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Comparative Efficacy of Three Different Insecticides Against Adult Fruit Flies Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae) Under Laboratory Conditions

Comparative Efficacy of Three Different Insecticides Against Adult Fruit Flies Bactrocera zonata... Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article/46/1/tsab130/6343390 by DeepDyve user on 10 August 2021 applyparastyle "fig//caption/p[1]" parastyle "FigCapt" applyparastyle "fig" parastyle "Figure" Arthropod Management T ests, 46(1), 2021, 1–2 https://doi.org/10.1093/amt/tsab130 Section L: Laboratory Bioassays Comparative Efficacy of Three Different Insecticides HeadA=HeadB=HeadA=HeadB/HeadA Against Adult Fruit Flies Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) HeadB=HeadC=HeadB=HeadC/HeadB (Diptera: Tephritidae) Under Laboratory Conditions HeadC=HeadD=HeadC=HeadD/HeadC Extract3=HeadA=Extract1=HeadA 1 1,4, 2 Syed Safeer Haider, Muhammad Waqar Hassan, Muhammad Iqbal, and History=Text=History=Text_First Moazzam Jamil EDI_HeadA=EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadA=EDI_HeadB/HeadA Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadC/HeadB 2 Pakistan, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Islamia University of Bahawalpur, EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadD=EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadD/HeadC Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan, and Corresponding author, e-mail: waqar.hassan@iub.edu.pk EDI_Extract3=EDI_HeadA=EDI_Extract1=EDI_HeadA ERR_HeadA=ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadA=ERR_HeadB/HeadA Section Editor: Michelle Brown ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadC/HeadB Peach fruit fly | Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadD=ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadD/HeadC In this study commercial formulations of three commonly used using mortality data as dependent variables while insecticide ERR_Extract3=ERR_HeadA=ERR_Extract1=ERR_HeadA insecticides namely trichlorfon 80% SP (Trichlorfon), lambda- concentrations were taken as independent variables. Means were cyhalothrin 2.5% EC (Karate), and imidacloprid 25% WP separated post hoc by Tukey HSD test at 5% level of probability. (Confidor) were evaluated under laboratory conditions to de- Results showed that after 24  h of treatment, maximum mor- termine their comparative efficacy against newly emerged adults tality caused by imidacloprid was recorded (20.000  ± 0.000) due of Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae). These to 500  ppm concentration while minimum was recorded (0.000  ± insecticides were obtained from the respective distributors in 0.000) at 62.5 and 125  ppm concentration (P  <  0.05). Maximum Punjab, Pakistan. mean mortality due to lambda-cyhalothrin was recorded (86.667 ± Insecticides were mixed with distilled water in 500-ml jar to get 6.666) at 500 and 250  ppm concentration and minimum was 500  ppm concentration as a stock solution, while 250, 125, 62.5, (6.667 ± 6.666) at 31.25 ppm. Mortality due to trichlorfon remained and 31.25 ppm were made by serial dilution of stock solution. Five maximum (100.000 ± 0.000) tested at all the concentrations in all plastic jars were treated with cotton swab dipped in specific concen- the replications (SD = 0) (Table 1). tration (ppm) of required insecticide and experiment was replicated After 48  h, maximum mortality caused by imidacloprid was re- thrice. Distilled water alone was used as control. Ten, newly emerged corded (100.00 ± 0.000) due to 500 ppm concentration while minimum fruit fly adults were shifted into each plastic jar with help of paper was recorded (13.333 ± 6.666) at 62.5 and 31.25 ppm concentration within the rearing cage. Fruit flies in each plastic jar were provided (P  <  0.05). Maximum mean mortality due to lambda-cyhalothrin with sugar hydrolysate mixture in Petri dish. Plastic jar mouth was was recorded (100.000 ± 0.000) at 500 and 250 ppm concentration covered with a muslin cloth with a rubber band to hold it firmly for and minimum was (26.667 ± 6.666) at 31.25 ppm. Mortality due to appropriate ventilation and to prevent the escape of fruit flies. In trichlorfon