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Evaluation of Biological Insecticides to Manage Corn Earworm in CBD Hemp, 2020

Evaluation of Biological Insecticides to Manage Corn Earworm in CBD Hemp, 2020 applyparastyle "fig//caption/p[1]" parastyle "FigCapt" applyparastyle "fig" parastyle "Figure" Arthropod Management T ests, 46(1), 2021, 1–2 doi: 10.1093/amt/tsab108 Section F: Field & Cereal Crops HEMP: Cannabis sativa Lamarck, ‘Sweeten’ HeadA=HeadB=HeadA=HeadB/HeadA HeadB=HeadC=HeadB=HeadC/HeadB Evaluation of Biological Insecticides to Manage Corn HeadC=HeadD=HeadC=HeadD/HeadC Extract3=HeadA=Extract1=HeadA Earworm in CBD Hemp, 2020 History=Text=History=Text_First 1, 2 1,3, Kadie E. Britt, T . David Reed, and Thomas P . Kuhar EDI_HeadA=EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadA=EDI_HeadB/HeadA EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadC/HeadB Department of Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 170 Drillfield Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0319, 2 3 USA, Virginia Tech Southern Piedmont Center, 2375 Darvills Road, Blackstone, VA 23824, USA, and Corresponding author, e-mail: EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadD=EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadD/HeadC tkuhar@vt.edu EDI_Extract3=EDI_HeadA=EDI_Extract1=EDI_HeadA Section Editor: Clyde Sorenson ERR_HeadA=ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadA=ERR_HeadB/HeadA ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadC/HeadB Hemp fibre | Cannabis sativa ssp. indica ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadD=ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadD/HeadC Bollworm/corn earworm (CEW)/tomato fruitworm | Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) ERR_Extract3=ERR_HeadA=ERR_Extract1=ERR_HeadA The objective of this experiment was to assess the efficacy of were sprayed with insecticides in the field using a 3-nozzle boom several biological insecticide products for management of CEW equipped with D3 spray tips powered by a CO back sprayer at 40 on cannabidiol (CBD) hemp in Virginia. A  field experiment was psi. All treatments were applied three times: 2, 8, and 15 Sep 2020. conducted with ‘Sweeten’ hemp transplanted into raised soil beds On 8, 15, and 23 Sep, the number of CEW, virus-infected CEW, on 2 Jul 2020 at the Virginia Tech Southern Piedmont Agricultural and presence of bud rot was counted on 10 buds per plot (Table 1). Research and Education Center in Blackstone, VA. The experi- Data were analyzed using ANOVA procedures and means were ment had 17 treatments: Agree WG (Bacillus thuringiensis var. separated using Tukey’s HSD at the 0.05 level of significance. aizawai), Crymax (Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki), Entrust SC On 8 Sep (7 DAT1), there was no treatment effect on number (spinosad), Gemstar LC (polyhedral occlusion bodies of the nuclear of CEW per 10 buds per plot (Table 1). On 15 Sep (7 DAT2), polyhedrosis virus of Helicoverpa zea), Gemstar LC + BoteGHA Gemstar LC + BoteGHA ES, Heligen ABC, and Coragen treatments ES (polyhedral occlusion bodies of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus had significantly fewer CEW than PyGanic EC and PyGanic EC + of Helicoverpa zea + Beauveria bassiana strain GHA), Spear-Lep Exponent. Gemstar LC had significantly fewer CEW than PyGanic (GS-omega/kappa-Hxtx-Hv1a), Spear-Lep + Leprotec (GS-omega/ EC + Exponent. On 23 Sep (8 