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EVALUATION OF PRODUCTS FOR INTERNAL LEPIDOPTERA AND BROWN MARMORATED STINK BUG CONTROL, 2012

EVALUATION OF PRODUCTS FOR INTERNAL LEPIDOPTERA AND BROWN MARMORATED STINK BUG CONTROL, 2012 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.A7 (A7) APPLE: Malus domestica Borkhausen EVALUATION OF PRODUCTS FOR INTERNAL LEPIDOPTERA AND BROWN MARMORATED STINK BUG CONTROL, 2012 Larry A. Hull Fruit Research and Extension Center Pennsylvania State University P. O. Box 330 Biglerville, PA 17307-0330 Phone: (717) 677-6116 Ext. 6 Fax: (717) 677-4112 Email: lah4@psu.edu Greg Krawczyk Email: gxk13@psu.edu David Biddinger Email: djb134@psu.edu Aphid natural enemies (NE): Ladybeetles, lacewings, syrphids, mullein bugs, etc. Codling moth (CM): Cydia pomonella (L.) European red mite (ERM): Panonychus ulmi (Koch) Leafrollers: Obliquebanded leafroller, Redbanded leafroller, Tufted apple bud moth Mite predator (SP): Stethorus punctum (LeConte) Mite predator (ZM): Zetzellia mali (Ewing) Phytoseiid mite predators (PMP): Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman); Typhlodromus pyri (Scheuten) Oriental fruit moth (OFM): Grapholita molesta (Busck) Plum curculio (PC): Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) Potato leafhopper (PLH): Empoasca fabae (Harris) Spirea aphid (SA): Aphis spiraecola Patch Brown stink bug: Euschistus servus (Say) Dusky stink bug: Euschistus tristigmus (Say) Green stink bug: Acrosternum hilare (Say) Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB): Halyomorpha halys (Stål) Tarnished plant bug (PB): Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) Woolly apple aphid (WAA): Erisoma lanigerum (Hausmann) This study was designed to evaluate a number of experimental and registered insecticides against a variety of orchard pests, especially internally feeding Lepidoptera and the stink bug complex, and their inherent toxicity to a number of natural enemy species. All treatments were applied to single-tree plots in a RCB design consisting of three replicates of ‘Golden Delicious’ and two replicates of ‘Yorking’ with buffer trees between plots. All trees were planted to a spacing of 20 x 30 ft and were 23 yr old. Treatments were applied with a Durand-Wayland airblast sprayer calibrated to deliver 100 gpa at 2.4 mph. All applications were complete sprays. A routine schedule of fungicides (Captan 80WDG, Flint 50WP, Inspire Super, Manzate Pro Stik, Rally 40WP, Topsin M 85WDG and Ziram 76WP) was maintained throughout the experiment. DD calculations were based on minimum and maximum developmental thresholds of 50°F-88°F (CM), and 45°F-90°F (OFM). OFM shoot injury was assessed by counting the number of shoots showing signs of injury during a 3-min examination per tree. The number of PLH was determined by counting separately the number of adults and nymphs per 10 shoots per tree. The percentage of apples showing frass from CM/OFM feeding was assessed in situ by examining 150 apples per tree. Efficacy of the treatments on SA was evaluated by counting the number of aphid-infested leaves/10 actively growing shoots/tree. The total number of aphid NEs was determined by counting the number observed on the same 10 shoots examined for SA. WAA populations were determined by counting the number of live colonies per 3-min examination per tree. Effectiveness of the test chemicals on ERM, PMP and ZM was evaluated by counting the mites several times during the season on samples of 25 random leaves/tree, 125 leaves/treatment. SP was sampled by counting the number of adults and larvae observed in a 3-min examination around the periphery of each plot tree. Russet evaluations were made on ‘Golden Delicious’ fruits (30 per replicate) on 30 Aug. Each apple in each replicate (2) was rated as 0 (no russet), 1 (raised 1 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.A7 lenticels), 2 (1-10% russeted surface), 3 (11-25% russeted surface), 4 (26-50% russeted surface), or 5 (>51% russeted surface). The individual ratings were added to calculate a russet rating for each replicate. Possible ranges for the replicate russet ratings (and estimate of range of % of surface russeted) are 0-30 (none to raised lenticels), 31-60 (raised lenticels to 1-10% russeted surface), 61-90 (1-10% to 11-25% russeted surface, 91-120 (11-25% to 26-50% russeted surface), and 121- 150 (26-50% to >51% russeted surface). Effectiveness of the chemical treatments on all fruit-feeding pests was assessed by scoring for injury dropped apples on 2, 11, 23 and 30 Jul; 1 and 15 Aug and two picked samples of 40 and 100 fruit per replication on 30 Jul and 7 Sep (Golden Delicious replicates) and 20 Sep (Yorking replicates), respectively. All internally feeding larvae were collected from the picked and dropped fruit identified to species. The SB injury reported in Tables 6 and 8 was measured only on the harvest samples while the SB injury reported in Table 7 was measured on all dropped and picked fruit samples throughout the season. Each fruit was visually examined for the presence of external SB injury and the number of external SB injury sites per fruit was recorded. For each fruit showing external SB injury, the side of the fruit bearing the most severe injury was then sectioned two times longitudinally ≈ 0.6 and 1.2 cm from the outside edge of the fruit and the number of distinct SB feeding sites per slice (cut) was recorded. An ANOVA was conducted on all raw and transformed data and a means separation analysis was performed using Fisher’s Protected LSD at P > 0.05. Pest pressure was low to high throughout the season depending on the pest species. All treatments effectively prevented the first generation of OFM larvae from entering shoots (Table 2). The Assail/Delegate et al. treatment provided the best control of PLH nymphs on 5 Jun, while the Assail/Imidan et al. treatment had the lowest number of nymphs on 11 Jun (Table 2). All