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Control of Citrus Thrips on Lemons, 1996

Control of Citrus Thrips on Lemons, 1996 Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article-abstract/22/1/64/4639831 by DeepDyve user on 21 July 2020 64 Arthropod Management Tests, Vol. 21 D: CITRUS, NUTS, AND AVOCADOS LEMON: Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, 'Lisbon' D. L. Kerns and T. Tellez (8D) Citrus thrips (CT); Scirtothrips citri Moulton University of Arizona Department of Entomology Yuma Valley Agric. Center Yuma, Arizona 85364 CONTROL OF CITRUS THRIPS ON LEMONS, 1996: Eight year old lemon trees in Yuma, AZ were treated with insecticides for control of citrus thrips. The treatments were arranged in a RCB design, consisting of four replicates. Each plot (30 by 90 ft) consisted of three trees 30 ft apart in a row. Applications were made using a backpack air-blast sprayer calibrated to deliver 100 gpa. Treatments were initiated approximately 14 days after petal fall and were applied on Apr 3, Apr 30 and May 15. Evaluations were made on 5 Apr, 9 Apr, 15 Apr, 23 Apr, 29 Apr, 2 May, 6 May, 13 May, 17 May, 20 May and 29 May. Percent infested fruit were estimated by sampling by sampling ten fruit per tree for the presence or absence of immature CT. Fruit dam­ age was assessed on Aug 16 by rating the degree of rind scarring: 1 = no scarring, 2 = slight scarring around the calyx, 3 = significant scarring around the calyx, 4 = slight scarring on the side of the fruit and 5 = major scarring on the side of the fruit. Percentage fruit infested with immature CT were trans­ formed using a square-root transformation for analysis, percentage values are presented in the tables. Differences among treatments were separated using ANOVA and an F protected LSD. Precounts were taken on 1 Apr, when the plots averaged 17.29 percent infested fruit, and did not differ among treatments. Ten days following the first application, temperatures became cool and CT populations dropped. Temperatures and CT populations increased following the second application. Overall, the treatments containing Carzol SP, and Agri-Mek at 0.08 lb(AI)/acre appeared most efficacious. Danitol rotated with Agri-Mek and then Dimethoate E267 did not appear to differ from Danitol rotated with Alert and the Dimethoate E267. FIRST APPLICATION Mean % fruit infested with immature CT Rate 5 Apr 9 Apr 15 Apr 23 Apr 29 Apr Treatment" lb(AI)/acre 2 DAT 6 DAT 12 DAT 20 DAT 26 DAT Carzol SP 1.38 0.83d 2.50bc 2.50a 1.67b 13.34a Carzol + Baythroid 0.92 + 0.05 0.83d 0.83c 0.83a 4.17b 15.84a Baythroid 0.1 8.34bcd 5.83bc 1.67a 1.67b 14.17a Agri-Mek 0.04 7.50bcd 4.17bc 0.00a 3.33a 13.33a Agri-Mek 0.08 1.67d 0.00c 2.50a 7.50b 10.00a Danitol 0.4 21.67a 5.83bc 4.17a 6.67b 24.17a DanitoF 0.4 10.84bc 16.67a 4.17a 5.00b 22.50a Untreated Check 14.17ab 8.33b 6.67a 16.67a 19.17a Means in a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different (F protected LSD P < 0.05) after square-root transformation. Nontransformed data presented. "All treatments were applied with Kinetic nonionic surfactant at 0.1 % vol/vol except Agri-Mek which included NR-415 petroleum oil at 1.0 gal/acre. Applications containing Carzol included Neutralizer buffer at 0.125% v/v. TJanitol was applied the first application, Agri-Mek the second and Dimethoate E267 the third. TJanitol was applied the first application, Alert the second and Dimethoate E267 the third. SECOND APPLICATION Mean % fruit infested with immature CT Rate 2 May 6 May 13 May Treatment" lb(AI)/acre 2 