DAT3), Entrust SC had significantly kappa-Hxtx-Hv1a + Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki), Heligen fewer CEW than Crymax and the untreated check. PyGanic EC A  (polyhedral occlusion bodies of Helicoverpa zea; applied on and PyGanic EC + Exponent had significantly more cumulative 2 Sep 2020 ONLY), Heligen AB (polyhedral occlusion bodies of CEW than Entrust SC, Gemstar LC + BoteGHA ES, Heligen ABC, Helicoverpa zea; applied on 2 and 8 Sep 2020 ONLY), Heligen and Coragen. PyGanic EC + Exponent had significantly more cu- ABC (polyhedral occlusion bodies of Helicoverpa zea applied on mulative CEW than Heligen + XenTari DF. Gemstar + BoteGHA 2, 8, and 15 Sep 2020), XenTari DF (Bacillus thuringiensis var. resulted in the fewest cumulative CEW per plot; this treatment aizawai), Heligen + XenTari DF (polyhedral occlusion bodies of was not significantly different from Entrust SC, Heligen ABC, Helicoverpa zea + Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai), PyGanic or Coragen. There was a significant treatment effect on propor - EC (pyrethrins), PyGanic EC + Exponent (pyrethrins + piperonyl tion bud rot at harvest. Entrust SC had a significantly lower inci- butoxide), DiPel DF (Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki), Coragen dence of bud rot than all treatments except the untreated check, (chlorantraniliprole), and an untreated check arranged in an RCB Gemstar LC + BoteGHA ES, Spear-Lep, Heligen A, Heligen AB, design with four replicates. Individual plots were comprised of and Coragen. No signs of phytotoxicity were observed from any five plants. Approximately 1  wk after flowering, hemp plants treatments. This research was supported by funding and/or products from Certis USA, AgBiTech, Vestaron Corporation, and the Southern Region IR-4 Project. Plants were donated by Kelli Scott at TruHarvest Farms, Christiansburg, VA. © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. 1 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com 2 Arthropod Management T ests, 2021, Vol. 46, No. 1 Table 1. Number of CEW per 10 buds Treatment Rate/acre 8 Sep 15 Sep 23 Sep Cumulative CEW days Proportion bud rot 23 Sep Untreated control — 2.3 3.5abc 3.8a 62.9abc 0.4abcde Agree WG 16.0 oz 1.5 3.8abc 2.3ab 53.8abc 0.6abc Crymax 16.0 oz 1.8 3.8abc 3.5a 60.4abc 0.5abcd Entrust SC 5.0 fl oz 0.8 1.5abc 0.0b 23.0c 0.1e Gemstar LC 5.0 fl oz 1.3 1.0bc 2.3ab 31.5abc 0.8a Gemstar LC + BoteGHA ES 5.0 fl oz 0.0 0.5c 0.5ab 12.7c 0.2cde 16.0 fl oz Spear-Lep 32.0 fl oz 2.3 2.5abc 1.5ab 46.3abc 0.5abcde Spear-Lep + Leprotec 32.0 fl oz 3.3 3.5abc 1.8ab 61.3abc 0.6abc 16.0 fl oz 9. Heligen A 2.4 fl oz 1.0 2.3abc 0.5ab 32.3abc 0.3bcde Heligen AB 2.4 fl oz 1.0 1.5abc 2.3ab 33.7abc 0.4abcde Heligen ABC 2.4 fl oz 1.5 0.5c 1.3ab 25.4c 0.6abc XenTari DF 16.0 oz 2.3 3.0abc 1.8ab 51.0abc 0.5abcd Heligen + XenTari DF 2.4 fl oz 1.3 1.5abc 0.5ab 28.3bc 0.5abcd 16.0 oz PyGanic EC 15.6 fl oz 3.3 6.0ab 2.8ab 84.0ab 0.5abcd PyGanic EC + Exponent 15.6 fl oz 3.3 6.3a 3.3ab 87.9a 0.6ab 23.0 fl oz DiPel DF 16.0 oz 2.3 2.5abc 2.8ab 51.3abc 0.5abcd Coragen 3.5 fl oz 1.0 0.5c 0.8ab 20.2c 0.1de P-value from ANOVA NS 0.0015 0.0025 0.0001 <0.0001 Means followed by the same letter within a column are not significantly different (P > 0.05). Arcsine-transformed proportion data were used for analysis, but untransformed sample means are presented. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Arthropod Management Tests Oxford University Press

