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Efficacy of Registered Materials Against Tobacco Budworm and Tobacco Hornworm, 2019

Efficacy of Registered Materials Against Tobacco Budworm and Tobacco Hornworm, 2019 applyparastyle "fig//caption/p[1]" parastyle "FigCapt" applyparastyle "fig" parastyle "Figure" Arthropod Management T ests, 46(1), 2021, 1–2 doi: 10.1093/amt/tsaa110 Section F: Field & Cereal Crops TOBACCO: Nicotiana tobacum, ‘NC196’ Efficacy of Registered Materials Against Tobacco Budworm HeadA=HeadB=HeadA=HeadB/HeadA and Tobacco Hornworm, 2019 HeadB=HeadC=HeadB=HeadC/HeadB HeadC=HeadD=HeadC=HeadD/HeadC Gabriel Zilnik and Hannah Burrack Extract3=HeadA=Extract1=HeadA Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7634, Raleigh, NC 27695 and History=Text=History=Text_First Corresponding author, e-mail: glzilnik@ncsu.edu EDI_HeadA=EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadA=EDI_HeadB/HeadA Section Editor: Clyde Sorenson EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadC/HeadB Tobacco | Nicotiana tabacum EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadD=EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadD/HeadC Tobacco budworm (TBW) | Chloridea virescens (F.) EDI_Extract3=EDI_HeadA=EDI_Extract1=EDI_HeadA ERR_HeadA=ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadA=ERR_HeadB/HeadA Hornworms (HW) | Manduca sexta (L.) and M. quinquemaculata (Haworth) ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadC/HeadB The efficacy of registered foliar insecticides against tobacco bud- Counts of BWIP showed significant effects of treatment ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadD=ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadD/HeadC worm (TBW) and tobacco and tomato hornworm (HW) was (F = 36.580, df 1,67, P < 0.001), date (F = 18.478, df 4,67, P < 0.001), ERR_Extract3=ERR_HeadA=ERR_Extract1=ERR_HeadA assessed at the Upper Coastal Plain Research Station (UCPRS) and their interaction (F  =  10.038, df 4,67, P  <  0.001). Proportion in Rocky Mount, NC. At this location, four treatments, including BWIP showed significant effects of treatment (F = 48.654, df 1,67, an untreated check, were arranged in an RCB design with four P  <  0.001), date (F  =  22.001, df 4,67, P  <  0.001), and their inter- replicates per treatment. All plots were 0.02 acres and planted on action (F  =  11.486, df 4,67, P  <  0.001) Coragen, Blackhawk, and 30 Apr 2019. Each plot consisted of four rows with ca. 25 plants. Radiant SC + COC all reduced BWIP and proportion BWIP 1 week Foliar applications of treatments targeting TBW were made 20 after treatment (WAT) compared with the untreated check. Coragen Jun 2019 using a CO pressurized backpack sprayer fitted with and Radiant SC + COC treatments reduced BWIP and proportion a single TG2 solid cone nozzle calibrated to apply 30 gal/acre BWIP four DAT compared with other Blackhawk and the untreated spray volume at 52 psi pressure. Foliar application of treatments check (Table  1). Coragen and Radiant SC + COC reduced BWIP for HW were made on 15 Jul 2019 with the same equipment and and proportion BWIP four DAT when compared to pre-treatment calibration as the TBW treatments. Applications were made once counts. All foliar applications differed from their pre-treatment BW and HW reached the management threshold of 0.10 mean BWIP counts and proportion BWIP 7 DAT. caterpillars per plant in one or more plots. Coragen was not Counts of HW showed significant effects of treatment reapplied in the HW plots to measure any carryover effect from (F  =  11.885, df 1,42, P  =  0.001), date (F  =  46.690, df 2,42, the BW application. P < 0.001), but not their interaction (F = 0.033, df 2,42, P = 0.968). All plants in each of the middle two rows were sampled for TBW Proportion HW showed significant effects of treatment (F  = 11.787, and HW. Presence of TBW on a plant was assessed as one budworm df 1,42, P = 0.001), date (F = 45.253, df 2,42, P < 0.001), but not in plant (BWIP) regardless of the number of TBW on the plant. All their interaction (F = 0.025, df 2,42, P = 0.975). All differences are HW were counted on each plant. Stand counts were conducted to shown as between treatment within the same week (Table  2). On compute proportion BWIP- and HW-infested plants. Counts were pre-treatment counts of HW and proportion HW we observed car- analyzed in R v.  3.5.3 using LM with treatment, date, and treat- ryover effect of Coragen from the TBW treatment. HW counts and ment × date interaction fitted to the model. Proportion BWIP and proportion HW were significantly different than untreated check HW infested plants were analyzed using GLM using logit regression 4 DAT and one WAT (Table  2). Radiant SC + COC reduced HW with treatment, date, and treatment × date interactions fitted to the count to the same as Coragen at one WAT. Foliar applications of model. BWIP and HW counts were square root transformed to meet Blackhawk and Radiant SC + COC reduced proportion HW count assumptions of normality. Untransformed means are presented for four DAT and one WAT and did not differ from the carryover ef- clarity. Means were separated by Fisher’s Protected LSD (α = 0.05). fect of Coragen. This research was supported, in part, by gifts from industry. © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. 1 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com 2 Arthropod Management T ests, 2021, Vol. 46, No. 1 Table 1. Budworm in plant count Budworm in plant proportion a a Material Application timing Rate/1000 plants 20 Jun 24 Jun 28 Jun 20 Jun 24 Jun 28 Jun Radiant SC + COC TBW threshold 1.5 fl oz/acre + 1% v/v 8.500ab 7.500a 1.750b 0.146a 0.128b 0.030b Blackhawk TBW threshold 1.6 oz/acre 9.500a 7.750a 0.000c 0.168a 0.137ab 0.000b Coragen TBW threshold 5 fl oz/acre 6.250a 3.000b 0.500bc 0.113a 0.054b 0.009b Untreated Check — — 10.500a 12.00a 11.750a 0.191a 0.219a 0.214a Means followed by the same lower-case letter are not significantly different (α = 0.05) via Fisher’s Protected LSD. Pretreatment counts. Table 2. Mean Hornworm Mean Hornworms in Plant a a Material Application Timing Rate/1000 Plants 15 Jul 19 Jul 23 Jul 15 Jul 19 Jul 23 Jul Radiant SC + COC HW Threshold 1.5 fl oz/acre + 1% v/v 44.750ab 0.750c 0.000b 0.775ab 0.013b 0.000b Blackhawk HW Threshold 1.6 oz/acre 92.250a 3.500b 1.750b 1.664a 0.063b 0.032b Coragen TBW threshold 5 fl oz/acre 16.750b 0.250c 0.000b 0.302b 0.004b 0.000b Untreated Check — — 69.250ab 10.500a 8.500a 1.263ab 0.190a 0.152a Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different (α = 0.05) via Fisher’s Protected LSD. Pretreatment counts. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Arthropod Management Tests Oxford University Press

