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Citrus Cutworm Pesticide Efficacy Trials, 1993

Citrus Cutworm Pesticide Efficacy Trials, 1993 Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article-abstract/19/1/51/4639232 by DeepDyve user on 02 August 2020 D: CITRUS, NUTS, AND AVOCADOS Arthropod Management Tests, Vol. 19 51 WALNUT: Juglans regia L. 'Ashley' R. A. Van Steenwyk and C. F. Fouche (9D) Codling moth (CM); Cydia pomonella (L.) Department of Environmental Sciences, Policy and Management 201 Wellman Hall University of California Berkeley, CA 94720 CONTROL OF FIRST GENERATION CODLING MOTH WITH IMIDAN, 1993: The trial was conducted on Ashley' walnuts in a commercial orchard near Woodland, Calif. Four treatments were replicated 4 times in a randomized complete block design. Each replicate was 6 trees long by 8 rows wide planted on a 25 X 25 ft spacing (0.69 acres). Treatments were applied with an air blast sprayer operating at 100 psi, with a speed of 1.75 miles/h and delivering 100 gal/acre of finished spray. Materials were applied on 4 May at 356 Day Degrees using a lower threshold of 50°F. and upper threshold of 88°F. with a biofix of 30 Mar. Nut size was approximately Vi-inch at the time of application. Control was evaluated by counting all CM-infested dropped nuts from the center 8 trees of each replicate weekly from 27 May through 17 Jun. Lorsban and the high rate of Imidan were effective in suppressing a moderate to low CM population. However, the low rate of Imidan was not effective. Since Lorsban is limited to two applications per season, the high rate of Imidan could be used for first generation control which would allow Lorsban to be used for second and third CM generation. No walnut aphid or spider mite population increases were observed with any of the materials. Mean no. CM-infested Rate lb dropped Treatment (AI)/acre nuts/tree Lorsban 4EC 2.0 4.7a Imidan 50WP" 4.0 8.4ab Imidan 50WP' 2.0 13.3bc Untreated — 18.5c Means followed by the same letter in a column were not significantly different (P = 0.05: Fisher's protected LSD). "1.5 pt of Spray Aid per 100 gal of water was added to adjust the pH from 7.7 to 5.5. ORANGE: Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck 'Washington navel' E. E. Grafton-Cardwell, C. A. Reagan, S. L. Vehrs, A. E. (10D) Citrus cutworm; Egira curialis (Grote) Eller, and J. McClain Department of Entomology University of California Riverside, CA 92521 CITRUS CUTWORM PESTICIDE EFFICACY TRIALS, 1993: Insecticides for the control of citrus cutworm were evaluated in a commercial orchard on 28 year old navel orange trees ('Washington' on Troyer rootstock) in Terra Bella, California. The insecticides were applied on 21 and 22 Apr when citrus cutworm larvae were first emerging. Treatment applications were made with a Bean hand-sprayer at 450 psi, and approximately 300 gal/acre (3-4 gal/tree). Lorsban was applied after sunset to reduce the detrimental impact of the spray on honey bees in the orchard. ATI 720 F (Azadirachtin) was applied with a spray adjuvant (Kinetic). Each of 19 treatments were applied to 8 single tree replications. Treatments were assigned to trees based on pretreatment levels of citrus cutworm and the insecticide applications were made to alternate trees along three rows of citrus. All larval collections were accomplished by placing a canvas beating sheet (112 cm X 75 cm) under the outside foliage of the tree and vigorously striking the foliage with PVC pipe. Citrus cutworm larvae which fell on the canvas were counted and recorded by instar, then returned to the foliage. Pretreatment citrus cutworm larvae counts were made on 20 Apr by sampling the northwest and southeast