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CODLING MOTH/ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH TIMING STUDY, 2006

CODLING MOTH/ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH TIMING STUDY, 2006 (A11) APPLE: Malus domestica Borkhausen Larry A. Hull Fruit Research and Extension Center Penn State University P.O. Box 330 Biglerville, PA 17307-0330 Phone: (717) 677-6116 E6 Fax: (717) 677-4112 E-mail: lah4@psu.edu Aphid natural enemies (NE): Ladybeetles, Lacewings, Syrphids, Mullein bugs, etc. Codling moth (CM): Cydia pomonella (L.) European red mite (ERM): Panonychus ulmi (Koch) Leafroller (LR): mixture of obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris); redbanded leafroller, Argyrotaenia velutinana (Walker); and tufted apple bud moth, Platynota idaeusalis (Walker) Predatory lady beetle (SP): Stethorus punctum (LeConte) Phytoseiid mite predators; (PMP): Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman), Typhlodromus pyri (Scheuten) Plum curculio (PC): Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) Rosy apple aphid (RAA): Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini) Oriental fruit moth (OFM): Grapholita molesta (Busck) Spirea aphid (SA): Aphis spiraecola Patch Spotted tentiform leafminer (STLM): Phyllonorycter blancardella (F.) Tarnished plant bug (PB): Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) This study was designed to evaluate a number of registered products for their efficacy against the codling moth and the Oriental fruit moth as well as other pests present. All treatments were applied to single-tree plots in a randomized block design consisting of two replicates of ‘Fuji’, two replicates of ‘Golden Delicious’ and one replicate of ‘Yorking’ with buffer trees between plots. All trees were planted to a spacing of 20 × 30 ft and were 13 years old. All treatments were applied with a Durand-Wayland airblast sprayer calibrated to deliver 100 gpa at 2.4 mph. Applications dates for all treatments are listed in Table 1. All applications were complete sprays. A routine schedule of fungicides (Dithane 75DF, Nova 40WP, Flint 50WP, Topsin M 85WDG and Ziram 76WP) was maintained throughout the experiment. A complete application of Provado 1.6 F (106 ml/acre) and Zeal 72WDG (53 g/acre) was made to all trees on 29 Jul to reduce potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae) and ERM populations. Treatment timings were based on the accumulation of degree days from biofix, orthe first sustained adult moth capture in a sex pheromone trap for both CM and OFM. Degree-day calculations were based on minimum and maximum developmental thresholds of 50°F-88°F (CM), and 45°F-90°F (OFM). Degree-day calculations for TABM and OBLR were based on minimum and maximum developmental thresholds of 45°F- 91°F (TABM) and 43°F-91°F (OBLR). RAA populations were assessed by counting the number of injured clusters/3-min examination per tree. STLM was evaluated by counting the number of tissue-feeding mines present during a 5-min examination around the periphery of each plot tree. OFM shoot injury was assessed by determining the number of injured shoots per tree in a 3-min examination. Effectiveness of the treatments on SA was evaluated by counting the number of aphid-infested leaves/10 actively growing shoots/tree. The total number of aphid NE was determined by counting the number observed on the same 10 shoots examined for SA. Apples exhibiting frass were determined by examining 150 apples per tree in situ and calculating the percentage of apples with frass. Effectiveness of the test chemicals on ERM and PMP was evaluated by counting the mites several times during the season on samples of 25 random leaves/tree, 125 leaves/treatment. S. punctum adults and larvae were counted by making a 3-min assessment while walking slowly around the periphery of each sample tree. Effectiveness of the chemicals on all fruit feeding pests was assessed by scoring for injury dropped apples on 12, 19, and 27 Jul, 9 and 18 Aug, and three picked samples of 10, 35 and 100 fruit per replication on 4 and 15 Aug, and 15 Sep, respectively. All live internal feeding larvae were collected from the fruit samples and identified to species. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance and mean separation using Fisher’s Protected LSD test. Appropriate transformations (e.g., log, square root, arcsine) were used if necessary. Pest pressure was moderate to high throughout the season. The treatment program of Imidan/Assail/Rimon/Calypso with Imidan applied on 9 May was the only treatment that failed to give control of RAA (not different than the untreated check (Table 2). All insecticide treatments provided outstanding control of STLM during the season (Table 2). All treatments but the low rate (136 g) of Proclaim plus Stylet Oil were effective in reducing the percentage of apples showing the presence of frass from internal feeding CM and OFM larvae on 13 Jun (Table 2). The treatment regime of Imidan/Assail plus Stylet Oil was the effective treatment in reducing SA populations on 12 Jun and 20 Jun (Table 3). The Proclaim/Warrior/Stylet Oil treatment was also quite effective in reducing SA populations during this period. NE populations of SA were high on the Guthion/Rimon/Calypso treatment on 12 and 28 Jun and the Proclaim (low rate) plus Stylet Oil treatment on 28 Jun (Table 3). There were no differences in ERM populations across any of the treatments through 27 Jun (Table 4). ERM populations increased on the Battalion/Clutch and the Battalion/Rimon treatments in Jul and Aug following the Zeal application in late Jun (Table 4). Populations of PMP were fairly high on the Guthion/Rimon/Assail treatment on 27 Jun and the Imidan/Assail treatment on 26 Jul (Table 5). Very few PMP populations were found on the Battalion/Clutch, Battalion/Rimon and Proclaim/Warrior treatments throughout the season (Table 5). The Guthion/Rimon/Calypso treatment program allowed the fewest fruit entries from the CM/OFM complex throughout the season, followed by the Guthion/Rimon/Assail and the Battalion/Rimon treatments (Table 6). Control of the LR complex was high on the Battalion/Clutch, Battalion/Rimon and Proclaim (high rate) plus Stylet Oil treatments (Table 6). The Guthion/Rimon/Assail and the Battalion/Rimon treatments achieved the highest percentage of clean fruit followed by the Guthion/Rimon/Calypso and the Battalion/Clutch treatments (Table 6). The majority of internal worms found in the fruit samples across the treatments were CM (Table 6). Table 1 Treatment/ Rate Rate formulation amt/acre lb/AI/acre Dates of Application Battalion 0.2EC 266.0 ml 0.01406 19 Apr, 7 & 23 Aug Clutch 50WD 85.0 g 0.09375 9 May, 22 Jun Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 23 May, 8 Jun Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 8 & 24 Jul Battalion 0.2EC 266.0 ml 0.01406 19 Apr, 9 May, 7 Aug Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 23 May, 8 Jun Clutch 50WD 68.0 g 0.075 22 Jun Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 8 & 24 Jul Clutch 50WD 85.0 g 0.09375 23 Aug Proclaim 5SG + 91.0 g 0.01 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% 9 & 25 May, 8 & 24 Jul Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 8 & 22 Jun, 7 & 23 Aug Proclaim 5SC + 136.0 g 0.015 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% 9 & 25 May, 8 & 24 Jul Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 8 & 22 Jun, 7 & 23 Aug Proclaim 5SG + 91.0 g 0.01 + Warrior 1CS + 151.0 ml 0.04 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% 9 & 25 May, 8 & 24 Jul Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 8 & 22 Jun, 7 & 23 Aug Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 14 Jun, 8 Jul Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 9 & 25 May Calypso 480SC 177.0 ml 0.1875 24 Jul, 7 Aug Calypso 480SC 118.0 ml 0.125 23 Aug Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 14 Jun, 8 Jul Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 9 & 25 May Assail 30SG + 227.0 g 0.15 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% 24 Jul, 7 Aug Assail 30SG + 142.0 g 0.09375 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% 23 Aug Imidan 70W 1362.0 g 2.1 9 May, 22 Jun, 8 Jul Assail 30SG + 142.0 g 0.09375 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% 25 May, 8 Jun Rimon 0.83EC 887.0 ml 0.01945 24 Jul, 7 Aug Calypso 480SC 118.0 ml 0.125 23 Aug Untreated check --- --- --- Table 