Efficacy of Registered Materials Against Tobacco Budworm and Tobacco Hornworm, 2019

Arthropod Management Tests , Volume 46 (1): 1 – Jan 28, 2021

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Oxford University Press
Copyright
© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.
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2155-9856
DOI
10.1093/amt/tsaa110
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Abstract

applyparastyle "fig//caption/p[1]" parastyle "FigCapt" applyparastyle "fig" parastyle "Figure" Arthropod Management T ests, 46(1), 2021, 1–2 doi: 10.1093/amt/tsaa110 Section F: Field & Cereal Crops TOBACCO: Nicotiana tobacum, ‘NC196’ Efficacy of Registered Materials Against Tobacco Budworm HeadA=HeadB=HeadA=HeadB/HeadA and Tobacco Hornworm, 2019 HeadB=HeadC=HeadB=HeadC/HeadB HeadC=HeadD=HeadC=HeadD/HeadC Gabriel Zilnik and Hannah Burrack Extract3=HeadA=Extract1=HeadA Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7634, Raleigh, NC 27695 and History=Text=History=Text_First Corresponding author, e-mail: glzilnik@ncsu.edu EDI_HeadA=EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadA=EDI_HeadB/HeadA Section Editor: Clyde Sorenson EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadC/HeadB Tobacco | Nicotiana tabacum EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadD=EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadD/HeadC Tobacco budworm (TBW) | Chloridea virescens (F.) EDI_Extract3=EDI_HeadA=EDI_Extract1=EDI_HeadA ERR_HeadA=ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadA=ERR_HeadB/HeadA Hornworms (HW) | Manduca sexta (L.) and M. quinquemaculata (Haworth) ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadC/HeadB The efficacy of registered foliar insecticides against tobacco bud- Counts of BWIP showed significant effects of treatment ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadD=ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadD/HeadC worm (TBW) and tobacco and tomato hornworm (HW) was (F = 36.580, df 1,67, P < 0.001), date (F = 18.478, df 4,67, P < 0.001), ERR_Extract3=ERR_HeadA=ERR_Extract1=ERR_HeadA assessed at the Upper Coastal Plain Research Station (UCPRS) and their interaction (F  =  10.038, df 4,67, P  <  0.001). Proportion in Rocky Mount, NC. At this location, four treatments, including BWIP showed significant effects of treatment (F = 48.654, df 1,67, an untreated check, were arranged in an RCB design with four P  <  0.001), date (F  =  22.001, df 4,67, P  <  0.001), and their inter- replicates per treatment. All plots were 0.02 acres and planted on action (F  =  11.486, df 4,67, P  <  0.001) Coragen, Blackhawk, and 30 Apr 2019. Each plot consisted of four rows with ca. 25 plants. Radiant SC + COC all reduced BWIP and proportion BWIP 1 week Foliar applications of treatments targeting TBW were made 20 after treatment (WAT) compared with the untreated check. Coragen Jun 2019 using a CO pressurized backpack sprayer fitted with and Radiant SC + COC treatments reduced BWIP and proportion a single TG2 solid cone nozzle calibrated to apply 30 gal/acre BWIP four DAT compared with other Blackhawk and the untreated spray volume at 52 psi pressure. Foliar application of treatments check (Table  1). Coragen and Radiant SC + COC reduced BWIP for HW were made on 15 Jul 2019 with the same equipment and and proportion BWIP four DAT when compared to pre-treatment calibration as the TBW treatments. Applications were made once counts. All foliar applications differed from their pre-treatment BW and HW reached the management threshold of 0.10 mean BWIP counts and