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Influence of chromium propionate dose and feeding regimen on growth performance and carcass composition of pigs housed in a commercial environment,

Influence of chromium propionate dose and feeding regimen on growth performance and carcass... Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy104/5126775 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 Influence of chromium propionate dose and feeding regimen on growth performance 1,2 and carcass composition of pigs housed in a commercial environment Jordan T. Gebhardt,* Jason C. Woodworth,* Mike D. Tokach,* Joel M. DeRouchey,* ,3 ‡,4 ‡ †, Robert D. Goodband,* Joe A. Loughmiller, Ana L. P. de Souza, and Steve S. Dritz *Department of Animal Sciences and Industry, College of Agriculture, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS; Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506-0201; Kemin Industries, Des Moines, IA ABSTRACT: Although chromium (Cr) feeding a total of 1,206 pigs (PIC 359  ×  1050, initial BW study results have been variable, our hypothesis 48.9 kg) were used with 27 pigs per pen and 15 pens was feeding a regimen that changed dosage over per treatment. Diets were corn–soybean meal, dried time would result in a larger positive response in distillers grains with solubles based and were fed in growth performance and carcass characteristics. In four phases. There were three dietary treatments: a Exp. 1, a total of 1,206 pigs (PIC 337 × 1050, initial diet with no added Cr for both grower (dietary phase BW 28.7 kg) were used with 27 pigs per pen and 9 1 and 2) and finisher (dietary phase 3 and 4) periods, pens per treatment. Diets were corn–soybean meal- a diet with 200 µg/kg added Cr during the grower dried distillers grains with solubles based and were and 100 µg/kg added Cr during the finisher periods, fed in a five-phase feeding program. Treatments or a diet with 200 µg/kg added Cr for both periods. were arranged as a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial with a con- Addition of 200 µg/kg Cr in both periods margin- trol diet containing no added Cr propionate (Kemin ally increased (P < 0.10) ADG compared with pigs Industries Inc., Des Moines, IA), or diets with either fed no added Cr. There was no evidence (P ≥ 0.523) 100 or 200 µg/kg added Cr during the grower (diet- of added Cr influencing overall ADFI and G:F. ary phases 1 and 2) and/or finisher (dietary phases 3, Percentage carcass yield was reduced (P  =  0.018) 4, and 5) periods. During the grower period, ADG when Cr was added at 200 µg/kg for both periods, and G:F were similar among pigs fed the control with no evidence of differences (P ≥ 0.206) in other or 100 µg/kg added Cr diets, but decreased in pigs carcass characteristics. In summary, overall G:F was fed 200 µg/kg Cr (quadratic, P ≤ 0.001). During the improved in Exp. 1, and ADG in Exp. 2, by added finisher period, pigs supplemented with 200  µg/kg Cr, but there was no evidence that different feeding added Cr had the greatest ADG and G:F (quadratic, regimens will consistently result in improved perfor- P ≤ 0.019). Overall, increasing Cr had no effect on mance. However, these data are consistent with the ADG or ADFI; but G:F was greatest (quadratic, literature in that added Cr in growing-finishing pigs P = 0.020) when pigs were fed 100 µg/kg of added Cr diets improves, albeit small, ADG or G:F. throughout. Carcass characteristics were not influ- enced by Cr dosage or feeding regimen. In Exp. 2, Key words: chromium propionate, duration, finishing pig, level © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society of Animal Science. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits 1 3 Contribution no. 18-521-J from the Kansas Agricultural Corresponding author: goodband@ksu.edu Experiment Station, Manhattan, KS 66506-0201. Present address: Puretein Bioscience, 4800 Park Glen Appreciation is expressed to Kemin Industries, Road, Minneapolis, MN 55416. Des Moines, IA, for partial financial support of these Received June 22, 2018. experiments. Accepted September 25, 2018. 1 Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy104/5126775 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com Transl. Anim. Sci. 2018.XX:XX–XX doi: 10.1093/tas/txy104 were made and recorded by a robotic feeding system INTRODUCTION (FeedPro; Feedlogic Corp, Wilmar, MN). Chromium (Cr) has been shown to be involved in carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism (Pechova Animals and Diets and Pavlata, 2007; NRC, 2012). Historically, the most notable mode of action is its influence on insulin In Exp. 1, a total of 1,206 pigs (PIC 337 × 1050; sensitivity as component of the molecule known as PIC, Hendersonville, TN), with initial BW 28.7  kg, glucose tolerance factor (Steele et al., 1977; Hill and were used in a 125-d growth trial with 27 pigs per pen Spears, 2001); however, additional research has indi- and 9 pens per treatment. Pigs were split by sex on cated chromodulin is the likely oligopeptide responsi- arrival at the facility, with four blocks of each gender ble for its activity (Pechova and Pavlata, 2007). With and a final mixed sex gender block. Gender blocks regard to the effects of Cr on swine growth perfor- were randomly allotted to groups of five pen locations mance, the published literature contains significant within the barn. Diets were corn–soybean meal-based variability regarding growth and carcass characteris- and fed in meal form, with dietary phases formulated tics. Because of the variability in ingredient basal Cr for 27 to 45, 45 to 61, 61 to 77, 77 to 104, and 104 levels and inconsistent performance, there is currently to 127  kg BW ranges. All diets were formulated to no quantitative estimate for Cr requirements for meet or exceed the NRC (2012) nutrient requirement swine (NRC, 2012). A meta-analysis was conducted estimates within phase. Ingredient nutrient profiles that included 31 different studies evaluating added and standardized ileal digestibility coefficients were Cr in finishing pig diets. The meta-analysis suggested derived from NRC (2012), The treatment phases were variable but overall positive improvements in ADG divided into two specific growth ranges including a and G:F, as well as reducing backfat and increas- grower period (dietary phases 1 and 2) and a finisher ing percentage lean, which can be beneficial in some period (dietary phases 3, 4, and 5). Treatments were situations with supplemental Cr (Sales and Jancik, arranged as a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial with main effects of 2011). However, Lindeman (2007) indicated that as Cr dose (100 or 200 µg/kg of Cr from Cr propionate; body mass increases, there are reduced tissue concen- Kemin Industries Inc., Des Moines, IA) and feeding trations of Cr. This might suggest that using feeding regimen (grower or finisher periods) and a control regimens that combine different Cr dosages and feed- diet containing no added Cr. Ractopamine hydro- ing durations could result in even greater improve- chloride (HCl) (Paylean; Elanco Animal Health, ments in growth or carcass performance. Therefore, Greenfield, IN) was added in phase 5 diets when pigs the objective of this experiment was to determine the were an average of 104  kg BW and was fed for the effects of Cr propionate dosage and feeding regimen final 38-d of the trial. Diets were manufactured in a on growth performance and carcass composition of commercial feed mill in southwest Minnesota (New pigs housed in a commercial environment. Horizon Feeds, Pipestone, MN; Table 1). In Exp. 2, a total of 1,206 pigs (PIC 359 × 1050), with initial BW 48.9 kg, were used in an 84-d growth MATERIALS AND METHODS trial with 27 pigs per pen and 15 pens per treat- ment. Pigs were placed in mixed-gender pens with General similar numbers of barrows and gilts in each pen The Kansas State University Institutional Animal and equalized by treatment. Pens were blocked by Care and Use Committee approved the protocol used average BW and randomly assigned to treatment at in these experiments. The studies were conducted at initiation of the experiment. Diets were corn–soy- a commercial research-finishing site in southwest bean meal-based and fed in meal form, with diet- Minnesota using two identical barns. The barns were ary phases formulated for 45 to 68, 68 to 91, 91 to naturally ventilated and double-curtain-sided. Each 109, and 109 to 127  kg BW ranges. All diets were pen (5.5  ×  3.0 m) was equipped with a four-hole formulated to meet or exceed the NRC (2012) nutri- stainless steel feeder and cup waterer for ad libitum ent requirement estimates within phase. Three diet- access to feed and water and allowed approximately ary treatments were offered that included a control 0.61 m /pig. All feed additions to each individual pen with no added Cr for both grower (dietary phase 1 Translate basic science to industry innovation Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy104/5126775 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 Table 1. Diet composition (as-fed basis), Exp. 1 BW range, kg Item 27 to 45 45 to 61 61 to 77 77 to 104 104 to 127 Ingredient, % Corn 56.00 61.25 65.80 69.25 67.25 Soybean meal, 46.5% CP 21.65 16.50 12.00 8.55 20.65 Dried distillers grains with solubles 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 10.00 Calcium carbonate 1.25 1.28 1.23 1.20 1.03 Monocalcium phosphate, 21% P 0.15 — — — 0.10 Salt 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 l -Lys HCl 0.36 0.37 0.39 0.39 0.28 dl -Met 0.01 — — — 0.04 l -Thr 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 l -Trp — 0.01 0.02 0.02 — Ractopamine HCl — — — — 