2 RAA inj. OFM inf. % frass clusters/3 min STLM mines/5 min shoots/3 min. apples Treatment/ Rate Rate formulation amt/acre lb/AI/acre 22 May 5 Jun 27 Jul 18 Aug 8 Jun 13 Jun Battalion 0.2EC 266.0 ml 0.01406 Clutch 50WD 85.0 g 0.09375 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 0.0a 0.0a 0.4a 1.0ab 0.8a 0.6a Battalion 0.2EC 266.0 ml 0.01406 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Clutch 50WD 68.0 g 0.075 Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Clutch 50WD 85.0 g 0.09375 0.0a 0.0a 0.4a 0.4ab 0.6a 0.4a Proclaim 5SG + 91.0 g 0.01 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 1.2ab 0.0a 0.8a 2.8b 1.4a 1.6bc Proclaim 5SC + 136.0 g 0.015 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 0.0a 0.0a 0.6a 0.8ab 0.4a 0.5a Proclaim 5SG + 91.0 g 0.01 + Warrior 1CS + 151.0 ml 0.04 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 0.0a 0.2a 0.0a 0.4ab 1.2a 0.2a Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Calypso 480SC 177.0 ml 0.1875 Calypso 480SC 118.0 ml 0.125 0.0a 0.0a 0.8a 0.0a 2.0a 0.9ab Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Assail 30SG + 227.0 g 0.15 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% Assail 30SG + 142.0 g 0.09375 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% 2.4ab 0.0a 0.8a 0.2ab 0.6a 0.6a Imidan 70W 1362.0 g 2.1 Assail 30SG + 142.0 g 0.09375 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% Rimon 0.83EC 887.0 ml 0.01945 Calypso 480SC 118.0 ml 0.125 7.4bc 0.0a 0.4a 2.0b 1.6a 0.4a Untreated check --- --- 9.0c 1.6b 17.2b 106.8c 1.8a 2.4c Means within columns followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (Fisher’s Protected LSD, P < 0.05). Table 3 SA inf. lvs/terminal Total NE’s/10 term. Treatment/ Rate Rate formulation amt/acre lb/AI/acre 12 Jun 20 Jun 28 Jun 12 Jun 20 Jun 28 Jun Battalion 0.2EC 266.0 ml 0.01406 Clutch 50WD 85.0 g 0.09375 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 2.9cd 6.4bc 3.8a 6.6bc 1.2ab 4.0c Battalion 0.2EC 266.0 ml 0.01406 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Clutch 50WD 68.0 g 0.075 Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Clutch 50WD 85.0 g 0.09375 2.8cd 4.8b 3.4a 4.4bc 3.6a 5.6c Proclaim 5SG + 91.0 g 0.01 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 .2.3bc 6.1bc 5.4a 1.4bc 0.6b 13.6abc Proclaim 5SC + 136.0 g 0.015 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 3.1cd 5.6b 5.2a 0.6c 0.2b 9.2abc Proclaim 5SG + 91.0 g 0.01 + Warrior 1CS + 151.0 ml 0.04 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 1.2ab 3.4a 5.4a 0.2c 0.6b 8.8bc Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Calypso 480SC 177.0 ml 0.1875 Calypso 480SC 118.0 ml 0.125 4.2d 5.8bc 5.9a 9.6ab 0.2b 13.8a Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Assail 30SG + 227.0 g 0.15 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% Assail 30SG + 142.0 g 0.09375 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% 3.1cd 5.0b 6.5a 5.4bc 0.0b 9.0abc Imidan 70W 1362.0 g 2.1 Assail 30SG + 142.0 g 0.09375 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% Rimon 0.83EC 887.0 ml 0.01945 Calypso 480SC 118.0 ml 0.125 0.5a 3.4a 5.0a 0.8c 0.2b 3.4c Untreated check --- --- 4.2d 7.9c 6.3a 15.6a 9.4a 12.2ab Means within columns followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (Fisher’s Protected LSD, P < 0.05). Table 4. ERM/leaf Treatment/ Rate Rate formulation amt/acre lb/AI 31 May 14 Jun 27 Jun 11 Jul 26 Jul Battalion 0.2EC 266.0 ml 0.01406 Clutch 50WD 85.0 g 0.09375 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 3.1a 3.0a 11.8a 1.3ab 3.6bc Battalion 0.2EC 266.0 ml 0.01406 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Clutch 50WD 68.0 g 0.075 Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Clutch 50WD 85.0 g 0.09375 1.6a 2.4a 15.6a 2.7b 2.7c Proclaim 5SG + 91.0 g 0.01 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 4.8a 2.5a 17.6a 1.3a 0.8abc Proclaim 5SC + 136.0 g 0.015 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 2.2a 0.8a 10.6a 0.4a 0.8ab Proclaim 5SG + 91.0 g 0.01 + Warrior 1CS + 151.0 ml 0.04 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 0.6a 0.7a 13.9a 0.8a 0.3a Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Calypso 480SC 177.0 ml 0.1875 Calypso 480SC 