treatments maintained low percentages of apples showing frass during all assessments from Jun to early Aug, with the Assail/Imidan et al. treatment and the Imidan/Altacor plus Zeal et al. treatment having consistently the lowest percentage of infested apples (Table 2). SA populations were quite low throughout the study and no real differences were found between treatments (Table 3). With low SA populations, no significant increases in SA natural enemies were found as well. High WAA populations were found on the Danitol et al. treatment and the Avaunt et al. treatment on 6 Aug (Table 3). ERM populations rapidly increased in July on the Danitol et al. treatment and both treatments that contained the insecticide Declare, especially the Declare treatment with the higher rate (60 ml/acre), where populations remained high into mid-Aug (Table 4). PMP populations were low to moderate across all treatments during July and August and no direct toxic effects of any treatment could be discerned (Table 4). ZM populations started to increase in August, especially on the Rimon et al. treatment, even though ERM populations remained low, likely indicating little toxicity of Lannate LV to ZM (Table 5). SP adults and larvae also increased on some treatments in August, especially the two treatments receiving Declare applications. The increases in SP were likely due to the increasing ERM population on the two Declare treatments (Table 5). All insecticide treatments, except the F-9318 et al. treatment, the Imidan/Altacor plus Zeal et al. treatment, and the two Declare treatments, allowed relatively low numbers of entries from the CM/OFM complex during the harvest evaluation assessment (Table 6). The Rimon et al. treatment allowed the fewest number of entries during the harvest evaluation. All treatment programs provided outstanding control of LR populations. There were no statistical differences among any of the treatments and the untreated check for the number of SB injured fruit at harvest, but the Danitol et al. treatment and Declare treatment at the high rate (60 ml/acre) had numerically the lowest number of SB injured fruit at harvest (Table 6). When all SB injured fruit at harvest were examined more closely, again there were no differences between any of the treatment programs for the no. of external SB injuries per fruit or the no. of internal SB injuries from the first and second cut into the fruit (Table 8). When all dropped and picked fruit samples were combined from throughout the season, the Rimon el al. treatment again had the lowest number of entries, least number of live larvae in the fruit, and the highest percentage of clean fruit (Table 7). No phytotoxicity to leaves or fruit was found with any treatment. This research was supported by industry gift of pesticides and research funding. 2 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.A7 Table 1. Treatment/formulation Amt/acre lb (AI)/acre Application dates GF-2032 2SC 89.0 ml 0.046875 3 Apr Imidan 70W 1360.0 g 2.1 2 May, 27 Jun Delegate 25W 148.0 g 0.08125 16 & 30 May, 14 Jun Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g 0.066 10 & 25 Jul, 7 Aug Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 0.253 15 & 29 Aug Assail 30SG 142.0 g 0.09375 3 Apr Imidan 70W 1360.0 g 2.1 2 May, 27 Jun Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g 0.066 16 & 30 May, 14 Jun Delegate 25W 148.0 g 0.08125 10 & 25 Jul, 7 Aug Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 0.253 15 & 29 Aug F-9318 0.33EW 532.0 ml + 0.0464 + Damoil 3785.0 ml 1% 2 May Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g 0.066 16 & 30 May Imidan 70W 1360.0 g 2.1 14 Jun Mustang Max 0.8EC 118.0 ml 0.025 27 Jun, 10 & 25 Jul, 7 & 21 Aug Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml 0.3 2 May, 7 Aug Delegate 25W 148.0 g + 0.08125 + Zeal 72W 57.0 g 0.09 16 May Delegate 25W 148.0 g 0.08125 30 May Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml 0.1 14 Jun Imidan 70W 1360.0 g 2.1 + Venom 70SG 273.0 g 0.42 27 Jun, 21 Aug Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + 0.066 + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g 0.506 10 & 25 Jul Venom 70SG 273.0 g 0.42 29 Aug Imidan 70W 1360.0 g 2.1 2 May Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + 0.066 + Zeal 72W 57.0 g 0.09 16 May Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g 0.066 30 May Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml 0.1 14 Jun, 7 Aug Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml 0.3 27 Jun, 21 Aug Delegate 25W 148.0 g + 0.08125 + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g 0.506 10 & 25 Jul Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.13 2 May, 6 & 30 Jul Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g 0.066 16 & 30 May Lannate LV 1065.0 ml 0.675 14 Jun, 19 Jul, 15 & 29 Aug Assail 30SG 170.0 g 0.1125 2 May Altacor 35WDG 71.0 g 0.055 16 & 30 May, 14 Jun Declare 1.25CS 30.0 ml 0.0098 27 Jun, 10 & 25 Jul, 7 & 21 Aug Assail 30SG 170.0 g 0.1125 2 May Delegate 25W 128.0 g 0.07 16 & 30 May, 14 Jun Declare 1.25CS 60.0 ml 0.0195 27 Jun, 10 & 25 Jul, 7 & 21 Aug Avaunt 30WDG 170.0 g 0.1125 2 May Delegate 25W 148.0 g 0.08125 16 & 30 May Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + 2.1 + Admire Pro 148.0 ml 0.0784 14 Jun Assail 30SG 142.0 g 0.09375 27 Jun Voliam Flexi 40W 142.0 g 0.125 10 & 25 Jul Bifenture 2EC 189.0 ml 0.1 7 & 21 Aug Untreated check --- --- 3 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.A7 Table 2. OFM inj/3 min PLH nymphs/10 shoots PLH adults/10 shoots % apples w/frass Treatment/formulation Amt/acre 22 May 31 May 5 Jun 11 Jun 19 Jun 5 Jun 11 Jun 19 Jun 19 Jun 25 Jun 3 Jul 12 Jul 3 Aug GF-2032 2SC 89.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 2.2abc 4.2a 4.6ab 9.4bcd 2.0c 5.4a 5.0ab 8.4e 0.9ab 0.9ab 1.1b 0.8ab 0.7a Assail 30SG 142.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 1.2a 3.0a 7.4b 5.2a 0.2ab 1.8a 2.2a 0.8a 0.8ab 0.1a 0.0a 0.1a 0.0a F-9318 0.33EW 532.0 ml + + Damoil 3785.