0.03 Phytase 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 Trace mineral premix 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 Vitamin premix 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 Cr +/− +/− +/− +/− +/− Total 100 100 100 100 100 Calculated analysis Standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids, % Lys 1.02 0.91 0.82 0.74 0.90 Ile:Lys 63 62 60 59 64 Leu:Lys 152 159 164 171 150 Met:Lys 29 29 30 31 32 Met and Cys:Lys 55 56 57 59 59 Thr:Lys 61 61 61 63 65 Trp:Lys 18.4 18.4 18.4 18.4 19.0 Val:Lys 70 70 70 70 71 Total Lys, % 1.19 1.06 0.96 0.87 1.04 ME, kcal/kg 3,311 3,320 3,327 3,331 3,320 NE, kcal/kg 2,429 2,465 2,491 2,513 2,476 SID Lys:ME, g/Mcal 3.08 2.74 2.46 2.22 2.71 SID Lys:NE, g/Mcal 4.20 3.69 3.29 2.94 3.64 CP, % 20.0 18.1 16.4 15.1 17.6 Ca, % 0.61 0.57 0.54 0.52 0.50 P, % 0.45 0.40 0.38 0.36 0.40 STTD P, % 0.33 0.29 0.28 0.27 0.29 CP = crude protein; STTD = standardized total tract digestibility. Treatment diets were fed to 1,206 pigs (PIC 337 × 1050; PIC, Hendersonville, TN; initial BW 28.7 kg) for 125 d in a five-phase feeding program with 27 pigs per pen and 9 replications per treatment. Paylean (Elanco, Greenfield, IN). Optiphos 2000 (Huvepharma, Sofia, Bulgaria) provided an estimated release of 0.10% STTD P. Provided per kg of premix: 110 g Fe from iron sulfate; 110 g Zn from zinc sulfate; 33 g Mn from manganese oxide; 17 g Cu from copper sulfate; 330 mg I from calcium iodate; and 300 mg Se from sodium selenite. Provided per kg of premix: 7,054,798 IU vitamin A; 1,102,312 IU vitamin D3; 35,242 IU vitamin E; 3,528 mg vitamin K; 26.5 mg vitamin B12; 39,683 mg niacin; 22,046 mg pantothenic acid; and 6,173 mg riboflavin. Cr (Cr propionate; Kemin Industries Inc., Des Moines, IA) was added at 0.25 kg/tonne (100 µg/kg Cr) or 0.5 kg/tonne (200 µg/kg Cr) at the expense of corn. NRC (2012). and 2) and finisher (dietary phase 3 and 4) phases, Horizon Feeds; Table 2) and were fed in meal form. the control diet plus 200 µg/kg added Cr during the No ractopamine HCl was used in Exp. 2. grower and 100 µg/kg added Cr during the finisher In both experiments, pens of pigs were weighed periods, or the control diet plus 200 µg/kg added Cr and feeder measurements were recorded a mini- for both the grower and finisher periods. All diets mum of every 14-d and such events included diet- were manufactured at a commercial feed mill (New ary phase changes, first marketing, and conclusion Translate basic science to industry innovation Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy104/5126775 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 Table 2. Diet composition (as-fed basis), Exp. 2 BW range, kg Item 45 to 68 68 to 91 91 to 109 109 to 127 Ingredient, % Corn 62.76 67.86 70.89 79.71 Soybean meal, 46.5% CP 14.99 9.91 6.90 8.22 Dried distillers grains with solubles 20.00 20.00 20.00 10.00 Calcium carbonate 1.28 1.23 1.20 1.03 Monocalcium phosphate, 21% P — — — 0.10 Salt 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 l -Lys HCl 0.39 0.40 0.40 0.33 l -Thr 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 l -Trp 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 Phytase 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 Trace mineral premix 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 Vitamin premix 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 Cr +/− +/− +/− +/− Total 100 100 100 100 Calculated analysis Standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids, % Lys 0.89 0.78 0.71 0.65 Ile:Lys 60 59 58 58 Leu:Lys 158 166 173 166 Met:Lys 29 30 31 30 Met and Cys:Lys 56 58 60 59 Thr:Lys 60 61 63 65 Trp:Lys 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 Val:Lys 69 69 70 69 Total Lys, % 1.04 0.92 0.84 0.76 ME, kcal/kg 3,322 3,329 3,333 3,333 NE, kcal/kg 2,474 2,504 2,522 2,549 SID Lys:ME, g/Mcal 2.68 2.34 2.13 1.95 SID Lys:NE, g/Mcal 3.60 3.11 2.81 2.55 CP, % 17.5 15.6 14.4 12.9 Ca, % 0.57 0.53 0.52 0.46 P, % 0.39 0.37 0.35 0.35 STTD P, % 0.33 0.28 0.27 0.26 CP = crude protein; STTD = standardized total tract digestibility. Treatment diets were fed to 1,206 pigs (PIC 337 × 1050; PIC, Hendersonville, TN; initial BW 48.9 kg] for 84 d in a four-phase feeding program with 27 pigs per pen and 15 replications per treatment. Optiphos 2000 (Huvepharma, Sofia, Bulgaria) provided an estimated release of 0.10% STTD P. Premix provided per kg of premix: 110 g Fe from iron sulfate; 110 g Zn from zinc sulfate; 33 g Mn from manganese oxide; 17 g Cu from copper sulfate; 330 mg I from calcium iodate; and 300 mg Se from sodium selenite. Premix provided per kg of premix: 7,054,798 IU vitamin A; 1,102,312 IU vitamin D3; 35,242 IU vitamin E; 3,528 mg vitamin K; 26.5 mg vita- min B12; 39,683 mg niacin; 22,046 mg pantothenic acid; and 6,173 mg riboflavin. Cr (Cr propionate; Kemin Industries Inc., Des Moines, IA) was added at 0 or 0.5 kg/tonne (200 µg/kg added Cr) during dietary phase 1 and 2, and 0, 0.25 (100 µg/kg added Cr) or 0.5 kg/tonne (200 µg/kg added Cr) during dietary phase 3 and 4 at the expense of corn. NRC (2012). of the trial to determine ADG, ADFI, and G:F. pigs were given a tattoo corresponding to pen num- The three heaviest pigs per pen were selected using ber and were transported to a commercial packing visual evaluation by trained personnel and mar- facility (JBS Swift and Company, Worthington, keted at an average barn weight (Exp. 1: 116 kg on MN) for processing and carcass data collection. day 97; Exp. 2: 110 kg on day 68) following the rou- Carcass measurements taken at the plant included tine farm protocol with no carcass data collected HCW, backfat, percentage carcass lean, and loin from these pigs. At the conclusion of the trial depth. Backfat and loin depth were measured using (Exp.  1, day 125; Exp.  2, day 84), the remaining an optical probe inserted between the third and Translate basic science to industry innovation Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy104/5126775 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 fourth ribs from the caudal aspect of the carcass treatments (0/0, 200/100, 200/200 µg/kg added Cr, at a distance approximately 7 cm from dorsal mid- corresponding to grower/finisher Cr, respectively). line as described by Coble et al. (2017). Percentage In both experiments, backfat, loin depth, and per- carcass lean was calculated using a proprietary for- centage lean were adjusted to a common carcass mula using HCW, backfat depth, and loin depth. weight for analysis using HCW as a covariate, and In addition, percentage carcass yield was calculated percentage yield was calculated by dividing the pen by dividing pen average HCW by pen average live average HCW by pen average live weight as meas- weight collected at the research facilities before ured at the research barn before transport to pro- transport to processing facility. cessing facility. Results were considered significant at P ≤ 0.05 and marginally significant between P > Chemical Analysis 0.05 and P ≤ 0.10. For both experiments, complete diet samples RESULTS were collected from multiple feeders within treat- ment, combined within phase when applicable, and Chemical Analysis subsampled for analysis. All feed samples were sub- mitted to Ward Laboratories, Inc. (Kearney, NE) Chemical analysis of complete diets revealed no for analysis of dry matter (DM) (AOAC 934.01, notable differences in proximate analysis including 2006), crude protein (CP) (AOAC 990.03, 2006), DM, CP, ether extract, and crude fiber among treat- ether extract (AOAC 920.39 A, 2006), crude fiber ments (Tables 3 and 4). Although variable, analyzed Cr (AOAC 978.10, 2006) and to University of Guelph values were greater in diets with added Cr, as expected. Agriculture and Food Laboratory (Guelph, ON) for analysis of Cr (US EPA 6020a, 1998). Experiment 1 Overall, growth performance and carcass char- Statistical Analysis acteristics were compared between pigs fed 100/200 Data were analyzed as a randomized complete and 200/100  µg/kg added Cr during the grower block design using the GLIMMIX procedure of and finisher periods, respectively. No evidence of SAS (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC) with pen as the a difference (P ≥ 0.416) between treatments was experimental unit. In Exp.  1, block was included detected, indicating no benefit was observed with in the model as a random effect and accounted changing dosages between growth periods. With no for gender, location within barn, and initial BW at benefit associated with feeding regimen observed, the time of allotment. Linear and quadratic effects linear, and quadratic effects of increasing Cr within of increasing Cr within growth period were con- growth period were considered using all treatments, sidered using all treatments, as well as linear and as well as linear and quadratic effects of increasing quadratic effects of increasing Cr within treatments Cr for the full duration using the three treatments fed at a constant level for the full duration of the that had a constant Cr dosage throughout. trial. An additional pairwise contrast was analyzed Increasing Cr during the grower period resulted to determine the impact of changing Cr concentra- in no benefit when 100  µg/kg Cr was fed com- tions between the grower and finisher periods. In pared with control fed pigs, but reduced (quadratic, Exp. 2, weight block was included in the model as P  <  0.001; Table  5) ADG and G:F with 200 µg/kg a random effect that accounted for initial BW at added Cr. No differences (P ≥ 0.229) in ADFI were the time of allotment. Growth performance during detected within the grower period as Cr dosage the grower period was analyzed to compare 0 vs. increased. During the finisher