118.0 ml 0.125 0.7a 0.7a 8.0a 0.6a 0.6ab Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Assail 30SG + 227.0 g 0.15 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% Assail 30SG + 142.0 g 0.09375 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% 2.0a 0.8a 11.5a 0.8a 0.9ab Imidan 70W 1362.0 g 2.1 Assail 30SG + 142.0 g 0.09375 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% Rimon 0.83EC 887.0 ml 0.01945 Calypso 480SC 118.0 ml 0.125 10.4a 3.1a 14.8a 0.6a 0.3a Untreated check --- --- 15.4a 3.6a 18.7a 1.2a 0.4a Means followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different, (Fisher’s Protected LSD, P < 0.05). Table 5 PMP/leaf S. punctum/3 min Treatment/ Rate Rate Ad formulation amt/acre lb/AI/acre 14 Jun 27 Jun 11 Jul 26 Jul 11 Aug Battalion 0.2EC 266.0 ml 0.01406 Clutch 50WD 85.0 g 0.09375 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 0.0a 0.1c 0.0b 0.1bc 0.2c Battalion 0.2EC 266.0 ml 0.01406 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Clutch 50WD 68.0 g 0.075 Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Clutch 50WD 85.0 g 0.09375 0.1a 0.1c 0.0b 0.0c 2.0a Proclaim 5SG + 91.0 g 0.01 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 0.2a 0.2bc 0.3a 0.2abc 0.6bc Proclaim 5SC + 136.0 g 0.015 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 0.2a 0.2bc 0.0b 0.2ab 0.0c Proclaim 5SG + 91.0 g 0.01 + Warrior 1CS + 151.0 ml 0.04 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 0.1a 0.2bc 0.0b 0.0c 3.6ab Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Calypso 480SC 177.0 ml 0.1875 Calypso 480SC 118.0 ml 0.125 0.0a 0.2bc 0.1b 0.3ab 0.4bc Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Assail 30SG + 227.0 g 0.15 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% Assail 30SG + 142.0 g 0.09375 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% 0.2a 0.6ab 0.2ab 0.0bc 0.2c Imidan 70W 1362.0 g 2.1 Assail 30SG + 142.0 g 0.09375 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% Rimon 0.83EC 887.0 ml 0.01945 Calypso 480SC 118.0 ml 0.125 0.1a 0.4abc 0.2ab 0.4a 0.0c Untreated check --- --- 0.0a 0.8a 0.2ab 0.4a 0.2c Means within columns followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (Fisher’s Protected LSD, P < 0.05). Table 6 Injuries/100 apples No. (%) internal CM/OFM larvae in fruit Treatment/ Rate Rate No. apples % formulation amt/acre lb/AI/acre sampled Stings Entries LR PC PB clean CM OFM Battalion 0.2EC 266.0 ml 0.01406 Clutch 50WD 85.0 g 0.09375 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 788 3.5ab 17.5ab 1.5a 0.1a 0.1a 77.8abc 32 (86) 13 (35) Battalion 0.2EC 266.0 ml 0.01406 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Clutch 50WD 68.0 g 0.075 Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Clutch 50WD 85.0 g 0.09375 811 2.5ab 14.1ab 1.6a 0.0a 0.3a 82.1a 29 (78) 8 (22) Proclaim 5SG + 91.0 g 0.01 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 778 4.7bc 22.0b 3.4abc 0.6a 1.8a 68.7de 40 (71) 16 (29) Proclaim 5SC + 136.0 g 0.015 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 774 6.7c 19.8ab 1.4a 0.9a 1.3a 71.4bcd 29 (58) 21 (42) Proclaim 5SG + 91.0 g 0.01 + Warrior 1CS + 151.0 ml 0.04 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 803 5.7c 19.9ab 6.3cd 0.1a 0.8a 69.6cde 45 (75) 15 (25) Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Calypso 480SC 177.0 ml 0.1875 Calypso 480SC 118.0 ml 0.125 787 2.6ab 13.0a 2.9ab 1.1a 1.2a 80.6ab 20 (80) 5 (20) Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Assail 30SG + 227.0 g 0.15 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% Assail 30SG + 142.0 g 0.09375 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% 733 2.1a 13.4ab 2.2ab 0.0a 0.6a 82.4a 27 (77) 8 (23) Imidan 70W 1362.0 g 2.1 Assail 30SG + 142.0 g 0.09375 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% Rimon 0.83EC 887.0 ml 0.01945 Calypso 480SC 118.0 ml 0.125 839 3.1ab 31.3c 5.0bcd 0.0a 1.3a 60.3 e 58 (78) 16 (22) Untreated check --- --- 941 2.3ab 64.2d 6.9d 0.3a 1.2a 31.0 f 152 (73) 57 (27) Means within columns followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different, (Fisher’s Protected LSD, P < 0.05. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Arthropod Management Tests Oxford University Press