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Mustang Max 0.8EC 118.0 ml 1.8abc 2.6a 8.4b-e 10.6cd 0.0a 3.0a 3.2ab 3.2bcd 0.7ab 0.7ab 0.0a 0.7ab 0.5a Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Imidan 70W + 1360.0 g Venom 70SG 273.0 g Altacor 35WDG + 85.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g Venom 70SG 273.0 g 1.6ab 4.8a 7.0bc 9.2bcd 0.4ab 3.4a 2.4a 3.0bc 1.7b 2.3b 0.8ab 1.5b 0.7a Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g 1.8abc 3.6a 14.2de 14.8d 0.4ab 4.6a 6.0ab 6.6ef 0.1a 0.1a 0.0a 0.5ab 0.5a Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Lannate LV 1065.0 ml 3.2bcd 7.0a 11.4cde 9.8cd 0.0a 3.8a 5.4ab 1.0ab 0.4ab 0.3a 0.0a 0.7ab 0.3a Assail 30SG 170.0 g Altacor 35WDG 71.0 g Declare 1.25CS 30.0 ml 5.8cd 7.6a 12.2cd 6.2a-d 1.2bc 5.0a 7.0b 6.4ef 0.7ab 0.5ab 0.0a 0.1a 0.5a Assail 30SG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 128.0 g 4 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.A7 Declare 1.25CS 60.0 ml 6.4bcd 4.4a 1.6a 5.6abc 1.0abc 4.6a 4.0ab 5.8cde 0.5ab 0.1a 0.5ab 0.1a 0.5a Avaunt 30WDG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + + Admire Pro 148.0 ml Assail 30SG 142.0 g Voliam Flexi 40W 142.0 g Bifenture 2EC 189.0 ml 5.2cd 3.6a 6.2bcd 4.6ab 0.0a 3.8a 2.8a 1.0ab 0.8ab 0.8ab 0.9b 1.3ab 0.8a Untreated check --- 10.2d 16.6b 15.4e 10.8cd 1.8c 5.6a 4.8ab 6.4ef 9.5c 12.9c 12.5c 15.5c 16.1b Means followed by the same letters are not significantly different (P > 0.05) according to Fisher’s Protected LSD Test. 5 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.A7 Table 3. WAA colonies SA inf lvs/shoot NE’s/10 shoots /3 min Treatment/formulation Amt/acre 7 Jun 13 Jun 18 Jun 7 Jun 13 Jun 18 Jun 25 Jun 6 Aug GF-2032 2SC 89.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 0.1a 0.1a 0.0a 0.0c 0.2a 0.0b 0.0a 0.0a Assail 30SG 142.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 0.2a 0.2a 0.1a 0.6bc 0.6a 0.0b 0.4a 0.0a F-9318 0.33EW 532.0 ml + + Damoil 3785.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Mustang Max 0.8EC 118.0 ml 0.0a 0.0a 0.5a 0.4bc 0.2a 0.2a 0.4a 2.4a Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + Venom 70SG 273.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g Venom 70SG 273.0g 0.3a 0.2a 0.2a 1.6ab 1.2a 0.0b 0.0a 32.6a Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g 0.0a 0.2a 0.2a 2.0a 0.2a 0.0b 0.2a 10.0a Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Lannate LV 1065.0 ml 0.2a 0.3a 0.3a 1.0abc 0.6a 0.0b 0.2a 2.2a Assail 30SG 170.0 g Altacor 35WDG 71.0 g Declare 1.25CS 30.0 ml 0.0a 0.0a 0.5a 0.4bc 0.0a 0.0b 0.8a 0.2a Assail 30SG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 128.0 g Declare 1.25CS 60.0 ml 0.1a 0.1a 0.6a 0.2c 1.0a 0.0b 1.2a 5.8a Avaunt 30WDG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + + Admire Pro 148.0 ml Assail 30SG 142.0 g Voliam Flexi 40W 142.0 g Bifenture 2EC 189.0 ml 0.1a 0.4a 0.0a 0.6bc 0.0a 0.0b 0.0a 24.0a Untreated check --- 0.1a 0.0a 0.1a 0.4bc 0.0a 0.0b 0.0a 0.4a Means followed by the same letters are not significantly different (P > 0.05) according to Fisher’s Protected LSD Test. 6 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.A7 Table 4. ERM/leaf PMP/leaf Treatment/formulation Amt/acre 26 Jun 10 Jul 18 Jul 1 Aug 9 Aug 26 Jun 10 Jul 18 Jul 1 Aug 9 Aug GF-2032 2SC 89.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml GF-2032 2SC 45.0 ml 0.0a 1.1ab 2.5abc 2.6ab 0.3ab 0.0a 0.0c 0.0c 0.1a 0.0a Assail 30SG 142.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml Admire Pro 118.0 ml 0.2a 0.6ab 1.2ab 0.4a 0.1a 0.1a 0.2ab 0.2abc 0.0a 0.1a F-9318 0.33EW 532.0 ml + + Damoil 3785.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Mustang Max 0.8EC 118.0 ml 0.0a 0.0a 0.1a 1.5ab 0.8ab 0.0a 0.1bc 0.0bc 0.1a 0.2a Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + Venom 70SG 273.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g Venom 70SG 273.0 g 0.0a 0.4ab 13.5cde16.7de 1.4bc 0.0a 0.0bc 0.1abc 0.1a 0.2a Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g 0.0a 0.1a 0.8ab 2.6abc 3.3c 0.0a 0.0c 0.0bc 0.1a 0.1a Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Lannate LV 1065.0 ml 0.3a 0.5ab 0.7ab 1.4ab 0.9ab 0.1a 0.1bc 0.2ab 0.1a 0.3a Assail 30SG 170.0 g Altacor 35WDG 71.0 g Declare 1.25CS 30.0 ml 0.3a 0.8ab 3.4bcd 8.5cd 3.8c 0.1a 0.1bc 0.2abc 0.3a 0.2a Assail 30SG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 128.0 g Declare 1.25CS 60.0 ml 0.0a 1.8b 17.7e 28.9e 14.0d 0.0a 0.0bc 0.0bc 0.2a 0.1a Avaunt 30WDG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + + Admire Pro 148.0 ml Assail 30SG 142.0 g Voliam Flexi 40W 142.0 g Bifenture 2EC 189.0 ml 0.4a 7.0c 13.7de 5.9bcd 0.4ab 0.0a 0.1abc 0.3a 0.4a 0.1a Untreated check --- 0.0a 0.2a 0.2a 0.2a 0.0a 0.0a 0.3a 0.3a 0.2a 0.2a Means followed by the same letters are not significantly different (P > 0.05) according to Fisher’s Protected LSD Test. 7 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.A7 Table 5. Russet ZM/leaf Sp A & L/3 min rating Treatment/formulation Amt/acre 1 Aug 9 Aug 1 Aug 9 Aug 30 Aug GF-2032 2SC 89.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 0.4ab 0.6a 0.0d 0.6bcd 37.7a Assail 30SG 142.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 0.2abc 0.1c 0.2cd 0.0d 46.7a F-9318 0.33EW 532.0 ml + + Damoil 3785.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Mustang Max 0.8EC 118.0 ml 0.0c 0.1c 0.0d 0.0d 36.3a Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + Venom 70SG 273.