remained maximum (100.000  ± 0.000) tested at all the control treatment jars were treated with the distilled water instead concentrations in all the replications (SD = 0) (Table 2). of insecticide concentration. After 72 h, maximum mortality caused by imidacloprid was re- Mortality data were recorded after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. corded (100.00  ± 0.000) due to 250 and 500  ppm concentration Irreversible knockdown followed by death of the adult fruit flies was while minimum was recorded (60.000  ± 11.547) at 31.25  ppm considered standard mortality. Mortality data were converted into concentration (P > 0.05). Mortality due to lambda-cyhalothrin and percentages. If mortality in control exceeded 5%, it was corrected trichlorfon remained maximum (100.000 ± 0.000) tested at all the using Abbotts formula (Rosenheim, 1989). As mortality in control concentrations in all the replications (SD = 0) (Table 3). treatments did not exceed 5% in these trials the correction formula These results revealed that trichlorfon is highly efficacious even was not applied. Mortality data sets by all three different insecticides after 24 h of treatment and can give quick knockdown effect against were analyzed separately. Data were analyzed statistically using adults of fruit flies in laboratory and is recommended to be used fur - SPSS (version 16.0 for windows) by analysis of variance technique ther under field conditions for quick control of adults of B. zonata. This research was supported in part by industry gifts of pesticides. The authors are also thankful to the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan, to provide funds to the Department of Entomology to meet necessary annual operational costs of research laboratories. © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. 1 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article/46/1/tsab130/6343390 by DeepDyve user on 10 August 2021 2 Arthropod Management T ests, 2021, Vol. 46, No. 1 Table 1. Mortality (mean ± SE) of B. zonata due to three different insecticides after 24 h Concentration (ppm) N Imidacloprid Lambda-cyhalothrin Trichlorfon Mean ± SE Mean ± SE Mean ± SE 31.25 3 6.667 ± 6.666ab 6.667 ± 6.666a 100.000 ± 0.000 62.5 3 0.000 ± 0.000a 33.333 ± 6.666a 100.000 ± 0.000 125 3 0.0000 ± 0.000a 66.667 ± 6.666b 100.000 ± 0.000 250 3 13.333 ± 6.666ab 86.667 ± 6.666b 100.000 ± 0.000 500 3 20.000 ± 0.000b 86.667 ± 6.666b 100.000 ± 0.000 Total 15 8.000 ± 2.618 56.000 ± 8.772 100.000 ± 0.000 F 4.250; P: 0.029 27.800; P: 0.000 SD: 0 (4, 14) Means in a column followed by different alphabets are statistically different at P: 0.05. N: numbers of replicates per treatment. Table 2. Mortality (mean ± SE) of B. zonata due to three different insecticides after 48 h Concentration (ppm) N Imidacloprid Lambda-cyhalothrin Trichlorfon 31.25 3 13.333 ± 6.666a 26.667 ± 6.666a 100.000 ± 0.000 62.5 3 33.333 ± 13.333ab 66.667 ± 24.037ab 100.000 ± 0.000 125 3 33.333 ± 13.333ab 93.333 ± 6.666b 100.000 ± 0.000 250 3 66.667 ± 6.666bc 100.000 ± 0.000b 100.000 ± 0.000 500 3 100.00 ± 0.000c 100.000 ± 0.000b 100.000 ± 0.000 Total 15 49.333 ± 8.915 77.3333 ± 8.699 100.000 ± 0.000 F 13.150, P: 0.001 7.433; P: 0.005 SD: 0 (4, 14) Means in a column followed by different alphabets are statistically different at P: 0.05. N: numbers of replicates per treatment. Table 3. Mortality (mean ± SE) of B. zonata due to three different insecticides after 72 h Concentration (ppm) N Imidacloprid Lambda-cyhalothrin Trichlorfon 31.25 3 60.000 ± 11.547ns 100.000 ± 0.000 100.000 ± 0.000 62.5 3 80.000 ± 11.547 100.000 ± 0.000 100.000 ± 0.000 125 3 86.667 ± 13.333 100.000 ± 0.000 100.000 ± 0.000 250 3 100.00 ± 0.000 100.000 ± 0.000 100.000 ± 0.000 500 3 1.00.00 ± 0.000 100.000 ± 0.000 100.000 ± 0.000 Total 15 85.333 ± 5.333 100.000 ± 0.000 100.000 ± 0.000 F 3.100; P: 0.067 SD: 0 SD: 0 (4, 14) Means in a column followed by different alphabets are statistically different at P: 0.05. N: numbers of replicates per treatment. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Arthropod Management Tests Oxford University Press

Comparative Efficacy of Three Different Insecticides Against Adult Fruit Flies Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae) Under Laboratory Conditions