period, pigs fed with 200  µg/kg added Cr. During the finishing period, diets 100 µg/kg added Cr had the greatest (quadratic, growth performance characteristics were analyzed P  <  0.019) ADG, while G:F was equally improved using linear and quadratic contrast statements (quadratic, P  <  0.001) by either Cr dose. Overall, comparing the effect of increasing dietary Cr sup- increasing Cr resulted in no evidence of an effect on plementation (0, 100, and 200  µg/kg Cr). Overall ADG or ADFI (P ≥ 0.136); however, G:F was great- growth performance and carcass characteristics est (quadratic, P = 0.020) when pigs were fed 100 µg/ were analyzed using an F-test to determine if at kg added Cr in both grower and finishing phases. least one treatment differed from another, and There was no evidence of difference (P ≥ 0.115) in LSMEANS procedure with the DIFF and LINES carcass characteristics among different Cr dosages or options to separate significant differences among feeding regimen. Translate basic science to industry innovation Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy104/5126775 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 Table  3. Chemical analysis of diets (as-fed basis), Table  4. Chemical analysis of diets (as-fed basis), 1 1 Exp. 1 Exp. 2 2 2 Added Cr, µg/kg Added Cr, µg/kg BW range, kg 0 100 200 BW range, kg 0 100 200 27 to 45 45 to 68 DM, % 88.1 88.7 88.5 DM, % 90.7 — 90.9 CP, % 19.4 17.9 20.0 CP, % 18.1 — 18.7 Ether extract, % 3.1 2.9 3.4 Ether extract, % 3.5 — 3.4 Crude fiber, % 3.3 3.1 3.3 Crude fiber, % 1.5 — 3.8 Cr, µg/kg 590 600 790 Cr, µg/kg 330 — 440 45 to 61 68 to 91 DM, % 85.1 89.0 89.0 DM, % 90.8 — 90.6 CP, % 18.8 15.3 20.2 CP, % 15.9 — 16.1 Ether extract, % 4.6 3.6 3.6 Ether extract, % 3.7 — 3.7 Crude fiber, % 3.2 3.1 3.7 Crude fiber, % 3.7 — 3.8 Cr, µg/kg 540 610 710 Cr, µg/kg 280 — 310 61 to 77 91 to 109 DM, % 88.6 88.6 88.7 DM, % 90.9 90.8 90.8 CP, % 19.5 16.9 15.2 CP, % 15.2 14.9 15.5 Ether extract, % 3.6 3.8 3.7 Ether extract, % 3.8 4.0 3.7 Crude fiber, % 3.4 3.1 3.2 Crude fiber, % 3.6 3.5 3.6 Cr, µg/kg 500 430 590 Cr, µg/kg 290 390 510 77 to 104 109 to 127 DM, % 88.7 88.2 89.1 DM, % 90.7 90.9 91.0 CP, % 15.1 14.5 14.1 CP, % 13.6 16.5 14.9 Ether extract, % 3.8 3.9 3.8 Ether extract, % 3.3 3.9 3.5 Crude fiber, % 3.0 3.0 3.2 Crude fiber, % 3.0 3.5 3.3 Cr, µg/kg 480 490 620 Cr, µg/kg 480 640 680 104 to 127 CP = crude protein; DM = dry matter. DM, % 88.9 88.3 88.7 A composite sample was collected from feeders within treatment CP, % 17.3 16.6 17.7 and phase, subsampled, and submitted to Ward Laboratories, Inc. Ether extract, % 3.1 3.0 2.9 (Kearney, NE) for proximate analysis and to the University of Guelph Agriculture and Food Laboratory (Guelph, ON) for Cr analysis. Crude fiber, % 2.6 2.6 3.0 Cr (Cr propionate; Kemin Industries Inc., Des Moines, IA) was Cr, µg/kg 430 480 610 added at 0 or 0.5 kg/tonne (200 µg/kg added Cr) during dietary phase 1 and 2, and 0, 0.25 (100 µg/kg added Cr) or 0.5 kg/tonne (200 µg/kg CP = crude protein; DM = dry matter. added Cr) during dietary phase 3 and 4 at the expense of corn. A composite sample was collected from feeders within treatment and phase, subsampled, and submitted to Ward Laboratories, Inc. added Cr on overall ADFI and G:F. Percentage (Kearney, NE) for proximate analysis and to the University of Guelph Agriculture and Food Laboratory (Guelph, ON) for Cr analysis. carcass yield was decreased (P  =  0.018) when Cr Cr (Cr propionate; Kemin Industries Inc) was added at 0.25  kg/ was added at 200  µg/kg for both the grower and tonne (100 µg/kg Cr) or 0.5  kg/tonne (200 µg/kg Cr) at the expense finishing periods compared to the other treatments. of corn. There was no evidence of differences (P ≥ 0.206) in HCW, loin depth, backfat, or percentage lean Experiment 2 among treatments. In Exp.  2, there was no evidence (P ≥ 0.197) of differences between the treatments for ADG, DISCUSSION ADFI, or G:F in the grower period (Table 6). In Cr is associated with metabolism of glucose, the finishing period, addition of Cr resulted in a lipids, protein, and nucleic acids (NRC, 2012). The marginally significant increase (linear; P = 0.061) in specific role in glucose metabolism historically was ADG as Cr increased with no evidence of an effect believed to be through its presence on the glucose (P ≥ 0.157) on ADFI or G:F. For the overall period, tolerance factor (Steele et  al., 1977; Page et  al., addition of 200 µg/kg Cr in both grower and fin- 1993; Matthews et  al., 2001); however, additional isher periods increased (P < 0.05) ADG compared research has indicated chromodulin is the likely to pigs fed the control, with pigs fed 200 µg/kg Cr oligopeptide responsible for activity (Pechova and fed in grower followed by 100 µg/kg fed in finisher Pavlata, 2007). With regard to growth performance intermediate. There was no evidence (P ≥ 0.523) of Translate basic science to industry innovation Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy104/5126775 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 1,2 Table 5. Effects of added Cr propionate on finishing pig growth and carcass characteristics, Exp. 1 P value Grower added Cr, µg/kg: 0 100 200 100 200 3 3 Finisher added Cr, µg/kg: 0 100 200 200 100 SEM Linear Quadratic BW, kg Initial 28.7 28.6 28.7 28.6 28.7 0.47 <0.955 <0.720 End grower 63.5 63.4 61.3 64.1 60.8 0.71 <0.001 <0.006 Final 139.0 139.9 138.7 140.2 139.4 1.36 <0.824 <0.354 Grower ADG, kg 0.89 0.89 0.83 0.91 0.82 0.012 <0.001 <0.001 ADFI, kg 1.77 1.77 1.75 1.78 1.74 0.028 <0.229 <0.341 G:F 0.50 0.50 0.48 0.51 0.47 0.006 <0.001 <0.001 Finisher ADG, kg 0.89 0.91 0.91 0.89 0.93 0.011 <0.157 <0.019 ADFI, kg 2.45 2.42 2.44 2.44 2.46 0.045 <0.656 <0.860 G:F 0.36 0.37 0.38 0.37 0.38 0.005 <0.015 <0.001 Overall ADG, kg 0.89 0.90 0.89 0.90 0.89 0.009 <0.796 <0.136 ADFI, kg 2.23 2.21 2.21 2.23 2.23 0.037 <0.472 <0.651 G:F 0.40 0.41 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.004 <0.463 <0.020 Carcass characteristics HCW, kg 101.7 102.6 100.9 102.4 101.7 0.92 <0.370 <0.115 Backfat, mm 16.27 16.32 16.20 16.37 16.23 0.580 <0.870 <0.805 Lean, % 57.34 57.41 57.44 57.37 57.47 0.406 <0.702 <0.939 Loin depth, mm 69.98 70.88 70.54 70.80 70.90 0.738 <0.503 <0.394 Yield, % 73.2 73.3 72.8 73.1 73.0 0.24 <0.234 <0.370 A total of 1,206 finisher pigs (PIC 337 × 1050; PIC, Hendersonville, TN; initial BW 28.7 kg) were used in a 125-d study with a five-phase feeding program with 27 pigs per pen and 9 replications per treatment. Treatment diets were fed in two growth stages, grower (dietary phase 1 and 2) and finisher (dietary phase 3 to 5) and contained 0, 100, or 200  µg/ kg Cr (Cr propionate; Kemin Industries Inc., Des Moines, IA). Linear and quadratic effects of increasing Cr within the grower and finisher periods were evaluated, as well as linear and quadratic effects of added Cr for treatments at the same level for the full experiment. In addition, a contrast was constructed comparing the overall growth performance between the two treatments supplemented with 100/200 and 200/100 during the grower and finisher periods, respectively, with no evidence of a difference (P ≥ 0.416) among treatments in overall growth performance or carcass characteristics. Dietary phase 1 and 2 fed from day 0 to 39. Dietary phase 3 to 5 fed from day 39 to 125. Carcass characteristics other than yield were adjusted to a common HCW by using HCW as a covariate in the statistical model. Yield was calculated by dividing average pen HCW by average pen live weight collected at the research barn before transport to processing facility. and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs, recent One of the major challenges with evaluating the scientific literature has shown wide variability in effects of added Cr on growth performance may be efficacy of added Cr. A  number of studies have attributed to the significant variability in the quantity indicated improvements in carcass characteristics of Cr present in feedstuffs commonly used in swine as well as growth performance; however, the pres- diets. Traditional corn–soybean meal-based diets can ence and magnitude of such responses is all but vary in Cr content from 750 to 3,000 µg/kg (NRC, clear. As a result of the variability observed when 2012). Although natural sources of dietary Cr can be Cr is added to swine diets, it is thought that the very variable, it is believed that only a small fraction positive responses might be influenced by dietary of the total Cr present naturally is available for utili- nutrient concentrations, environment, and manage- zation (NRC, 2012). Lindeman (2007) proposed that ment factors (Lindeman, 2007). In addition, it is organic forms of Cr are believed to be much more thought that the magnitude of response is related bioavailable. Thus, evaluation of dietary Cr though to the length of feeding, dosage, and perhaps even laboratory evaluation can be quite misleading, and the BW of the pig (Lindeman, 2007). It is also the- Cr level is routinely described as quantity of organic orized that some variability in response to added Cr added as opposed to total analyzed Cr. In the cur- Cr may be due to its particle size that may affect rent series of experiments, variability was observed absorption characteristics (Hung et al., 2015). in Cr analysis as measured by mass spectrometry, Translate basic science to industry innovation Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy104/5126775 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 Table 6. Effects of Cr propionate inclusion and feeding duration on finishing pig growth performance and 1,2 carcass characteristics, Exp. 2 P value Grower Finisher Grower added Cr, µg/kg: 0 200 200 Finisher