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g Venom 70SG 273.0 g 0.0c 0.2bc 4.4a 3.6bc 44.3a Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g 0.0c 0.1bc 1.2bcd 0.4cd 36.0a Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Lannate LV 1065.0 ml 0.2abc 0.7a 0.2cd 0.6bcd 42.0a Assail 30SG 170.0 g Altacor 35WDG 71.0 g Declare 1.25CS 30.0 ml 0.1bc 0.3abc 2.8abc 4.6b 40.7a Assail 30SG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 128.0 g Declare 1.25CS 60.0 ml 0.3abc 0.1bc 4.8ab 11.6a 40.7a Avaunt 30WDG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + + Admire Pro 148.0 ml Assail 30SG 142.0 g Voliam Flexi 40W 142.0 g Bifenture 2EC 189.0 ml 0.5a 0.5ab 1.4cd 0.6bcd 40.3a Untreated check --- 0.2abc 0.2bc 0.0d 0.2d 42.3a Means followed by the same letters are not significantly different (P > 0.05) according to Fisher’s Protected LSD Test. 8 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.A7 Table 6. Injuries/100 apples CM/OFM No. fruit Live % Stings Entries larvae LR PC PB SB clean Treatment/formulation Amt/acre sampled GF-2032 2SC 89.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 524 7.9b 3.5.abc 1.0abc 1.1a 0.2a 0.2a 15.0a 73.1abc Assail 30SG 142.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 517 14.7b 6.0bcd 1.0ab 0.0a 1.0a 0.2a 13.0a 66.6bc F-9318 0.33EW 532.0 ml + + Damoil 3785.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Mustang Max 0.8EC 118.0ml 525 11.0b 10.2d 4.8d 0.4a 1.5a 0.4a 8.1a 71.5abc Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Delegate 25W 1480.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + Venom 70SG 273.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g Venom 70SG 273.0 g 514 8.2ab 2.7ab 0.8ab 0.0a 0.4a 0.2a 6.6a 82.3a Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g 514 11.9b 9.9d 4.1cd 0.8a 0.6a 0.2a 19.3a 63.0c Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Lannate LV 1065.0 ml 524 3.4a 2.3a 0.0a 2.8a 0.6a 0.8a 14.7a 77.4ab Assail 30SG 170.0 g Altacor 35WDG 71.0 g Declare 1.25CS 30.0 ml 521 10.5b 7.1cd 1.5bcd 0.6a 0.2a 0.4a 8.9a 74.3abc Assail 30SG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 128.0 g Declare 1.25CS 60.0 ml 515 11.4b 7.8cd 2.1bcd 1.0a 1.0a 0.6a 6.6a 72.3abc Avaunt 30WDG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + + Admire Pro 148.0 ml Assail 30SG 142.0 g Voliam Flexi 40W 142.0 g Bifenture 2EC 189.0 ml 517 8.3b 3.3abc 1.0abc 1.5a 0.8a 0.8a 9.1a 76.6ab Untreated check --- 519 13.3b 50.8e 22.9e 6.7b 2.9a 0.0a 11.4a 24.4d Means followed by the same letters are not significantly different (P > 0.05) according to Fisher’s Protected LSD Test. a Harvest samples – 7 Sep and 20 Sep 9 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.A7 Table 7. Injuries/100 apples No. (%) internal CM/OFM live larvae-all fruit No. fruit Live % Treatment/formulation Amt/acre sampled Stings Entries larvae LR PC PB SB clean CM OFM GF-2032 2SC 89.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 873 7.3bc 4.0ab 1.1ab 0.8a 0.2a 0.1a 10.2a 78.1ab 1 (14) 6 (86) Assail 30SG 142.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 844 10.2bc 4.1ab 0.6a 0.0a 0.9a 0.6a 8.7a 76.5ab 2 (40) 3 (60) F-9318 0.33EW 532.0 ml + + Damoil 3785.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Mustang Max 0.8EC 118.0 ml 877 9.1bc 8.7bc 3.2c 0.2a 2.9a 0.4a 5.1a 75.5ab 14 (78) 4 (22) Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Delegate 25W 1480.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + Venom 70SG 273.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g Venom 70SG 273.0 g 885 6.7bc 6.7abc 1.5abc 0.1a 0.6a 0.2a 4.5a 81.6ab 2 (17) 10 (83) Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g 877 9.4bc 8.8c 2.8c 0.6a 0.6a 0.2a 11.3a 72.5b 14 (74) 5 (26) Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Lannate LV 1065.0 ml 819 3.0a 2.9a 0.4a 1.8a 0.5a 0.5a 9.7a 83.0a 0 (0) 0 (0) Assail 30SG 170.0 g Altacor 35WDG 71.0 g Declare 1.25CS 30.0 ml 846 8.0bc 5.7bc 1.1ab 0.4a 0.4a 0.2a 6.1a 80.3ab 6 (75) 2 (25) Assail 30SG 170.0 g 10 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.A7 Delegate 25W 128.0 g Declare 1.25CS 60.0 ml 857 8.9bc 7.7c 1.8bc 0.6a 1.0a 0.4a 4.8a 77.2ab 8 (73) 3 (27) Avaunt 30WDG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + + Admire Pro 148.0 ml Assail 30SG 142.0 g Voliam Flexi 40W 142.0 g Bifenture 2EC 189.0 ml 895 6.2b 5.3abc 0.9ab 1.0a 1.1a 0.4a 5.7a 80.8ab 3 (60) 2 (40) Untreated check --- 944 11.5c 47.5d 15.9d 4.0b 2.0a 0.1a 6.5a 34.5c 73 (63) 42 (37) Means followed by the same letters are not significantly different (P > 0.05) according to Fisher’s Protected LSD Test. a All dropped and picked fruit throughout the season 11 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.A7 Table 8. st nd No. apples w/SB No. external No. 1 cut No. 2 cut No. fruit injury/100 apples SB injuries SB injuries SB injuries Treatment/formulation Amt/acre sampled sampled /SB injured fruit /SB injured fruit /SB injured fruit GF-2032 2SC 89.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 525 16.3a 2.7a 1.3a 0.3a Assail 30SG 142.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 516 7.2a 1.7a 0.8a 0.3a F-9318 0.33EW 532.0 ml + + Damoil 3785.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Mustang Max 0.8EC 118.0 ml 524 8.7a 1.7a 0.9a 0.4a Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Delegate 25W 1480.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + Venom 70SG 273.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g Venom 70SG 273.0 g 515 12.6a 2.6a 1.1a 0.3a Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g 515 18.1a 3.0a 1.1a 0.3a Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Lannate LV 1065.0 ml 522 11.9a 2.4a 1.1a 0.4a Assail 30SG 170.0 g Altacor 35WDG 71.0 g Declare 1.25CS 30.0 ml 520 8.3a 2.7a 1.3a 0.2a Assail 30SG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 128.0 g Declare 1.25CS 60.0 ml 516 5.4a 2.2a 0.4a 0.1a Avaunt 30WDG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + + Admire Pro 148.0 ml Assail 30SG 142.0 g Voliam Flexi 40W 142.0 g Bifenture 2EC 189.0 ml 518 10.4a 1.9a 1.0a 0.6a Untreated check --- 519 14.7a 2.8a 0.9a 0.3a Means followed by the same letters are not significantly different (P > 0.05) according to Fisher’s Protected LSD Test. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Arthropod Management Tests Oxford University Press

EVALUATION OF PRODUCTS FOR INTERNAL LEPIDOPTERA AND BROWN MARMORATED STINK BUG CONTROL, 2012

