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Effect of drying technologies on the biochemical properties of Stolephorus commersonnii

Effect of drying technologies on the biochemical properties of Stolephorus commersonnii Objectives: Two different methods, namely traditional sundrying and solar dryer drying were employed to investigate the effect of drying method on the quality of Indian anchovies, Stolephorus commersonnii. Materials and Methods: Fifty fish samples of Stolephorus commersonnii were purchased for the drying study. Traditionally dried fishes were bought from the local market. For solar drying the samples were kept in on the solar cabinet dryer KSD 25 designed and fabricated by the Central Institute of Fisheries Technology (CIFT). International standard AOAC methods were used for quality analysis of dried fish samples. Results: The method of drying by the solar dryer is more hygienic and faster than the traditional sun-drying method. The biochemical compositions and sensory evaluation of the products obtained showed significant variation between the two drying methods. Solar dryer–dried fish has got good organoleptic score than the traditional sundried fish. The overall quality of fish dried in the solar dryer was better than the traditionally sundried fish. Conclusions: The study clearly indicates that solar drying can be used as an environment-friendly method for fish processing which enhances food security. Key words: Stolephorus commersonnii dried fish; solar dryer; biochemical qualities; storage. cent of the total fish catch is cured. This is the highest of the different Introduction ways of disposition, next only to consumption of fresh fish (FAO, Fish is rightly considered a more nutritious food than meat and egg. 2000a). Bombay duck, pink perches, croakers, mackerel, soles, seer Curing and drying are the traditional preservation techniques, which fish, silver bellies, ribbon-fish, and anchovies are commonly cured in are cost-effective too. The processing techniques vary with the type, our country. Sun drying is the simplest and most economical method nature, size, and condition of the fish. Improper handling and pro- of fish preservation. Sun drying still has many limitations, one of cessing leads to spoilage and insect infestation and hence results in a which is the long period of drying during cloudy weathers. In areas product of poor quality. The quality of the final product depends sig- of high humidity, it is often difficult to dry the fish sufficiently. Sun nificantly on the quality of raw materials, the processing variables, drying of fish often results in low-quality products because in this and drying method. At present, globally about 1.4 million metric method drying is slow, and the fish are prone to infestation by insects tons of fish, accounting for about 8.0 per cent of the total world and contamination from airborne dust. It is, therefore, necessary to catch, are cured and utilized. adopt an improved method of drying to get a better-quality product The important producers of cured fish are China, Japan, Russia, (Curran and Trim, 1985). Indonesia, Philippines, Ghana, Canada, and India. In India, 14 per © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Zhejiang University Press. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/fqs/article-abstract/2/3/153/5050416 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 28 August 2018 154 J. Patterson et al., 2018, Vol. 2, No. 3 Sun drying can be improved remarkably by raising the fish Materials and Methods off the ground on wooden frames. This allows the air to circu- Solar dryer experimental trials late beneath the fish and thus facilitates drying of both the sides. The solar cabinet dryer KSD 25 designed and fabricated by Drying fish on racks with mosquito netting exposes them more the Central Institute of Fisheries Technology (CIFT) was used to air and wind and less to contamination and insect infestation (Figure 1A–1C). The solar dryer was fabricated with different parts, (Olokor and Omojowo, 2009). Eves and Brown (1993) studied which could be easily dismantled and transported. The dryer consists the effect of traditional drying process on the nutritional values of three main parts, such as drying chamber which is made up of the of fish. The use of a solar tent dryer has been recommended as double wall fabricated casing with 40 PUF insulation. The inner wall a good alternative to sun drying of fish, for this arrangement casing is made up of SS 304 and the outer wall is made of GI sheets collects and concentrates the solar radiation to achieve elevated coated with perforated SS 304 sheet. The drying chamber consists of temperature during drying (Doe et  