quadrants of the tree. Post treatment counts were made on 29 Apr and 5 May by sampling all four quadrants of the tree, again recording each instar. Percentage of scarred fruit due to citrus cutworm feeding was evaluated on 1 Sep on each experimental tree within a 2 meter swath around the tree beginning 20 cm from the ground and extending 40 cm into the tree interior. In 1993, late April and early May temperatures ranged from relatively cool to warm, with daily maximums between 70 and 91° F (mean of 82.4° F). At pretreatment, we found primarily 1st instar larvae of citrus cutworm. Field evaluations 7-8 DAT showed a decrease in the percentage of 1st instar larvae present. Only Lorsban 4E and the 8.0 and 25.0 lb rates of Kryocide significantly lowered cutworm larval densities after the first 7-8 d. Identical evaluations 13-14 DAT revealed a comparatively low percentage of live 1st instar larvae. Most of the insecticide treated trees showed a reduced number of live larvae, significantly below the levels found in the untreated trees. Due to temperature reductions during the days immediately following insecticide applications (maximum temperatures of 87, 82, 70, and 74° F for 21-24 Apr, respectively), cutworm feeding may have been suppressed. When the fruit was evaluated in the field on 1 Sep, we found that all of the insecticide treatments had reduced worm scarring significantly below that of the untreated trees. Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article-abstract/19/1/51/4639232 by DeepDyve user on 02 August 2020 52 Arthropod Management Tests, Vol. 19 D: CITRUS, NUTS, AND AVOCADOS Percentage of fruit Mean no. of cutworm larvae per beating sheet scarred by citrus Date and no. days post treatment" cutworm 1 Sep ' 20 Apr (- 29 Apr (+7 + 8) 5 May (+13, + 14) -1 , -2) No. fruit Treatment/ Rate Mean no. % 1st Mean no. % 1st Mean no. % 1st exam­ Mean formulation Form/acre cutworm instars cutworm instars cutworm instars ined % scarring Untreated Control 1.5 qts 3.94a 87.3 2.16a 26.1 3.03a 3.1 704 17.50a Lorsban 4E 8.0 lbs 3.38a 92.6 0.56cd 61.1 0.31g 10.0 595 5.92bcd Kryocide W 12.0 lbs 4.38a 84.3 0.78bcd 40.0 0.78defg 8.0 618 6.79bcd Kryocide W 25.0 lbs 3.94a 87.3 2.16ab 34.8 1.41cde 13.3 642 7.91 bed Kryocide W 8.0 lbs 4.44a 80.3 0.4 Id 53.8 0.38fg 0.0 671 6.31cd Kryocide W + Dipel 2X W 1.5 lbs 3.63a 89.7 1.63abc 59.6 0.66efg 0.0 576 5.36d ATI 720 F + 10.0 grams' Kinetic 0.57 liters 4.31a 78.3 1.94a 51.6 1.41bcde 6.7 10.71b Agree 50 W 1.5 lbs 4.13a 86.4 1.72ab 50.9 1.66abc 9.4 637 8.68bcd Cutlass W 1.0 lbs 3.63a 87.9 2.16a 42.0 2.41abc 15.6 611 8.23bcd Cutlass W 1.5 lbs 4.00a 81.3 1.94a 43.5 1.63bcd 9.6 594 9.01 bed ECX 9371-FC 1.0 qts 3.88a 87.1 1.69ab 44.4 2.44ab 21.8 661 7.78bcd ECX 9371-FC 2.0 qts 3.25a 80.8 1.72ab 40.0 1.56bcd 8.0 882 7.64bcd ECX 9371-FC 3.0 qts 4.00a 84.4 2.41a 39.0 1.81abc 10.3 569 8.54bcd Javelin WG 1.5 lbs 3.63a 87.9 1.56ab 62.0 1.75abc 16.1 582 10.05bcd Vault W 1.5 lbs 4.31a 87.0 2.47a 41.8 2.38abc 7.9 8.72bcd Vault W 4.63a 79.7 1.63abc 59.6 1.13cdef 11.1 3.0 lbs 528 6.96bcd MVP 5.19a 1.13cde 13.9 3.0 qts 88.0 1.03abcd 48.5 527 9.37bc Dipel 2X W 3.88a 1.63ab 34.6 1.50bcd 10.4 1.5 lbs 82.3 568 10.57bcd Xentari WG 1.5 lbs 3.31a 86.8 2.22a 42.3 1.94abc 11.3 561 7.30bcd "Means within a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different (LSD, P = 0.05) after Log 10(X + 1) transformation. Untransformed means are listed. 'Means within a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different (LSD, P = 0.05) after arcsine [proportion]" transformation. Untrans­ formed means are listed. 'Grams Al/acre. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Arthropod Management Tests Oxford University Press

