0.90 Morbidity, % 9.4 6.0 — 0.43 Mortality, % 10.5 11.7 — 0.80 Control dams received a sterilized saline solution, and multimin (MM) dams received injectable trace mineral at 205, 114, and 44 ± 26 d prepartum. Translate basic science to industry innovation Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy105/5124560 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 Injectable trace mineral and reproduction 9 Table 4) for calves from MM-supplemented dams utero and how they may ultimately affect the long- than their CON counterparts. Even though calf term health and productivity of cattle. BW gain has been shown to be driven by milk pro- The final round of treatments was administered duction (Clutter and Nielsen, 1987) and MM dams approximately 108 d before breeding. Interestingly, had greater milk production, calf weaning BW and MM cows had decreased (P = 0.05) AI preg- ADG were not different (P ≥ 0.87) between treat- nancy rates (53%) compared to CON cows (67%). ments. Dams and calves were comingled across However, there was no difference (P = 0.34) in treatments to minimize difference due to pasture overall pregnancy rates. This is in contrast to the variation, and this may have allowed calves to cross- primiparous AI pregnancy rate for these females, nurse between treatments, potentially explaining which was not different between treatments (Stokes the lack of difference noted in calf ADG. There et al., 2018). In other work, Stokes et al. (2017) were also no differences (P ≥ 0.43) between treat- noted increased AI pregnancy rates in Simmental × ments in calf morbidity and mortality. Arthington Angus heifers administered an injectable trace min- et al. (2014) reported that beef calves administered eral 30 d before breeding. Mundell et al. (2012) also an injectable trace mineral had an increased mineral reported increased AI conception for cows receiv- status, greater humoral response to a novel anti- ing an injectable trace mineral administered 105 d gen, and a heightened acute phase protein response before calving and again 30 d before fixed-time AI. when subjected to transportation stress, suggesting Although the cattle used in this experiment would direct administration of an injectable trace mineral have received a similar injection before calving, may improve calf health. Although no differences treatments were not readministered before breeding in health parameters were noted in this study, the as reported by Mundell et al. (2012). This differ- incidence of morbidity was lower than that of pre- ence in time of treatment administration combined viously reported years (Clements et al., 2017; mor- with the use of different-timed AI protocols may bidity = 27%), and if the health of these calves in help explain why variable results were noted across this experiment had been more challenged perhaps experiment. Vanegas et al. (2004) reported a signif- differences would have been noted. icant decrease in first-service conception rate when Although the effects of maternal macronutri- administering dairy cows two doses of an injectable ent restriction have been extensively reviewed (Wu trace mineral, 60 d apart, prior to breeding. Liver et al., 2006; Funston et al, 2010), the effects of samples for mineral analysis were not collected in maternal trace mineral supplementation on subse- these experiments to help explain these results. quent calf health and performance are minimally Cow BCS was similar between treatments at the studied. Nutritional deficiencies in Cu, Mn, Se, time milk production was assessed (CON = 5.9 and and Zn impair performance and immune defense MM = 5.9) and at the time of breeding (CON = 5.9 parameters, and although the exact mechanism and MM = 5.9). In addition, BCS was not changing these trace mineral work remains unclear, it is likely at this time, suggesting that cattle nutritional needs these trace minerals work in concert through spe- were being adequately met. However, the difference cific mechanisms to execute a coordinated response in AI pregnancy rate, noted in this experiment, within the animal. To the best of our knowledge, no could have been driven by the differences noted in other experiments have assessed the effect of inject- milk production, with MM cows having increased able trace minerals on subsequent calf performance. 