Evaluation of Biological Insecticides to Manage Corn Earworm in CBD Hemp, 2020

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Oxford University Press
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© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.
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2155-9856
DOI
10.1093/amt/tsab108
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Abstract

applyparastyle "fig//caption/p[1]" parastyle "FigCapt" applyparastyle "fig" parastyle "Figure" Arthropod Management T ests, 46(1), 2021, 1–2 doi: 10.1093/amt/tsab108 Section F: Field & Cereal Crops HEMP: Cannabis sativa Lamarck, ‘Sweeten’ HeadA=HeadB=HeadA=HeadB/HeadA HeadB=HeadC=HeadB=HeadC/HeadB Evaluation of Biological Insecticides to Manage Corn HeadC=HeadD=HeadC=HeadD/HeadC Extract3=HeadA=Extract1=HeadA Earworm in CBD Hemp, 2020 History=Text=History=Text_First 1, 2 1,3, Kadie E. Britt, T . David Reed, and Thomas P . Kuhar EDI_HeadA=EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadA=EDI_HeadB/HeadA EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadC/HeadB Department of Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 170 Drillfield Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0319, 2 3 USA, Virginia Tech Southern Piedmont Center, 2375 Darvills Road, Blackstone, VA 23824, USA, and Corresponding author, e-mail: EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadD=EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadD/HeadC tkuhar@vt.edu EDI_Extract3=EDI_HeadA=EDI_Extract1=EDI_HeadA Section Editor: Clyde Sorenson ERR_HeadA=ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadA=ERR_HeadB/HeadA ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadC/HeadB Hemp fibre | Cannabis sativa ssp. indica ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadD=ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadD/HeadC Bollworm/corn earworm (CEW)/tomato fruitworm | Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) ERR_Extract3=ERR_HeadA=ERR_Extract1=ERR_HeadA The objective of this experiment was to assess the efficacy of were sprayed with insecticides in the field using a 3-nozzle boom several biological insecticide products for management of CEW equipped with D3 spray tips powered by a CO back sprayer at 40 on cannabidiol (CBD) hemp in Virginia. A  field experiment was psi. All treatments were applied three times: 2, 8, and 15 Sep 2020. conducted with ‘Sweeten’ hemp transplanted into raised soil beds On 8, 15, and 23 Sep, the number of CEW, virus-infected CEW, on 2 Jul 2020 at the Virginia Tech Southern Piedmont Agricultural and presence of bud rot was counted on 10 buds per plot (Table 1). Research and Education Center in Blackstone, VA. The experi- Data were analyzed using ANOVA procedures and means were ment had 17 treatments: Agree WG (Bacillus thuringiensis var. separated using Tukey’s HSD at the 0.05 level of significance. aizawai), Crymax (Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki), Entrust SC On 8 Sep (7 DAT1), there was no treatment effect on number (spinosad), Gemstar LC (polyhedral occlusion bodies of the nuclear of CEW per 10 buds per plot (Table 1). On 15 Sep (7 DAT2), polyhedrosis virus of Helicoverpa zea), Gemstar LC + BoteGHA Gemstar LC + BoteGHA ES, Heligen ABC, and Coragen treatments ES (polyhedral occlusion bodies of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus had significantly fewer CEW than PyGanic EC and PyGanic EC + of Helicoverpa zea + Beauveria bassiana strain GHA), Spear-Lep Exponent. Gemstar LC had significantly fewer CEW than PyGanic (GS-omega/kappa-Hxtx-Hv1a), Spear-Lep + Leprotec (GS-omega/ EC + Exponent. On 23 Sep (8 DAT3), Entrust SC had significantly kappa-Hxtx-Hv1a + Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki), Heligen fewer CEW than