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Correction to: Epidemiological Studies of Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation and Cancer: Summary Bias Assessment and Meta-Analysis

Correction to: Epidemiological Studies of Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation and Cancer: Summary Bias... This is a correction to: Michael Hauptmann, Robert D Daniels, Elisabeth Cardis, Harry M Cullings, Gerald Kendall, Dominique Laurier, Martha S Linet, Mark P Little, Jay H Lubin, Dale L Preston, David B Richardson, Daniel O Stram, Isabelle Thierry-Chef, Mary K Schubauer-Berigan, Ethel S Gilbert, Amy Berrington de Gonzalez, Epidemiological Studies of Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation and Cancer: Summary Bias Assessment and Meta-Analysis, JNCI Monographs, Volume 2020, Issue 56, July 2020, Pages 188–200, https://doi.org/10.1093/jncimonographs/lgaa010 In the originally published version of this manuscript, in Supplementary table 1, the sign of the estimate for the Rocketdyne workers was wrong. The correct estimate is -0.02 instead of 0.02. Correct entries in the last two columns of this row are 0 instead of 1. In the row “ERR>0”, the last two columns should read “16 of 22” and “12 of 18”, respectively. Corresponding p-values in the line “p-value (1-sided)” should be 0.03 and 0.12, respectively. Updated supplementary data is given below. No corrections are necessary in the manuscript. These details have been corrected only in this correction notice to preserve the published version of record. Supplementary Table 1: Results of the sign test for the excess relative risk from studies of solid tumors Study . Reference . ERR at 100 mGy . ERR positive (1) or negative (0) . Robust studies* . Environmental Three Mile Island Han et al. 2011 (19) −1 0 0 Chinese background Tao et al. 2012 (20) −0.101 0 0 GB background Kendall et al. 2013 (21) 2 1 1 Swiss background Spycher et al. 2015 (22) 2.8 1 1 Techa River Davis et al. 2015 (23) 0.077 1 1 Taiwanese residents Hsieh et al. 2017 (24) 0.04 1 1 Medical Canadian cardiac imaging Eisenberg et al. 2011 (25) 0.3 1 x French Pediatric CT (brain tumors) Journey et al. 2016 (26) 0.7 1 1 UK Pediatric CT (brain tumors) Berrington et al. 2016 (27) 1.2 1 1 PIRATES (thyroid cancer) Lubin et al. 2017 (28) 0.96 1 1 Occupational Korean workers Ahn et al. 2008 (29) 0.72 1 x UKNRRW Muirhead et al. 2009 (30) 0.03 1 1 Korean nuclear workers Jeong et al. 2010 (31) 0.21 1 1 Rocketdyne workers Boice et al. 2011 (32) −0.02 0 0 Japanese workers Akiba et al. 2012 (33) 0.13 1 X Canadian nuclear workers Zablotska et al. 2014 (34) −0.12 0 0 German nuclear workers Merzenich et al. 2014 (35) −0.1 0 0 US nuclear workers Schubauer-Berigan et al. 2015 (36) 0.01 1 1 USRT (breast cancer) Preston et al. 2016 (12) 0.07 1 X USRT (brain cancer) Kitahara et al. 2017 (10) 0.1 1 1 USRT (skin cancer) Lee et al. 2015 (11) −0.001 0 0 French nuclear workers Leuraud et al 2017 (37) 0.04 1 1 ERR>0 16 of 22 12 of 18 p-value (1-sided) 0.03 0.12 Study . Reference . ERR at 100 mGy . ERR positive (1) or negative (0) . Robust studies* . Environmental Three Mile Island Han et al. 2011 (19) −1 0 0 Chinese background Tao et al. 2012 (20) −0.101 0 0 GB background Kendall et al. 2013 (21) 2 1 1 Swiss background Spycher et al. 2015 (22) 2.8 1 1 Techa River Davis et al. 2015 (23) 0.077 1 1 