DAT 6 DAT 13 DAT Carzol SP 1.38 2.50b 1.67d 2.50d Carzol + Baythroid 0.92 + 0.05 2.50b 0.83d 8.33b Baythroid 0.1 2.50b lO.OOab 16.67b Agri-Mek 0.04 0.00b 4.17cd 6.66cd Agri-Mek 0.08 3.33b 5.00bcd 2.50d Agri-Mek* 0.08 1.67b 8.33bc 12.50bc Alert 0.2 2.50b 3.33cd 17.50b Untreated Check 10.00a 15.00a 28.33a Means in a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different (F protected LSD P <0.05) after square-root transformation. Nontransformed data present. "All treatments were applied with Kinetic nonionic surfactant at 0.1 % vol/vol except Agri-Mek which included NR-415 petroleum oil at 1.0 gal/acre. Applications containing Carzol included Neutralizer buffer at 0.125% v/v. TJanitol was applied the first application, Agri-Mek the second and Dimethoate E267 the third. TJanitol was applied the first application, Alert the second and Dimethoate E267 the third. Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article-abstract/22/1/64/4639831 by DeepDyve user on 21 July 2020 D: CITRUS, NUTS , AN D AVOCADOS Arthropod Management Tests, Vol. 22 65 THIRD APPLICATION Mean % fruit infested with immature CT Rate 17 May 20 May 29 May 16 Aug Treatment" lb(AI)/acre 2 DAT 5 DAT 14 DA T Mature Fruit Carzol SP 1.38 0.00c 0.83d 1.65b 4.17c Carzol + Baythroid 0.92 + 0.05 0.00c 0.83d 5.00c 1.79b Baythroid 0.1 7.50bc 11.67c 16.67b 1.73b Agri-Mek 0.04 0.83c 5.00d 13.33bc 1.71b Agri-Mek 0.08 0.83c O.OOd 8.34bc 1.75b Dimethoate E267* 1.81b 1.34 10.83bc 30.83b 28.33a Diraethoate E267 1.61b 1.34 18.34b 24.17b 20.00ab Untreated Check 37.50a 2.51a 36.67a 30.83a Means in a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different (F protected LSD P < 0.05) after square-root transformation. Nontransformed data presented. "AH treatments were applied with Kinetic nonionic surfactant at 0.1 % vol/vol except Agri-Mek which included NR-415 petroleum oil at 1.0 gal/acre. Applications containing Carzol and Dimethoate E267 included Neutralizer buffer at 0.125% vol/vol. *Danitol was applied the first application, Agri-Mek the second and Dimethoate E267 the third. Danitol was applied the first application, Alert the second and Dimethoate E267 the third. ORANGE: Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck 'Valencia' C. C. Childers, T. Gainey, and D. K. Threlkeld (9D) Citrus rust mite (CRM); Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) University of Florida. IFAS Citrus Research and Education Center 700 Experiment Station Road Lake Alfred, Florida 33850 Telephone (941) 956-1151 CITRUS RUST MITE CONTROL WITH ALERT (AC 303, 630), 1996: Alert at three rates per acre was compared with Alert at the same rates tank-mixed with FC 435-66 petroleum oil only or with petroleum oil and one of two copper formulations against CRM. Treatments were assigned to 3 X 3 ( = 9 tree) plots in a RC B design, replicated 5 times on 8-1 0 ft tall trees with 18 X 26 ft spacing. Treatments were applied on 24 Jul using an FM C 352- S PTO airblast sprayer with speed, nozzling and pressure adjusted to deliver the designated gpa. At each evaluation date, 20 fruit were randomly selected and examined on the center tree within each replicate using a 10 X handlens. All live CRM (except eggs) were counted in two, 1 -cm lens field on partially shaded sides of each fruit. The two counts per fruit were combined and recorded as one observation. Data were subjected to log (X + 1) transformation for statistical analysis and untransformed means are presented in the table for comparison. The addition of 5 gal petroleum oil to Alert at 0.15, 0.2, or 