al., 1977). It is very essen- trays made of perforated SS 304 sheets. UV-stabilized 200 µm plastic tial to use improved methods of fish drying to get dried fish of films were used in the solar panels for the collection of solar energy prime quality. Moreover, it is also important to maintain the from the sun. The inlet pipe takes the atmospheric air into the drying required hygiene during the different phases of fish drying. The chamber. A motor is attached near the inlet pipe and it is switched export of cured fishery products from India was less in 1995 on during the night and during rainy seasons for drying of the fish. when compared with the previous years (Sugumar et al., 1995) The fish to be dried are weighted and loaded on the trays of the mainly because of the poor quality. This causes considerable solar dryer. loss to the fish-curing industry in India. Sugumar et  al. (1995) suggest that the quality of Indian dry fish is in need of much Solar-dried samples improvement. Fifty fresh fish samples of moderate weight (15–20 g) (Stolephorus The assessment of the biochemical and organoleptic quality of commersonnii) were purchased from the local landing centre of the processed food is the first step in ensuring food safety. Therefore, Tuticorin. The fish samples were washed thoroughly with tap water the present study was carried out to determine and compare the to remove all the adhesive materials and blood, and degutted using qualities of fish dried traditionally (sun drying) and that dried by a clean knives. The samples were immersed in the brine solution of 18 solar dryer. Figure 1. (A) Drying chamber. (B) Solar collectors. (C) Drying of fish in a solar-dryer tray. Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/fqs/article-abstract/2/3/153/5050416 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 28 August 2018 Effect of drying technologies on fish, 2018, Vol. 2, No. 3 155 Figure 2. Traditional sun drying of fishes. per cent of salt for 1 h, and then the fish samples were taken out and Results and Discussion placed inside solar dryer racks and dried at a temperature of 60 C. The availability of fresh fish is not uniform throughout the year, for there are months of scarcity and periods of plenty. At the times of Traditional sun-dried samples scarcity, therefore, there is a higher demand for dried fish. During Traditionally, fishes are unhygienically dried on the ground using the the periods of abundant catches, the fishermen sell a major part of coir mat (Figure 2) and marketed locally. Fifty samples of traditional the catch which is bought for consumption, and they retain a part sun-dried S. commersonnii were bought in a local dry fish market of with them, which they preserve by sun drying. The sun-dried fish is Tuticorin and brought to the laboratory for further analysis. available throughout the year but the sale will be more during the lean fishing season. The traditional methods of drying are unhygienic Biochemical analysis and non-standard (Abraham, 1993). The quality of fish dried by the The proportion of moisture (James, 1983), crude protein, conventional methods is not satisfactory, for such methods yield fish ash, and free fatty acids (FFA) of the fish samples were deter - with discoloration, off-odour, high sand content, and insect infest- mined using 10  g of powdered dry fish samples (AOAC, 2000). ation (Sachithananthan et al., 1969). The fish dried in these methods Carbohydrate content was estimated by the phenol–sul- often undergo belly bursting and disintegration apart from having phuric acid method (Dubois et  al., 1995). Lipid was esti- high microbial load (Thomas and Balachandran, 1989). mated according to the method of Bligh and Dyer (1959). Volatile base nitrogen such as trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N) Biochemical analysis and total volatile nitrogen (TVB-N) was assessed by the micro- Table  1 presents the two sets of values for the results of the con- diffusion method of Conway (1957), and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) tent analysis of S. commersonnii dried directly in the sun (traditional of dried fish was estimated by the method of Tarladgis et al. (1960). sun-drying method) and by the solar drier. The content values are for mean moisture, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and ash. The ini- Assessment of organoleptic quality tial moisture content was the most important factor affecting the Organoleptic evaluation of the fresh fish was carried out by a panel of ultimate quality and storage life of dried fish (Antony, 1983). The highly experienced judges on a 9-point hedonic scale (Larmond, 1977). moisture content of solar dryer–dried fish is low when