Crymax and the untreated check. PyGanic EC A  (polyhedral occlusion bodies of Helicoverpa zea; applied on and PyGanic EC + Exponent had significantly more cumulative 2 Sep 2020 ONLY), Heligen AB (polyhedral occlusion bodies of CEW than Entrust SC, Gemstar LC + BoteGHA ES, Heligen ABC, Helicoverpa zea; applied on 2 and 8 Sep 2020 ONLY), Heligen and Coragen. PyGanic EC + Exponent had significantly more cu- ABC (polyhedral occlusion bodies of Helicoverpa zea applied on mulative CEW than Heligen + XenTari DF. Gemstar + BoteGHA 2, 8, and 15 Sep 2020), XenTari DF (Bacillus thuringiensis var. resulted in the fewest cumulative CEW per plot; this treatment aizawai), Heligen + XenTari DF (polyhedral occlusion bodies of was not significantly different from Entrust SC, Heligen ABC, Helicoverpa zea + Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai), PyGanic or Coragen. There was a significant treatment effect on propor - EC (pyrethrins), PyGanic EC + Exponent (pyrethrins + piperonyl tion bud rot at harvest. Entrust SC had a significantly lower inci- butoxide), DiPel DF (Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki), Coragen dence of bud rot than all treatments except the untreated check, (chlorantraniliprole), and an untreated check arranged in an RCB Gemstar LC + BoteGHA ES, Spear-Lep, Heligen A, Heligen AB, design with four replicates. Individual plots were comprised of and Coragen. No signs of phytotoxicity were observed from any five plants. Approximately 1  wk after flowering, hemp plants treatments. This research was supported by funding and/or products from Certis USA, AgBiTech, Vestaron Corporation, and the Southern Region IR-4 Project. Plants were donated by Kelli Scott at TruHarvest Farms, Christiansburg, VA. © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. 1 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com 2 Arthropod Management T ests, 2021, Vol. 46, No. 1 Table 1. Number of CEW per 10 buds Treatment Rate/acre 8 Sep 15 Sep 23 Sep Cumulative CEW days Proportion bud rot 23 Sep Untreated control — 2.3 3.5abc 3.8a 62.9abc 0.4abcde Agree WG 16.0 oz 1.5 3.8abc 2.3ab 53.8abc 0.6abc Crymax 16.0 oz 1.8 3.8abc 3.5a 60.4abc 0.5abcd Entrust SC 5.0 fl oz 0.8 1.5abc 0.0b 23.0c 0.1e Gemstar LC 5.0 fl oz 1.3 1.0bc 2.3ab 31.5abc 0.8a Gemstar LC + BoteGHA ES 5.0 fl oz 0.0 0.5c 0.5ab 12.7c 0.2cde 16.0 fl oz Spear-Lep 32.0 fl oz 2.3 2.5abc 1.5ab 46.3abc 0.5abcde Spear-Lep + Leprotec 32.0 fl oz 3.3 3.5abc 1.8ab 61.3abc 0.6abc 16.0 fl oz 9. Heligen A 2.4 fl oz 1.0 2.3abc 0.5ab 32.3abc 0.3bcde Heligen AB 2.4 fl oz 1.0 1.5abc 2.3ab 33.7abc 0.4abcde Heligen ABC 2.4 fl oz 1.5 0.5c 1.3ab 25.4c 0.6abc XenTari DF 16.0 oz 2.3 3.0abc 1.8ab 51.0abc 0.5abcd Heligen + XenTari DF 2.4 fl oz 1.3 1.5abc 0.5ab 28.3bc 0.5abcd 16.0 oz PyGanic EC 15.6 fl oz 3.3 6.0ab 2.8ab 84.0ab 0.5abcd PyGanic EC + Exponent 15.6 fl oz 3.3 6.3a 3.3ab 87.9a 0.6ab 23.0 fl oz DiPel DF 16.0 oz 2.3 2.5abc 2.8ab 51.3abc 0.5abcd Coragen 3.5 fl oz 1.0 0.5c 0.8ab 20.2c 0.1de P-value from ANOVA NS 0.0015 0.0025 0.0001 <0.0001 Means followed by the same letter within a column are not significantly different (P > 0.05). Arcsine-transformed proportion data were used for analysis, but untransformed sample means are presented.

Journal

Arthropod Management TestsOxford University Press

Published: Jun 3, 2021

Keywords: Hemp fibre | Cannabis sativa ssp. indica; Bollworm/corn earworm (CEW)/tomato fruitworm | Helicoverpa zea (Boddie); Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai; Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki; GS-omega/kappa-Hxtx-HV1a; spinosad; Beauveria bassiana strain GHA; HzSNPV (nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Helicoverpa zea); pyrethrin; piperonyl butoxide; chlorantraniliprole

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