0.3 lb AI per acre clearly enhanced the residual activity of the miticide in controlling CRM. Alert at 0.3 lb AI alone or in combination with petroleum oil was as effective as Agri-Mek plus petroleum oil in controlling CRM through 83 DAT. When copper hydroxide or coppe r sulfate was tank-mixed with Alert and petroleum oil, there was a significant reduction in the residual activity of the miti­ cide between 42-50 DAT. Mean no. CRM/2 cm of fruit surface DAT Treatment/Formulation Rate/acre Pre-spray 2 34 42 50 55 64 72 83 Alert 2 SC 0.15 lb AI 4a 0.1b 0.3b 0.7b 2.8bc 2.1b 9.5b 4.8b 2.3bcd Alert 2 SC 0.15 lb AI + Petroleum oil FC435-66 5 gal 4a 0.1b 0.2b 0.1c 0.3ef 0.5cd 0.4ef 1.4de 0.7ef Alert 2 SC 0.2 lb AI 6a 0 b 0.6b 0c 3.8cdef 3.0b 1.7de 2.7cd 1.7cdef Alert 2 SC 0.2 lb AI + Petroleum oil FC435-66 5 gal 4a 0b 0.1b 0c 3.2cde 0.5cd 2.5cd 2.2cd 1.8bcde Alert 2 SC 0.3 lb AI 4a 0.1b 0b 0c O.lef O.ld 0.2ef l.Ode 0.9def Alert 2 SC 0.3 lb AI + Petroleum oil FC435-66 5 gal 4a 0.2b 0b 0c O.lf O.ld Of 0.2e 0.8fg Alert 2SC 0.2 lb AI + Petroleum oil FC435-66 5 gal + Copper hydroxide 50WP 0.1b 0.5b 0c 8.0bc 17.2b 4 lb metallic 4a 11.3b 6.7b 5.6bc Alert 2 SC 0.2 lb AI + Petroleum oil FC435-66 5 gal + Copper sulphate 4 lb metallic 4a 0.2b 0.2b 4.0b 1.3bcd l.Obc 2.52bc 5.2bc 3.1b Agri-Mek 0.15 EC 10 oz form + Petroleum oil FC435-66 5 gal 4a 0b 0b 0b 0.3def O.ld 0.3ef O.le 0.2g Untreated Check 13a 21.4a 10.3a 6.7a 4a 6a 7a 17.2a 8.4a Means in a column followed by the same letter were not significantly different (P = 0.05; WD). http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Arthropod Management Tests Oxford University Press

Control of Citrus Thrips on Lemons, 1996

Arthropod Management Tests , Volume 22 (1) – Jan 1, 1997

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Oxford University Press
Copyright
© 1997 Entomological Society of America.
eISSN
2155-9856
DOI
10.1093/amt/22.1.64
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Abstract

Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article-abstract/22/1/64/4639831 by DeepDyve user on 21 July 2020 64 Arthropod Management Tests, Vol. 21 D: CITRUS, NUTS, AND AVOCADOS LEMON: Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, 'Lisbon' D. L. Kerns and T. Tellez (8D) Citrus thrips (CT); Scirtothrips citri Moulton University of Arizona Department of Entomology Yuma Valley Agric. Center Yuma, Arizona 85364 CONTROL OF CITRUS THRIPS ON LEMONS, 1996: Eight year old lemon trees in Yuma, AZ were treated with insecticides for control of citrus thrips. The treatments were arranged in a RCB design, consisting of four replicates. Each plot (30 by 90 ft) consisted of three trees 30 ft apart in a row. Applications were made using a backpack air-blast sprayer calibrated to deliver 100 gpa. Treatments were initiated approximately 14 days after petal fall and were applied on Apr 3, Apr 30 and May 15. Evaluations were made on 5 Apr, 9 Apr, 15 Apr, 23 Apr, 29 Apr, 2 May, 6 May, 13 May, 17 May, 20 May and 29 May. Percent infested fruit were estimated by sampling by sampling ten fruit per tree for the presence or absence of immature CT. Fruit dam­ age was assessed on Aug 16 by rating the degree of rind scarring: 1 = no scarring, 2 = slight scarring around the calyx, 3 = significant scarring around the calyx, 4 = slight scarring on the side of the fruit and 5 = major scarring on the side of the fruit. Percentage fruit infested with immature CT were trans­ formed using a square-root transformation for analysis, percentage values are presented in the