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Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.A7 (A7) APPLE: Malus domestica Borkhausen EVALUATION OF PRODUCTS FOR INTERNAL LEPIDOPTERA AND BROWN MARMORATED STINK BUG CONTROL, 2012 Larry A. Hull Fruit Research and Extension Center Pennsylvania State University P. O. Box 330 Biglerville, PA 17307-0330 Phone: (717) 677-6116 Ext. 6 Fax: (717) 677-4112 Email: lah4@psu.edu Greg Krawczyk Email: gxk13@psu.edu David Biddinger Email: djb134@psu.edu Aphid natural enemies (NE): Ladybeetles, lacewings, syrphids, mullein bugs, etc. Codling moth (CM): Cydia pomonella (L.) European red mite (ERM): Panonychus ulmi (Koch) Leafrollers: Obliquebanded leafroller, Redbanded leafroller, Tufted apple bud moth Mite predator (SP): Stethorus punctum (LeConte) Mite predator (ZM): Zetzellia mali (Ewing) Phytoseiid mite predators (PMP): Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman); Typhlodromus pyri (Scheuten) Oriental fruit moth (OFM): Grapholita molesta (Busck) Plum curculio (PC): Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) Potato leafhopper (PLH): Empoasca fabae (Harris) Spirea aphid (SA): Aphis spiraecola Patch Brown stink bug: Euschistus servus (Say) Dusky stink bug: Euschistus tristigmus (Say) Green stink bug: Acrosternum hilare (Say) Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB): Halyomorpha halys (Stål) Tarnished plant bug (PB): Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) Woolly apple aphid (WAA): Erisoma lanigerum (Hausmann) This study was designed to evaluate a number of experimental and registered insecticides against a variety of orchard pests, especially internally feeding Lepidoptera and the stink bug complex, and their inherent toxicity to a number of natural enemy species. All treatments were applied to single-tree plots in a RCB design consisting of three replicates of ‘Golden Delicious’ and two replicates of ‘Yorking’ with buffer trees between plots. All trees were planted to a spacing of 20 x 30 ft and were 23 yr old. Treatments were applied with a Durand-Wayland airblast sprayer calibrated to deliver 100 gpa at 2.4 mph. All applications were complete sprays. A routine schedule of fungicides (Captan 80WDG, Flint 50WP, Inspire Super, Manzate Pro Stik, Rally 40WP, Topsin M 85WDG and Ziram 76WP) was maintained throughout the experiment. DD calculations were based on minimum and maximum developmental thresholds of 50°F-88°F (CM), and 45°F-90°F (OFM). OFM shoot injury was assessed by counting the number of shoots showing signs of injury during a 3-min examination per tree. The number of PLH was determined by counting separately the number of adults and nymphs per 10 shoots per tree. The percentage of apples showing frass from CM/OFM feeding was assessed in situ by examining 150 apples per tree. Efficacy of the treatments on SA was evaluated by counting the number of aphid-infested leaves/10 actively growing shoots/tree. The total number of aphid NEs was determined by counting the number observed on the same 10 shoots examined for SA. WAA populations were determined by counting the number of live colonies per 3-min examination per tree. Effectiveness of the test chemicals on ERM, PMP and ZM was evaluated by counting the mites several times during the season on samples of 25 random leaves/tree, 125 leaves/treatment. SP was sampled by counting the number of adults and larvae observed in a 3-min examination around the periphery of each plot tree. Russet evaluations were made on ‘Golden Delicious’ fruits (30 per replicate) on 30 Aug. Each apple in each replicate (2) was rated as 0 (no russet), 1 (raised 1 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.A7 lenticels), 2 (1-10% russeted surface), 3 (11-25% russeted surface), 4 (26-50% russeted surface), or 5 (>51% russeted surface). The individual ratings were added to calculate a russet rating for each replicate. Possible ranges for the replicate russet ratings (and estimate of range of % of surface russeted) are 0-30 (none to raised lenticels), 31-60 (raised lenticels to 1-10% russeted surface), 61-90 (1-10% to 11-25% russeted surface, 91-120 (11-25% to 26-50% russeted surface), and 121- 150 (26-50% to >51% russeted surface). Effectiveness of the chemical treatments on all fruit-feeding pests was assessed by scoring for injury dropped apples on 2, 11, 23 and 30 Jul; 1 and 15 Aug and two picked samples of 40 and 100 fruit per replication on 30 Jul and 7 Sep (Golden Delicious replicates) and 20 Sep (Yorking replicates), respectively. All internally feeding larvae were collected from the picked and dropped fruit identified to species. The SB injury reported in Tables 6 and 8 was measured only on the harvest samples while the SB injury reported in Table 7 was measured on all dropped and picked fruit samples throughout the season. Each fruit was visually examined for the presence of external SB injury and the number of external SB injury sites per fruit was recorded. For each fruit showing external SB injury, the side of the fruit bearing the most severe injury was then sectioned two times longitudinally ≈ 0.6 and 1.2 cm from the outside edge of the fruit and the number of distinct SB feeding sites per slice (cut) was recorded. An ANOVA was conducted on all raw and transformed data and a means separation analysis was performed using Fisher’s Protected LSD at P > 0.05. Pest pressure was low to high throughout the season depending on the pest species. All treatments effectively prevented the first generation of OFM larvae from entering shoots (Table 2). The Assail/Delegate et al. treatment provided the best control of PLH nymphs on 5 Jun, while the Assail/Imidan et al. treatment had the lowest number of nymphs on 11 Jun (Table 2). All treatments maintained low percentages of apples showing frass during all assessments from Jun to early Aug, with the Assail/Imidan et al. treatment and the Imidan/Altacor plus