Taiwanese residents Hsieh et al. 2017 (24) 0.04 1 1 Medical Canadian cardiac imaging Eisenberg et al. 2011 (25) 0.3 1 x French Pediatric CT (brain tumors) Journey et al. 2016 (26) 0.7 1 1 UK Pediatric CT (brain tumors) Berrington et al. 2016 (27) 1.2 1 1 PIRATES (thyroid cancer) Lubin et al. 2017 (28) 0.96 1 1 Occupational Korean workers Ahn et al. 2008 (29) 0.72 1 x UKNRRW Muirhead et al. 2009 (30) 0.03 1 1 Korean nuclear workers Jeong et al. 2010 (31) 0.21 1 1 Rocketdyne workers Boice et al. 2011 (32) −0.02 0 0 Japanese workers Akiba et al. 2012 (33) 0.13 1 X Canadian nuclear workers Zablotska et al. 2014 (34) −0.12 0 0 German nuclear workers Merzenich et al. 2014 (35) −0.1 0 0 US nuclear workers Schubauer-Berigan et al. 2015 (36) 0.01 1 1 USRT (breast cancer) Preston et al. 2016 (12) 0.07 1 X USRT (brain cancer) Kitahara et al. 2017 (10) 0.1 1 1 USRT (skin cancer) Lee et al. 2015 (11) −0.001 0 0 French nuclear workers Leuraud et al 2017 (37) 0.04 1 1 ERR>0 16 of 22 12 of 18 p-value (1-sided) 0.03 0.12 * Robust studies are all studies except those where bias adjustment could move a positive ERR towards the null. x - study was excluded as bias adjustment could move a positive ERR towards the null. Open in new tab Supplementary Table 1: Results of the sign test for the excess relative risk from studies of solid tumors Study . Reference . ERR at 100 mGy . ERR positive (1) or negative (0) . Robust studies* . Environmental Three Mile Island Han et al. 2011 (19) −1 0 0 Chinese background Tao et al. 2012 (20) −0.101 0 0 GB background Kendall et al. 2013 (21) 2 1 1 Swiss background Spycher et al. 2015 (22) 2.8 1 1 Techa River Davis et al. 2015 (23) 0.077 1 1 Taiwanese residents Hsieh et al. 2017 (24) 0.04 1 1 Medical Canadian cardiac imaging Eisenberg et al. 2011 (25) 0.3 1 x French Pediatric CT (brain tumors) Journey et al. 2016 (26) 0.7 1 1 UK Pediatric CT (brain tumors) Berrington et al. 2016 (27) 1.2 1 1 PIRATES (thyroid cancer) Lubin et al. 2017 (28) 0.96 1 1 Occupational Korean workers Ahn et al. 2008 (29) 0.72 1 x UKNRRW Muirhead et al. 2009 (30) 0.03 1 1 Korean nuclear workers Jeong et al. 2010 (31) 0.21 1 1 Rocketdyne workers Boice et al. 2011 (32) −0.02 0 0 Japanese workers Akiba et al. 2012 (33) 0.13 1 X Canadian nuclear workers Zablotska et al. 2014 (34) −0.12 0 0 German nuclear workers Merzenich et al. 2014 (35) −0.1 0 0 US nuclear workers Schubauer-Berigan et al. 2015 (36) 0.01 1 1 USRT (breast cancer) Preston et al. 2016 (12) 0.07 1 X USRT (brain cancer) Kitahara et al. 2017 (10) 0.1 1 1 USRT (skin cancer) Lee et al. 2015 (11) −0.001 0 0 French nuclear workers Leuraud et al 2017 (37) 0.04 1 1 ERR>0 16 of 22 12 of 18 p-value (1-sided) 0.03 0.12 Study . Reference . ERR at 100 mGy . ERR positive (1) or negative (0) . Robust studies* . Environmental Three Mile Island Han et al. 2011 (19) −1 0 0 Chinese background Tao et al. 2012 (20) −0.101 0 0 GB background Kendall et al. 2013 (21) 2 1 1 Swiss background Spycher et al. 2015 (22) 2.8 1 1 Techa River Davis et al. 2015 (23) 0.077 1 1 Taiwanese residents Hsieh et al. 2017 (24) 0.04 1 1 Medical Canadian cardiac imaging Eisenberg et al. 2011 (25) 0.3 1 x French Pediatric CT (brain tumors) Journey et al. 2016 (26) 0.7 1 1 UK Pediatric CT (brain tumors) Berrington et al. 2016 (27) 1.2 1 1 PIRATES (thyroid cancer) Lubin et al. 2017 (28) 0.96 1 1 Occupational Korean