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Evaluation of At-Plant Banded Applications of Verimark Versus Foliar Applications of Exirel for European Corn Borer Control on Green Bean in Wisconsin, 2021

Evaluation of At-Plant Banded Applications of Verimark Versus Foliar Applications of Exirel for... Bean | Phaseolus spp European corn borer (ECB) | Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) cyantraniliprole This trial was conducted in 2021 at the University of Wisconsin’s Arlington Agricultural Research Station, located 2.6 miles southeast of Arlington, WI (43.316577, −89.334019) on a silt loam soil. Green bean, Phaseolus vulgaris cv. ‘Blue Lakes 04-95’ seeds were planted with an Almaco single-row cone seeder on 7 Jun on a 7 seed/ft spacing. Four replicates of four treatment programs and an untreated check were arranged in an RCB design. Plots measured 3 rows wide by 30 ft long. Rows were spaced on 30 inch centers. This trial consisted of one untreated check receiving no insecticide applications, two treatments that received at-plant banded applications of Verimark at 13.5 fl oz/acre and 10 fl oz/acre, respectively, and two treatments that received foliar applications of Exirel at 20.5 fl oz/acre and 15 fl oz/acre, respectively, when plants had reached the flowering and pin-bean development stage. The Verimark applications were mixed with Tolero at 1 qt/acre, while the Exirel applications were mixed with MSO at 0.25% v:v. Treatments were applied using a CO2-pressurized backpack sprayer operating at 30 psi while traveling at 3.5 ft/s. For at-plant applications a single flat-fan nozzle (Tee Jet XR 8002-VS) was used and delivered 8.4 gpa. For foliar applications a 6 ft boom fitted with 4 flat-fan nozzles spaced 18 inches apart was used that delivered 20 gpa. At-plant applications took place on 7 Jun, and foliar applications on 22 Jul. On 23 Jul each plot was infested with egg masses of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB). Five plants in each plot were infested with 10 egg masses, for a total of 50 egg masses, each containing approximately 20–30 eggs/mass. Egg masses were pinned within the lower canopy of plants. Populations of ECB and associated damage estimates were surveyed 3 Aug by counting the total number of pods, number of damaged pods, number of damaged stems, number of larvae in pods, and number of larvae in stems from the five infested plants located in the central portion of each plot. Data analysis was performed in R version 4.1.0 (R Core Team 2021). Treatment main effects were determined using analysis of variance. Means separation letter codes were generated using Tukey’s HSD procedure (α = 0.05, R package ‘agricolae’, Mendiburu 2021). No significant treatment differences in any of the evaluation metrics were observed due to high within-treatment variation, though some numerical differences in means between treatments were noted, with lower damage incidence and larval counts in treatment plots versus the untreated check (Table 1). Overall the Exirel (foliar) treatments had slightly lower damage ratings than the Verimark (at-plant) treatments, and the lower rates of both products generally performed slightly worse than the higher rates.1 Table 1. Treatment/form.a . Rate (amt/acre) . Appl. method . Total beans . % damaged beans . Damaged stems . Larvae in beans . Larvae in stems . Untreated 60.25 6.3 5.00 1.00 1.25 Verimark 1.67 SC 13.5 fl oz/ac at-plant 62.50 2.0 3.00 0.25 0.75 Verimark 1.67 SC 10 fl oz/ac at-plant 68.75 4.7 2.75 0.75 1.00 Exirel 0.83 SC 20.5 fl oz/ac foliar 58.50 0.0 3.75 0.00 0.00 Exirel 0.83 SC 15 fl oz/ac foliar 73.75 1.0 1.50 0.00 0.25 P < F 0.61 0.31 0.52 0.22 0.41 Treatment/form.a . Rate (amt/acre) . Appl. method . Total beans . % damaged beans . Damaged stems . Larvae in beans . Larvae in stems . Untreated 60.25 6.3 5.00 1.00 1.25 Verimark 1.67 SC 13.5 fl oz/ac at-plant 62.50 2.0 3.00 0.25 0.75 Verimark 1.67 SC 10 fl oz/ac at-plant 68.75 4.7 2.75 0.75 1.00 Exirel 0.83 SC 20.5 fl oz/ac foliar 58.50 0.0 3.75 0.00 0.00 Exirel 0.83 SC 15 fl oz/ac foliar 73.75 1.0 1.50 0.00 0.25 P < F 0.61 0.31 0.52 0.22 0.41 aVerimark treatments were mixed with Tolero at 1 qt/acre and applied on 7 Jun; Exirel treatments were mixed with MSO at 0.25% v:v and applied on 22 Jul. Open in new tab Table 1. Treatment/form.a . Rate (amt/acre) . Appl. method . Total beans . % damaged beans . Damaged stems . Larvae in beans . Larvae in stems . Untreated 60.25 6.3 5.00 1.00 1.25 Verimark 1.67 SC 13.5 fl oz/ac at-plant 62.50 2.0 3.00 0.25 0.75 Verimark 1.67 SC 10 fl oz/ac at-plant 68.75 4.7 2.75 0.75 1.00 Exirel 0.83 SC 20.5 fl oz/ac foliar 58.50 0.0 3.75 0.00 0.00 Exirel 0.83 SC 15 fl oz/ac foliar 73.75 1.0 1.50 0.00 0.25 P < F 0.61 0.31 0.52 0.22 0.41 Treatment/form.a . Rate (amt/acre) . Appl. method . Total beans . % damaged beans . Damaged stems . Larvae in beans . Larvae in stems . Untreated 60.25 6.3 5.00 1.00 1.25 Verimark 1.67 SC 13.5 fl oz/ac at-plant 62.50 2.0 3.00 0.25 0.75 Verimark 1.67 SC 10 fl oz/ac at-plant 68.75 4.7 2.75 0.75 1.00 Exirel 0.83 SC 20.5 fl oz/ac foliar 58.50 0.0 3.75 0.00 0.00 Exirel 0.83 SC 15 fl oz/ac foliar 73.75 1.0 1.50 0.00 0.25 P < F 0.61 0.31 0.52 0.22 0.41 aVerimark treatments were mixed with Tolero at 1 qt/acre and applied on 7 Jun; Exirel treatments were mixed with MSO at 0.25% v:v and applied on 22 Jul. Open in new tab Footnotes 1 This research was supported in part by direct industry funding. © The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com © The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Arthropod Management Tests Oxford University Press