proportion BWIP 7 DAT. caterpillars per plant in one or more plots. Coragen was not Counts of HW showed significant effects of treatment reapplied in the HW plots to measure any carryover effect from (F  =  11.885, df 1,42, P  =  0.001), date (F  =  46.690, df 2,42, the BW application. P < 0.001), but not their interaction (F = 0.033, df 2,42, P = 0.968). All plants in each of the middle two rows were sampled for TBW Proportion HW showed significant effects of treatment (F  = 11.787, and HW. Presence of TBW on a plant was assessed as one budworm df 1,42, P = 0.001), date (F = 45.253, df 2,42, P < 0.001), but not in plant (BWIP) regardless of the number of TBW on the plant. All their interaction (F = 0.025, df 2,42, P = 0.975). All differences are HW were counted on each plant. Stand counts were conducted to shown as between treatment within the same week (Table  2). On compute proportion BWIP- and HW-infested plants. Counts were pre-treatment counts of HW and proportion HW we observed car- analyzed in R v.  3.5.3 using LM with treatment, date, and treat- ryover effect of Coragen from the TBW treatment. HW counts and ment × date interaction fitted to the model. Proportion BWIP and proportion HW were significantly different than untreated check HW infested plants were analyzed using GLM using logit regression 4 DAT and one WAT (Table  2). Radiant SC + COC reduced HW with treatment, date, and treatment × date interactions fitted to the count to the same as Coragen at one WAT. Foliar applications of model. BWIP and HW counts were square root transformed to meet Blackhawk and Radiant SC + COC reduced proportion HW count assumptions of normality. Untransformed means are presented for four DAT and one WAT and did not differ from the carryover ef- clarity. Means were separated by Fisher’s Protected LSD (α = 0.05). fect of Coragen. This research was supported, in part, by gifts from industry. © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. 1 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com 2 Arthropod Management T ests, 2021, Vol. 46, No. 1 Table 1. Budworm in plant count Budworm in plant proportion a a Material Application timing Rate/1000 plants 20 Jun 24 Jun 28 Jun 20 Jun 24 Jun 28 Jun Radiant SC + COC TBW threshold 1.5 fl oz/acre + 1% v/v 8.500ab 7.500a 1.750b 0.146a 0.128b 0.030b Blackhawk TBW threshold 1.6 oz/acre 9.500a 7.750a 0.000c 0.168a 0.137ab 0.000b Coragen TBW threshold 5 fl oz/acre 6.250a 3.000b 0.500bc 0.113a 0.054b 0.009b Untreated Check — — 10.500a 12.00a 11.750a 0.191a 0.219a 0.214a Means followed by the same lower-case letter are not significantly different (α = 0.05) via Fisher’s Protected LSD. Pretreatment counts. Table 2. Mean Hornworm Mean Hornworms in Plant a a Material Application Timing Rate/1000 Plants 15 Jul 19 Jul 23 Jul 15 Jul 19 Jul 23 Jul Radiant SC + COC HW Threshold 1.5 fl oz/acre + 1% v/v 44.750ab 0.750c 0.000b 0.775ab 0.013b 0.000b Blackhawk HW Threshold 1.6 oz/acre 92.250a 3.500b 1.750b 1.664a 0.063b 0.032b Coragen TBW threshold 5 fl oz/acre 16.750b 0.250c 0.000b 0.302b 0.004b 0.000b Untreated Check — — 69.250ab 10.500a 8.500a 1.263ab 0.190a 0.152a Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different (α = 0.05) via Fisher’s Protected LSD. Pretreatment counts.

Journal

Arthropod Management TestsOxford University Press

Published: Jan 28, 2021

Keywords: Tobacco | Nicotiana tabacum; Tobacco budworm (TBW) | Chloridea virescens (F.); Hornworms (HW) | Manduca sexta (L.) and M. quinquemaculata (Haworth); chlorantraniliprole; spinosad; spinetoram

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