compared with the sun-dried fish (53.17 ± 0.2) procured from the local dry fish Storage study market. Similar results of high moisture content ranging from 39.53 Dried samples were packed in polyethylene bags and analysed at to 46.58 per cent were reported in dried ribbon fish collected from regular intervals for moisture (James, 1983), volatile base nitrogen a curing centre at Ratnagiri (Joseph et al. 1983). Basu et al. (1989) (TMA-N and TVB-N), and TBA. also reported high moisture levels ranging from 36.1 to 52.0 per cent Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/fqs/article-abstract/2/3/153/5050416 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 28 August 2018 156 J. Patterson et al., 2018, Vol. 2, No. 3 Table 1. Biochemical quality parameters of commercially dried and solar-dried S. commersonnii Biochemical quality parameters Commercially dried fish Solar dried fish Moisture (%) 53.17 ± 0.38 34.39 ± 0.84 Protein (%) 14.72 ± 0.16 17.93 ± 0.29 Lipid (%) 1.04 ± 1.74 2.74 ± 0.05 Carbohydrate (%) 0.81 ± 0.26 1.06 ± 0.75 Ash (%) 0.72 ± 1.74 0.65 ± 0.83 TMA – N (mg N/100 g) 0.42 ± 0.88 NIL TVB – N (mg N/100 g) 1.48 ± 0.37 NIL FFA (% of oleic acid) 0.19 ± 1.03 0.05 ± 0.99 TBA (mg MDA/100 g) 0.71 ± 0.72 0.08 ± 0.58 Table  2. Organoleptic analysis of commercially dried and solar- in dried ribbon fish from Andhra Pradesh fish markets. MPEDA has dried S. commersonnii specified 35 per cent as the maximum moisture level for dried fish (MPEDA, 2003). In the present study, the moisture content of the Organoleptic parameters Commercially dried Solar dried fish sun-dried fish procured from the market falls within the acceptable fish limits recommended by MPEDA. The fish dried in the solar dryer has relatively higher protein content Appearance 7 9 Colour 8 9 (17.93%), whereas the sun-dried fish procured from the market showed Taste 7 9 lower protein content (14.72%). Solar-dryer dried S. commersonnii has Odour 8 9 more protein and less moisture content. This is similar to the finding Texture 8 9 of Cowey (1972). The difference in protein contents may be attributed Overall acceptability 7 9 to the removal of moisture to a greater extent in the dryer-dried fish than the sun-dried fish procured from local market. Shrivastava and Anandavally (1974) observed an identical inverse relationship between nitrogenous compounds. These compounds are responsible for the moisture and protein during the storage of dried shrimps packed in production of TMA-N (Connell, 1975). polythene bags. Salted and sun-dried fish stored at ambient tempera- The spoilage indicator FFA (0.05  ±  0.99%) was very low in the ture showed an inverse relationship between moisture and protein as samples dried in the solar dryer when compared with the traditionally reported by Kumar et al. (1997) and MPEDA (2003). sun-dried fish (0.19 ± 1.03). Huss (1988), Pearson (1976) and Horner The lipid content of solar-dryer dried fish was 2.74 ± 0.05 and it (1997) suggested that the high level of FFA is an indication of micro- was low (1.04 ± 1.74) in traditional sun-dried fish. The ash content bial spoilage activity. Lipid hydrolysis occurred in all the dried fish sam- of the dried fish obtained from the market was high (0.72 ± 1.74) ples. The FFA is a measure of hydrolytic rancidity and the extent of when compared with the fish dried in the solar dryer (0.65 ± 0.83). lipid hydrolysis by lipase action. Accumulation of FFA has a detrimen- This may be due to the difference in the salt contents, indicating tal effect on ATPase activity, protein solubility, and relative viscosity. that the higher proportion of ash is mostly due to the appropriate FFAs are tertiary products of rancidity. Lipid hydrolysis is one of the quantity of salt used during the processing of S. commersonnii fish important changes that occur in fat fish muscle during post mortem and for drying. Khuntia (1990) while working on keeping the quality of during treatment with release of FFAs. Furthermore, during processing, dry salted mackerel recorded a high degree of positive correlation breakdown of triglycerides and phospholipids would be likely to occur between ash and salt content. and be the source of new FFAs formation. But the accumulated FFA The results of the analyses of biochemical quality indicators such was present within the acceptable levels of 0.5%–1.5% as reported by as TVB-N, TMA-N, FFA, and TBA of the samples are presented in Careche and Tejada (1994). Extracellular lipases produced from certain Table  1. In the present study, the respective values of TMA-N and microorganisms may also bring about lipolysis in the dried-fish samples. TVB-N content were 0.42 ± 0.88 and 1.48 ± 0.37 in traditional sun- TBA is widely used