workers Ahn et al. 2008 (29) 0.72 1 x UKNRRW Muirhead et al. 2009 (30) 0.03 1 1 Korean nuclear workers Jeong et al. 2010 (31) 0.21 1 1 Rocketdyne workers Boice et al. 2011 (32) −0.02 0 0 Japanese workers Akiba et al. 2012 (33) 0.13 1 X Canadian nuclear workers Zablotska et al. 2014 (34) −0.12 0 0 German nuclear workers Merzenich et al. 2014 (35) −0.1 0 0 US nuclear workers Schubauer-Berigan et al. 2015 (36) 0.01 1 1 USRT (breast cancer) Preston et al. 2016 (12) 0.07 1 X USRT (brain cancer) Kitahara et al. 2017 (10) 0.1 1 1 USRT (skin cancer) Lee et al. 2015 (11) −0.001 0 0 French nuclear workers Leuraud et al 2017 (37) 0.04 1 1 ERR>0 16 of 22 12 of 18 p-value (1-sided) 0.03 0.12 * Robust studies are all studies except those where bias adjustment could move a positive ERR towards the null. x - study was excluded as bias adjustment could move a positive ERR towards the null. Open in new tab Supplementary Table 2: Results of the sign test for the excess relative risk from studies of leukemia Leukemia . . . Study . Refeence . ERR at 100 mGy . ERR positive (1) or negative (0) . Robust studies* . Environmental Chornobyl residents Davis et al. 2006 (16) 3.2 1 x Three Mile Island Han et al. 2011 (19) 19 1 1 Chinese background Tao et al. 2012 (20) 1.068 1 x GB background Kendall et al. 2013 (21) 12 1 1 Swiss background Spycher et al. 2015 (22) 3.6 1 1 Finnish background Nikkila et al. 2016 (38) −3 0 0 Taiwanese residents Hsieh et al. 2017 (24) 0.15 1 1 Medical French Pediatric CT Journey et al. 2016 (26) 1.6 1 1 UK Pediatric CT Berrington et al. 2016 (27) 3 1 1 Occupational Korean workers Ahn et al. 2008 (29) 1.68 1 x Chornobyl liquidators Kesminiene et al 2008 (17) 0.5 1 x UKNRRW Muirhead et al. 2009 (30) 0.18 1 1 Rocketdyne workers Boice et al. 2011 (32) 0.06 1 1 Japanese workers Akiba et al. 2012 (33) −0.19 0 0 Ukrainian Chornobyl liquidators Zablotska et al. 2013 (18) 0.221 1 x Canadian nuclear workers Zablotska et al. 2014 (34) 1.44 1 1 German nuclear workers Merzenich et al. 2014 (35) 0.4 1 1 US nuclear workers Schubauer-Berigan et al. 2015 (36) 0.17 1 1 US atomic veterans Caldwell et al. 2016 (39) −0.5 0 0 French nuclear workers Leuraud et al. 2017 (37) 0.35 1 1 ERR>0 17 of 20 12 of 15 p-value (1-sided) 0.001 0.02 Leukemia . . . Study . Refeence . ERR at 100 mGy . ERR positive (1) or negative (0) . Robust studies* . Environmental Chornobyl residents Davis et al. 2006 (16) 3.2 1 x Three Mile Island Han et al. 2011 (19) 19 1 1 Chinese background Tao et al. 2012 (20) 1.068 1 x GB background Kendall et al. 2013 (21) 12 1 1 Swiss background Spycher et al. 2015 (22) 3.6 1 1 Finnish background Nikkila et al. 2016 (38) −3 0 0 Taiwanese residents Hsieh et al. 2017 (24) 0.15 1 1 Medical French Pediatric CT Journey et al. 2016 (26) 1.6 1 1 UK Pediatric CT Berrington et al. 2016 (27) 3 1 1 Occupational Korean workers Ahn et al. 2008 (29) 1.68 1 x Chornobyl liquidators Kesminiene et al 2008 (17) 0.5 1 x UKNRRW Muirhead et al. 2009 (30) 0.18 1 1 Rocketdyne workers Boice et al. 2011 (32) 0.06 1 1 Japanese workers Akiba et al. 2012 (33) −0.19 0 0 Ukrainian Chornobyl liquidators Zablotska et al. 2013 (18) 0.221 1 x Canadian nuclear workers Zablotska et al. 2014 (34) 1.44 1 1 German nuclear workers Merzenich et al. 2014 (35) 0.4 1 1 US nuclear workers Schubauer-Berigan et al. 2015 (36) 0.17 1 1 US atomic veterans Caldwell et al. 2016 (39) −0.5 0 0 French nuclear workers Leuraud et al. 2017 (37) 0.35 1 1 ERR>0 17 of 20 12 of 15 p-value (1-sided) 0.001 0.02 * Robust studies are all studies except those where bias adjustment could move a positive ERR towards the null. x - study was excluded as bias adjustment could move a positive ERR towards the null. Open in new tab Supplementary Table 2: Results of the sign test for the excess relative risk from studies of leukemia Leukemia . . . Study . Refeence . ERR at 100 mGy . ERR positive (1) or negative (0) . Robust studies* . Environmental Chornobyl residents Davis et al. 2006 (16) 3.2 1 x Three Mile Island Han et al. 2011 (19) 19 1 1 Chinese background Tao et al. 2012 (20) 1.068 1 x GB background Kendall et al. 2013 (21) 12 1 1 Swiss background Spycher et al. 2015 (22) 3.6 1 1 Finnish background Nikkila et al. 2016 (38) −3 0 0 Taiwanese residents Hsieh et al. 2017 (24) 0.15 1 1 Medical French Pediatric CT Journey et al. 2016 (26) 1.6 1 1 UK Pediatric CT Berrington et al. 2016 (27) 3 1 1 Occupational Korean workers Ahn et al. 2008 (29) 1.68 1 x Chornobyl liquidators Kesminiene et al 2008 (17) 0.5 1 x UKNRRW Muirhead et al. 2009 (30) 0.18 1 1 Rocketdyne workers Boice et al. 2011 (32) 0.06 1 1 Japanese workers Akiba et al. 2012 (33) −0.19 0 0 Ukrainian Chornobyl liquidators Zablotska et al. 2013 (18) 0.221 1 x Canadian nuclear workers Zablotska et al. 2014 (34) 1.44 1 1 German nuclear workers Merzenich et al. 2014 (35) 0.4 1 1 US nuclear workers Schubauer-Berigan et al. 2015 (36) 0.17 1 1 US atomic veterans Caldwell et al. 2016 (39) −0.5 0 0 French nuclear workers Leuraud et al. 2017 (37) 0.35 1 1 ERR>0 17 of 20 12 of 15 p-value (1-sided) 0.001 0.02 Leukemia . . . Study . Refeence . ERR at 100 mGy . ERR positive (1) or negative (0) . Robust studies* . Environmental Chornobyl residents Davis et al. 2006 (16) 3.2 1 x Three Mile Island Han et al. 2011 (19) 19 1 1 Chinese background Tao et al. 2012 (20) 1.068 1 x GB background Kendall et al. 2013 (21) 12 1 1 Swiss background Spycher et al. 2015 (22) 3.6 1 1 Finnish background Nikkila et al. 2016 (38) −3 0 0 Taiwanese residents Hsieh et al. 2017 (24) 0.15 1 1 Medical French Pediatric CT Journey et al. 2016 (26) 1.6 1 1 UK Pediatric CT Berrington et al. 2016 (27) 3 1 1 Occupational Korean workers Ahn et al. 2008 (29) 1.68 1 x Chornobyl liquidators Kesminiene et al 2008 (17) 0.5 1 x UKNRRW Muirhead et al. 2009 (30) 0.18 1 1 Rocketdyne workers Boice et al. 2011 (32) 0.06 1 1 Japanese workers Akiba et al. 2012 (33) −0.19 0 0 Ukrainian Chornobyl liquidators Zablotska et al. 2013 (18) 0.221 1 x Canadian nuclear workers Zablotska et al. 2014 (34) 1.44 1 1 German nuclear workers Merzenich et al. 2014 (35) 0.4 1 1 US nuclear workers Schubauer-Berigan et al. 2015 (36) 0.17 1 1 US atomic veterans Caldwell et al. 2016 (39) −0.5 0 0 French nuclear workers Leuraud et al. 2017 (37) 0.35 1 1 ERR>0 17 of 20 12 of 15 p-value (1-sided) 0.001 0.02 * Robust studies are all studies except those where bias adjustment could move a positive ERR towards the null. x - study was excluded as bias adjustment could move a positive ERR towards the null. Open in new tab © The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/pages/standard-publication-reuse-rights) © The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png JNCI Monographs Oxford University Press