added Cr, µg/kg: 0 100 200 SEM Overall 0 vs. 200 Linear Quadratic BW, kg Initial 48.9 48.9 49.0 0.51 <0.840 — — — End grower 91.2 91.5 91.8 0.55 — <0.275 — — Final 123.6 123.6 124.6 0.64 <0.304 — — — Grower ADG, kg 0.88 0.88 0.89 0.007 — <0.197 — — ADFI, kg 2.40 2.44 2.42 0.022 — <0.239 — — G:F 0.37 0.36 0.37 0.003 — <0.861 — — Finisher ADG, kg 0.92 0.92 0.94 0.010 — — <0.061 <0.165 ADFI, kg 2.96 2.94 2.99 0.025 — — <0.399 <0.201 G:F 0.31 0.31 0.32 0.003 — — <0.157 <0.731 Overall b a,b a ADG, kg 0.89 0.90 0.91 0.006 <0.086 — — — ADFI, kg 2.63 2.64 2.66 0.021 <0.650 — — — G:F 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.003 <0.523 — — — Carcass characteristics HCW, kg 95.3 95.3 95.7 0.52 <0.741 — — — Loin depth, mm 62.54 63.28 62.86 0.516 <0.590 — — — Backfat, mm 18.43 18.03 18.64 0.273 <0.229 — — — Lean, % 55.13 55.44 55.03 0.168 <0.206 — — — 6 a a b Yield, % 77.1 77.1 76.8 0.10 <0.018 — — — A total of 1,206 pigs (PIC 337 × 1050; PIC, Hendersonville, TN; initial BW 48.9 kg) were used in an 84-d study with a four-phase feeding pro- gram with 27 pigs per pen and 15 replications per treatment. Cr (Cr propionate; Kemin Industries Inc., Des Moines, IA). Dietary phase 1 and 2 fed from day 0 to 48. Dietary phase 3 and 4 fed from day 48 to 84. Carcass characteristics other than yield were adjusted to a common HCW by using HCW as a covariate in the statistical model. Yield was calculated by dividing average pen HCW by average pen live weight collected at the research barn before transport to processing facility. a,b Means lacking common superscripts differ (P < 0.05). but in general analyzed Cr concentrations increased source of Cr in swine, further investigation into as the level of added Cr increased. the effects of supplementation under commercial Cr propionate was granted permission by conditions was the primary objective of the cur- the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2000 rent series of experiments. to be marketed without objection for inclusion In addition to a large degree of variability in in swine diets at inclusion levels up to 200 µg/kg Cr composition of feed ingredients and questiona- (Lindeman, 2007), and similar bioavailibity to Cr ble bioavailability, the historical influence of added picolinate has been observed (Matthews et  al., Cr on growth outcomes and carcass composition 2001). However, evaluation of different sources is also quite variable (Lindeman, 2007). A number of Cr provides evidence that when added at very of peer-reviewed publications show both benefits high levels, tissue concentration of Cr differed and no response when adding Cr on both growth among the various sources (Lindemann et  al., performance and carcass characteristics. Greater 2008). Additional investigation into added Cr pro- detail regarding the mixed results of these studies is pionate in finishing pig diets has observed variable provided in NRC (2012). To summarize the body of effects on growth performance and carcass char- published evidence, a meta-analysis on added diet- acteristics (Shelton et  al., 2003; Matthews et  al., ary Cr on carcass characteristics and growth per- 2005, Jackson et al., 2009). Therefore, because Cr formance of finishing swine was conducted by Sales propionate has been shown to be a bioavailable and Jancik (2011). Their evaluation included studies Translate basic science to industry innovation Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy104/5126775 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 Prod. Sci. 55:1391–1402. doi:10.1071/AN15255 that added Cr in the form of Cr-methionine chelate, Hill, G. M. and J. W.  Spears. 2001. Trace and ultratrace ele- Cr-nanocomposite, Cr-nicotinate, Cr-propionate, ments in swine nutrition. In: A. J.  Lewis and L. L. Cr-tripicolinate, and Cr-yeast. Cumulative findings Southern, editors, Swine Nutrition. 2nd ed. Boca Raton of the 31 studies analyzed observed a reduction in (FL): CRC Press; p. 229–261. backfat thickness, and an increase in percentage Hung, A. T., B. J.  Leury, M. A.  Sabin, T. F.  Lien, and F. R. Dunshea. 2015. Dietary chromium picolinate of vary- carcass lean and loin muscle area with added Cr. ing particle size improves carcass characteristics and insu- In the series of experiments herein, the only carcass lin sensitivity in finishing pigs fed low- and high-fat diets. characteristic that was influenced by added Cr was Anim. Prod. Sci. 55(4):454–460. doi:10.1071/AN12255 a reduction in percentage carcass yield and only in Jackson, A. R., S.  Powell, S. L.  Johnston, J. O.  Matthews, T. Exp.  2. In the review by Sales and Jancik (2011), D.  Bidner, F. R.  Valdez, and L. L.  Southern. 2009. The they observed that the later in the finishing period effect of chromium as chromium propionate on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and the fatty when Cr supplementation was initiated, the greater acid profile of fat from pigs fed no supplemented dietary the magnitude of decreased fat and increased car- fat, choice white grease, or tallow. J. Anim. Sci. 87:4032– cass lean. Boleman et al. (1995) found that supple- 4041. doi:10.2527/jas.2009-2168 mentation of 200  µg/kg Cr-picolinate only in the Lindeman, M. D. 2007. Use of chromium as an animal feed finisher period resulted in greater carcass percent- supplement. In: J. B. Vincent, editor, The utritional biochemistry of chromium (III). Amsterdam, The age muscle, lower 10th rib backfat, and lower total Netherlands: Elsevier; p. 85–118. carcass fat percentage compared with both control Lindemann, M. D., G. L.  Cromwell, H. J.  Monegue, and K. and pigs fed 200 µg/kg added Cr-picolinate in both W. Purser. 2008. Effect of chromium source on tissue con- the grower and finisher periods. centration of chromium in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 86:2971– In conclusion, growth performance was mod- 2978. doi:10.2527/jas.2008-0888 erately influenced with the addition of Cr propion- Matthews, J. O., A. C. Guzik, F. M. Lemieux, L. L. Southern, and T. D.  Bidner. 2005. Effects of chromium pro- ate in swine diets. Carcass composition was largely pionate on growth, carcass traits, and pork quality unaffected by added Cr with the exception of reduc- of growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 83:858–862. ing percentage carcass yield in Exp. 2. The specific doi:10.2527/2005.834858x dosage in which ADG and G:F was maximized var- Matthews, J. O., L. L. Southern, J. M. Fernandez, J. E. Pontif, ied from 100 µg/kg in Exp. 1 to 200 µg/kg added Cr T. D.  Bidner, and R. L.  Odgaard. 2001. Effect of chro- mium picolinate and chromium propionate on glucose in Exp. 2. The results of these trials do not provide and insulin kinetics of growing barrows and on growth evidence that different feeding regimens will consist- and carcass traits of growing-finishing barrows. J. Anim. ently result in improved performance. Under com- Sci. 79:2172–2178. doi:10.2527/2001.7982172x mercial swine production conditions in the current NRC. 2012. Nutrient requirements of swine. 11th edn. series of experiments, addition of Cr propionate Washington (DC): National Academies Press. in finishing pig diets has the potential to modestly doi:10.17226/13298 Page, T. G., L. L. Southern, T. L. Ward, and D. L. Thompson, influence growth performance; however, it did not Jr. 1993. Effect of chromium picolinate on growth and lead to positive impacts on carcass characteristics. serum and carcass traits of growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 71:656–662. doi:10.2527/1993.713656x Conflict of interest statement. None declared Pechova, A. and L.  Pavlata. 2007. Chromium as an essential nutrient: a review. Vet. Med. 52(1):1–18. LITERATURE CITED doi:10.17221/2010-vetmed Sales, J., and F. Jancík. 2011. Effects of dietary chromium sup- AOAC. 2006. Official methods of analysis, 18th ed. Washington plementation on performance, carcass characteristics, and (DC): Association of Official Analytical Chemists. meat quality of growing-finishing swine: a meta-analysis. Boleman, S. L., S. J.  Boleman, T. D.  Bidner, L. L.  Southern, J. Anim. Sci. 89:4054–4067. doi:10.2527/jas.2010-3495 T. L.  Ward, J. E.  Pontif, and M. M.  Pike. 1995. Effect Shelton, J. L., R. L.  Payne, S. L.  Johnston, T. D.  Bidner, of chromium picolinate on growth, body composition, L. L.  Southern, R. L.  Odgaard, and T. G.  Page. and tissue accretion in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2033–2042. 2003. Effect of chromium propionate on growth, car- doi:10.2527/1995.7372033x cass traits, pork quality, and plasma metabolites in Coble, K. F., J. M. DeRouchey, M. D. Tokach, S. S. Dritz, R. growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 81:2515–2524. D. Goodband, J. C. Woodworth, and J. L. Usry. 2017. The doi:10.2527/2003.81102515x effects of copper source and concentration on growth per- Steele, N. C., T. G. Althen, and L. T. Frobish. 1977. Biological formance, carcass characteristics, and pen cleanliness in activity of glucose tolerance factor in swine. J. Anim. Sci. finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 95:4052–4059. doi:10.2527/ 45:1341–1345. doi:10.2527/jas1977.4561341x jas2017.1624 US EPA. Inductively coupled plasma—mass spectrometry. Cottrell, J. J., F. Liu, A. T. Hung, K. DiGiacomo, S. S. Chauhan, 1998. Method 6020a. [accessed July 26,  2017] https:// B. J. Leury, J. B. Furness, P. Celi, and F. R. Dunshea. 2015. www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-07/documents/ Nutritional strategies to alleviate heat stress in pigs. Anim. epa-6020a.pdf. Translate basic science to industry innovation http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Translational Animal Science Oxford University Press

