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CONTROL OF WIREWORM (ELATERIDAE) IN POTATOES WITH MICROBIAL METARHIZIUM, 2006

CONTROL OF WIREWORM (ELATERIDAE) IN POTATOES WITH MICROBIAL METARHIZIUM, 2006 (E43) POTATO: Solanum tuberosum L. ‘Russet Burbank’ Cecil I. Tharp and Sue L. Blodgett Montana State University Department of Animal and Range Science 221 Linfield Hall Bozeman, MT 59717 Phone: (406) 994-5067 Email: ctharp@montana.edu Stefan Jaronski Pest Management Research Unit USDA-ARS-NPARL 1500 N. Central Avenue Sidney, MT 59270 Phone: (406-433-9486) Email: sjaronski@sidney.ars.usda.gov Wireworm: Elateridae Wireworms can cause significant damage to potatoes, with high populations overwhelming the widely used chemical Cruiser 5FS. This experiment investigated the microbial, Metarhizium anisopliae Strain F52 as a novel method of wireworm control. Two experimental sites, each with plots measuring 3 by 5 m were located on the Southern Agricultural Research Center at Huntley, MT. The trial was planted 18 May using third generation, PVX certified seed potatoes, cv. ‘Russet Burbank’, machine-cut into 2.3 oz seed pieces. All seed pieces were manually placed into furrows at a rate of 2,000 lb / acre, and covered using a Buffalo cultivator. Each trial had treatments arranged as a RCB design with 6 treatments and 4 replications. Four treatments were treated with Metarhizium in 4 different formulations. Three in-furrow treatments were applied at a rate of 2 x 10 conidia / acre in three different formulations on day of planting: an emulsifiable concentrate diluted in water, a technical grade conidial powder (tgai) suspended in 0.1% Silwet L77, and a granular formulation. In a fourth treatment we applied the Metarhizium condia to seeds prior to planting at a rate of 2 x 10 conidia / 2000 lb seed. In- furrow EC and tgai 0.1% Silwet-L77 treatments were applied with a CO powered backpack sprayer equipped to deliver 20 gpa with a single boom delivering a 3.5 inch band. The Cruiser 5FS treatment (0.16 oz / cwt) + TOPS MZ (12 oz / cwt) combination, and the untreated check (TOPS MZ at 12 oz / cwt) were applied by Bayer Corporation. Stand counts were estimated by counting number of plants per 15 ft on the 20 Jun. Yield was assessed by weighing all tubers from 4 consecutive plants in center row of each plot, rating for tuber size and uniformity, and then examining for wireworm damage on 26 Oct. Tuber size was grouped into 3 categories: small (< 4 oz), medium (4 – 8 oz), and large (> 8 oz). Percentage data (wireworm-damaged potatoes) were arcsine transformed prior to analysis. Results were analyzed for differences using SAS proc ANOVA (P = 0.05). If interaction effects were significant over sites, main effects for each site were analyzed separately using ANOVA, with mean separation using Tukey’s studentized range test (P = 0.05). Initial analysis found that significantly more potatoes were found in site 1 compared to site 2 (P = 0.004). An irrigation difference was verified between either sites, with site 1 having more water than site 2 over the duration of the trial. The differences in