Evaluation of At-Plant Banded Applications of Verimark Versus Foliar Applications of Exirel for European Corn Borer Control on Green Bean in Wisconsin, 2021

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Copyright © 2022 Entomological Society of America
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Abstract

Bean | Phaseolus spp European corn borer (ECB) | Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) cyantraniliprole This trial was conducted in 2021 at the University of Wisconsin’s Arlington Agricultural Research Station, located 2.6 miles southeast of Arlington, WI (43.316577, −89.334019) on a silt loam soil. Green bean, Phaseolus vulgaris cv. ‘Blue Lakes 04-95’ seeds were planted with an Almaco single-row cone seeder on 7 Jun on a 7 seed/ft spacing. Four replicates of four treatment programs and an untreated check were arranged in an RCB design. Plots measured 3 rows wide by 30 ft long. Rows were spaced on 30 inch centers. This trial consisted of one untreated check receiving no insecticide applications, two treatments that received at-plant banded applications of Verimark at 13.5 fl oz/acre and 10 fl oz/acre, respectively, and two treatments that received foliar applications of Exirel at 20.5 fl oz/acre and 15 fl oz/acre, respectively, when plants had reached the flowering and pin-bean development stage. The Verimark applications were mixed with Tolero at 1 qt/acre, while the Exirel applications were mixed with MSO at 0.25% v:v. Treatments were applied using a CO2-pressurized backpack sprayer operating at 30 psi while traveling at 3.5 ft/s. For at-plant applications a single flat-fan nozzle (Tee Jet XR 8002-VS) was used and delivered 8.4 gpa. For foliar applications a 6 ft boom fitted with 4 flat-fan nozzles spaced 18 inches apart was used that delivered 20 gpa. At-plant applications took place on 7 Jun, and foliar applications on 22 Jul. On 23 Jul each plot was infested with egg masses of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB). Five plants in each plot were infested with 10 egg masses, for a total of 50 egg masses, each containing approximately 20–30 eggs/mass. Egg masses were pinned within the lower canopy of plants. Populations of ECB and associated damage estimates were surveyed 3 Aug by counting the total number of pods, number of damaged pods, number of damaged stems, number of larvae in pods, and number of larvae in stems from the five infested plants located in the central portion of each plot. Data analysis was performed in R version 4.1.0 (R Core Team 2021). Treatment main effects were determined using analysis of variance. Means separation letter codes were generated using Tukey’s HSD procedure (α = 0.05, R package ‘agricolae’, Mendiburu 2021). No significant treatment differences in any of the evaluation metrics were observed due to high within-treatment variation, though some numerical