tables. Differences among treatments were separated using ANOVA and an F protected LSD. Precounts were taken on 1 Apr, when the plots averaged 17.29 percent infested fruit, and did not differ among treatments. Ten days following the first application, temperatures became cool and CT populations dropped. Temperatures and CT populations increased following the second application. Overall, the treatments containing Carzol SP, and Agri-Mek at 0.08 lb(AI)/acre appeared most efficacious. Danitol rotated with Agri-Mek and then Dimethoate E267 did not appear to differ from Danitol rotated with Alert and the Dimethoate E267. FIRST APPLICATION Mean % fruit infested with immature CT Rate 5 Apr 9 Apr 15 Apr 23 Apr 29 Apr Treatment" lb(AI)/acre 2 DAT 6 DAT 12 DAT 20 DAT 26 DAT Carzol SP 1.38 0.83d 2.50bc 2.50a 1.67b 13.34a Carzol + Baythroid 0.92 + 0.05 0.83d 0.83c 0.83a 4.17b 15.84a Baythroid 0.1 8.34bcd 5.83bc 1.67a 1.67b 14.17a Agri-Mek 0.04 7.50bcd 4.17bc 0.00a 3.33a 13.33a Agri-Mek 0.08 1.67d 0.00c 2.50a 7.50b 10.00a Danitol 0.4 21.67a 5.83bc 4.17a 6.67b 24.17a DanitoF 0.4 10.84bc 16.67a 4.17a 5.00b 22.50a Untreated Check 14.17ab 8.33b 6.67a 16.67a 19.17a Means in a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different (F protected LSD P < 0.05) after square-root transformation. Nontransformed data presented. "All treatments were applied with Kinetic nonionic surfactant at 0.1 % vol/vol except Agri-Mek which included NR-415 petroleum oil at 1.0 gal/acre. Applications containing Carzol included Neutralizer buffer at 0.125% v/v. TJanitol was applied the first application, Agri-Mek the second and Dimethoate E267 the third. TJanitol was applied the first application, Alert the second and Dimethoate E267 the third. SECOND APPLICATION Mean % fruit infested with immature CT Rate 2 May 6 May 13 May Treatment" lb(AI)/acre 2 DAT 6 DAT 13 DAT Carzol SP 1.38 2.50b 1.67d 2.50d Carzol + Baythroid 0.92 + 0.05 2.50b 0.83d 8.33b Baythroid 0.1 2.50b lO.OOab 16.67b Agri-Mek 0.04 0.00b 4.17cd 6.66cd Agri-Mek 0.08 3.33b 5.00bcd 2.50d Agri-Mek* 0.08 1.67b 8.33bc 12.50bc Alert 0.2 2.50b 3.33cd 17.50b Untreated Check 10.00a 15.00a 28.33a Means in a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different (F protected LSD P <0.05) after square-root transformation. Nontransformed data present. "All treatments were applied with Kinetic nonionic surfactant at 0.1 % vol/vol except Agri-Mek which included NR-415 petroleum oil at 1.0 gal/acre. Applications containing Carzol included Neutralizer buffer at 0.125% v/v. TJanitol was applied the first application, Agri-Mek the second and Dimethoate E267 the third. TJanitol was applied the first application, Alert the second and Dimethoate E267 the third. Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article-abstract/22/1/64/4639831 by DeepDyve user on 21 July 2020 D: CITRUS, NUTS , AN D AVOCADOS Arthropod Management Tests, Vol. 22 65 THIRD APPLICATION Mean % fruit infested with immature CT Rate 17 May 20 May 29 May 16 Aug Treatment" lb(AI)/acre 2 DAT 5 DAT 14 DA T Mature Fruit Carzol SP 1.38 0.00c 0.83d 1.65b 4.17c Carzol + Baythroid 0.92 + 0.05 0.00c 0.83d 5.00c 1.79b Baythroid 0.1 7.50bc 11.67c 16.67b 1.73b Agri-Mek 0.04 0.83c 5.00d 13.33bc 1.71b Agri-Mek 0.08 0.83c O.OOd 8.34bc 1.75b Dimethoate E267* 1.81b 1.34 10.83bc 30.83b 28.33a Diraethoate E267 1.61b 1.34 18.34b 24.17b 20.00ab Untreated Check 37.50a 2.51a 36.67a 30.83a Means in a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different (F protected LSD P < 0.05) after square-root transformation. Nontransformed