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Oxford University Press
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Copyright © 2021 Entomological Society of America
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2155-9856
DOI
10.1093/amt/tsab130
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Abstract

Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article/46/1/tsab130/6343390 by DeepDyve user on 10 August 2021 applyparastyle "fig//caption/p[1]" parastyle "FigCapt" applyparastyle "fig" parastyle "Figure" Arthropod Management T ests, 46(1), 2021, 1–2 https://doi.org/10.1093/amt/tsab130 Section L: Laboratory Bioassays Comparative Efficacy of Three Different Insecticides HeadA=HeadB=HeadA=HeadB/HeadA Against Adult Fruit Flies Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) HeadB=HeadC=HeadB=HeadC/HeadB (Diptera: Tephritidae) Under Laboratory Conditions HeadC=HeadD=HeadC=HeadD/HeadC Extract3=HeadA=Extract1=HeadA 1 1,4, 2 Syed Safeer Haider, Muhammad Waqar Hassan, Muhammad Iqbal, and History=Text=History=Text_First Moazzam Jamil EDI_HeadA=EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadA=EDI_HeadB/HeadA Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadB=EDI_HeadC/HeadB 2 Pakistan, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Islamia University of Bahawalpur, EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadD=EDI_HeadC=EDI_HeadD/HeadC Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan, and Corresponding author, e-mail: waqar.hassan@iub.edu.pk EDI_Extract3=EDI_HeadA=EDI_Extract1=EDI_HeadA ERR_HeadA=ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadA=ERR_HeadB/HeadA Section Editor: Michelle Brown ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadB=ERR_HeadC/HeadB Peach fruit fly | Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadD=ERR_HeadC=ERR_HeadD/HeadC In this study commercial formulations of three commonly used using mortality data as dependent variables while insecticide ERR_Extract3=ERR_HeadA=ERR_Extract1=ERR_HeadA insecticides namely trichlorfon 80% SP (Trichlorfon), lambda- concentrations were taken as independent variables. Means were cyhalothrin 2.5% EC (Karate), and imidacloprid 25% WP separated post hoc by Tukey HSD test at 5% level of probability. (Confidor) were evaluated under laboratory conditions to de- Results showed that after 24  h of treatment, maximum mor- termine their comparative efficacy against newly emerged adults tality caused by imidacloprid was recorded (20.000  ± 0.000) due of Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae). These to 500  ppm concentration while minimum was recorded (0.000  ± insecticides were obtained from the respective distributors in 0.000) at 62.5 and 125  ppm concentration (P  <  0.05). Maximum Punjab, Pakistan. mean mortality due to lambda-cyhalothrin was recorded (86.667 ± Insecticides were mixed with distilled water in 500-ml jar to get 6.666) at 500 and 250  ppm concentration and minimum was 500  ppm concentration as a stock solution, while 250, 125, 62.5, (6.667 ± 6.666) at 31.25 ppm. Mortality due to trichlorfon remained and 31.25 ppm were made by serial dilution of stock solution. Five maximum (100.000 ± 0.000) tested at all the concentrations in all plastic jars were treated with cotton swab dipped in specific concen- the replications (SD = 0) (Table 1). tration (ppm) of required insecticide and experiment was replicated After 48  h, maximum mortality caused by imidacloprid was re- thrice. Distilled water alone was used as control. Ten, newly emerged corded (100.00 ± 0.000) due to 500 ppm concentration while minimum fruit fly adults were shifted into each plastic jar with help of paper was recorded (13.333 ± 6.666) at 62.5 and 31.25 ppm concentration within the rearing cage. Fruit flies in each plastic jar were provided (P  <  0.05). Maximum mean mortality due to lambda-cyhalothrin with sugar hydrolysate mixture in Petri dish. Plastic jar mouth was was recorded (100.000 ± 0.000) at 500 and 250 ppm concentration covered with a muslin cloth with a rubber band to hold it firmly for and minimum was (26.667 ± 6.666) at 31.25 ppm. Mortality due to appropriate ventilation and to prevent the escape of fruit