Influence of chromium propionate dose and feeding regimen on growth performance and carcass composition of pigs housed in a commercial environment,

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Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy104/5126775 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 Influence of chromium propionate dose and feeding regimen on growth performance 1,2 and carcass composition of pigs housed in a commercial environment Jordan T. Gebhardt,* Jason C. Woodworth,* Mike D. Tokach,* Joel M. DeRouchey,* ,3 ‡,4 ‡ †, Robert D. Goodband,* Joe A. Loughmiller, Ana L. P. de Souza, and Steve S. Dritz *Department of Animal Sciences and Industry, College of Agriculture, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS; Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506-0201; Kemin Industries, Des Moines, IA ABSTRACT: Although chromium (Cr) feeding a total of 1,206 pigs (PIC 359  ×  1050, initial BW study results have been variable, our hypothesis 48.9 kg) were used with 27 pigs per pen and 15 pens was feeding a regimen that changed dosage over per treatment. Diets were corn–soybean meal, dried time would result in a larger positive response in distillers grains with solubles based and were fed in growth performance and carcass characteristics. In four phases. There were three dietary treatments: a Exp. 1, a total of 1,206 pigs (PIC 337 × 1050, initial diet with no added Cr for both grower (dietary phase BW 28.7 kg) were used with 27 pigs per pen and 9 1 and 2) and finisher (dietary phase 3 and 4) periods, pens per treatment. Diets were corn–soybean meal- a diet with 200 µg/kg added Cr during the grower dried distillers grains with solubles based and were and 100 µg/kg added Cr during the finisher periods, fed in a five-phase feeding program. Treatments or a diet with 200 µg/kg added Cr for both periods. were arranged as a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial with a con- Addition of 200 µg/kg Cr in both periods margin- trol diet containing no added Cr propionate (Kemin ally increased (P < 0.10) ADG compared with pigs Industries Inc., Des Moines, IA), or diets with either fed no added Cr. There was no evidence (P ≥ 0.523) 100 or 200 µg/kg added Cr during the grower (diet- of added Cr influencing overall ADFI and G:F. ary phases 1 and 2) and/or finisher (dietary phases 3, Percentage carcass yield was reduced (P  =  0.018) 4, and 5) periods. During the grower period, ADG when Cr was added at 200 µg/kg for both periods, and G:F were similar among pigs fed the control with no evidence of differences (P ≥ 0.206) in other or 100 µg/kg added Cr diets, but decreased in pigs carcass characteristics. In summary, overall G:F was fed 200 µg/kg Cr (quadratic, P ≤ 0.001). During the improved in Exp. 1, and ADG in Exp. 2, by added finisher period, pigs supplemented with 200  µg/kg Cr, but there was no evidence that different feeding added Cr had the greatest ADG and G:F (quadratic, regimens will consistently result in improved perfor- P ≤ 0.019). Overall, increasing Cr had no effect on mance. However, these data are consistent with the ADG or ADFI; but G:F was greatest (quadratic, literature in that added Cr in growing-finishing pigs P = 0.020) when pigs were fed 100 µg/kg of added Cr diets improves, albeit small, ADG or G:F. throughout. Carcass characteristics were not influ- enced by Cr dosage or feeding regimen. In Exp. 2, Key words: chromium propionate, duration, finishing pig, level © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society of Animal Science. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits 1 3 Contribution no. 18-521-J from the Kansas Agricultural Corresponding author: goodband@ksu.edu Experiment Station, Manhattan, KS 66506-0201. Present address: Puretein Bioscience, 4800 Park Glen Appreciation is expressed to Kemin Industries, Road, Minneapolis, MN 55416. Des Moines, IA, for partial financial support of these Received June 22, 2018. experiments. Accepted September 25, 2018. 1 Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy104/5126775 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com Transl. Anim. Sci. 2018.XX:XX–XX doi: 10.1093/tas/txy104 were made and recorded by a robotic feeding system INTRODUCTION (FeedPro; Feedlogic Corp, Wilmar, MN). Chromium (Cr) has been shown to be involved in carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism (Pechova Animals and Diets and Pavlata, 2007; NRC, 2012). Historically, the most notable mode of action is its influence on insulin In Exp. 1, a total of 1,206 pigs (PIC 337 × 1050; sensitivity as component of the molecule known as PIC, Hendersonville, TN), with initial BW 28.7  kg, glucose tolerance factor (Steele et al., 1977; Hill and were used in a 125-d growth trial with 27 pigs per pen Spears, 2001); however, additional research has indi- and 9 pens per treatment. Pigs were split by sex on cated chromodulin is the likely oligopeptide responsi- arrival at the facility, with four blocks of each gender ble for its activity (Pechova and Pavlata, 2007). With and a final mixed sex gender block. Gender blocks regard to the effects of Cr on swine growth perfor- were randomly allotted to groups of five pen locations mance, the published literature contains significant within the barn. Diets were corn–soybean meal-based variability regarding growth and carcass characteris- and fed in meal form, with dietary phases formulated tics. Because of the variability in ingredient basal Cr for 27 to 45, 45 to 61, 61 to 77, 77 to 104, and 104 levels and inconsistent performance, there is currently to 127  kg BW ranges. All diets were formulated to no quantitative estimate for Cr requirements for meet or exceed the NRC (2012) nutrient requirement swine (NRC, 2012). A meta-analysis was conducted estimates within phase. Ingredient nutrient profiles that included 31 different studies evaluating added and standardized ileal digestibility coefficients were Cr in finishing pig diets. The meta-analysis suggested derived from NRC (2012), The treatment phases were variable but overall positive improvements in ADG divided into two specific growth ranges including a and G:F, as well as reducing backfat and increas- grower period (dietary phases 1 and 2) and a finisher ing percentage lean, which can be beneficial in some period (dietary phases 3, 4, and 5). Treatments were situations with supplemental Cr (Sales and Jancik, arranged as a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial with main effects of 2011). However, Lindeman (2007) indicated that as Cr dose (100 or 200 µg/kg of Cr from Cr propionate; body mass increases, there are reduced tissue concen- Kemin Industries Inc., Des Moines, IA) and feeding trations of Cr. This might suggest that using feeding regimen (grower or finisher periods) and a control regimens that combine different Cr dosages and feed- diet containing no added Cr. Ractopamine hydro- ing durations could result in even greater improve- chloride (HCl) (Paylean; Elanco Animal Health, ments in growth or carcass performance. Therefore, Greenfield, IN) was added in phase 5 diets when pigs the objective of this experiment was to determine the were an average of 104  kg BW and was fed for the effects of Cr propionate dosage and feeding regimen final 38-d of the trial. Diets were manufactured in a on growth performance and carcass composition of commercial feed mill in southwest Minnesota (New pigs housed in a commercial environment. Horizon Feeds, Pipestone, MN; Table 1). In Exp. 2, a total of 1,206 pigs (PIC 359 × 1050), with initial BW 48.9 kg, were used in an 84-d growth MATERIALS AND METHODS trial with 27 pigs per pen and 15 pens per treat- ment. Pigs were placed in mixed-gender pens with General similar numbers of barrows and gilts in each pen The Kansas State University Institutional Animal and equalized by treatment. Pens were blocked by Care and Use Committee approved the protocol used average BW and randomly assigned to treatment at in these experiments. The studies were conducted at initiation of the experiment. Diets were corn–soy- a commercial research-finishing site in southwest bean meal-based and fed in meal form, with diet- Minnesota using two identical barns. The barns were ary phases formulated for 45 to 68, 68 to 91, 91 to naturally ventilated and double-curtain-sided. Each 109, and 109 to 127  kg BW ranges. All diets were pen (5.5  ×  3.0 m) was equipped with a four-hole formulated to meet or exceed the NRC (2012) nutri- stainless steel feeder and cup waterer for ad libitum ent requirement estimates within phase. Three diet- access to feed and water and allowed approximately ary treatments were offered that included a control 0.61 m /pig. All feed additions to each individual pen with no added Cr for both grower (dietary phase 1 Translate basic science to industry innovation Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy104/5126775 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 Table 1. Diet composition (as-fed basis), Exp. 1 BW range, kg Item 27 to 45 45 to 61 61 to 77 77 to 104 104 to 127 Ingredient, % Corn 56.00 61.25 65.80 69.25 67.25 Soybean meal, 46.5% CP 21.65 16.50 12.00 8.55 20.65 Dried distillers grains with solubles 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 10.00 Calcium carbonate 1.25 1.28 1.23 1.20 1.03 Monocalcium phosphate, 21% P 0.15 — — — 0.10 Salt 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 l -Lys HCl 0.36 0.37 0.39 0.39 0.28 dl -Met 0.01 — — — 0.04 l -Thr 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 l -Trp — 0.01 0.02 0.02 — Ractopamine HCl — — — — 0.03 Phytase 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 Trace