data presented. "AH treatments were applied with Kinetic nonionic surfactant at 0.1 % vol/vol except Agri-Mek which included NR-415 petroleum oil at 1.0 gal/acre. Applications containing Carzol and Dimethoate E267 included Neutralizer buffer at 0.125% vol/vol. *Danitol was applied the first application, Agri-Mek the second and Dimethoate E267 the third. Danitol was applied the first application, Alert the second and Dimethoate E267 the third. ORANGE: Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck 'Valencia' C. C. Childers, T. Gainey, and D. K. Threlkeld (9D) Citrus rust mite (CRM); Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) University of Florida. IFAS Citrus Research and Education Center 700 Experiment Station Road Lake Alfred, Florida 33850 Telephone (941) 956-1151 CITRUS RUST MITE CONTROL WITH ALERT (AC 303, 630), 1996: Alert at three rates per acre was compared with Alert at the same rates tank-mixed with FC 435-66 petroleum oil only or with petroleum oil and one of two copper formulations against CRM. Treatments were assigned to 3 X 3 ( = 9 tree) plots in a RC B design, replicated 5 times on 8-1 0 ft tall trees with 18 X 26 ft spacing. Treatments were applied on 24 Jul using an FM C 352- S PTO airblast sprayer with speed, nozzling and pressure adjusted to deliver the designated gpa. At each evaluation date, 20 fruit were randomly selected and examined on the center tree within each replicate using a 10 X handlens. All live CRM (except eggs) were counted in two, 1 -cm lens field on partially shaded sides of each fruit. The two counts per fruit were combined and recorded as one observation. Data were subjected to log (X + 1) transformation for statistical analysis and untransformed means are presented in the table for comparison. The addition of 5 gal petroleum oil to Alert at 0.15, 0.2, or 0.3 lb AI per acre clearly enhanced the residual activity of the miticide in controlling CRM. Alert at 0.3 lb AI alone or in combination with petroleum oil was as effective as Agri-Mek plus petroleum oil in controlling CRM through 83 DAT. When copper hydroxide or coppe r sulfate was tank-mixed with Alert and petroleum oil, there was a significant reduction in the residual activity of the miti­ cide between 42-50 DAT. Mean no. CRM/2 cm of fruit surface DAT Treatment/Formulation Rate/acre Pre-spray 2 34 42 50 55 64 72 83 Alert 2 SC 0.15 lb AI 4a 0.1b 0.3b 0.7b 2.8bc 2.1b 9.5b 4.8b 2.3bcd Alert 2 SC 0.15 lb AI + Petroleum oil FC435-66 5 gal 4a 0.1b 0.2b 0.1c 0.3ef 0.5cd 0.4ef 1.4de 0.7ef Alert 2 SC 0.2 lb AI 6a 0 b 0.6b 0c 3.8cdef 3.0b 1.7de 2.7cd 1.7cdef Alert 2 SC 0.2 lb AI + Petroleum oil FC435-66 5 gal 4a 0b 0.1b 0c 3.2cde 0.5cd 2.5cd 2.2cd 1.8bcde Alert 2 SC 0.3 lb AI 4a 0.1b 0b 0c O.lef O.ld 0.2ef l.Ode 0.9def Alert 2 SC 0.3 lb AI + Petroleum oil FC435-66 5 gal 4a 0.2b 0b 0c O.lf O.ld Of 0.2e 0.8fg Alert 2SC 0.2 lb AI + Petroleum oil FC435-66 5 gal + Copper hydroxide 50WP 0.1b 0.5b 0c 8.0bc 17.2b 4 lb metallic 4a 11.3b 6.7b 5.6bc Alert 2 SC 0.2 lb AI + Petroleum oil FC435-66 5 gal + Copper sulphate 4 lb metallic 4a 0.2b 0.2b 4.0b 1.3bcd l.Obc 2.52bc 5.2bc 3.1b Agri-Mek 0.15 EC 10 oz form + Petroleum oil FC435-66 5 gal 4a 0b 0b 0b 0.3def O.ld 0.3ef O.le 0.2g Untreated Check 13a 21.4a 10.3a 6.7a 4a 6a 7a 17.2a 8.4a Means in a column followed by the same letter were not significantly different (P = 0.05; WD).

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Arthropod Management TestsOxford University Press

Published: Jan 1, 1997

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