Zeal et al. treatment having consistently the lowest percentage of infested apples (Table 2). SA populations were quite low throughout the study and no real differences were found between treatments (Table 3). With low SA populations, no significant increases in SA natural enemies were found as well. High WAA populations were found on the Danitol et al. treatment and the Avaunt et al. treatment on 6 Aug (Table 3). ERM populations rapidly increased in July on the Danitol et al. treatment and both treatments that contained the insecticide Declare, especially the Declare treatment with the higher rate (60 ml/acre), where populations remained high into mid-Aug (Table 4). PMP populations were low to moderate across all treatments during July and August and no direct toxic effects of any treatment could be discerned (Table 4). ZM populations started to increase in August, especially on the Rimon et al. treatment, even though ERM populations remained low, likely indicating little toxicity of Lannate LV to ZM (Table 5). SP adults and larvae also increased on some treatments in August, especially the two treatments receiving Declare applications. The increases in SP were likely due to the increasing ERM population on the two Declare treatments (Table 5). All insecticide treatments, except the F-9318 et al. treatment, the Imidan/Altacor plus Zeal et al. treatment, and the two Declare treatments, allowed relatively low numbers of entries from the CM/OFM complex during the harvest evaluation assessment (Table 6). The Rimon et al. treatment allowed the fewest number of entries during the harvest evaluation. All treatment programs provided outstanding control of LR populations. There were no statistical differences among any of the treatments and the untreated check for the number of SB injured fruit at harvest, but the Danitol et al. treatment and Declare treatment at the high rate (60 ml/acre) had numerically the lowest number of SB injured fruit at harvest (Table 6). When all SB injured fruit at harvest were examined more closely, again there were no differences between any of the treatment programs for the no. of external SB injuries per fruit or the no. of internal SB injuries from the first and second cut into the fruit (Table 8). When all dropped and picked fruit samples were combined from throughout the season, the Rimon el al. treatment again had the lowest number of entries, least number of live larvae in the fruit, and the highest percentage of clean fruit (Table 7). No phytotoxicity to leaves or fruit was found with any treatment. This research was supported by industry gift of pesticides and research funding. 2 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.A7 Table 1. Treatment/formulation Amt/acre lb (AI)/acre Application dates GF-2032 2SC 89.0 ml 0.046875 3 Apr Imidan 70W 1360.0 g 2.1 2 May, 27 Jun Delegate 25W 148.0 g 0.08125 16 & 30 May, 14 Jun Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g 0.066 10 & 25 Jul, 7 Aug Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 0.253 15 & 29 Aug Assail 30SG 142.0 g 0.09375 3 Apr Imidan 70W 1360.0 g 2.1 2 May, 27 Jun Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g 0.066 16 & 30 May, 14 Jun Delegate 25W 148.0 g 0.08125 10 & 25 Jul, 7 Aug Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 0.253 15 & 29 Aug F-9318 0.33EW 532.0 ml + 0.0464 + Damoil 3785.0 ml 1% 2 May Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g 0.066 16 & 30 May Imidan 70W 1360.0 g 2.1 14 Jun Mustang Max 0.8EC 118.0 ml 0.025 27 Jun, 10 & 25 Jul, 7 & 21 Aug Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml 0.3 2 May, 7 Aug Delegate 25W 148.0 g + 0.08125 + Zeal 72W 57.0 g 0.09 16 May Delegate 25W 148.0 g 0.08125 30 May Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml 0.1 14 Jun Imidan 70W 1360.0 g 2.1 + Venom 70SG 273.0 g 0.42 27 Jun, 21 Aug Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + 0.066 + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g 0.506 10 & 25 Jul Venom 70SG 273.0 g 0.42 29 Aug Imidan 70W 1360.0 g 2.1 2 May Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + 0.066 + Zeal 72W 57.0 g 0.09 16 May Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g 0.066 30 May Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml 0.1 14 Jun, 7 Aug Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml 0.3 27 Jun, 21 Aug Delegate 25W 148.0 g + 0.08125 + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g 0.506 10 & 25 Jul Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.13 2 May, 6 & 30 Jul Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g 0.066 16 & 30 May Lannate LV 1065.0 ml 0.675 14 Jun, 19 Jul, 15 & 29 Aug Assail 30SG 170.0 g 0.1125 2 May Altacor 35WDG 71.0 g 0.055 16 & 30 May, 14 Jun Declare 1.25CS 30.0 ml 0.0098 27 Jun, 10 & 25 Jul, 7 & 21 Aug Assail 30SG 170.0 g 0.1125 2 May Delegate 25W 128.0 g 0.07 16 & 30 May, 14 Jun Declare 1.25CS 60.0 ml 0.0195 27 Jun, 10 & 25 Jul, 7 & 21 Aug Avaunt 30WDG 170.0 g 0.1125 2 May Delegate 25W 148.0 g 0.08125 16 & 30 May Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + 2.1 + Admire Pro 148.0 ml 0.0784 14 Jun Assail 30SG 142.0 g 0.09375 27 Jun Voliam Flexi 40W 142.0 g 0.125 10 & 25 Jul Bifenture 2EC 189.0 ml 0.1 7 & 21 Aug Untreated check --- --- 3 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.A7 Table 2. OFM inj/3 min PLH nymphs/10 shoots PLH adults/10 shoots % apples w/frass Treatment/formulation Amt/acre 22 May 31 May 5 Jun 11 Jun 19 Jun 5 Jun 11 Jun 19 Jun 19 Jun 25 Jun 3 Jul 12 Jul 3 Aug GF-2032 2SC 89.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 2.2abc 4.2a 4.6ab 9.4bcd 2.0c 5.4a 5.0ab 8.4e 0.9ab 0.9ab 1.1b 0.8ab 0.7a Assail 30SG 142.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 1.2a 3.0a 7.4b 5.2a 0.2ab 1.8a 2.2a 0.8a 0.8ab 0.1a 0.0a 0.1a 0.0a F-9318 0.33EW 532.0 ml + + Damoil 3785.