Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article-abstract/22/1/117/4640061 by DeepDyve user on 21 July 2020 E: VEGETABLE CROPS Arthropod Management Tests, Vol. 22 117 CELERY: Apium graveolens L. Conquistador W. G. Carson (38E) Beet armyworm (BAW); Spodoptera exigua (Hiibner) and J. T. Trumble Leafminer; Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) Department of Entomology University of California Riverside, CA 92521 (909) 787-4297 EFFECT OF INSECTICIDES ON CELERY INSECTS, 1995. Celery was transplanted in a sandy loam soil on 29-30 Aug at the University of California's South Coast Field Station. The plants were sprinkler irrigated for three weeks and drip irrigated (water pH 7.2-7.5) thereafter. Experimental plots were four beds wide (two rows per bed on 40-inch centers) by 40 ft and separated by a 5 ft buffer with four replicates of each treatment in a RCB de sign. Applications were weekly from 5 Oct through 30 Nov (total of 9 applications for all chemicals except Avid and Avid + Lannate). Actual dates of applications were: 5, 12, 19, 26 Oct, and 3, 9, 16, 21 , 30 Nov. Avid was applied on 5, 12 Oct and again on 3, 9, 30 Nov. The Avid + Lannate treatment was the same except that Lannate was applied on 19, 26 Oct and 16, 21 Nov. All chemicals were applied by a tractor-mounted boom sprayer operated at 125 psi. Nozzles were 4 per bed and carrier (H 0 ) was at 100 gpa. Disc-type cone nozzles incorporated D3 orifice discs, #25 cores and 50-mesh screens. All treatments received spreader-sticker. Antifoam (No-Foam®) was used with all treatments. Leafminer populations were evaluated by weekly counts of leafminer prepupae and pupae in four 5 1/2 X 11 inch trays/replicate when the plants reached a suitable height. Actual sampling dates were 16, 25 , 31 Oct and 8, 16, 20, 30 Nov. The number of dead adult parasites of Liriomyza species were recorded in the same manner and on the same dates listed for pupal counts. Evaluation of BA W populations was based on number of damaged plants found in 25 plants per replicate (100/treatment) from the center two rows of each replicate at harvest (6- 7 Dec). Populations of lepidopterous pests were very high throughout the growing period (almost 50% of control plants damaged). Lannate and Avid + Lannate provided the best control, with the high rate of Spinosad comparable, as were Brigade and Mustang. Trigard was somewhat less effective. Leafminer populations were moderate early and decreased late in the season. Brigade, and to a lesser extent, Mustang, significantly increased leafminer densities as compared with the other treatments. The same two treatments, together with Lannate and Avid + Lannate, greatly increased the number of dead adult leafminer parasitoids as compared with the other treatments. No phytotoxicity was observed in any treatment. Rate Mean no. Treatment lb (AI)/acre BA W damaged plants" Control 11.75c XenTari 1.01b 3.25ab Spinosad 0.07 3.50ab Spinosad 0.14 2.25a Mattch 2.0 qt 5.50ab Trigard 8.50bc 0.161b Avid 0.01 lb 4.50ab Avid + 0.01 lb 0.75a Lannate 0.901b MK-244 2.25a 0.0075 Brigade 0.101b 1.25a Mustang 0.04 lb 1.75a Lannate 0.901b 0.25a Spod-X + 2xl0 oc b 2.50a Spod-X + 2X10 oc b 2.00a Align 5 gal ANOVAF 7.440 134 2 ANOVA P value 0.0001 Means in a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P < 0.05 level, Tukey' s Honestly Significant Difference Test), (ocb = occlusion bodies). 'Based on 25-plant samples per replicate Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article-abstract/22/1/117/4640061 by DeepDyve user on 21 July 2020 118 Arthropod Management Tests, Vol. 22 E: VEGETABLE CROPS Mean no. Liriomyza leafminers/4 trays' f c Treament 16 Oct 25 Oct 31 Oct 8Nov 16 Nov 20 Nov 30 Nov Control 0.00a 0.00a 0.50 1.75b 0.25 0.00 0.00a XenTari 0.50a 0.50ab 0.00 0.00a 0.00a 0.00 0.00 Spinosad 0.00a 0.00a 0.25 0.25a 0.00 0.00 0.00a Spinosad 0.00a 0.25 0.75ab 0.00 0.25 0.00a 0.00a Mattch 0.00a 0.00a 0.00a 0.00 0.25a 0.00 0.00 Trigard 0.00a 0.00a 0.25a 0.00 0.00a 0.00 0.00 Avid 0.00a 0.00a 0.00 0.25a 0.00 0.00 0.00a Avid + 0.00a 0.00a 0.00a 0.00 0.00a 1.50 0.00 Lannate MK24 4 0.00a 0.50a 0.25a 0.25a 0.00 0.25 0.00 Brigade 51.25c 30.50c 0.50 8.50b 2.75 0.25a 0.50 Mustang 18.75b 7.00b 0.25 3.50ab 2.75 0.00a 0.00 Lannate 0.00a 0.00a 0.25 0.50a 2.00 0.00a 0.25 Spod-X 0.50a 0.25a 0.00 0.00a 0.00 0.00a 0.00 Spod-X + 0.00a 0.00a 0.00 0.00a 0.00 0.00a 0.00 Align 46.261 237.717 3.734 4.495 3.911 1.296 1.296 ^13,42 0.0001 0.0001 0.0006 0.0001 0.0004 0.2536 0.2536 P value Means in a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P < 0.05 level, Tukey' s Honestly Significant Difference Test). Tou r trays examined per replicate per week, four replicates per treatment. Tukey' s Honestly Significant Difference Test could not separate treatments on this date in spite of a significant ANOVA value. Mean no. dead parasites/4 trays Treatment 16 Oct 25 Oct 31 Oct 8 Nov 16 Nov 20 Nov 30 Nov Control 1.00a 0.25a 0.00a 0.00a 0.00a 0.00a 0.00a XenTari 2.25a 1.25a 1.00a 1.25a 0.50a 0.00a 0.00a Spinosad 4.00a 4.00ab 1.00a 1.25a 0.00a 0.75ab 0.00a Spinosad 2.25ab 0.75a 2.75a 3.00ab 0.25a 0.00a 0.50ab Mattch 1.00a 0.25a 4.50ab 0.75a 1.00a 1.50ab 0.00a Trigard 1.00a 0.75a 5.25ab 2.25a 0.00a 0.00a 0.00a 0.50a 2.25a Avid 1.00a 6.75ab 2.50a 0.00a 0.00a 20.50bc 14.00bcd 9.25ab 12.25bc Avid + 9.75ab 5.50bc l.OOab Lannate MK24 4 0.50a 6.50ab 5.25abc 2.25a 0.75a 1.25ab 0.50ab Brigade 36.00c 40.25d 27.50e 17.00b 12.75bc 8.50c 2.25b Mustang 23.75de 22.50bc 14.50abc 18.75b 8.75ab 3.25ab 4.75ab Lannate 15.00cd 15.25ab 26.25cd 16.25b 18.00c 5.00abc 2.25b Spod-X 2.50ab 3.25a 3.50ab 1.25a 0.25a 2.00ab 0.25a Spod-X + 3.50abc 3.00a 1.75a 3.00a 1.75a 0.00a 0.50a Align r 7.462 11.464 7.959 11.3931 6.666 4.962 14.219 13,42 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 P value Means in a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P < 0.05 level, Tukey' s Honestly Significant Difference Test).
Arthropod Management Tests – Oxford University Press
Published: Jan 1, 1997