Citrus Cutworm Pesticide Efficacy Trials, 1993

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Oxford University Press
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© 1994, Entomological Society of America
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2155-9856
DOI
10.1093/amt/19.1.51a
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Abstract

Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article-abstract/19/1/51/4639232 by DeepDyve user on 02 August 2020 D: CITRUS, NUTS, AND AVOCADOS Arthropod Management Tests, Vol. 19 51 WALNUT: Juglans regia L. 'Ashley' R. A. Van Steenwyk and C. F. Fouche (9D) Codling moth (CM); Cydia pomonella (L.) Department of Environmental Sciences, Policy and Management 201 Wellman Hall University of California Berkeley, CA 94720 CONTROL OF FIRST GENERATION CODLING MOTH WITH IMIDAN, 1993: The trial was conducted on Ashley' walnuts in a commercial orchard near Woodland, Calif. Four treatments were replicated 4 times in a randomized complete block design. Each replicate was 6 trees long by 8 rows wide planted on a 25 X 25 ft spacing (0.69 acres). Treatments were applied with an air blast sprayer operating at 100 psi, with a speed of 1.75 miles/h and delivering 100 gal/acre of finished spray. Materials were applied on 4 May at 356 Day Degrees using a lower threshold of 50°F. and upper threshold of 88°F. with a biofix of 30 Mar. Nut size was approximately Vi-inch at the time of application. Control was evaluated by counting all CM-infested dropped nuts from the center 8 trees of each replicate weekly from 27 May through 17 Jun. Lorsban and the high rate of Imidan were effective in suppressing a moderate to low CM population. However, the low rate of Imidan was not effective. Since Lorsban is limited to two applications per season, the high rate of Imidan could be used for first generation control which would allow Lorsban to be used for second and third CM generation. No walnut aphid or spider mite population increases were observed with any of the materials. Mean no. CM-infested Rate lb dropped Treatment (AI)/acre nuts/tree Lorsban 4EC 2.0 4.7a Imidan 50WP" 4.0 8.4ab Imidan 50WP' 2.0 13.3bc Untreated — 18.5c Means followed by the same letter in a column were not significantly different (P = 0.05: Fisher's protected LSD). "1.5 pt of Spray Aid per 100 gal of water was added to adjust the pH from 7.7 to 5.5. ORANGE: Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck 'Washington navel' E. E. Grafton-Cardwell, C. A. Reagan, S. L. Vehrs, A. E. (10D) Citrus cutworm; Egira curialis (Grote) Eller, and J. McClain Department of Entomology University of California Riverside, CA 92521 CITRUS CUTWORM PESTICIDE EFFICACY TRIALS, 1993: Insecticides for the control of citrus cutworm were evaluated in a commercial orchard on 28 year old navel orange trees ('Washington' on Troyer rootstock) in Terra Bella, California. The insecticides were applied on 21 and 22 Apr when citrus cutworm larvae were first emerging. Treatment applications were made with a Bean hand-sprayer at 450 psi, and approximately 300 gal/acre (3-4 gal/tree). Lorsban was applied after sunset to reduce the detrimental impact of the spray on honey bees in the orchard. ATI 720 F (Azadirachtin) was applied with a spray adjuvant (Kinetic). Each of 19 treatments were applied to 8 single tree replications. Treatments were assigned to trees based on pretreatment levels of citrus cutworm and the insecticide applications were made to alternate trees along three rows of citrus. All larval collections were accomplished by placing a canvas beating sheet (112 cm X 75 cm) under the outside foliage of the tree and vigorously striking the foliage with PVC pipe. Citrus cutworm larvae which fell on the canvas were counted and recorded by instar, then returned to the foliage. Pretreatment