Correction to: Epidemiological Studies of Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation and Cancer: Summary Bias Assessment and Meta-Analysis

JNCI Monographs , Volume Advance Article – Dec 5, 2022

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Oxford University Press
Copyright
Copyright © 2022 Oxford University Press
ISSN
1052-6773
eISSN
1745-6614
DOI
10.1093/jncimonographs/lgac027
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Abstract

This is a correction to: Michael Hauptmann, Robert D Daniels, Elisabeth Cardis, Harry M Cullings, Gerald Kendall, Dominique Laurier, Martha S Linet, Mark P Little, Jay H Lubin, Dale L Preston, David B Richardson, Daniel O Stram, Isabelle Thierry-Chef, Mary K Schubauer-Berigan, Ethel S Gilbert, Amy Berrington de Gonzalez, Epidemiological Studies of Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation and Cancer: Summary Bias Assessment and Meta-Analysis, JNCI Monographs, Volume 2020, Issue 56, July 2020, Pages 188–200, https://doi.org/10.1093/jncimonographs/lgaa010 In the originally published version of this manuscript, in Supplementary table 1, the sign of the estimate for the Rocketdyne workers was wrong. The correct estimate is -0.02 instead of 0.02. Correct entries in the last two columns of this row are 0 instead of 1. In the row “ERR>0”, the last two columns should read “16 of 22” and “12 of 18”, respectively. Corresponding p-values in the line “p-value (1-sided)” should be 0.03 and 0.12, respectively. Updated supplementary data is given below. No corrections are necessary in the manuscript. These details have been corrected only in this correction notice to preserve the published version of record. Supplementary Table 1: Results of the sign test for the excess relative risk from studies of solid tumors Study . Reference . ERR at 100 mGy . ERR positive (1) or negative (0) . Robust studies* . Environmental Three Mile Island Han et al. 2011 (19) −1 0 0 Chinese background Tao et al. 2012 (20) −0.101 0 0 GB background Kendall et al. 2013 (21) 2 1 1 Swiss background Spycher et al. 2015 (22) 2.8 1 1 Techa River Davis et al. 2015 (23) 0.077 1 1 Taiwanese residents Hsieh et al. 2017 (24) 0.04 1 1 Medical Canadian cardiac imaging Eisenberg et al. 2011 (25) 0.3 1 x French Pediatric CT (brain tumors) Journey et al. 2016 (26) 0.7 1 1 UK Pediatric CT (brain tumors) Berrington et al. 2016 (27) 1.2 1 1 PIRATES (thyroid cancer) Lubin et al. 2017 (28) 0.96 1 1 Occupational Korean workers Ahn et al. 2008 (29) 0.72 1 x UKNRRW Muirhead et al. 2009 (30) 0.03 1 1 Korean nuclear workers Jeong et al. 2010 (31) 0.21 1 1 Rocketdyne workers Boice et al. 2011 (32) −0.02 0 0 Japanese workers Akiba et al. 2012 (33) 0.13 1 X Canadian nuclear workers Zablotska et al. 2014 (34) −0.12 0 0 German nuclear workers Merzenich et al. 2014 (35) −0.1 0 0 US nuclear workers Schubauer-Berigan et al. 2015 (36) 0.01 1 1 USRT (breast cancer) Preston et al. 2016 (12) 0.07 1 X USRT (brain cancer) Kitahara et al. 2017 (10) 0.1 1 1 USRT (skin cancer) Lee et al. 2015 (11) −0.001 0 0 French nuclear workers Leuraud et al 2017 (37) 0.04 1 1 ERR>0 16 of 22 12 of 18 p-value (1-sided) 0.03 0.12 Study . Reference . ERR at 100 mGy . ERR positive (1) or negative (0) . Robust studies* . Environmental Three Mile Island Han et al. 2011 (19) −1 0 0 Chinese background Tao et al. 2012 (20) −0.101 0 0 GB background Kendall et al. 