potato growth, made it necessary to evaluate harvest factors by site. Stand counts were similar between treatments (Table 1). No statistically significant differences in weight of either small, medium, large, or total potatoes at harvest were observed in this study for either site (Table 2 & 3), although there were occasional considerable numerical differences, e.g. in large potatoes in Site 2. There were no differences in percent wireworm infested potatoes between treatments in either site (Table 2 & 3). Significantly more potatoes per plant were harvested from the Metarhizium + Silwet L-22 combination than the untreated check in site #2 (Table 3). Table 1 Rate Mean plant stand/5 m Treatment/formulation (product/ cwt) 20 Jun 2006 13a 13.8a Metarhizium F52 EC 10 13a Metarhizium F52 TGAI 10 14.0a + Silwet L-77 0.1%v/v 13a Metarhizium F52 Granular 10 14.4a 13b Metarhizium F52 TGAI on seed 10 12.1a Cruiser 5FS 0.16 oz + TOPS MZ 12.0 oz 12.4a TOPS MZ 12.0 oz 14.6a Means followed by the same letter within column are not significantly different (Tukey’s Studentized Range Test; P = 0.05). Application is in conidia / acre. Application is in conidia / 2000 lb seed. Table 2 Tuber totals & weights (oz) In 3 general categories No. potatoes & wireworm damaged potatoes Rate Smaller Medium Larger Treatment/formulation (oz / cwt) (< 4 oz) (4 – 8 oz) (> 8 oz) Total Total % wireworm 13a Metarhizium F52 EC 10 7.8a 33.3a 173.5a 214.5a 23.5a 2.0a 13a Metarhizium F52 TGAI 10 9.8a 35.5a 146.5a 191.8a 19.5a 11.8a + Silwet L-77 0.1%v/v 13a Metarhizium F52 Granular 10 15.5a 41.3a 146.5a 203.3a 24.0a 4.3a 13b Metarhizium F52 TGAI 10 12.5a 38.8a 158.8a 210.0a 23.0a 4.9a Cruiser 5FS 0.16 oz 13.3a 38.3a 175.0a 226.5a 22.3a 2.1a + TOPS MZ 12.0 oz TOPS MZ 12.0 oz 9.5a 35.3a 147.3a 192.0a 19.8a 2.2a Means followed by the same letter within column are not significantly different (Tukey’s Studentized Range Test; P = 0.05). Application is in conidia / acre. Application is in conidia / 2000 lb seed. All data within this column were transformed using arcsine transformation for all statistical analysis. Table 3 Tuber totals & weights (oz) No. potatoes & wireworm In 3 general categories damaged potatoes Rate Smaller Medium Larger Treatment/formulation (oz / cwt) (< 4 oz) (4 – 8 oz) (> 8 oz) Total Total % wireworm 13a Metarhizium F52 EC 10 10.8a 28.3a 109.0a 148.0a 16.5ab 1.5a 13a Metarhizium F52 TGAI 10 13.3a 30.8a 203.8a 247.8a 23.0a 4.8a + Silwet L-77 0.1%v/v 13a Metarhizium F52 Granular 10 7.0a 32.5a 152.0a 191.5a 18.0ab 7.5a 13b Metarhizium F52 TGAI 10 1.0a 30.0a 165.0a 196.0a 13.8b 7.7a Cruiser 5FS 0.16 oz 13.3a 38.8a 152.5a 204.5a 19.0ab 14.3a + TOPS MZ 12.0 oz TOPS MZ 12.0 oz 4.0a 23.8a 177.3a 205.0a 13.8b 9.5a Means followed by the same letter within column are not significantly different (Tukey’s Studentized Range Test; P = 0.05). Application is in conidia / acre. Application is in conidia / 2000 lb seed. All data within this column were transformed using arcsine transformation for all statistical analysis. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Arthropod Management Tests Oxford University Press