as an indicator in the assessment of the dried fish, whereas TMA-N and TVB-N contents were nil in solar- degree of secondary lipid oxidation. The maximum TBA value indi- dried fish. TMA-N and TVB-N in fish are commonly used as spoilage cating the good quality of fish is 5 mg malonaldehyde per kg. Fish indicators (Pearson, 1976, Silva et al., 1998). Total volatile nitrogen is with a TBA value of 8 mg malonaldehyde per kg may be consumed the total amount of volatile nitrogen bases (trimethylamine) together (Schormuller, 1969). In the present study, TBA values were found with the nitrogen which is synthesized by microbial activities on pro- to be quite low in both the samples. TBA is responsible for rancid tein and hence is an indicator of microbial activity (Connell, 1975, flavour, off odours, and discolouration as well as deterioration in Gamal et al., 2009). The TVB-N levels in all the samples were within texture and nutritional value (Olafsdottir et al., 1997). Formation of the acceptable limit of 30 mg N/100 g (Lannelongue, 1980, Sikorski, secondary oxidation products in the dried fish was low and it was 1989), which indicates the freshness and good quality of dried fish. below the acceptable level. Our result indicates that the dried fish Trimethylamine oxidase produced by spoilage microorganisms samples may be considered to be of good quality. reduces the trimethylamine oxide in the fish flesh to trimethylamine, which is believed to react with fats to produce typical spoilage Assessment of organoleptic quality (Sikorski, 1995, Triqui and Bouchriti, 2003). In the present study, Some dishes were prepared using the traditional sun-dried and the the TVB-N level does not exceed the acceptable limit of 10–15 mg solar dryer–dried S.  commersonnii, and their organoleptic analysis N/100 g. The formation of TMA-N is related to many factors such was done by ten panelists and the results are presented in Table  2. as the difference in species, bacterial growth, processing methods, All the organoleptic parameters were ‘very good’ for the solar dryer- and storage conditions (Hebard et al., 1982). The factors mentioned dried fish dish and the overall acceptability was also good. previously are conducive to degradation of protein and non-protein Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/fqs/article-abstract/2/3/153/5050416 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 28 August 2018 Effect of drying technologies on fish, 2018, Vol. 2, No. 3 157 Table 3. Storage characteristics of commercial and solar-dried fish Parameter Drying method Storage period in months 0 1 2 3 4 5 Moisture (%) Solar dried 34.39 34.4 34.62 34.64 34.73 34.76 Commercial sun dried 53.17 53.27 53.88 54.38 54.64 56.19 TMA-N (mg Solar dried 0.42 0.56 0.73 0.89 1.22 1.73 N/100 g) Commercial sun dried Nil Nil Nil Nil 0.03 0.08 TVB-N (mg Solar dried 1.48 2.22 3.11 3.56 3.72 3.84 N/100 g) Commercial sun dried Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil TBA (mg Solar dried 0.71 0.83 0.96 1.2 1.7 2.3 MDA/100 g) Commercial sun dried 0.08 0.07 0.09 0.11 0.12 0.12 gratitude to the Director, Suganthi Devadason Marine Research Institute Storage study (SDMRI), for providing facilities to carry out this work. The storage characteristics of fish dried in the solar dryer and trad- itionally dried fish are presented in Table  3. The values of all the Conflict of interest statement: None declared parameters were higher in traditionally dried fish than the solar- dried fish. The moisture content increased slowly in both the prod- References ucts with the storage period. This may be due to the permeability of polythene to water vapour (Pravin et al., 2003). The initial TMA-N Abraham, T. J., Sukumar, D., Shanmugam, S. A., Jeyachandran, P. (1993). Microbial stability of certain cured fishery products. Journal of Fisheries and TVB-N values in solar dryer–dried fishes were nil; also TVB-N Technology Research, 30: 134–138. was nil after 5 months of storage. In the case of traditionally dried Antony, K. P., Govindan, T. K. (1983). Packaging and storage studies of dried fish, the initial TMA-N and TVB-N values were 0.42  ±  0.88 and Lizardfish. Journal of Fishery Technology, 20: 35–41. 1.48 ± 0.37 mg N/100 g, respectively. There was a steady increase AOAC (2000). Official Methods of Analysis. 18th ed. 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AVI ally dried fish and the solar dryer-dried fish, clearly points out the Publishing Co., Connecticut. pp. 149–304. superior quality parameters of the latter. Horner, W. F.  