2013 (21) 2 1 1 Swiss background Spycher et al. 2015 (22) 2.8 1 1 Techa River Davis et al. 2015 (23) 0.077 1 1 Taiwanese residents Hsieh et al. 2017 (24) 0.04 1 1 Medical Canadian cardiac imaging Eisenberg et al. 2011 (25) 0.3 1 x French Pediatric CT (brain tumors) Journey et al. 2016 (26) 0.7 1 1 UK Pediatric CT (brain tumors) Berrington et al. 2016 (27) 1.2 1 1 PIRATES (thyroid cancer) Lubin et al. 2017 (28) 0.96 1 1 Occupational Korean workers Ahn et al. 2008 (29) 0.72 1 x UKNRRW Muirhead et al. 2009 (30) 0.03 1 1 Korean nuclear workers Jeong et al. 2010 (31) 0.21 1 1 Rocketdyne workers Boice et al. 2011 (32) −0.02 0 0 Japanese workers Akiba et al. 2012 (33) 0.13 1 X Canadian nuclear workers Zablotska et al. 2014 (34) −0.12 0 0 German nuclear workers Merzenich et al. 2014 (35) −0.1 0 0 US nuclear workers Schubauer-Berigan et al. 2015 (36) 0.01 1 1 USRT (breast cancer) Preston et al. 2016 (12) 0.07 1 X USRT (brain cancer) Kitahara et al. 2017 (10) 0.1 1 1 USRT (skin cancer) Lee et al. 2015 (11) −0.001 0 0 French nuclear workers Leuraud et al 2017 (37) 0.04 1 1 ERR>0 16 of 22 12 of 18 p-value (1-sided) 0.03 0.12 * Robust studies are all studies except those where bias adjustment could move a positive ERR towards the null. x - study was excluded as bias adjustment could move a positive ERR towards the null. Open in new tab Supplementary Table 1: Results of the sign test for the excess relative risk from studies of solid tumors Study . Reference . ERR at 100 mGy . ERR positive (1) or negative (0) . Robust studies* . Environmental Three Mile Island Han et al. 2011 (19) −1 0 0 Chinese background Tao et al. 2012 (20) −0.101 0 0 GB background Kendall et al. 2013 (21) 2 1 1 Swiss background Spycher et al. 2015 (22) 2.8 1 1 Techa River Davis et al. 2015 (23) 0.077 1 1 Taiwanese residents Hsieh et al. 2017 (24) 0.04 1 1 Medical Canadian cardiac imaging Eisenberg et al. 2011 (25) 0.3 1 x French Pediatric CT (brain tumors) Journey et al. 2016 (26) 0.7 1 1 UK Pediatric CT (brain tumors) Berrington et al. 2016 (27) 1.2 1 1 PIRATES (thyroid cancer) Lubin et al. 2017 (28) 0.96 1 1 Occupational Korean workers Ahn et al. 2008 (29) 0.72 1 x UKNRRW Muirhead et al. 2009 (30) 0.03 1 1 Korean nuclear workers Jeong et al. 2010 (31) 0.21 1 1 Rocketdyne workers Boice et al. 2011 (32) −0.02 0 0 Japanese workers Akiba et al. 2012 (33) 0.13 1 X Canadian nuclear workers Zablotska et al. 2014 (34) −0.12 0 0 German nuclear workers Merzenich et al. 2014 (35) −0.1 0 0 US nuclear workers Schubauer-Berigan et al. 2015 (36) 0.01 1 1 USRT (breast cancer) Preston et al. 2016 (12) 0.07 1 X USRT (brain cancer) Kitahara et al. 2017 (10) 0.1 1 1 USRT (skin cancer) Lee et al. 2015 (11) −0.001 0 0 French nuclear workers Leuraud et al 2017 (37) 0.04 1 1 ERR>0 16 of 22 12 of 18 p-value (1-sided) 0.03 0.12 Study . Reference . ERR at 100 mGy . ERR positive (1) or negative (0) . Robust studies* . Environmental Three Mile Island Han et al. 2011 (19) −1 0 0 Chinese background Tao et al. 2012 (20) −0.101 0 0 GB background Kendall et al. 2013 (21) 2 1 1 Swiss background Spycher et al. 2015 (22) 2.8 1 1 Techa River Davis et al. 2015 (23) 0.077 1 1 Taiwanese residents Hsieh et al. 2017 (24) 0.04 1 1 Medical Canadian cardiac imaging Eisenberg et al. 2011 (25) 0.3 1 x French Pediatric CT (brain tumors) Journey et al. 2016 (26) 0.7 1 1 UK Pediatric CT (brain tumors) Berrington