24-h milk production. Both suckling behavior and However, other authors have assessed the impact of milk yield can affect the activity of the hypothala- various organic and inorganic trace mineral supple- mus and ovaries, ultimately extending the anestrous mentation strategies on subsequent calf health and period after calving and inhibiting follicular devel- performance (Muehlenbein et al., 2001; Gunter opment (Montiel and Ahuja, 2005). Likely, all cows et al., 2003; Jacometo et al., 2015). Minimal dif- were exhibiting estrus later into the breeding sea- ferences have been reported with maternal organic son and would have then been bull bred, potentially trace mineral supplementation and subsequent calf explaining the lack of differences in overall preg- performance (Muehlenbein et al., 2001; Gunter nancy rate. Ultimately though, estrus and suckling et al., 2003). However, Jacometo et al. (2015) did behavior were not assessed in this experiment, and report that maternal trace mineral supplemen- these data may have helped explain differences tation resulted in changes in calf gene expression noted in cow reproductive performance. that could alter the neonatal immune response. Repeated trace mineral injections during gesta- Ultimately, more research is needed to understand tion resulted in an increased Cu status of both dam the complex role trace minerals may be playing in and calf at birth. In addition, cows supplemented Translate basic science to industry innovation Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy105/5124560 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 10 Stokes et al. of growing and finishing steers. J. Anim. Sci. 78:2446–2451. with an injectable trace mineral had increased doi:10.2527/2000.7892446x milk production, which may have contributed to FASS. 2010. Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural decreased AI pregnancy rates. However, overall Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching: pregnancy rates were not different regardless of Consortium for Developing a Guide for the Care and Use treatment. Despite calves from dams treated with of Agricultural Research and Teaching. Champaign (IL): FASS Association Headquarters. an injectable trace mineral had a decreased birth Funston, R. N., D. M. Larson, and K. A. Vonnahme. 2010. BW, there was no effect on calf preweaning health Effects of maternal nutrition on conceptus growth and off- or performance. These data suggest that repeated spring performance: implications for beef cattle produc- trace mineral injections during gestation may tion. J. Anim. Sci. 88(13 Suppl):E205–D215. doi:10.2527/ increase trace mineral status and milk production; jas2009-2351 Gadberry, M. S. and B. Baldridge. 2013. Response of Angus however, this resulted in no improvement in beef cows and their suckling calves to an injectable trace mineral calf health and performance. Additional research supplement. In: Arkansas Animal Science Department will be required to determine how these repeated Report 2013. Rep. No. 612. Fayetteville (AR): University trace mineral injections during gestation may of Arkansas; p. 30–32. impact the health of calves when stressed or chal- Genther-Schroeder, O. N., and S. L. Hansen. 2015. Effect of a multielement trace mineral injection before transit stress lenged, and how this change in gestational supple- on inflammatory response, growth performance, and car - mentation may impact long-term calf performance. cass characteristics of beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 93:1767– 1779. doi:10.2527/jas.2014-8709 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Gooneratne, S. R., and D. A. Christensen. 1988. A survey of maternal copper status and fetal tissue copper concentra- We would like to thank Multimin USA for tions in Saskatchewan bovine. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 69:141– partial funding for this project and the staff at the 150. doi:10.4141/cjas89-017 University of Illinois Dixon Springs Agricultural Graham, T. W., M. C. Thurmond, F. C. Mohr, C. A. Holmberg, M. L. Anderson, and C. L. Keen. 1994. Relationships Center, Simpson, IL, for care of the experimental between maternal and fetal liver copper, iron, manga- animals and aiding in collection of data. nese, and zinc concentrations and fetal development in California Holstein dairy cows. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. Conflict of interest statement . None declared. 6:77–87. doi:10.1177/104063879400600114 Gunter, S. A., P. A. Beck, and J. K. Phillips. 2003. Effects of LITERATURE CITED supplementary selenium source on the performance and blood measurements in beef cows and their calves. J. Arthington, J. D., P. Moriel, P. G. Martins, G. C. Lamb, and Anim. Sci. 81:856–864. doi:10.2527/2003.814856x L. J. Havenga. 2014. Effects of trace mineral injections on Hansen, S. L., J. W. Spears, K. E. Lloyd, and C. S. Whisnant. measures of performance and trace mineral status of pre- 2006. Feeding a low manganese diet to heifers during ges- and postweaned beef calves. J. Anim. Sci. 92:2630–2640. tation impairs fetal growth and development. J. Dairy Sci. doi:10.2527/jas.2013-7164 89:4305–4311. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72477-8 Arthington, J. D., and C. K. Swenson. 2004. Effects of trace Jacometo, C. B., J. S. Osorio, M. Socha, M. N. Corrêa, F. mineral source and feeding method on the productivity Piccioli-Cappelli, E. Trevisi, and J. J. Loor. 2015. Maternal of grazing Braford cows. Prof. Anim. Sci. 20:155–161. consumption of organic trace minerals alters calf systemic doi:10.15232/S1080-7446(15)31290-0 and neutrophil mRNA and microRNA indicators of Beal, W. E., D. R. Notter, and R. M. Akers. 1990. Techniques inflammation and oxidative stress. J. Dairy Sci. 98:7717– for estimation of milk yield in beef cows and relationships 7729. doi:10.3168/jds.2015-9359 of milk yield to calf weight gain and postpartum repro- Johnson, S. K., R. N. Funston, J. B. Hall, G. C. Lamb, J. duction. J. Anim. Sci. 68:937–943. doi:1990.684937x W. Lauderdale, D. J. Patterson, and G. A. Perry. 2013. Berry, B. A., W. T. Choat, D. R. Gill, C. R. Krehbiel, and Protocols for synchronization of estrus and ovulation. R. Ball. 2000. Efficacy of Multimin in improving per - In: Proceedings, Applied Reproductive Strategies in Beef formance and health in receiving cattle. In: 2000 Animal Cattle, Staunton, VA; p. 261–270. Science Research Report. Stillwater: Oklahoma State Kincaid, R. L. 2000. Assessment of trace mineral status of University; p. 61–64. ruminants: a review. J. Anim. Sci. 77(E-Suppl):1–10. Clements, A. R., F. A. Ireland, T. Freitas, H. Tucker, and D. doi:10.2527/jas2000.77E-Suppl1x W. Shike. 2017. Effects of supplementing methionine Lönnerdal, B., C. L. Keen, and L. S. Hurley. 1981. Iron, copper, hydroxyl analog on beef cow performance, milk produc- zinc, and manganese in milk. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 1:149–174. tion, reproduction, and preweaning calf performance. J. doi:10.1146/annurev.nu.01.070181.001053 Anim. Sci. 95:5597–5605. doi:10.2527/jas2017.1828. Machado, V. S., M. L. Bicalho, R. V. Pereira, L. S. Caixeta, Clutter, A. C. and M. K. Nielsen. 1987. Effect of level of beef W. A. Knauer, G. Oikonomou, R. O. Gilbert, and R. cow milk production on pre- and postweaning calf growth. C. Bicalho. 2013. Effect of an injectable trace mineral J. Anim. Sci. 64:1313–1322. doi:10.2527/jas1987.6451313x supplement containing selenium, copper, zinc, and man- Engle, T. E., and J. W. Spears. 2000. Effects of dietary copper ganese on the health and production of lactating Holstein cows. Vet. J. 197:451–456. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.02.022 concentration and source on performance and copper status Translate basic science to industry innovation Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy105/5124560 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 Injectable trace mineral and reproduction 11 Miller, W. J. 1975. New concepts and developments in metab- and blood after the withdrawal of supplementation. J. olism and homeostasis of inorganic elements in dairy cat- Dairy Sci. 9:2351–2359. doi:10.3168/jds.2010–3781 tle. A review. J. Dairy Sci. 58:1549–1560. doi:10.3168/jds. Stokes, R. S., A. R. Ralph, A. J. Mickna, W. P. Chapple, A. S0022-0302(75)84751–5 R. Schroeder, F. A. Ireland, and D. W. Shike. 