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Mustang Max 0.8EC 118.0 ml 1.8abc 2.6a 8.4b-e 10.6cd 0.0a 3.0a 3.2ab 3.2bcd 0.7ab 0.7ab 0.0a 0.7ab 0.5a Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Imidan 70W + 1360.0 g Venom 70SG 273.0 g Altacor 35WDG + 85.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g Venom 70SG 273.0 g 1.6ab 4.8a 7.0bc 9.2bcd 0.4ab 3.4a 2.4a 3.0bc 1.7b 2.3b 0.8ab 1.5b 0.7a Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g 1.8abc 3.6a 14.2de 14.8d 0.4ab 4.6a 6.0ab 6.6ef 0.1a 0.1a 0.0a 0.5ab 0.5a Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Lannate LV 1065.0 ml 3.2bcd 7.0a 11.4cde 9.8cd 0.0a 3.8a 5.4ab 1.0ab 0.4ab 0.3a 0.0a 0.7ab 0.3a Assail 30SG 170.0 g Altacor 35WDG 71.0 g Declare 1.25CS 30.0 ml 5.8cd 7.6a 12.2cd 6.2a-d 1.2bc 5.0a 7.0b 6.4ef 0.7ab 0.5ab 0.0a 0.1a 0.5a Assail 30SG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 128.0 g 4 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.A7 Declare 1.25CS 60.0 ml 6.4bcd 4.4a 1.6a 5.6abc 1.0abc 4.6a 4.0ab 5.8cde 0.5ab 0.1a 0.5ab 0.1a 0.5a Avaunt 30WDG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + + Admire Pro 148.0 ml Assail 30SG 142.0 g Voliam Flexi 40W 142.0 g Bifenture 2EC 189.0 ml 5.2cd 3.6a 6.2bcd 4.6ab 0.0a 3.8a 2.8a 1.0ab 0.8ab 0.8ab 0.9b 1.3ab 0.8a Untreated check --- 10.2d 16.6b 15.4e 10.8cd 1.8c 5.6a 4.8ab 6.4ef 9.5c 12.9c 12.5c 15.5c 16.1b Means followed by the same letters are not significantly different (P > 0.05) according to Fisher’s Protected LSD Test. 5 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.A7 Table 3. WAA colonies SA inf lvs/shoot NE’s/10 shoots /3 min Treatment/formulation Amt/acre 7 Jun 13 Jun 18 Jun 7 Jun 13 Jun 18 Jun 25 Jun 6 Aug GF-2032 2SC 89.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 0.1a 0.1a 0.0a 0.0c 0.2a 0.0b 0.0a 0.0a Assail 30SG 142.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 0.2a 0.2a 0.1a 0.6bc 0.6a 0.0b 0.4a 0.0a F-9318 0.33EW 532.0 ml + + Damoil 3785.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Mustang Max 0.8EC 118.0 ml 0.0a 0.0a 0.5a 0.4bc 0.2a 0.2a 0.4a 2.4a Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + Venom 70SG 273.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g Venom 70SG 273.0g 0.3a 0.2a 0.2a 1.6ab 1.2a 0.0b 0.0a 32.6a Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g 0.0a 0.2a 0.2a 2.0a 0.2a 0.0b 0.2a 10.0a Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Lannate LV 1065.0 ml 0.2a 0.3a 0.3a 1.0abc 0.6a 0.0b 0.2a 2.2a Assail 30SG 170.0 g Altacor 35WDG 71.0 g Declare 1.25CS 30.0 ml 0.0a 0.0a 0.5a 0.4bc 0.0a 0.0b 0.8a 0.2a Assail 30SG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 128.0 g Declare 1.25CS 60.0 ml 0.1a 0.1a 0.6a 0.2c 1.0a 0.0b 1.2a 5.8a Avaunt 30WDG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + + Admire Pro 148.0 ml Assail 30SG 142.0 g Voliam Flexi 40W 142.0 g Bifenture 2EC 189.0 ml 0.1a 0.4a 0.0a 0.6bc 0.0a 0.0b 0.0a 24.0a Untreated check --- 0.1a 0.0a 0.1a 0.4bc 0.0a 0.0b 0.0a 0.4a Means followed by the same letters are not significantly different (P > 0.05) according to Fisher’s Protected LSD Test. 6 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.A7 Table 4. ERM/leaf PMP/leaf Treatment/formulation Amt/acre 26 Jun 10 Jul 18 Jul 1 Aug 9 Aug 26 Jun 10 Jul 18 Jul 1 Aug 9 Aug GF-2032 2SC 89.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml GF-2032 2SC 45.0 ml 0.0a 1.1ab 2.5abc 2.6ab 0.3ab 0.0a 0.0c 0.0c 0.1a 0.0a Assail 30SG 142.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml Admire Pro 118.0 ml 0.2a 0.6ab 1.2ab 0.4a 0.1a 0.1a 0.2ab 0.2abc 0.0a 0.1a F-9318 0.33EW 532.0 ml + + Damoil 3785.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Mustang Max 0.8EC 118.0 ml 0.0a 0.0a 0.1a 1.5ab 0.8ab 0.0a 0.1bc 0.0bc 0.1a 0.2a Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + Venom 70SG 273.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g Venom 70SG 273.0 g 0.0a 0.4ab 13.5cde16.7de 1.4bc 0.0a 0.0bc 0.1abc 0.1a 0.2a Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g 0.0a 0.1a 0.8ab 2.6abc 3.3c 0.0a 0.0c 0.0bc 0.1a 0.1a Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Lannate LV 1065.0 ml 0.3a 0.5ab 0.7ab 1.4ab 0.9ab 0.1a 0.1bc 0.2ab 0.1a 0.3a Assail 30SG 170.0 g Altacor 35WDG 71.0 g Declare 1.25CS 30.0 ml 0.3a 0.8ab 3.4bcd 8.5cd 3.8c 0.1a 0.1bc 0.2abc 0.3a 0.2a Assail 30SG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 128.0 g Declare 1.25CS 60.0 ml 0.0a 1.8b 17.7e 28.9e 14.0d 0.0a 0.0bc 0.0bc 0.2a 0.1a Avaunt 30WDG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + + Admire Pro 148.0 ml Assail 30SG 142.0 g Voliam Flexi 40W 142.0 g Bifenture 2EC 189.0 ml 0.4a 7.0c 13.7de 5.9bcd 0.4ab 0.0a 0.1abc 0.3a 0.4a 0.1a Untreated check --- 0.0a 0.2a 0.2a 0.2a 0.0a 0.0a 0.3a 0.3a 0.2a 0.2a Means followed by the same letters are not significantly different (P > 0.05) according to Fisher’s Protected LSD Test. 7 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.A7 Table 5. Russet ZM/leaf Sp A & L/3 min rating Treatment/formulation Amt/acre 1 Aug 9 Aug 1 Aug 9 Aug 30 Aug GF-2032 2SC 89.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 0.4ab 0.6a 0.0d 0.6bcd 37.7a Assail 30SG 142.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 0.2abc 0.1c 0.2cd 0.0d 46.7a F-9318 0.33EW 532.0 ml + + Damoil 3785.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Mustang Max 0.8EC 118.0 ml 0.0c 0.1c 0.0d 0.0d 36.3a Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + Venom 70SG 273.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g Venom 70SG 273.0 g 0.0c 0.2bc 4.4a 3.6bc 44.3a Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g 0.0c 0.1bc 1.2bcd 0.4cd 36.0a Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Lannate LV 1065.0 ml 0.2abc 0.7a 0.2cd 0.6bcd 42.0a Assail 30SG 170.0 g Altacor 35WDG 71.0 g Declare 1.25CS 30.0 ml 0.1bc 0.3abc 2.8abc 4.6b 40.7a Assail 30SG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 128.0 g Declare 1.25CS 60.0 ml 0.3abc 0.1bc 4.8ab 11.6a 40.7a Avaunt 30WDG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + + Admire Pro 148.0 ml Assail 30SG 142.0 g Voliam Flexi 40W 142.0 g Bifenture 2EC 189.0 ml 0.5a 0.5ab 1.4cd 0.6bcd 40.3a Untreated check --- 0.2abc 0.2bc 0.0d 0.2d 42.3a Means followed by the same letters are not significantly different (P > 0.05) according to Fisher’s Protected LSD Test. 8 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.A7 Table 6. Injuries/100 apples CM/OFM No. fruit Live % Stings Entries larvae LR PC PB SB clean Treatment/formulation Amt/acre sampled GF-2032 2SC 89.