et al. 2016 (27) 1.2 1 1 PIRATES (thyroid cancer) Lubin et al. 2017 (28) 0.96 1 1 Occupational Korean workers Ahn et al. 2008 (29) 0.72 1 x UKNRRW Muirhead et al. 2009 (30) 0.03 1 1 Korean nuclear workers Jeong et al. 2010 (31) 0.21 1 1 Rocketdyne workers Boice et al. 2011 (32) −0.02 0 0 Japanese workers Akiba et al. 2012 (33) 0.13 1 X Canadian nuclear workers Zablotska et al. 2014 (34) −0.12 0 0 German nuclear workers Merzenich et al. 2014 (35) −0.1 0 0 US nuclear workers Schubauer-Berigan et al. 2015 (36) 0.01 1 1 USRT (breast cancer) Preston et al. 2016 (12) 0.07 1 X USRT (brain cancer) Kitahara et al. 2017 (10) 0.1 1 1 USRT (skin cancer) Lee et al. 2015 (11) −0.001 0 0 French nuclear workers Leuraud et al 2017 (37) 0.04 1 1 ERR>0 16 of 22 12 of 18 p-value (1-sided) 0.03 0.12 * Robust studies are all studies except those where bias adjustment could move a positive ERR towards the null. x - study was excluded as bias adjustment could move a positive ERR towards the null. Open in new tab Supplementary Table 2: Results of the sign test for the excess relative risk from studies of leukemia Leukemia . . . Study . Refeence . ERR at 100 mGy . ERR positive (1) or negative (0) . Robust studies* . Environmental Chornobyl residents Davis et al. 2006 (16) 3.2 1 x Three Mile Island Han et al. 2011 (19) 19 1 1 Chinese background Tao et al. 2012 (20) 1.068 1 x GB background Kendall et al. 2013 (21) 12 1 1 Swiss background Spycher et al. 2015 (22) 3.6 1 1 Finnish background Nikkila et al. 2016 (38) −3 0 0 Taiwanese residents Hsieh et al. 2017 (24) 0.15 1 1 Medical French Pediatric CT Journey et al. 2016 (26) 1.6 1 1 UK Pediatric CT Berrington et al. 2016 (27) 3 1 1 Occupational Korean workers Ahn et al. 2008 (29) 1.68 1 x Chornobyl liquidators Kesminiene et al 2008 (17) 0.5 1 x UKNRRW Muirhead et al. 2009 (30) 0.18 1 1 Rocketdyne workers Boice et al. 2011 (32) 0.06 1 1 Japanese workers Akiba et al. 2012 (33) −0.19 0 0 Ukrainian Chornobyl liquidators Zablotska et al. 2013 (18) 0.221 1 x Canadian nuclear workers Zablotska et al. 2014 (34) 1.44 1 1 German nuclear workers Merzenich et al. 2014 (35) 0.4 1 1 US nuclear workers Schubauer-Berigan et al. 2015 (36) 0.17 1 1 US atomic veterans Caldwell et al. 2016 (39) −0.5 0 0 French nuclear workers Leuraud et al. 2017 (37) 0.35 1 1 ERR>0 17 of 20 12 of 15 p-value (1-sided) 0.001 0.02 Leukemia . . . Study . Refeence . ERR at 100 mGy . ERR positive (1) or negative (0) . Robust studies* . Environmental Chornobyl residents Davis et al. 2006 (16) 3.2 1 x Three Mile Island Han et al. 2011 (19) 19 1 1 Chinese background Tao et al. 2012 (20) 1.068 1 x GB background Kendall et al. 2013 (21) 12 1 1 Swiss background Spycher et al. 2015 (22) 3.6 1 1 Finnish background Nikkila et al. 2016 (38) −3 0 0 Taiwanese residents Hsieh et al. 2017 (24) 0.15 1 1 Medical French Pediatric CT Journey et al. 2016 (26) 1.6 1 1 UK Pediatric CT Berrington et al. 2016 (27) 3 1 1 Occupational Korean workers Ahn et al. 2008 (29) 1.68 1 x Chornobyl liquidators Kesminiene et al 2008 (17) 0.5 1 x UKNRRW Muirhead et al. 2009 (30) 0.18 1 1 Rocketdyne workers Boice et al. 2011 (32) 0.06 1 1 Japanese workers Akiba et al. 2012 (33) −0.19 0 0 Ukrainian Chornobyl liquidators Zablotska et al. 2013 (18) 0.221 1 x Canadian nuclear workers Zablotska et al. 2014 (34) 1.44 1 1 German nuclear workers Merzenich et al. 2014 (35) 