mineral premix 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 Vitamin premix 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 Cr +/− +/− +/− +/− +/− Total 100 100 100 100 100 Calculated analysis Standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids, % Lys 1.02 0.91 0.82 0.74 0.90 Ile:Lys 63 62 60 59 64 Leu:Lys 152 159 164 171 150 Met:Lys 29 29 30 31 32 Met and Cys:Lys 55 56 57 59 59 Thr:Lys 61 61 61 63 65 Trp:Lys 18.4 18.4 18.4 18.4 19.0 Val:Lys 70 70 70 70 71 Total Lys, % 1.19 1.06 0.96 0.87 1.04 ME, kcal/kg 3,311 3,320 3,327 3,331 3,320 NE, kcal/kg 2,429 2,465 2,491 2,513 2,476 SID Lys:ME, g/Mcal 3.08 2.74 2.46 2.22 2.71 SID Lys:NE, g/Mcal 4.20 3.69 3.29 2.94 3.64 CP, % 20.0 18.1 16.4 15.1 17.6 Ca, % 0.61 0.57 0.54 0.52 0.50 P, % 0.45 0.40 0.38 0.36 0.40 STTD P, % 0.33 0.29 0.28 0.27 0.29 CP = crude protein; STTD = standardized total tract digestibility. Treatment diets were fed to 1,206 pigs (PIC 337 × 1050; PIC, Hendersonville, TN; initial BW 28.7 kg) for 125 d in a five-phase feeding program with 27 pigs per pen and 9 replications per treatment. Paylean (Elanco, Greenfield, IN). Optiphos 2000 (Huvepharma, Sofia, Bulgaria) provided an estimated release of 0.10% STTD P. Provided per kg of premix: 110 g Fe from iron sulfate; 110 g Zn from zinc sulfate; 33 g Mn from manganese oxide; 17 g Cu from copper sulfate; 330 mg I from calcium iodate; and 300 mg Se from sodium selenite. Provided per kg of premix: 7,054,798 IU vitamin A; 1,102,312 IU vitamin D3; 35,242 IU vitamin E; 3,528 mg vitamin K; 26.5 mg vitamin B12; 39,683 mg niacin; 22,046 mg pantothenic acid; and 6,173 mg riboflavin. Cr (Cr propionate; Kemin Industries Inc., Des Moines, IA) was added at 0.25 kg/tonne (100 µg/kg Cr) or 0.5 kg/tonne (200 µg/kg Cr) at the expense of corn. NRC (2012). and 2) and finisher (dietary phase 3 and 4) phases, Horizon Feeds; Table 2) and were fed in meal form. the control diet plus 200 µg/kg added Cr during the No ractopamine HCl was used in Exp. 2. grower and 100 µg/kg added Cr during the finisher In both experiments, pens of pigs were weighed periods, or the control diet plus 200 µg/kg added Cr and feeder measurements were recorded a mini- for both the grower and finisher periods. All diets mum of every 14-d and such events included diet- were manufactured at a commercial feed mill (New ary phase changes, first marketing, and conclusion Translate basic science to industry innovation Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy104/5126775 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 Table 2. Diet composition (as-fed basis), Exp. 2 BW range, kg Item 45 to 68 68 to 91 91 to 109 109 to 127 Ingredient, % Corn 62.76 67.86 70.89 79.71 Soybean meal, 46.5% CP 14.99 9.91 6.90 8.22 Dried distillers grains with solubles 20.00 20.00 20.00 10.00 Calcium carbonate 1.28 1.23 1.20 1.03 Monocalcium phosphate, 21% P — — — 0.10 Salt 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 l -Lys HCl 0.39 0.40 0.40 0.33 l -Thr 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 l -Trp 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 Phytase 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 Trace mineral premix 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 Vitamin premix 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 Cr +/− +/− +/− +/− Total 100 100 100 100 Calculated analysis Standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids, % Lys 0.89 0.78 0.71 0.65 Ile:Lys 60 59 58 58 Leu:Lys 158 166 173 166 Met:Lys 29 30 31 30 Met and Cys:Lys 56 58 60 59 Thr:Lys 60 61 63 65 Trp:Lys 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 Val:Lys 69 69 70 69 Total Lys, % 1.04 0.92 0.84 0.76 ME, kcal/kg 3,322 3,329 3,333 3,333 NE, kcal/kg 2,474 2,504 2,522 2,549 SID Lys:ME, g/Mcal 2.68 2.34 2.13 1.95 SID Lys:NE, g/Mcal 3.60 3.11 2.81 2.55 CP, % 17.5 15.6 14.4 12.9 Ca, % 0.57 0.53 0.52 0.46 P, % 0.39 0.37 0.35 0.35 STTD P, % 0.33 0.28 0.27 0.26 CP = crude protein; STTD = standardized total tract digestibility. Treatment diets were fed to 1,206 pigs (PIC 337 × 1050; PIC, Hendersonville, TN; initial BW 48.9 kg] for 84 d in a four-phase feeding program with 27 pigs per pen and 15 replications per treatment. Optiphos 2000 (Huvepharma, Sofia, Bulgaria) provided an estimated release of 0.10% STTD P. Premix provided per kg of premix: 110 g Fe from iron sulfate; 110 g Zn from zinc sulfate; 33 g Mn from manganese oxide; 17 g Cu from copper sulfate; 330 mg I from calcium iodate; and 300 mg Se from sodium selenite. Premix provided per kg of premix: 7,054,798 IU vitamin A; 1,102,312 IU vitamin D3; 35,242 IU vitamin E; 3,528 mg vitamin K; 26.5 mg vita- min B12; 39,683 mg niacin; 22,046 mg pantothenic acid; and 6,173 mg riboflavin. Cr (Cr propionate; Kemin Industries Inc., Des Moines, IA) was added at 0 or 0.5 kg/tonne (200 µg/kg added Cr) during dietary phase 1 and 2, and 0, 0.25 (100 µg/kg added Cr) or 0.5 kg/tonne (200 µg/kg added Cr) during dietary phase 3 and 4 at the expense of corn. NRC (2012). of the trial to determine ADG, ADFI, and G:F. pigs were given a tattoo corresponding to pen num- The three heaviest pigs per pen were selected using ber and were transported to a commercial packing visual evaluation by trained personnel and mar- facility (JBS Swift and Company, Worthington, keted at an average barn weight (Exp. 1: 116 kg on MN) for processing and carcass data collection. day 97; Exp. 2: 110 kg on day 68) following the rou- Carcass measurements taken at the plant included tine farm protocol with no carcass data collected HCW, backfat, percentage carcass lean, and loin from these pigs. At the conclusion of the trial depth. Backfat and loin depth were measured using (Exp.  1, day 125; Exp.  2, day 84), the remaining an optical probe inserted between the third and Translate basic science to industry innovation Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy104/5126775 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 fourth ribs from the caudal aspect of the carcass treatments (0/0, 200/100, 200/200 µg/kg added Cr, at a distance approximately 7 cm from dorsal mid- corresponding to grower/finisher Cr, respectively). line as described by Coble et al. (2017). Percentage In both experiments, backfat, loin depth, and per- carcass lean was calculated using a proprietary for- centage lean were adjusted to a common carcass mula using HCW, backfat depth, and loin depth. weight for analysis using HCW as a covariate, and In addition, percentage carcass yield was calculated percentage yield was calculated by dividing the pen by dividing pen average HCW by pen average live average HCW by pen average live weight as meas- weight collected at the research facilities before ured at the research barn before transport to pro- transport to processing facility. cessing facility. Results were considered significant at P ≤ 0.05 and marginally significant between P > Chemical Analysis 0.05 and P ≤ 0.10. For both experiments, complete diet samples RESULTS were collected from multiple feeders within treat- ment, combined within phase when applicable, and Chemical Analysis subsampled for analysis. All feed samples were sub- mitted to Ward Laboratories, Inc. (Kearney, NE) Chemical analysis of complete diets revealed no for analysis of dry matter (DM) (AOAC 934.01, notable differences in proximate analysis including 2006), crude protein (CP) (AOAC 990.03, 2006), DM, CP, ether extract, and crude fiber among treat- ether extract (AOAC 920.39 A, 2006), crude fiber ments (Tables 3 and 4). Although variable, analyzed Cr (AOAC 978.10, 2006) and to University of Guelph values were greater in diets with added Cr, as expected. Agriculture and Food Laboratory (Guelph, ON) for analysis of Cr (US EPA 6020a, 1998). Experiment 1 Overall, growth performance and carcass char- Statistical Analysis acteristics were compared between pigs fed 100/200 Data were analyzed as a randomized complete and 200/100  µg/kg added Cr during the grower block design using the GLIMMIX procedure of and finisher periods, respectively. No evidence of SAS (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC) with pen as the a difference (P ≥ 0.416) between treatments was experimental unit. In Exp.  1, block was included detected, indicating no benefit was observed with in the model as a random effect and accounted changing dosages between growth periods. With no for gender, location within barn, and initial BW at benefit associated with feeding regimen observed, the time of allotment. Linear and quadratic effects linear, and quadratic effects of increasing Cr within of increasing Cr within growth period were con- growth period were considered using all treatments, sidered using all treatments, as well as linear and as well as linear and quadratic effects of increasing quadratic effects of increasing Cr within treatments Cr for the full duration using the three treatments fed at a constant level for the full duration of the that had a constant Cr dosage throughout. trial. An additional pairwise contrast was analyzed Increasing Cr during the grower period resulted to determine the impact of changing Cr concentra- in no benefit when 100  µg/kg Cr was fed com- tions between the grower and finisher periods. In pared with control fed pigs, but reduced (quadratic, Exp. 2, weight block was included in the model as P  <  0.001; Table  5) ADG and G:F with 200 µg/kg a random effect that accounted for initial BW at added Cr. No differences (P ≥ 0.229) in ADFI were the time of allotment. Growth performance during detected within the grower period as Cr dosage the grower period was analyzed to compare 0 vs. increased. During the finisher period, pigs fed with 200  µg/kg added Cr. During the finishing