flies. In trichlorfon remained maximum (100.000  ± 0.000) tested at all the control treatment jars were treated with the distilled water instead concentrations in all the replications (SD = 0) (Table 2). of insecticide concentration. After 72 h, maximum mortality caused by imidacloprid was re- Mortality data were recorded after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. corded (100.00  ± 0.000) due to 250 and 500  ppm concentration Irreversible knockdown followed by death of the adult fruit flies was while minimum was recorded (60.000  ± 11.547) at 31.25  ppm considered standard mortality. Mortality data were converted into concentration (P > 0.05). Mortality due to lambda-cyhalothrin and percentages. If mortality in control exceeded 5%, it was corrected trichlorfon remained maximum (100.000 ± 0.000) tested at all the using Abbotts formula (Rosenheim, 1989). As mortality in control concentrations in all the replications (SD = 0) (Table 3). treatments did not exceed 5% in these trials the correction formula These results revealed that trichlorfon is highly efficacious even was not applied. Mortality data sets by all three different insecticides after 24 h of treatment and can give quick knockdown effect against were analyzed separately. Data were analyzed statistically using adults of fruit flies in laboratory and is recommended to be used fur - SPSS (version 16.0 for windows) by analysis of variance technique ther under field conditions for quick control of adults of B. zonata. This research was supported in part by industry gifts of pesticides. The authors are also thankful to the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan, to provide funds to the Department of Entomology to meet necessary annual operational costs of research laboratories. © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. 1 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article/46/1/tsab130/6343390 by DeepDyve user on 10 August 2021 2 Arthropod Management T ests, 2021, Vol. 46, No. 1 Table 1. Mortality (mean ± SE) of B. zonata due to three different insecticides after 24 h Concentration (ppm) N Imidacloprid Lambda-cyhalothrin Trichlorfon Mean ± SE Mean ± SE Mean ± SE 31.25 3 6.667 ± 6.666ab 6.667 ± 6.666a 100.000 ± 0.000 62.5 3 0.000 ± 0.000a 33.333 ± 6.666a 100.000 ± 0.000 125 3 0.0000 ± 0.000a 66.667 ± 6.666b 100.000 ± 0.000 250 3 13.333 ± 6.666ab 86.667 ± 6.666b 100.000 ± 0.000 500 3 20.000 ± 0.000b 86.667 ± 6.666b 100.000 ± 0.000 Total 15 8.000 ± 2.618 56.000 ± 8.772 100.000 ± 0.000 F 4.250; P: 0.029 27.800; P: 0.000 SD: 0 (4, 14) Means in a column followed by different alphabets are statistically different at P: 0.05. N: numbers of replicates per treatment. Table 2. Mortality (mean ± SE) of B. zonata due to three different insecticides after 48 h Concentration (ppm) N Imidacloprid Lambda-cyhalothrin Trichlorfon 31.25 3 13.333 ± 6.666a 26.667 ± 6.666a 100.000 ± 0.000 62.5 3 33.333 ± 13.333ab 66.667 ± 24.037ab 100.000 ± 0.000 125 3 33.333 ± 13.333ab 93.333 ± 6.666b 100.000 ± 0.000 250 3 66.667 ± 6.666bc 100.000 ± 0.000b 100.000 ± 0.000 500 3 100.00 ± 0.000c 100.000 ± 0.000b 100.000 ± 0.000 Total 15 49.333 ± 8.915 77.3333 ± 8.699 100.000 ± 0.000 F 13.150, P: 0.001 7.433; P: 0.005 SD: 0 (4, 14) Means in a column followed by different alphabets are statistically different at P: 0.05. N: numbers of replicates per treatment. Table 3. Mortality (mean ± SE) of B. zonata due to three different insecticides after 72 h Concentration (ppm) N Imidacloprid Lambda-cyhalothrin Trichlorfon 31.25 3 60.000 ± 11.547ns 100.000 ± 0.000 100.000 ± 0.000 62.5 3 80.000 ± 11.547 100.000 ± 0.000 100.000 ± 0.000 125 3 86.667 ± 13.333 100.000 ± 0.000 100.000 ± 0.000 250 3 100.00 ± 0.000 100.000 ± 0.000 100.000 ± 0.000 500 3 1.00.00 ± 0.000 100.000 ± 0.000 100.000 ± 0.000 Total 15 85.333 ± 5.333 100.000 ± 0.000 100.000 ± 0.000 F 3.100; P: 0.067 SD: 0 SD: 0 (4, 14) Means in a column followed by different alphabets are statistically different at P: 0.05. N: numbers of replicates per treatment.

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Arthropod Management TestsOxford University Press

Published: Jan 1, 2021

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