CODLING MOTH/ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH TIMING STUDY, 2006

Arthropod Management Tests , Volume 32 (1) – Jan 1, 2007

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Abstract

(A11) APPLE: Malus domestica Borkhausen Larry A. Hull Fruit Research and Extension Center Penn State University P.O. Box 330 Biglerville, PA 17307-0330 Phone: (717) 677-6116 E6 Fax: (717) 677-4112 E-mail: lah4@psu.edu Aphid natural enemies (NE): Ladybeetles, Lacewings, Syrphids, Mullein bugs, etc. Codling moth (CM): Cydia pomonella (L.) European red mite (ERM): Panonychus ulmi (Koch) Leafroller (LR): mixture of obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris); redbanded leafroller, Argyrotaenia velutinana (Walker); and tufted apple bud moth, Platynota idaeusalis (Walker) Predatory lady beetle (SP): Stethorus punctum (LeConte) Phytoseiid mite predators; (PMP): Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman), Typhlodromus pyri (Scheuten) Plum curculio (PC): Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) Rosy apple aphid (RAA): Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini) Oriental fruit moth (OFM): Grapholita molesta (Busck) Spirea aphid (SA): Aphis spiraecola Patch Spotted tentiform leafminer (STLM): Phyllonorycter blancardella (F.) Tarnished plant bug (PB): Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) This study was designed to evaluate a number of registered products for their efficacy against the codling moth and the Oriental fruit moth as well as other pests present. All treatments were applied to single-tree plots in a randomized block design consisting of two replicates of ‘Fuji’, two replicates of ‘Golden Delicious’ and one replicate of ‘Yorking’ with buffer trees between plots. All trees were planted to a spacing of 20 × 30 ft and were 13 years old. All treatments were applied with a Durand-Wayland airblast sprayer calibrated to deliver 100 gpa at 2.4 mph. Applications dates for all treatments are listed in Table 1. All applications were complete sprays. A routine schedule of fungicides (Dithane 75DF, Nova 40WP, Flint 50WP, Topsin M 85WDG and Ziram 76WP) was maintained throughout the experiment. A complete application of Provado 1.6 F (106 ml/acre) and Zeal 72WDG (53 g/acre) was made to all trees on 29 Jul to reduce potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae) and ERM populations. Treatment timings were based on the accumulation of degree days from biofix, orthe first sustained adult moth capture in a sex pheromone trap for both CM and OFM. Degree-day calculations were based on minimum and maximum developmental thresholds of 50°F-88°F (CM), and 45°F-90°F (OFM). Degree-day calculations for TABM and OBLR were based on minimum and maximum developmental thresholds of 45°F- 91°F (TABM) and 43°F-91°F (OBLR). RAA populations were assessed by counting the number of injured clusters/3-min examination per tree. STLM was evaluated by counting the number of tissue-feeding mines present during a 5-min examination around the periphery of each plot tree. OFM shoot injury was assessed by determining the number of injured shoots per tree in a 3-min examination. Effectiveness of the treatments on SA was evaluated by counting the number of aphid-infested leaves/10 actively growing shoots/tree. The total number of aphid NE was determined by counting the number observed on the same 10 shoots examined for SA. Apples exhibiting frass were determined by examining 150 apples per tree in situ and calculating the percentage of apples with frass. Effectiveness of the test chemicals on ERM and PMP was evaluated by counting the mites several times during the season on samples of 25 random leaves/tree, 125 leaves/treatment. S. punctum adults and larvae were counted by making a 3-min assessment while walking slowly around the periphery of each sample tree. Effectiveness of the chemicals on all fruit feeding pests was assessed by scoring for injury dropped apples on 12, 19, and 27 Jul, 9 and 18 Aug, and three picked samples of 10, 35 and 100 fruit per replication on 4 and 15 Aug, and 15 Sep, respectively. All live internal feeding larvae were collected from the fruit samples and identified to species. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance and mean separation using Fisher’s Protected LSD test. Appropriate transformations (e.g., log, square root, arcsine) were used if necessary. Pest pressure was moderate to high throughout the season. The treatment program of Imidan/Assail/Rimon/Calypso with Imidan applied on 9 May was the only treatment that failed to give control of RAA (not different than the untreated check (Table 2). All insecticide treatments provided outstanding control of STLM during the season (Table 2). All treatments but the low rate (136 g) of Proclaim plus Stylet Oil were effective in reducing the percentage of apples showing the presence of frass from internal feeding CM and OFM larvae on 13 Jun (Table 2). The treatment regime of Imidan/Assail plus Stylet Oil was the effective treatment in reducing SA populations on 12 Jun and 20 Jun (Table 3). The Proclaim/Warrior/Stylet Oil treatment was also quite effective in reducing SA populations during this period. NE populations of SA were high on the Guthion/Rimon/Calypso treatment on 12 and 28 Jun and the Proclaim (low rate) plus Stylet Oil treatment on 28 Jun (Table 3). There were no differences in ERM populations across any of the treatments through 27 Jun (Table 4). ERM populations increased on the Battalion/Clutch and the Battalion/Rimon treatments in Jul and Aug following the Zeal application in late Jun (Table 4). Populations of PMP were fairly high on the Guthion/Rimon/Assail treatment on 27 Jun and the Imidan/Assail treatment on 26 Jul (Table 5). Very few PMP populations were found on the Battalion/Clutch, Battalion/Rimon and Proclaim/Warrior treatments throughout the season (Table 5). The Guthion/Rimon/Calypso treatment program allowed the fewest fruit entries from the CM/OFM complex throughout the season, followed by the Guthion/Rimon/Assail and the Battalion/Rimon treatments (Table 6). Control of the LR complex was high on the Battalion/Clutch, Battalion/Rimon and Proclaim (high rate) plus Stylet Oil treatments (Table 6). The Guthion/Rimon/Assail and the Battalion/Rimon treatments achieved the highest percentage of clean fruit followed by the Guthion/Rimon/Calypso and the Battalion/Clutch treatments (Table 6). The majority of internal worms found in the fruit samples across the treatments were CM (Table 6). Table 1 Treatment/ Rate Rate formulation amt/acre lb/AI/acre Dates of Application Battalion 0.2EC 266.0 ml 0.01406 19 Apr, 7 & 23 Aug Clutch 50WD 85.0 g 0.09375 9 May, 22 Jun Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 23 May, 8 Jun Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 8 & 24 Jul Battalion 0.2EC 266.0 ml 0.01406 19 Apr, 9 May, 7 Aug Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 23 May, 8 Jun Clutch 50WD 68.0 g 0.075 22 Jun Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 8 & 24 Jul Clutch 50WD 85.0 g 0.09375 23 Aug Proclaim 5SG + 91.0 g 0.01 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% 9 & 25 May, 8 & 24 Jul Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 8 & 22 Jun, 7 & 23 Aug Proclaim 5SC + 136.0 g 0.015 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% 9 & 25 May, 8 & 24 Jul Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 8 & 22 Jun, 7 & 23 Aug Proclaim 5SG + 91.0 g 0.01 + Warrior 1CS + 151.0 ml 0.04 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% 9 & 25 May, 8 & 24 Jul Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 8 & 22 Jun, 7 & 23 Aug Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 14 Jun, 8 Jul Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 9 & 25 May Calypso 480SC 177.0 ml 0.1875 24 Jul, 7 Aug Calypso 480SC 118.0 ml 0.125 23 Aug Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 14 Jun, 8 Jul Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 9 & 25 May Assail 30SG + 227.0 g 0.15 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% 24 Jul, 7 Aug Assail 30SG + 142.0 g 0.09375 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% 23 Aug Imidan 70W 1362.0 g 2.1 9 May, 22 Jun, 8 Jul Assail 30SG + 142.0 g 0.09375 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% 25 May, 8 Jun Rimon 0.83EC 887.0 ml 0.01945 24 Jul, 7 Aug Calypso 480SC 118.0 ml 0.125 23 Aug Untreated check --- --- --- Table 2 RAA inj. OFM inf. % frass