period, diets 100 µg/kg added Cr had the greatest (quadratic, growth performance characteristics were analyzed P  <  0.019) ADG, while G:F was equally improved using linear and quadratic contrast statements (quadratic, P  <  0.001) by either Cr dose. Overall, comparing the effect of increasing dietary Cr sup- increasing Cr resulted in no evidence of an effect on plementation (0, 100, and 200  µg/kg Cr). Overall ADG or ADFI (P ≥ 0.136); however, G:F was great- growth performance and carcass characteristics est (quadratic, P = 0.020) when pigs were fed 100 µg/ were analyzed using an F-test to determine if at kg added Cr in both grower and finishing phases. least one treatment differed from another, and There was no evidence of difference (P ≥ 0.115) in LSMEANS procedure with the DIFF and LINES carcass characteristics among different Cr dosages or options to separate significant differences among feeding regimen. Translate basic science to industry innovation Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy104/5126775 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 Table  3. Chemical analysis of diets (as-fed basis), Table  4. Chemical analysis of diets (as-fed basis), 1 1 Exp. 1 Exp. 2 2 2 Added Cr, µg/kg Added Cr, µg/kg BW range, kg 0 100 200 BW range, kg 0 100 200 27 to 45 45 to 68 DM, % 88.1 88.7 88.5 DM, % 90.7 — 90.9 CP, % 19.4 17.9 20.0 CP, % 18.1 — 18.7 Ether extract, % 3.1 2.9 3.4 Ether extract, % 3.5 — 3.4 Crude fiber, % 3.3 3.1 3.3 Crude fiber, % 1.5 — 3.8 Cr, µg/kg 590 600 790 Cr, µg/kg 330 — 440 45 to 61 68 to 91 DM, % 85.1 89.0 89.0 DM, % 90.8 — 90.6 CP, % 18.8 15.3 20.2 CP, % 15.9 — 16.1 Ether extract, % 4.6 3.6 3.6 Ether extract, % 3.7 — 3.7 Crude fiber, % 3.2 3.1 3.7 Crude fiber, % 3.7 — 3.8 Cr, µg/kg 540 610 710 Cr, µg/kg 280 — 310 61 to 77 91 to 109 DM, % 88.6 88.6 88.7 DM, % 90.9 90.8 90.8 CP, % 19.5 16.9 15.2 CP, % 15.2 14.9 15.5 Ether extract, % 3.6 3.8 3.7 Ether extract, % 3.8 4.0 3.7 Crude fiber, % 3.4 3.1 3.2 Crude fiber, % 3.6 3.5 3.6 Cr, µg/kg 500 430 590 Cr, µg/kg 290 390 510 77 to 104 109 to 127 DM, % 88.7 88.2 89.1 DM, % 90.7 90.9 91.0 CP, % 15.1 14.5 14.1 CP, % 13.6 16.5 14.9 Ether extract, % 3.8 3.9 3.8 Ether extract, % 3.3 3.9 3.5 Crude fiber, % 3.0 3.0 3.2 Crude fiber, % 3.0 3.5 3.3 Cr, µg/kg 480 490 620 Cr, µg/kg 480 640 680 104 to 127 CP = crude protein; DM = dry matter. DM, % 88.9 88.3 88.7 A composite sample was collected from feeders within treatment CP, % 17.3 16.6 17.7 and phase, subsampled, and submitted to Ward Laboratories, Inc. Ether extract, % 3.1 3.0 2.9 (Kearney, NE) for proximate analysis and to the University of Guelph Agriculture and Food Laboratory (Guelph, ON) for Cr analysis. Crude fiber, % 2.6 2.6 3.0 Cr (Cr propionate; Kemin Industries Inc., Des Moines, IA) was Cr, µg/kg 430 480 610 added at 0 or 0.5 kg/tonne (200 µg/kg added Cr) during dietary phase 1 and 2, and 0, 0.25 (100 µg/kg added Cr) or 0.5 kg/tonne (200 µg/kg CP = crude protein; DM = dry matter. added Cr) during dietary phase 3 and 4 at the expense of corn. A composite sample was collected from feeders within treatment and phase, subsampled, and submitted to Ward Laboratories, Inc. added Cr on overall ADFI and G:F. Percentage (Kearney, NE) for proximate analysis and to the University of Guelph Agriculture and Food Laboratory (Guelph, ON) for Cr analysis. carcass yield was decreased (P  =  0.018) when Cr Cr (Cr propionate; Kemin Industries Inc) was added at 0.25  kg/ was added at 200  µg/kg for both the grower and tonne (100 µg/kg Cr) or 0.5  kg/tonne (200 µg/kg Cr) at the expense finishing periods compared to the other treatments. of corn. There was no evidence of differences (P ≥ 0.206) in HCW, loin depth, backfat, or percentage lean Experiment 2 among treatments. In Exp.  2, there was no evidence (P ≥ 0.197) of differences between the treatments for ADG, DISCUSSION ADFI, or G:F in the grower period (Table 6). In Cr is associated with metabolism of glucose, the finishing period, addition of Cr resulted in a lipids, protein, and nucleic acids (NRC, 2012). The marginally significant increase (linear; P = 0.061) in specific role in glucose metabolism historically was ADG as Cr increased with no evidence of an effect believed to be through its presence on the glucose (P ≥ 0.157) on ADFI or G:F. For the overall period, tolerance factor (Steele et  al., 1977; Page et  al., addition of 200 µg/kg Cr in both grower and fin- 1993; Matthews et  al., 2001); however, additional isher periods increased (P < 0.05) ADG compared research has indicated chromodulin is the likely to pigs fed the control, with pigs fed 200 µg/kg Cr oligopeptide responsible for activity (Pechova and fed in grower followed by 100 µg/kg fed in finisher Pavlata, 2007). With regard to growth performance intermediate. There was no evidence (P ≥ 0.523) of Translate basic science to industry innovation Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy104/5126775 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 1,2 Table 5. Effects of added Cr propionate on finishing pig growth and carcass characteristics, Exp. 1 P value Grower added Cr, µg/kg: 0 100 200 100 200 3 3 Finisher added Cr, µg/kg: 0 100 200 200 100 SEM Linear Quadratic BW, kg Initial 28.7 28.6 28.7 28.6 28.7 0.47 <0.955 <0.720 End grower 63.5 63.4 61.3 64.1 60.8 0.71 <0.001 <0.006 Final 139.0 139.9 138.7 140.2 139.4 1.36 <0.824 <0.354 Grower ADG, kg 0.89 0.89 0.83 0.91 0.82 0.012 <0.001 <0.001 ADFI, kg 1.77 1.77 1.75 1.78 1.74 0.028 <0.229 <0.341 G:F 0.50 0.50 0.48 0.51 0.47 0.006 <0.001 <0.001 Finisher ADG, kg 0.89 0.91 0.91 0.89 0.93 0.011 <0.157 <0.019 ADFI, kg 2.45 2.42 2.44 2.44 2.46 0.045 <0.656 <0.860 G:F 0.36 0.37 0.38 0.37 0.38 0.005 <0.015 <0.001 Overall ADG, kg 0.89 0.90 0.89 0.90 0.89 0.009 <0.796 <0.136 ADFI, kg 2.23 2.21 2.21 2.23 2.23 0.037 <0.472 <0.651 G:F 0.40 0.41 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.004 <0.463 <0.020 Carcass characteristics HCW, kg 101.7 102.6 100.9 102.4 101.7 0.92 <0.370 <0.115 Backfat, mm 16.27 16.32 16.20 16.37 16.23 0.580 <0.870 <0.805 Lean, % 57.34 57.41 57.44 57.37 57.47 0.406 <0.702 <0.939 Loin depth, mm 69.98 70.88 70.54 70.80 70.90 0.738 <0.503 <0.394 Yield, % 73.2 73.3 72.8 73.1 73.0 0.24 <0.234 <0.370 A total of 1,206 finisher pigs (PIC 337 × 1050; PIC, Hendersonville, TN; initial BW 28.7 kg) were used in a 125-d study with a five-phase feeding program with 27 pigs per pen and 9 replications per treatment. Treatment diets were fed in two growth stages, grower (dietary phase 1 and 2) and finisher (dietary phase 3 to 5) and contained 0, 100, or 200  µg/ kg Cr (Cr propionate; Kemin Industries Inc., Des Moines, IA). Linear and quadratic effects of increasing Cr within the grower and finisher periods were evaluated, as well as linear and quadratic effects of added Cr for treatments at the same level for the full experiment. In addition, a contrast was constructed comparing the overall growth performance between the two treatments supplemented with 100/200 and 200/100 during the grower and finisher periods, respectively, with no evidence of a difference (P ≥ 0.416) among treatments in overall growth performance or carcass characteristics. Dietary phase 1 and 2 fed from day 0 to 39. Dietary phase 3 to 5 fed from day 39 to 125. Carcass characteristics other than yield were adjusted to a common HCW by using HCW as a covariate in the statistical model. Yield was calculated by dividing average pen HCW by average pen live weight collected at the research barn before transport to processing facility. and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs, recent One of the major challenges with evaluating the scientific literature has shown wide variability in effects of added Cr on growth performance may be efficacy of added Cr. A  number of studies have attributed to the significant variability in the quantity indicated improvements in carcass characteristics of Cr present in feedstuffs commonly used in swine as well as growth performance; however, the pres- diets. Traditional corn–soybean meal-based diets can ence and magnitude of such responses is all but vary in Cr content from 750 to 3,000 µg/kg (NRC, clear. As a result of the variability observed when 2012). Although natural sources of dietary Cr can be Cr is added to swine diets, it is thought that the very variable, it is believed that only a small fraction positive responses might be influenced by dietary of the total Cr present naturally is available for utili- nutrient concentrations, environment, and manage- zation (NRC, 2012). Lindeman (2007) proposed that ment factors (Lindeman, 2007). In addition, it is organic forms of Cr are believed to be much more thought that the magnitude of response is related bioavailable. Thus, evaluation of dietary Cr though to the length of feeding, dosage, and perhaps even laboratory evaluation can be quite misleading, and the BW of the pig (Lindeman, 2007). It is also the- Cr level is routinely described as quantity of organic orized that some variability in response to added Cr added as opposed to total analyzed Cr. In the cur- Cr may be due to its particle size that may affect rent series of experiments, variability was observed absorption characteristics (Hung et al., 2015). in Cr analysis as measured by mass spectrometry, Translate basic science to industry innovation Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy104/5126775 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 Table 6. Effects of Cr propionate inclusion and feeding duration on finishing pig growth performance and 1,2 carcass characteristics, Exp. 2 P value Grower Finisher Grower added Cr, µg/kg: 0 200 200 Finisher added Cr, µg/kg: 0 100 200 SEM Overall 0 vs. 200 Linear Quadratic BW, kg