differences in means between treatments were noted, with lower damage incidence and larval counts in treatment plots versus the untreated check (Table 1). Overall the Exirel (foliar) treatments had slightly lower damage ratings than the Verimark (at-plant) treatments, and the lower rates of both products generally performed slightly worse than the higher rates.1 Table 1. Treatment/form.a . Rate (amt/acre) . Appl. method . Total beans . % damaged beans . Damaged stems . Larvae in beans . Larvae in stems . Untreated 60.25 6.3 5.00 1.00 1.25 Verimark 1.67 SC 13.5 fl oz/ac at-plant 62.50 2.0 3.00 0.25 0.75 Verimark 1.67 SC 10 fl oz/ac at-plant 68.75 4.7 2.75 0.75 1.00 Exirel 0.83 SC 20.5 fl oz/ac foliar 58.50 0.0 3.75 0.00 0.00 Exirel 0.83 SC 15 fl oz/ac foliar 73.75 1.0 1.50 0.00 0.25 P < F 0.61 0.31 0.52 0.22 0.41 Treatment/form.a . Rate (amt/acre) . Appl. method . Total beans . % damaged beans . Damaged stems . Larvae in beans . Larvae in stems . Untreated 60.25 6.3 5.00 1.00 1.25 Verimark 1.67 SC 13.5 fl oz/ac at-plant 62.50 2.0 3.00 0.25 0.75 Verimark 1.67 SC 10 fl oz/ac at-plant 68.75 4.7 2.75 0.75 1.00 Exirel 0.83 SC 20.5 fl oz/ac foliar 58.50 0.0 3.75 0.00 0.00 Exirel 0.83 SC 15 fl oz/ac foliar 73.75 1.0 1.50 0.00 0.25 P < F 0.61 0.31 0.52 0.22 0.41 aVerimark treatments were mixed with Tolero at 1 qt/acre and applied on 7 Jun; Exirel treatments were mixed with MSO at 0.25% v:v and applied on 22 Jul. Open in new tab Table 1. Treatment/form.a . Rate (amt/acre) . Appl. method . Total beans . % damaged beans . Damaged stems . Larvae in beans . Larvae in stems . Untreated 60.25 6.3 5.00 1.00 1.25 Verimark 1.67 SC 13.5 fl oz/ac at-plant 62.50 2.0 3.00 0.25 0.75 Verimark 1.67 SC 10 fl oz/ac at-plant 68.75 4.7 2.75 0.75 1.00 Exirel 0.83 SC 20.5 fl oz/ac foliar 58.50 0.0 3.75 0.00 0.00 Exirel 0.83 SC 15 fl oz/ac foliar 73.75 1.0 1.50 0.00 0.25 P < F 0.61 0.31 0.52 0.22 0.41 Treatment/form.a . Rate (amt/acre) . Appl. method . Total beans . % damaged beans . Damaged stems . Larvae in beans . Larvae in stems . Untreated 60.25 6.3 5.00 1.00 1.25 Verimark 1.67 SC 13.5 fl oz/ac at-plant 62.50 2.0 3.00 0.25 0.75 Verimark 1.67 SC 10 fl oz/ac at-plant 68.75 4.7 2.75 0.75 1.00 Exirel 0.83 SC 20.5 fl oz/ac foliar 58.50 0.0 3.75 0.00 0.00 Exirel 0.83 SC 15 fl oz/ac foliar 73.75 1.0 1.50 0.00 0.25 P < F 0.61 0.31 0.52 0.22 0.41 aVerimark treatments were mixed with Tolero at 1 qt/acre and applied on 7 Jun; Exirel treatments were mixed with MSO at 0.25% v:v and applied on 22 Jul. Open in new tab Footnotes 1 This research was supported in part by direct industry funding. © The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com © The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

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Arthropod Management TestsOxford University Press

Published: Jan 1, 2022

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