A. (1997). Preservation of fish by curing, drying, salting and smoking. In: Hall G. M. (Ed). Fish Processing Technology, 2nd edn. Blackie Academic and Professional, London, pp. 32–73. Acknowledgements Huss, H. H. (1988). Fresh Fish Quality and Quality Changes. FAO Fisheries The authors wish to place on record their thanks to the Department of Series No. 29. FAO Danish International Development Agency, Rome. Biotechnology, Government of India for the financial support (Award Number James, D. (1983). The Prevention of Losses in Cured Fish. Food and Agriculture BT/PR7839/SPD/11/1435/2013 dated 11. 12. 2014). They also express their Organization of the United Nations, Rome. p. 87. Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/fqs/article-abstract/2/3/153/5050416 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 28 August 2018 158 J. 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Journal of Agricultural and Food Indian Mackerel. Journal of Indian Fisheries Association, 30: 165–171. Chemistry, 51: 7540–7546. Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/fqs/article-abstract/2/3/153/5050416 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 28 August 2018 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Food Quality and Safety Oxford University Press

Effect of drying technologies on the biochemical properties of Stolephorus commersonnii

Food Quality and Safety , Volume 2 (3) – Sep 1, 2018

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Abstract

Objectives: Two different methods, namely traditional sundrying and solar dryer drying were employed to investigate the effect of drying method on the quality of Indian anchovies, Stolephorus commersonnii. Materials and Methods: Fifty fish samples of Stolephorus commersonnii were purchased for the drying study. Traditionally dried fishes were bought from the local market. For solar drying the samples were kept in on the solar cabinet dryer KSD 25 designed and fabricated by the Central Institute of Fisheries Technology (CIFT). International standard AOAC methods were used for quality analysis of dried fish samples. Results: The method of drying by the solar dryer is more hygienic and faster than the traditional sun-drying method. The biochemical compositions and sensory evaluation of the products obtained showed significant variation between the two drying methods. Solar dryer–dried fish has got good organoleptic score than the traditional sundried fish. The overall quality of fish dried in the solar dryer was better than the traditionally sundried fish. Conclusions: The study clearly indicates that solar drying can be used as an environment-friendly method for fish processing which enhances food security. Key words: Stolephorus commersonnii dried fish; solar dryer; biochemical qualities; storage. cent of the total fish catch is cured. This is the highest of the different Introduction ways of disposition, next only to consumption of fresh fish (FAO, Fish is rightly considered a more nutritious food than meat and egg. 2000a). Bombay duck, pink perches, croakers, mackerel, soles, seer Curing and drying are the traditional preservation techniques, which fish, silver bellies, ribbon-fish, and anchovies are commonly cured in are cost-effective too. The processing techniques vary with the type, our country. Sun drying is the simplest and most economical method nature, size, and condition of the fish. Improper handling and pro- of fish preservation. Sun drying still has many limitations, one of cessing leads to spoilage and insect infestation and hence results in a which is the long period of drying during cloudy weathers. In areas product of poor quality. The quality of the final product depends sig- of high humidity, it is often difficult to dry the fish sufficiently. Sun nificantly on the quality of raw materials, the processing variables, drying of fish often results in low-quality products because in this and drying method. At present, globally about 1.4 million metric method drying is slow, and the fish are prone to infestation by insects tons of fish, accounting for about 8.0 per cent of the total world and contamination from airborne dust. It is, therefore, necessary to catch, are cured and utilized. adopt an improved method of drying to get a better-quality product The important producers of cured fish are China, Japan, Russia, (Curran and Trim, 1985). Indonesia, Philippines, Ghana, Canada, and India. In India, 14 per © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Zhejiang University Press. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/fqs/article-abstract/2/3/153/5050416 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 28 August 2018 154 J. Patterson et al., 2018, Vol. 2, No. 3 Sun drying can be improved remarkably by raising the fish Materials and Methods off the ground on wooden frames. This allows the air to circu- Solar dryer experimental trials late beneath the fish and thus facilitates drying of both the sides. The solar cabinet dryer KSD 25 designed and fabricated by Drying fish on racks with mosquito netting exposes them more the Central Institute of Fisheries Technology (CIFT) was used to air and wind and less to contamination and insect infestation (Figure 1A–1C). The solar dryer was fabricated with different parts, (Olokor and Omojowo, 2009). Eves and Brown (1993) studied which could be easily dismantled and transported. The dryer consists the effect of traditional drying process on the nutritional values of three main parts, such as drying chamber which is made up of the of fish. The use of a solar tent dryer has been recommended as double wall fabricated casing with 40 PUF insulation. The inner wall a good alternative to sun drying of fish, for this arrangement casing is made up of SS 304 and the outer wall is made of GI sheets collects and concentrates the solar radiation to achieve elevated coated with perforated SS 304 sheet. The drying chamber consists of temperature during drying (Doe et  al., 1977). It is very essen- trays made of perforated SS 304 sheets. UV-stabilized 200 µm plastic tial to use improved methods of fish drying to get dried fish of films were used in the solar panels for the collection of solar energy prime quality. Moreover, it is also important to maintain the from the sun. The inlet pipe takes the atmospheric air into the drying required hygiene during the different phases of fish drying. The chamber. A motor is attached near the inlet pipe and it is switched export of cured fishery products from India was less in 1995 on during the night and during rainy seasons for drying of the fish. when compared with the previous years (Sugumar et al., 1995) The fish to be dried are weighted and loaded on the trays of the mainly because of the poor quality. This causes considerable solar dryer. loss to the fish-curing industry in India. Sugumar et  al. (1995) suggest that the quality of Indian dry fish is in need of much Solar-dried samples improvement. Fifty fresh fish samples of moderate weight (15–20 g) (Stolephorus The assessment of the biochemical and organoleptic quality of commersonnii) were purchased from the local landing centre of the processed food is the first step in ensuring food safety. Therefore, Tuticorin. The fish samples were washed thoroughly with tap water the present study was carried out to determine and compare the to remove all the adhesive materials and blood, and degutted using qualities of fish dried traditionally (sun drying) and that dried by a clean knives. The samples were immersed in the brine solution of 18 solar dryer. Figure 1. (A) Drying chamber. (B) Solar collectors. (C) Drying of fish in a solar-dryer tray. Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/fqs/article-abstract/2/3/153/5050416 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 28 August 2018 Effect of drying technologies on fish, 2018, Vol. 2, No. 3 155 Figure 2. Traditional sun drying of fishes. per cent of salt for 1 h, and then the fish samples were taken out and Results and Discussion placed inside solar dryer racks and dried at a temperature of 60 C. The availability of fresh fish is not uniform throughout the year, for there are months of scarcity and periods of plenty. At the times of Traditional sun-dried samples scarcity, therefore, there is a higher demand for dried fish. During Traditionally, fishes are unhygienically dried on the ground using the the periods of abundant catches, the fishermen sell a major part of coir mat (Figure 2) and marketed locally. Fifty samples of traditional the catch which is bought for consumption, and they retain a part sun-dried S. commersonnii were bought in a local dry fish market of with them, which they preserve by sun drying. The sun-dried fish is Tuticorin and brought to the laboratory for further analysis. available throughout the year but the sale will be more during the lean fishing season. The traditional methods of drying are unhygienic Biochemical analysis and non-standard (Abraham, 1993). The quality of fish dried by the The proportion of moisture (James, 1983), crude protein, conventional methods is not satisfactory, for such methods yield fish ash, and free fatty acids (FFA) of the fish samples were deter - with discoloration, off-odour, high sand content, and insect infest- mined using 10  g of powdered dry fish samples (AOAC, 2000). ation (Sachithananthan et al., 1969). The fish dried in these methods Carbohydrate content was estimated by the phenol–sul- often undergo belly bursting and disintegration apart from having phuric acid method (Dubois et  al., 1995). Lipid was esti- high