Initial 48.9 48.9 49.0 0.51 <0.840 — — — End grower 91.2 91.5 91.8 0.55 — <0.275 — — Final 123.6 123.6 124.6 0.64 <0.304 — — — Grower ADG, kg 0.88 0.88 0.89 0.007 — <0.197 — — ADFI, kg 2.40 2.44 2.42 0.022 — <0.239 — — G:F 0.37 0.36 0.37 0.003 — <0.861 — — Finisher ADG, kg 0.92 0.92 0.94 0.010 — — <0.061 <0.165 ADFI, kg 2.96 2.94 2.99 0.025 — — <0.399 <0.201 G:F 0.31 0.31 0.32 0.003 — — <0.157 <0.731 Overall b a,b a ADG, kg 0.89 0.90 0.91 0.006 <0.086 — — — ADFI, kg 2.63 2.64 2.66 0.021 <0.650 — — — G:F 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.003 <0.523 — — — Carcass characteristics HCW, kg 95.3 95.3 95.7 0.52 <0.741 — — — Loin depth, mm 62.54 63.28 62.86 0.516 <0.590 — — — Backfat, mm 18.43 18.03 18.64 0.273 <0.229 — — — Lean, % 55.13 55.44 55.03 0.168 <0.206 — — — 6 a a b Yield, % 77.1 77.1 76.8 0.10 <0.018 — — — A total of 1,206 pigs (PIC 337 × 1050; PIC, Hendersonville, TN; initial BW 48.9 kg) were used in an 84-d study with a four-phase feeding pro- gram with 27 pigs per pen and 15 replications per treatment. Cr (Cr propionate; Kemin Industries Inc., Des Moines, IA). Dietary phase 1 and 2 fed from day 0 to 48. Dietary phase 3 and 4 fed from day 48 to 84. Carcass characteristics other than yield were adjusted to a common HCW by using HCW as a covariate in the statistical model. Yield was calculated by dividing average pen HCW by average pen live weight collected at the research barn before transport to processing facility. a,b Means lacking common superscripts differ (P < 0.05). but in general analyzed Cr concentrations increased source of Cr in swine, further investigation into as the level of added Cr increased. the effects of supplementation under commercial Cr propionate was granted permission by conditions was the primary objective of the cur- the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2000 rent series of experiments. to be marketed without objection for inclusion In addition to a large degree of variability in in swine diets at inclusion levels up to 200 µg/kg Cr composition of feed ingredients and questiona- (Lindeman, 2007), and similar bioavailibity to Cr ble bioavailability, the historical influence of added picolinate has been observed (Matthews et  al., Cr on growth outcomes and carcass composition 2001). However, evaluation of different sources is also quite variable (Lindeman, 2007). A number of Cr provides evidence that when added at very of peer-reviewed publications show both benefits high levels, tissue concentration of Cr differed and no response when adding Cr on both growth among the various sources (Lindemann et  al., performance and carcass characteristics. Greater 2008). Additional investigation into added Cr pro- detail regarding the mixed results of these studies is pionate in finishing pig diets has observed variable provided in NRC (2012). To summarize the body of effects on growth performance and carcass char- published evidence, a meta-analysis on added diet- acteristics (Shelton et  al., 2003; Matthews et  al., ary Cr on carcass characteristics and growth per- 2005, Jackson et al., 2009). Therefore, because Cr formance of finishing swine was conducted by Sales propionate has been shown to be a bioavailable and Jancik (2011). Their evaluation included studies Translate basic science to industry innovation Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/tas/txy104/5126775 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 October 2018 Prod. Sci. 55:1391–1402. doi:10.1071/AN15255 that added Cr in the form of Cr-methionine chelate, Hill, G. M. and J. W.  Spears. 2001. Trace and ultratrace ele- Cr-nanocomposite, Cr-nicotinate, Cr-propionate, ments in swine nutrition. In: A. J.  Lewis and L. L. Cr-tripicolinate, and Cr-yeast. Cumulative findings Southern, editors, Swine Nutrition. 2nd ed. Boca Raton of the 31 studies analyzed observed a reduction in (FL): CRC Press; p. 229–261. backfat thickness, and an increase in percentage Hung, A. T., B. J.  Leury, M. A.  Sabin, T. F.  Lien, and F. R. Dunshea. 2015. Dietary chromium picolinate of vary- carcass lean and loin muscle area with added Cr. ing particle size improves carcass characteristics and insu- In the series of experiments herein, the only carcass lin sensitivity in finishing pigs fed low- and high-fat diets. characteristic that was influenced by added Cr was Anim. Prod. Sci. 55(4):454–460. doi:10.1071/AN12255 a reduction in percentage carcass yield and only in Jackson, A. R., S.  Powell, S. L.  Johnston, J. O.  Matthews, T. Exp.  2. In the review by Sales and Jancik (2011), D.  Bidner, F. R.  Valdez, and L. L.  Southern. 2009. The they observed that the later in the finishing period effect of chromium as chromium propionate on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and the fatty when Cr supplementation was initiated, the greater acid profile of fat from pigs fed no supplemented dietary the magnitude of decreased fat and increased car- fat, choice white grease, or tallow. J. Anim. Sci. 87:4032– cass lean. Boleman et al. (1995) found that supple- 4041. doi:10.2527/jas.2009-2168 mentation of 200  µg/kg Cr-picolinate only in the Lindeman, M. D. 2007. Use of chromium as an animal feed finisher period resulted in greater carcass percent- supplement. In: J. B. Vincent, editor, The utritional biochemistry of chromium (III). Amsterdam, The age muscle, lower 10th rib backfat, and lower total Netherlands: Elsevier; p. 85–118. carcass fat percentage compared with both control Lindemann, M. D., G. L.  Cromwell, H. J.  Monegue, and K. and pigs fed 200 µg/kg added Cr-picolinate in both W. Purser. 2008. Effect of chromium source on tissue con- the grower and finisher periods. centration of chromium in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 86:2971– In conclusion, growth performance was mod- 2978. doi:10.2527/jas.2008-0888 erately influenced with the addition of Cr propion- Matthews, J. O., A. C. Guzik, F. M. Lemieux, L. L. Southern, and T. D.  Bidner. 2005. Effects of chromium pro- ate in swine diets. Carcass composition was largely pionate on growth, carcass traits, and pork quality unaffected by added Cr with the exception of reduc- of growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 83:858–862. ing percentage carcass yield in Exp. 2. The specific doi:10.2527/2005.834858x dosage in which ADG and G:F was maximized var- Matthews, J. O., L. L. Southern, J. M. Fernandez, J. E. Pontif, ied from 100 µg/kg in Exp. 1 to 200 µg/kg added Cr T. D.  Bidner, and R. L.  Odgaard. 2001. Effect of chro- mium picolinate and chromium propionate on glucose in Exp. 2. The results of these trials do not provide and insulin kinetics of growing barrows and on growth evidence that different feeding regimens will consist- and carcass traits of growing-finishing barrows. J. Anim. ently result in improved performance. Under com- Sci. 79:2172–2178. doi:10.2527/2001.7982172x mercial swine production conditions in the current NRC. 2012. Nutrient requirements of swine. 11th edn. series of experiments, addition of Cr propionate Washington (DC): National Academies Press. in finishing pig diets has the potential to modestly doi:10.17226/13298 Page, T. G., L. L. Southern, T. L. Ward, and D. L. Thompson, influence growth performance; however, it did not Jr. 1993. Effect of chromium picolinate on growth and lead to positive impacts on carcass characteristics. serum and carcass traits of growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 71:656–662. doi:10.2527/1993.713656x Conflict of interest statement. None declared Pechova, A. and L.  Pavlata. 2007. Chromium as an essential nutrient: a review. Vet. Med. 52(1):1–18. LITERATURE CITED doi:10.17221/2010-vetmed Sales, J., and F. Jancík. 2011. Effects of dietary chromium sup- AOAC. 2006. Official methods of analysis, 18th ed. Washington plementation on performance, carcass characteristics, and (DC): Association of Official Analytical Chemists. meat quality of growing-finishing swine: a meta-analysis. Boleman, S. L., S. J.  Boleman, T. D.  Bidner, L. L.  Southern, J. Anim. Sci. 89:4054–4067. doi:10.2527/jas.2010-3495 T. L.  Ward, J. E.  Pontif, and M. M.  Pike. 1995. Effect Shelton, J. L., R. L.  Payne, S. L.  Johnston, T. D.  Bidner, of chromium picolinate on growth, body composition, L. L.  Southern, R. L.  Odgaard, and T. G.  Page. and tissue accretion in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2033–2042. 2003. Effect of chromium propionate on growth, car- doi:10.2527/1995.7372033x cass traits, pork quality, and plasma metabolites in Coble, K. F., J. M. DeRouchey, M. D. Tokach, S. S. Dritz, R. growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 81:2515–2524. D. Goodband, J. C. Woodworth, and J. L. Usry. 2017. The doi:10.2527/2003.81102515x effects of copper source and concentration on growth per- Steele, N. C., T. G. Althen, and L. T. Frobish. 1977. Biological formance, carcass characteristics, and pen cleanliness in activity of glucose tolerance factor in swine. J. Anim. Sci. finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 95:4052–4059. doi:10.2527/ 45:1341–1345. doi:10.2527/jas1977.4561341x jas2017.1624 US EPA. Inductively coupled plasma—mass spectrometry. Cottrell, J. J., F. Liu, A. T. Hung, K. DiGiacomo, S. S. Chauhan, 1998. Method 6020a. [accessed July 26,  2017] https:// B. J. Leury, J. B. Furness, P. Celi, and F. R. Dunshea. 2015. www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-07/documents/ Nutritional strategies to alleviate heat stress in pigs. Anim. epa-6020a.pdf. Translate basic science to industry innovation

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Translational Animal ScienceOxford University Press

Published: Oct 11, 2018

References