clusters/3 min STLM mines/5 min shoots/3 min. apples Treatment/ Rate Rate formulation amt/acre lb/AI/acre 22 May 5 Jun 27 Jul 18 Aug 8 Jun 13 Jun Battalion 0.2EC 266.0 ml 0.01406 Clutch 50WD 85.0 g 0.09375 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 0.0a 0.0a 0.4a 1.0ab 0.8a 0.6a Battalion 0.2EC 266.0 ml 0.01406 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Clutch 50WD 68.0 g 0.075 Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Clutch 50WD 85.0 g 0.09375 0.0a 0.0a 0.4a 0.4ab 0.6a 0.4a Proclaim 5SG + 91.0 g 0.01 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 1.2ab 0.0a 0.8a 2.8b 1.4a 1.6bc Proclaim 5SC + 136.0 g 0.015 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 0.0a 0.0a 0.6a 0.8ab 0.4a 0.5a Proclaim 5SG + 91.0 g 0.01 + Warrior 1CS + 151.0 ml 0.04 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 0.0a 0.2a 0.0a 0.4ab 1.2a 0.2a Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Calypso 480SC 177.0 ml 0.1875 Calypso 480SC 118.0 ml 0.125 0.0a 0.0a 0.8a 0.0a 2.0a 0.9ab Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Assail 30SG + 227.0 g 0.15 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% Assail 30SG + 142.0 g 0.09375 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% 2.4ab 0.0a 0.8a 0.2ab 0.6a 0.6a Imidan 70W 1362.0 g 2.1 Assail 30SG + 142.0 g 0.09375 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% Rimon 0.83EC 887.0 ml 0.01945 Calypso 480SC 118.0 ml 0.125 7.4bc 0.0a 0.4a 2.0b 1.6a 0.4a Untreated check --- --- 9.0c 1.6b 17.2b 106.8c 1.8a 2.4c Means within columns followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (Fisher’s Protected LSD, P < 0.05). Table 3 SA inf. lvs/terminal Total NE’s/10 term. Treatment/ Rate Rate formulation amt/acre lb/AI/acre 12 Jun 20 Jun 28 Jun 12 Jun 20 Jun 28 Jun Battalion 0.2EC 266.0 ml 0.01406 Clutch 50WD 85.0 g 0.09375 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 2.9cd 6.4bc 3.8a 6.6bc 1.2ab 4.0c Battalion 0.2EC 266.0 ml 0.01406 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Clutch 50WD 68.0 g 0.075 Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Clutch 50WD 85.0 g 0.09375 2.8cd 4.8b 3.4a 4.4bc 3.6a 5.6c Proclaim 5SG + 91.0 g 0.01 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 .2.3bc 6.1bc 5.4a 1.4bc 0.6b 13.6abc Proclaim 5SC + 136.0 g 0.015 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 3.1cd 5.6b 5.2a 0.6c 0.2b 9.2abc Proclaim 5SG + 91.0 g 0.01 + Warrior 1CS + 151.0 ml 0.04 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 1.2ab 3.4a 5.4a 0.2c 0.6b 8.8bc Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Calypso 480SC 177.0 ml 0.1875 Calypso 480SC 118.0 ml 0.125 4.2d 5.8bc 5.9a 9.6ab 0.2b 13.8a Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Assail 30SG + 227.0 g 0.15 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% Assail 30SG + 142.0 g 0.09375 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% 3.1cd 5.0b 6.5a 5.4bc 0.0b 9.0abc Imidan 70W 1362.0 g 2.1 Assail 30SG + 142.0 g 0.09375 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% Rimon 0.83EC 887.0 ml 0.01945 Calypso 480SC 118.0 ml 0.125 0.5a 3.4a 5.0a 0.8c 0.2b 3.4c Untreated check --- --- 4.2d 7.9c 6.3a 15.6a 9.4a 12.2ab Means within columns followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (Fisher’s Protected LSD, P < 0.05). Table 4. ERM/leaf Treatment/ Rate Rate formulation amt/acre lb/AI 31 May 14 Jun 27 Jun 11 Jul 26 Jul Battalion 0.2EC 266.0 ml 0.01406 Clutch 50WD 85.0 g 0.09375 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 3.1a 3.0a 11.8a 1.3ab 3.6bc Battalion 0.2EC 266.0 ml 0.01406 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Clutch 50WD 68.0 g 0.075 Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Clutch 50WD 85.0 g 0.09375 1.6a 2.4a 15.6a 2.7b 2.7c Proclaim 5SG + 91.0 g 0.01 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 4.8a 2.5a 17.6a 1.3a 0.8abc Proclaim 5SC + 136.0 g 0.015 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 2.2a 0.8a 10.6a 0.4a 0.8ab Proclaim 5SG + 91.0 g 0.01 + Warrior 1CS + 151.0 ml 0.04 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 0.6a 0.7a 13.9a 0.8a 0.3a Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Calypso 480SC 177.0 ml 0.1875 Calypso 480SC 118.0 ml 0.125 0.7a 0.7a 