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 524 7.9b 3.5.abc 1.0abc 1.1a 0.2a 0.2a 15.0a 73.1abc Assail 30SG 142.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 517 14.7b 6.0bcd 1.0ab 0.0a 1.0a 0.2a 13.0a 66.6bc F-9318 0.33EW 532.0 ml + + Damoil 3785.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Mustang Max 0.8EC 118.0ml 525 11.0b 10.2d 4.8d 0.4a 1.5a 0.4a 8.1a 71.5abc Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Delegate 25W 1480.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + Venom 70SG 273.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g Venom 70SG 273.0 g 514 8.2ab 2.7ab 0.8ab 0.0a 0.4a 0.2a 6.6a 82.3a Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g 514 11.9b 9.9d 4.1cd 0.8a 0.6a 0.2a 19.3a 63.0c Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Lannate LV 1065.0 ml 524 3.4a 2.3a 0.0a 2.8a 0.6a 0.8a 14.7a 77.4ab Assail 30SG 170.0 g Altacor 35WDG 71.0 g Declare 1.25CS 30.0 ml 521 10.5b 7.1cd 1.5bcd 0.6a 0.2a 0.4a 8.9a 74.3abc Assail 30SG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 128.0 g Declare 1.25CS 60.0 ml 515 11.4b 7.8cd 2.1bcd 1.0a 1.0a 0.6a 6.6a 72.3abc Avaunt 30WDG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + + Admire Pro 148.0 ml Assail 30SG 142.0 g Voliam Flexi 40W 142.0 g Bifenture 2EC 189.0 ml 517 8.3b 3.3abc 1.0abc 1.5a 0.8a 0.8a 9.1a 76.6ab Untreated check --- 519 13.3b 50.8e 22.9e 6.7b 2.9a 0.0a 11.4a 24.4d Means followed by the same letters are not significantly different (P > 0.05) according to Fisher’s Protected LSD Test. a Harvest samples – 7 Sep and 20 Sep 9 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.A7 Table 7. Injuries/100 apples No. (%) internal CM/OFM live larvae-all fruit No. fruit Live % Treatment/formulation Amt/acre sampled Stings Entries larvae LR PC PB SB clean CM OFM GF-2032 2SC 89.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 873 7.3bc 4.0ab 1.1ab 0.8a 0.2a 0.1a 10.2a 78.1ab 1 (14) 6 (86) Assail 30SG 142.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 844 10.2bc 4.1ab 0.6a 0.0a 0.9a 0.6a 8.7a 76.5ab 2 (40) 3 (60) F-9318 0.33EW 532.0 ml + + Damoil 3785.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Mustang Max 0.8EC 118.0 ml 877 9.1bc 8.7bc 3.2c 0.2a 2.9a 0.4a 5.1a 75.5ab 14 (78) 4 (22) Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Delegate 25W 1480.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + Venom 70SG 273.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g Venom 70SG 273.0 g 885 6.7bc 6.7abc 1.5abc 0.1a 0.6a 0.2a 4.5a 81.6ab 2 (17) 10 (83) Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g 877 9.4bc 8.8c 2.8c 0.6a 0.6a 0.2a 11.3a 72.5b 14 (74) 5 (26) Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Lannate LV 1065.0 ml 819 3.0a 2.9a 0.4a 1.8a 0.5a 0.5a 9.7a 83.0a 0 (0) 0 (0) Assail 30SG 170.0 g Altacor 35WDG 71.0 g Declare 1.25CS 30.0 ml 846 8.0bc 5.7bc 1.1ab 0.4a 0.4a 0.2a 6.1a 80.3ab 6 (75) 2 (25) Assail 30SG 170.0 g 10 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.A7 Delegate 25W 128.0 g Declare 1.25CS 60.0 ml 857 8.9bc 7.7c 1.8bc 0.6a 1.0a 0.4a 4.8a 77.2ab 8 (73) 3 (27) Avaunt 30WDG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + + Admire Pro 148.0 ml Assail 30SG 142.0 g Voliam Flexi 40W 142.0 g Bifenture 2EC 189.0 ml 895 6.2b 5.3abc 0.9ab 1.0a 1.1a 0.4a 5.7a 80.8ab 3 (60) 2 (40) Untreated check --- 944 11.5c 47.5d 15.9d 4.0b 2.0a 0.1a 6.5a 34.5c 73 (63) 42 (37) Means followed by the same letters are not significantly different (P > 0.05) according to Fisher’s Protected LSD Test. a All dropped and picked fruit throughout the season 11 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.A7 Table 8. st nd No. apples w/SB No. external No. 1 cut No. 2 cut No. fruit injury/100 apples SB injuries SB injuries SB injuries Treatment/formulation Amt/acre sampled sampled /SB injured fruit /SB injured fruit /SB injured fruit GF-2032 2SC 89.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 525 16.3a 2.7a 1.3a 0.3a Assail 30SG 142.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Scorpion 35SL 296.0 ml 516 7.2a 1.7a 0.8a 0.3a F-9318 0.33EW 532.0 ml + + Damoil 3785.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Mustang Max 0.8EC 118.0 ml 524 8.7a 1.7a 0.9a 0.4a Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Delegate 25W 1480.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + Venom 70SG 273.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g Venom 70SG 273.0 g 515 12.6a 2.6a 1.1a 0.3a Imidan 70W 1360.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g + + Zeal 72W 57.0 g Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Belay 2.13SL 177.0 ml Danitol 2.4EC 473.0 ml Delegate 25W 148.0 g + + Lannate 90SP 255.0 g 515 18.1a 3.0a 1.1a 0.3a Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml Altacor 35WDG 85.0 g Lannate LV 1065.0 ml 522 11.9a 2.4a 1.1a 0.4a Assail 30SG 170.0 g Altacor 35WDG 71.0 g Declare 1.25CS 30.0 ml 520 8.3a 2.7a 1.3a 0.2a Assail 30SG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 128.0 g Declare 1.25CS 60.0 ml 516 5.4a 2.2a 0.4a 0.1a Avaunt 30WDG 170.0 g Delegate 25W 148.0 g Imidan 70W 1360.0 g + + Admire Pro 148.0 ml Assail 30SG 142.0 g Voliam Flexi 40W 142.0 g Bifenture 2EC 189.0 ml 518 10.4a 1.9a 1.0a 0.6a Untreated check --- 519 14.7a 2.8a 0.9a 0.3a Means followed by the same letters are not significantly different (P > 0.05) according to Fisher’s Protected LSD Test.

Journal

Arthropod Management TestsOxford University Press

Published: Jan 1, 2013

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