CONTROL OF WIREWORM (ELATERIDAE) IN POTATOES WITH MICROBIAL METARHIZIUM, 2006

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Abstract

(E43) POTATO: Solanum tuberosum L. ‘Russet Burbank’ Cecil I. Tharp and Sue L. Blodgett Montana State University Department of Animal and Range Science 221 Linfield Hall Bozeman, MT 59717 Phone: (406) 994-5067 Email: ctharp@montana.edu Stefan Jaronski Pest Management Research Unit USDA-ARS-NPARL 1500 N. Central Avenue Sidney, MT 59270 Phone: (406-433-9486) Email: sjaronski@sidney.ars.usda.gov Wireworm: Elateridae Wireworms can cause significant damage to potatoes, with high populations overwhelming the widely used chemical Cruiser 5FS. This experiment investigated the microbial, Metarhizium anisopliae Strain F52 as a novel method of wireworm control. Two experimental sites, each with plots measuring 3 by 5 m were located on the Southern Agricultural Research Center at Huntley, MT. The trial was planted 18 May using third generation, PVX certified seed potatoes, cv. ‘Russet Burbank’, machine-cut into 2.3 oz seed pieces. All seed pieces were manually placed into furrows at a rate of 2,000 lb / acre, and covered using a Buffalo cultivator. Each trial had treatments arranged as a RCB design with 6 treatments and 4 replications. Four treatments were treated with Metarhizium in 4 different formulations. Three in-furrow treatments were applied at a rate of 2 x 10 conidia / acre in three different formulations on day of planting: an emulsifiable concentrate diluted in water, a technical grade conidial powder (tgai) suspended in 0.1% Silwet L77, and a granular formulation. In a fourth treatment we applied the Metarhizium condia to seeds prior to planting at a rate of 2 x 10 conidia / 2000 lb seed. In- furrow EC and tgai 0.1% Silwet-L77 treatments were applied with a CO powered backpack sprayer equipped to deliver 20 gpa with a single boom delivering a 3.5 inch band. The Cruiser 5FS treatment (0.16 oz / cwt) + TOPS MZ (12 oz / cwt) combination, and the untreated check (TOPS MZ at 12 oz / cwt) were applied by Bayer Corporation. Stand counts were estimated by counting number of plants per 15 ft on the 20 Jun. Yield was assessed by weighing all tubers from 4 consecutive plants in center row of each plot, rating for tuber size and uniformity, and then examining for wireworm damage on 26 Oct. Tuber size was grouped into 3 categories: small (< 4 oz), medium (4 – 8 oz), and large (> 8 oz). Percentage data (wireworm-damaged potatoes) were arcsine transformed prior to analysis. Results were analyzed for differences using SAS proc ANOVA (P = 0.05). If interaction effects were significant over sites, main effects for each site were analyzed separately using ANOVA, with mean separation using Tukey’s studentized range test (P = 0.05). Initial analysis found that significantly more potatoes were found in site 1 compared to site 2 (P = 0.004). An irrigation difference was verified between either sites, with site 1 having more water than site 2 over the duration of the trial. The differences in potato growth, made it necessary to evaluate harvest factors by site. Stand counts were similar between treatments (Table 1). No statistically significant differences in weight of either small, medium, large, or total potatoes at harvest were observed in this study for either site (Table 2 & 3), although there were occasional considerable numerical differences, e.g. in large potatoes in Site 2. There were no differences in percent wireworm infested potatoes between treatments in either site (Table 2 & 3). Significantly more potatoes per plant were harvested from the Metarhizium + Silwet L-22 combination than the untreated check in site #2 (Table 3). Table 1 Rate Mean plant stand/5 m Treatment/formulation (product/ cwt) 20 Jun 2006 13a 13.8a Metarhizium F52 EC 10 13a Metarhizium F52 TGAI 10 14.0a + Silwet L-77 0.1%v/v 13a Metarhizium F52 Granular 10 14.4a 13b Metarhizium F52 TGAI on seed 10 12.1a Cruiser 5FS 0.16 oz + TOPS MZ 12.0 oz 12.4a TOPS MZ 12.0 oz 14.6a Means followed by the same letter within column are not significantly different (Tukey’s Studentized Range Test; P = 0.05). Application is in conidia / acre. Application is in conidia / 2000 lb seed. Table 2 Tuber totals & weights (oz) In 3 general categories No. potatoes & wireworm damaged potatoes Rate Smaller Medium Larger Treatment/formulation (oz / cwt) (< 4 oz) (4 – 8 oz) (> 8 oz) Total Total % wireworm 13a Metarhizium F52 EC 10 7.8a 33.3a 173.5a 214.5a 23.5a 2.0a 13a Metarhizium F52 TGAI 10 9.8a 35.5a 146.5a 191.8a 19.5a 11.8a + Silwet L-77 0.1%v/v 13a Metarhizium F52 Granular 10 15.5a 41.3a 146.5a 203.3a 24.0a 4.3a 13b Metarhizium F52 TGAI 10 12.5a 38.8a 158.8a 210.0a 23.0a 4.9a Cruiser 5FS 0.16 oz 13.3a 38.3a 175.0a 226.5a 22.3a 2.1a + TOPS MZ 12.0 oz TOPS MZ 12.0 oz 9.5a 35.3a 147.3a 192.0a 19.8a 2.2a Means followed by the same letter within column are not significantly different (Tukey’s Studentized Range Test; P = 0.05). Application is in conidia / acre. Application is in conidia / 2000 lb seed. All data within this column were transformed using arcsine transformation for all statistical analysis. Table 3 Tuber totals & weights (oz) No. potatoes & wireworm In 3 general categories damaged potatoes Rate Smaller Medium Larger Treatment/formulation (oz / cwt) (< 4 oz) (4 – 8 oz) (> 8 oz) Total Total % wireworm 13a Metarhizium F52 EC 10 10.8a 28.3a 109.0a 148.0a 16.5ab 1.5a 13a Metarhizium F52 TGAI 10 13.3a 30.8a 203.8a 247.8a 23.0a 4.8a + Silwet L-77 0.1%v/v 13a Metarhizium F52 Granular 10 7.0a 32.5a 152.0a 191.5a 18.0ab 7.5a 13b Metarhizium F52 TGAI 10 1.0a 30.0a 165.0a 196.0a 13.8b 7.7a Cruiser 5FS 0.16 oz 13.3a 38.8a 152.5a 204.5a 19.0ab 14.3a + TOPS MZ 12.0 oz TOPS MZ 12.0 oz 4.0a 23.8a 177.3a 205.0a 13.8b 9.5a Means followed by the same letter within column are not significantly different (Tukey’s Studentized Range Test; P = 0.05). Application is in conidia / acre. Application is in conidia / 2000 lb seed. All data within this column were transformed using arcsine transformation for all statistical analysis.

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Arthropod Management TestsOxford University Press

Published: Jan 1, 2007

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