microbial load (Thomas and Balachandran, 1989). mated according to the method of Bligh and Dyer (1959). Volatile base nitrogen such as trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N) Biochemical analysis and total volatile nitrogen (TVB-N) was assessed by the micro- Table  1 presents the two sets of values for the results of the con- diffusion method of Conway (1957), and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) tent analysis of S. commersonnii dried directly in the sun (traditional of dried fish was estimated by the method of Tarladgis et al. (1960). sun-drying method) and by the solar drier. The content values are for mean moisture, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and ash. The ini- Assessment of organoleptic quality tial moisture content was the most important factor affecting the Organoleptic evaluation of the fresh fish was carried out by a panel of ultimate quality and storage life of dried fish (Antony, 1983). The highly experienced judges on a 9-point hedonic scale (Larmond, 1977). moisture content of solar dryer–dried fish is low when compared with the sun-dried fish (53.17 ± 0.2) procured from the local dry fish Storage study market. Similar results of high moisture content ranging from 39.53 Dried samples were packed in polyethylene bags and analysed at to 46.58 per cent were reported in dried ribbon fish collected from regular intervals for moisture (James, 1983), volatile base nitrogen a curing centre at Ratnagiri (Joseph et al. 1983). Basu et al. (1989) (TMA-N and TVB-N), and TBA. also reported high moisture levels ranging from 36.1 to 52.0 per cent Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/fqs/article-abstract/2/3/153/5050416 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 28 August 2018 156 J. Patterson et al., 2018, Vol. 2, No. 3 Table 1. Biochemical quality parameters of commercially dried and solar-dried S. commersonnii Biochemical quality parameters Commercially dried fish Solar dried fish Moisture (%) 53.17 ± 0.38 34.39 ± 0.84 Protein (%) 14.72 ± 0.16 17.93 ± 0.29 Lipid (%) 1.04 ± 1.74 2.74 ± 0.05 Carbohydrate (%) 0.81 ± 0.26 1.06 ± 0.75 Ash (%) 0.72 ± 1.74 0.65 ± 0.83 TMA – N (mg N/100 g) 0.42 ± 0.88 NIL TVB – N (mg N/100 g) 1.48 ± 0.37 NIL FFA (% of oleic acid) 0.19 ± 1.03 0.05 ± 0.99 TBA (mg MDA/100 g) 0.71 ± 0.72 0.08 ± 0.58 Table  2. Organoleptic analysis of commercially dried and solar- in dried ribbon fish from Andhra Pradesh fish markets. MPEDA has dried S. commersonnii specified 35 per cent as the maximum moisture level for dried fish (MPEDA, 2003). In the present study, the moisture content of the Organoleptic parameters Commercially dried Solar dried fish sun-dried fish procured from the market falls within the acceptable fish limits recommended by MPEDA. The fish dried in the solar dryer has relatively higher protein content Appearance 7 9 Colour 8 9 (17.93%), whereas the sun-dried fish procured from the market showed Taste 7 9 lower protein content (14.72%). Solar-dryer dried S. commersonnii has Odour 8 9 more protein and less moisture content. This is similar to the finding Texture 8 9 of Cowey (1972). The difference in protein contents may be attributed Overall acceptability 7 9 to the removal of moisture to a greater extent in the dryer-dried fish than the sun-dried fish procured from local market. Shrivastava and Anandavally (1974) observed an identical inverse relationship between nitrogenous compounds. These compounds are responsible for the moisture and protein during the storage of dried shrimps packed in production of TMA-N (Connell, 1975). polythene bags. Salted and sun-dried fish stored at ambient tempera- The spoilage indicator FFA (0.05  ±  0.99%) was very low in the ture showed an inverse relationship between moisture and protein as samples dried in the solar dryer when compared with the traditionally reported by Kumar et al. (1997) and MPEDA (2003). sun-dried fish (0.19 ± 1.03). Huss (1988), Pearson (1976) and Horner The lipid content of solar-dryer dried fish was 2.74 ± 0.05 and it (1997) suggested that the high level of FFA is an indication of micro- was low (1.04 ± 1.74) in traditional sun-dried fish. The ash content bial spoilage activity. Lipid hydrolysis occurred in all the dried fish sam- of the dried fish obtained from the market was high (0.72 ± 1.74) ples. The FFA is a measure of hydrolytic rancidity and the extent of when compared with the fish dried in the solar dryer (0.65 ± 0.83). lipid hydrolysis by lipase action. Accumulation of FFA has a detrimen- This may be due to the difference in the salt contents, indicating tal effect on ATPase activity, protein solubility, and relative viscosity. that the higher proportion of ash is mostly