2017. Effect Montiel, F., and C. Ahuja. 2005. Body condition and suck- of an injectable trace mineral at the initiation of a 14 day ling as factors influencing the duration of postpartum CIDR protocol on heifer performance and reproduction. anestrus in cattle: a review. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 85:1–26. Transl. Anim. Sci. 1:458–466. doi:10.2527/tas2017.0050 doi:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2003.11.001 Stokes, R. S., M. J. Volk, F. A. Ireland, P. J. Gunn, and D. Muehlenbein, E. L., D. R. Brink, G. H. Deutscher, M. P. W. Shike. 2018. Effect of repeated trace mineral injections Carlson, and A. B. Johnson. 2001. Effects of inorganic on beef heifer development and reproductive performance. and organic copper supplemented to first-calf cows on J. Anim. Sci. 96:3943–3954. doi:10.1093/jas/sky253 cow reproduction and calf health and performance. J. Suttle, N. F. 2010. The mineral nutrition of livestock. 4th ed. Anim. Sci. 79:1650–1659. doi:10.2527/2001.7971650x New York: CABI Publishing. Mundell, L. R., J. R. Jaeger, J. W. Waggoner, J. S. Stevenson, Underwood, E. J., and N. F. Suttle. 1999. The mineral nutrition D. M. Grieger, L. A. Pacheco, J. W. Bolte, N. A. Aubel, of livestock. 3rd ed. New York: CABI Publishing. G. J. Eckerle, M. J. Macek, et al. 2012. Effects of pre- Vanegas, J. A., J. Reynolds, and E. R. Atwill. 2004. Effects of partum and postpartum bolus injections of trace min- an injectable trace mineral supplement on first-service erals on performance of beef cows and calves grazing conception rate of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 87:3665–3671. native range. Prof. Anim. Sci. 28:82–88. doi:10.15232/ doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73505-5 S1080-7446(15)30318-1 Wagner, J. J., K. S. Lusby, J. W. Oltjen, J. Rakestraw, R. P. Pogge, D. J., E. L. Richter, M. E. Drewnoski, and S. L. Hansen. Wettemann, and L. E. Walters. 1988. Carcass composition 2012. Mineral concentrations of plasma and liver after in mature Hereford cows: estimation and effect on daily injection with a trace mineral complex differ among metabolizable energy requirement during winter. J. Anim. Angus and Simmental cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 90:2692–2698. Sci. 66:603–612. doi:10.2527/jas1988.663603x doi:10.2527/jas.2012-4482 Wahlen, R., L. Evans, J. Turner, and R. Hearn. 2005. The use of Rabiee, A. R., I. J. Lean, M. A. Stevenson, and M. T. Socha. collision/reaction cell ICP-MS for the determination of ele- 2010. Effects of feeding organic trace minerals on milk ments in blood and serum samples. Spectroscopy. 20:84–89. production and reproductive performance in lactating Wu, G., F. W. Bazer, J. M. Wallace, and T. E. Spencer. 2006. dairy cows: a meta-analysis. J. Dairy Sci. 93:4239–4251. Board-invited review: intrauterine growth retardation: doi:10.3168/jds.2010-3058 implications for the animal sciences. J. Anim. Sci. 84:2316– Small, J. A. 1996. Serum mineral concentration in relation to 2337. doi:10.2527/jas.2006-156 parturition in beef heifers and cows fed conserved forage. Xin, Z., D. F. Waterman, R. W. Hemken, and R. J. Harmon. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 77:63–68. doi:10.4141/A96-043 1993. Copper status and requirement during the dry Stockdale, C. R. and H. S. Gill. 2011. Effect of duration and period and early lactation in multiparous Holstein level of supplementation of diets of lactating dairy cows cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76:2711–2716. doi:10.3168/jds. with selenized yeast on selenium concentrations in milk S0022-0302(93)77607-9 Translate basic science to industry innovation
Translational Animal Science – Oxford University Press
Published: Oct 9, 2018
Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.