citrus cutworm larvae counts were made on 20 Apr by sampling the northwest and southeast quadrants of the tree. Post treatment counts were made on 29 Apr and 5 May by sampling all four quadrants of the tree, again recording each instar. Percentage of scarred fruit due to citrus cutworm feeding was evaluated on 1 Sep on each experimental tree within a 2 meter swath around the tree beginning 20 cm from the ground and extending 40 cm into the tree interior. In 1993, late April and early May temperatures ranged from relatively cool to warm, with daily maximums between 70 and 91° F (mean of 82.4° F). At pretreatment, we found primarily 1st instar larvae of citrus cutworm. Field evaluations 7-8 DAT showed a decrease in the percentage of 1st instar larvae present. Only Lorsban 4E and the 8.0 and 25.0 lb rates of Kryocide significantly lowered cutworm larval densities after the first 7-8 d. Identical evaluations 13-14 DAT revealed a comparatively low percentage of live 1st instar larvae. Most of the insecticide treated trees showed a reduced number of live larvae, significantly below the levels found in the untreated trees. Due to temperature reductions during the days immediately following insecticide applications (maximum temperatures of 87, 82, 70, and 74° F for 21-24 Apr, respectively), cutworm feeding may have been suppressed. When the fruit was evaluated in the field on 1 Sep, we found that all of the insecticide treatments had reduced worm scarring significantly below that of the untreated trees. Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article-abstract/19/1/51/4639232 by DeepDyve user on 02 August 2020 52 Arthropod Management Tests, Vol. 19 D: CITRUS, NUTS, AND AVOCADOS Percentage of fruit Mean no. of cutworm larvae per beating sheet scarred by citrus Date and no. days post treatment" cutworm 1 Sep ' 20 Apr (- 29 Apr (+7 + 8) 5 May (+13, + 14) -1 , -2) No. fruit Treatment/ Rate Mean no. % 1st Mean no. % 1st Mean no. % 1st exam­ Mean formulation Form/acre cutworm instars cutworm instars cutworm instars ined % scarring Untreated Control 1.5 qts 3.94a 87.3 2.16a 26.1 3.03a 3.1 704 17.50a Lorsban 4E 8.0 lbs 3.38a 92.6 0.56cd 61.1 0.31g 10.0 595 5.92bcd Kryocide W 12.0 lbs 4.38a 84.3 0.78bcd 40.0 0.78defg 8.0 618 6.79bcd Kryocide W 25.0 lbs 3.94a 87.3 2.16ab 34.8 1.41cde 13.3 642 7.91 bed Kryocide W 8.0 lbs 4.44a 80.3 0.4 Id 53.8 0.38fg 0.0 671 6.31cd Kryocide W + Dipel 2X W 1.5 lbs 3.63a 89.7 1.63abc 59.6 0.66efg 0.0 576 5.36d ATI 720 F + 10.0 grams' Kinetic 0.57 liters 4.31a 78.3 1.94a 51.6 1.41bcde 6.7 10.71b Agree 50 W 1.5 lbs 4.13a 86.4 1.72ab 50.9 1.66abc 9.4 637 8.68bcd Cutlass W 1.0 lbs 3.63a 87.9 2.16a 42.0 2.41abc 15.6 611 8.23bcd Cutlass W 1.5 lbs 4.00a 81.3 1.94a 43.5 1.63bcd 9.6 594 9.01 bed ECX 9371-FC 1.0 qts 3.88a 87.1 1.69ab 44.4 2.44ab 21.8 661 7.78bcd ECX 9371-FC 2.0 qts 3.25a 80.8 1.72ab 40.0 1.56bcd 8.0 882 7.64bcd ECX 9371-FC 3.0 qts 4.00a 84.4 2.41a 39.0 1.81abc 10.3 569 8.54bcd Javelin WG 1.5 lbs 3.63a 87.9 1.56ab 62.0 1.75abc 16.1 582 10.05bcd Vault W 1.5 lbs 4.31a 87.0 2.47a 41.8 2.38abc 7.9 8.72bcd Vault W 4.63a 79.7 1.63abc 59.6 1.13cdef 11.1 3.0 lbs 528 6.96bcd MVP 5.19a 1.13cde 13.9 3.0 qts 88.0 1.03abcd 48.5 527 9.37bc Dipel 2X W 3.88a 1.63ab 34.6 1.50bcd 10.4 1.5 lbs 82.3 568 10.57bcd Xentari WG 1.5 lbs 3.31a 86.8 2.22a 42.3 1.94abc 11.3 561 7.30bcd "Means within a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different (LSD, P = 0.05) after Log 10(X + 1) transformation. Untransformed means are listed. 'Means within a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different (LSD, P = 0.05) after arcsine [proportion]" transformation. Untrans­ formed means are listed. 'Grams Al/acre.

Journal

Arthropod Management TestsOxford University Press

Published: Jan 1, 1994

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