due to the appropriate FFAs are tertiary products of rancidity. Lipid hydrolysis is one of the quantity of salt used during the processing of S. commersonnii fish important changes that occur in fat fish muscle during post mortem and for drying. Khuntia (1990) while working on keeping the quality of during treatment with release of FFAs. Furthermore, during processing, dry salted mackerel recorded a high degree of positive correlation breakdown of triglycerides and phospholipids would be likely to occur between ash and salt content. and be the source of new FFAs formation. But the accumulated FFA The results of the analyses of biochemical quality indicators such was present within the acceptable levels of 0.5%–1.5% as reported by as TVB-N, TMA-N, FFA, and TBA of the samples are presented in Careche and Tejada (1994). Extracellular lipases produced from certain Table  1. In the present study, the respective values of TMA-N and microorganisms may also bring about lipolysis in the dried-fish samples. TVB-N content were 0.42 ± 0.88 and 1.48 ± 0.37 in traditional sun- TBA is widely used as an indicator in the assessment of the dried fish, whereas TMA-N and TVB-N contents were nil in solar- degree of secondary lipid oxidation. The maximum TBA value indi- dried fish. TMA-N and TVB-N in fish are commonly used as spoilage cating the good quality of fish is 5 mg malonaldehyde per kg. Fish indicators (Pearson, 1976, Silva et al., 1998). Total volatile nitrogen is with a TBA value of 8 mg malonaldehyde per kg may be consumed the total amount of volatile nitrogen bases (trimethylamine) together (Schormuller, 1969). In the present study, TBA values were found with the nitrogen which is synthesized by microbial activities on pro- to be quite low in both the samples. TBA is responsible for rancid tein and hence is an indicator of microbial activity (Connell, 1975, flavour, off odours, and discolouration as well as deterioration in Gamal et al., 2009). The TVB-N levels in all the samples were within texture and nutritional value (Olafsdottir et al., 1997). Formation of the acceptable limit of 30 mg N/100 g (Lannelongue, 1980, Sikorski, secondary oxidation products in the dried fish was low and it was 1989), which indicates the freshness and good quality of dried fish. below the acceptable level. Our result indicates that the dried fish Trimethylamine oxidase produced by spoilage microorganisms samples may be considered to be of good quality. reduces the trimethylamine oxide in the fish flesh to trimethylamine, which is believed to react with fats to produce typical spoilage Assessment of organoleptic quality (Sikorski, 1995, Triqui and Bouchriti, 2003). In the present study, Some dishes were prepared using the traditional sun-dried and the the TVB-N level does not exceed the acceptable limit of 10–15 mg solar dryer–dried S.  commersonnii, and their organoleptic analysis N/100 g. The formation of TMA-N is related to many factors such was done by ten panelists and the results are presented in Table  2. as the difference in species, bacterial growth, processing methods, All the organoleptic parameters were ‘very good’ for the solar dryer- and storage conditions (Hebard et al., 1982). The factors mentioned dried fish dish and the overall acceptability was also good. previously are conducive to degradation of protein and non-protein Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/fqs/article-abstract/2/3/153/5050416 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 28 August 2018 Effect of drying technologies on fish, 2018, Vol. 2, No. 3 157 Table 3. Storage characteristics of commercial and solar-dried fish Parameter Drying method Storage period in months 0 1 2 3 4 5 Moisture (%) Solar dried 34.39 34.4 34.62 34.64 34.73 34.76 Commercial sun dried 53.17 53.27 53.88 54.38 54.64 56.19 TMA-N (mg Solar dried 0.42 0.56 0.73 0.89 1.22 1.73 N/100 g) Commercial sun dried Nil Nil Nil Nil 0.03 0.08 TVB-N (mg Solar dried 1.48 2.22 3.11 3.56 3.72 3.84 N/100 g) Commercial sun dried Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil TBA (mg Solar dried 0.71 0.83 0.96 1.2 1.7 2.3 MDA/100 g) Commercial sun dried 0.08 0.07 0.09 0.11 0.12 0.12 gratitude to the Director, Suganthi Devadason Marine Research Institute Storage study (SDMRI), for providing facilities to carry out this work. The storage characteristics of fish dried in the solar dryer and trad- itionally dried fish are presented in Table  3. The values of all the Conflict of interest statement: None declared parameters were higher in traditionally dried fish than the solar- dried fish. 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Food Quality and SafetyOxford University Press

Published: Sep 1, 2018

References