0.4 1 1 US nuclear workers Schubauer-Berigan et al. 2015 (36) 0.17 1 1 US atomic veterans Caldwell et al. 2016 (39) −0.5 0 0 French nuclear workers Leuraud et al. 2017 (37) 0.35 1 1 ERR>0 17 of 20 12 of 15 p-value (1-sided) 0.001 0.02 * Robust studies are all studies except those where bias adjustment could move a positive ERR towards the null. x - study was excluded as bias adjustment could move a positive ERR towards the null. Open in new tab Supplementary Table 2: Results of the sign test for the excess relative risk from studies of leukemia Leukemia . . . Study . Refeence . ERR at 100 mGy . ERR positive (1) or negative (0) . Robust studies* . Environmental Chornobyl residents Davis et al. 2006 (16) 3.2 1 x Three Mile Island Han et al. 2011 (19) 19 1 1 Chinese background Tao et al. 2012 (20) 1.068 1 x GB background Kendall et al. 2013 (21) 12 1 1 Swiss background Spycher et al. 2015 (22) 3.6 1 1 Finnish background Nikkila et al. 2016 (38) −3 0 0 Taiwanese residents Hsieh et al. 2017 (24) 0.15 1 1 Medical French Pediatric CT Journey et al. 2016 (26) 1.6 1 1 UK Pediatric CT Berrington et al. 2016 (27) 3 1 1 Occupational Korean workers Ahn et al. 2008 (29) 1.68 1 x Chornobyl liquidators Kesminiene et al 2008 (17) 0.5 1 x UKNRRW Muirhead et al. 2009 (30) 0.18 1 1 Rocketdyne workers Boice et al. 2011 (32) 0.06 1 1 Japanese workers Akiba et al. 2012 (33) −0.19 0 0 Ukrainian Chornobyl liquidators Zablotska et al. 2013 (18) 0.221 1 x Canadian nuclear workers Zablotska et al. 2014 (34) 1.44 1 1 German nuclear workers Merzenich et al. 2014 (35) 0.4 1 1 US nuclear workers Schubauer-Berigan et al. 2015 (36) 0.17 1 1 US atomic veterans Caldwell et al. 2016 (39) −0.5 0 0 French nuclear workers Leuraud et al. 2017 (37) 0.35 1 1 ERR>0 17 of 20 12 of 15 p-value (1-sided) 0.001 0.02 Leukemia . . . Study . Refeence . ERR at 100 mGy . ERR positive (1) or negative (0) . Robust studies* . Environmental Chornobyl residents Davis et al. 2006 (16) 3.2 1 x Three Mile Island Han et al. 2011 (19) 19 1 1 Chinese background Tao et al. 2012 (20) 1.068 1 x GB background Kendall et al. 2013 (21) 12 1 1 Swiss background Spycher et al. 2015 (22) 3.6 1 1 Finnish background Nikkila et al. 2016 (38) −3 0 0 Taiwanese residents Hsieh et al. 2017 (24) 0.15 1 1 Medical French Pediatric CT Journey et al. 2016 (26) 1.6 1 1 UK Pediatric CT Berrington et al. 2016 (27) 3 1 1 Occupational Korean workers Ahn et al. 2008 (29) 1.68 1 x Chornobyl liquidators Kesminiene et al 2008 (17) 0.5 1 x UKNRRW Muirhead et al. 2009 (30) 0.18 1 1 Rocketdyne workers Boice et al. 2011 (32) 0.06 1 1 Japanese workers Akiba et al. 2012 (33) −0.19 0 0 Ukrainian Chornobyl liquidators Zablotska et al. 2013 (18) 0.221 1 x Canadian nuclear workers Zablotska et al. 2014 (34) 1.44 1 1 German nuclear workers Merzenich et al. 2014 (35) 0.4 1 1 US nuclear workers Schubauer-Berigan et al. 2015 (36) 0.17 1 1 US atomic veterans Caldwell et al. 2016 (39) −0.5 0 0 French nuclear workers Leuraud et al. 2017 (37) 0.35 1 1 ERR>0 17 of 20 12 of 15 p-value (1-sided) 0.001 0.02 * Robust studies are all studies except those where bias adjustment could move a positive ERR towards the null. x - study was excluded as bias adjustment could move a positive ERR towards the null. 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Published: Dec 5, 2022

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