8.0a 0.6a 0.6ab Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Assail 30SG + 227.0 g 0.15 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% Assail 30SG + 142.0 g 0.09375 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% 2.0a 0.8a 11.5a 0.8a 0.9ab Imidan 70W 1362.0 g 2.1 Assail 30SG + 142.0 g 0.09375 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% Rimon 0.83EC 887.0 ml 0.01945 Calypso 480SC 118.0 ml 0.125 10.4a 3.1a 14.8a 0.6a 0.3a Untreated check --- --- 15.4a 3.6a 18.7a 1.2a 0.4a Means followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different, (Fisher’s Protected LSD, P < 0.05). Table 5 PMP/leaf S. punctum/3 min Treatment/ Rate Rate Ad formulation amt/acre lb/AI/acre 14 Jun 27 Jun 11 Jul 26 Jul 11 Aug Battalion 0.2EC 266.0 ml 0.01406 Clutch 50WD 85.0 g 0.09375 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 0.0a 0.1c 0.0b 0.1bc 0.2c Battalion 0.2EC 266.0 ml 0.01406 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Clutch 50WD 68.0 g 0.075 Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Clutch 50WD 85.0 g 0.09375 0.1a 0.1c 0.0b 0.0c 2.0a Proclaim 5SG + 91.0 g 0.01 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 0.2a 0.2bc 0.3a 0.2abc 0.6bc Proclaim 5SC + 136.0 g 0.015 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 0.2a 0.2bc 0.0b 0.2ab 0.0c Proclaim 5SG + 91.0 g 0.01 + Warrior 1CS + 151.0 ml 0.04 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 0.1a 0.2bc 0.0b 0.0c 3.6ab Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Calypso 480SC 177.0 ml 0.1875 Calypso 480SC 118.0 ml 0.125 0.0a 0.2bc 0.1b 0.3ab 0.4bc Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Assail 30SG + 227.0 g 0.15 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% Assail 30SG + 142.0 g 0.09375 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% 0.2a 0.6ab 0.2ab 0.0bc 0.2c Imidan 70W 1362.0 g 2.1 Assail 30SG + 142.0 g 0.09375 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% Rimon 0.83EC 887.0 ml 0.01945 Calypso 480SC 118.0 ml 0.125 0.1a 0.4abc 0.2ab 0.4a 0.0c Untreated check --- --- 0.0a 0.8a 0.2ab 0.4a 0.2c Means within columns followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (Fisher’s Protected LSD, P < 0.05). Table 6 Injuries/100 apples No. (%) internal CM/OFM larvae in fruit Treatment/ Rate Rate No. apples % formulation amt/acre lb/AI/acre sampled Stings Entries LR PC PB clean CM OFM Battalion 0.2EC 266.0 ml 0.01406 Clutch 50WD 85.0 g 0.09375 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 788 3.5ab 17.5ab 1.5a 0.1a 0.1a 77.8abc 32 (86) 13 (35) Battalion 0.2EC 266.0 ml 0.01406 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Clutch 50WD 68.0 g 0.075 Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Clutch 50WD 85.0 g 0.09375 811 2.5ab 14.1ab 1.6a 0.0a 0.3a 82.1a 29 (78) 8 (22) Proclaim 5SG + 91.0 g 0.01 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 778 4.7bc 22.0b 3.4abc 0.6a 1.8a 68.7de 40 (71) 16 (29) Proclaim 5SC + 136.0 g 0.015 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 774 6.7c 19.8ab 1.4a 0.9a 1.3a 71.4bcd 29 (58) 21 (42) Proclaim 5SG + 91.0 g 0.01 + Warrior 1CS + 151.0 ml 0.04 + Stylet Oil 1892.0 ml 0.5% Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 803 5.7c 19.9ab 6.3cd 0.1a 0.8a 69.6cde 45 (75) 15 (25) Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Calypso 480SC 177.0 ml 0.1875 Calypso 480SC 118.0 ml 0.125 787 2.6ab 13.0a 2.9ab 1.1a 1.2a 80.6ab 20 (80) 5 (20) Guthion 50WP 681.0 g 0.75 Rimon 0.83EC 590.0 ml 0.1297 Assail 30SG + 227.0 g 0.15 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% Assail 30SG + 142.0 g 0.09375 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% 733 2.1a 13.4ab 2.2ab 0.0a 0.6a 82.4a 27 (77) 8 (23) Imidan 70W 1362.0 g 2.1 Assail 30SG + 142.0 g 0.09375 + Stylet Oil 946.0 ml 0.25% Rimon 0.83EC 887.0 ml 0.01945 Calypso 480SC 118.0 ml 0.125 839 3.1ab 31.3c 5.0bcd 0.0a 1.3a 60.3 e 58 (78) 16 (22) Untreated check --- --- 941 2.3ab 64.2d 6.9d 0.3a 1.2a 31.0 f 152 (73) 57 (27) Means within columns followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different, (Fisher’s Protected LSD, P < 0.05.

Journal

Arthropod Management TestsOxford University Press

Published: Jan 1, 2007

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