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BIOLOGICAL INSECTICIDE EFFICACY IN ALFALFA SEED PRODUCTION, 2012

BIOLOGICAL INSECTICIDE EFFICACY IN ALFALFA SEED PRODUCTION, 2012 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.F3 (F3) ALFALFA: Medicago sativa L. ‘CUF-101’ Eric T. Natwick University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Desert Research and Extension Center 1050 E. Holton Rd. Holtville, CA 92250 Phone: (760) 352-9474 Fax: (760) 352-0846 E-mail: etnatwick@ucdavis.edu Martin I. Lopez E-mail: marlopez@ucdavis.edu Lygus bug (LB): Lygus spp. Say stink bug (SB): Chlorochroa sayi Say Alfalfa seed chalcid (ASC): Bruchophagus roddi Guss. The objective of the study was to evaluate two new biological insecticides for their efficacy against adults and nymphs of LB and SB on alfalfa grown for seed production under desert growing conditions. The trial was conducted at the UC Desert Research and Extension Center on a stand of CUF-101 alfalfa on beds of 40 inch centers; the stand was clipped-back on 13 Apr 2012 to initiate seed production. The experimental design was RCB using 4 replicates with 5 insecticide treatments and an untreated check. Plots were eight beds 50 ft wide by 75 ft long, with 5 ft buffers between replicate blocks. The insecticide treatments were applied on the dates at the specified rate equivalencies listed in the tables. All insecticide treatments were applied on 4 and 14 Jun except the treatment of MBI-206 applied on 21 Jun. The insecticide treatments were broadcast sprays applied with a Lee Spider Spray Trac, tractor mounted spray boom, equipped with 15 nozzles (TJ-60 11003VS), operated at 20 psi and delivering 30.1 gpa in a 25 ft wide spray swath. Hasten, a modified vegetable oil surfactant (Wilber-Ellis Company) was applied at 0.25% vol/vol in tank mixtures with each insecticide treatment. The pretreatment (PT) insect population data were collected on 29 May. Post treatment data were collected on 7, 12, 18, 21, 25, and 28 Jun, and 2 and 5 Jul. During each evaluation, ten 180° sweeps per plot were collected with a standard 15-inch st diameter sweep net. Sweep net samples were bagged, labeled, and frozen for later counting of small LB nymphs (1 rd th th through 3 instars), large LB nymphs (4 and 5 instars) and LB adults, in the laboratory. On 9 Jul 2012, mature seed pods were stripped from a few plants at random in each plot, pods were hand-threshed to prevent loss of damaged seed, and 100 random seeds from each plot were examined under a binocular microscope for LB damage, SB damage, ASC damage, chewing insect damage, water damage, green seed and good seed. Treatment means were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA and means separated by a protected LSD (P≤0.05). Pre-treatment numbers of small LB nymphs, large LB nymphs and adult LB were similar among treatments and the untreated check (Table 1-3). There were no differences among the means for small LB on 7, 18, 21 and 25 Jun, 2 and 5 Jul. All of the insecticide treatments had fewer small LB nymphs than the untreated check on 12 Jun and 28 Jun and for the post treatment average (PTA), with the exception on 12 Jun of the Beleaf 50 SG treatment that was to be followed by MBI-203 DF2. There were no differences among the means for large LB on 7, 21, 25 and 28 Jun, 2 and 5 Jul. All of the insecticide treatments had fewer large LB nymphs than the untreated check on 12 Jun, with the exception of MBI-203 DF2 to be followed by Beleaf 50 SG. Only MBI-203 DF2 treatments at 2 lb and 4 lb per acre did not have fewer large LB nymphs than the check on 18 Jun. The check had more LB large nymphs than any of the insecticide treatments for the PTA. There were no differences among the treatments for LB adults on any of the sampling dates except 18 Jun when all of the insecticide treatments had fewer LB adults than the untreated check. The check had more LB adults than any of the insecticide treatments for the PTA. There were no differences among the treatment means for all LB for the 29 May PT samples, nor for the post-treatment samples collected on 12, 25, 28 Jun, and 2 Jul (Table 4). All of the insecticide treatments had means for all LB on 12 Jun, 18 Jun and for the PTA. Only the MBI-203 DF2 at 2 lb per acre and the Beleaf treatments had lower means for all LB on 7 Jun. Only the insecticide treatments that included Beleaf 50 SG had means for all LB that were lower than the check on 5 Jul. There were no differences among treatments means for SB on any of the sampling dates (Table 5). All of the insecticide treatments had significantly higher percentages of good seed compared to 1 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.F3 the untreated check (Table 6). None of the insecticide treatments had lower percentages of LB damaged seed, SB damaged seed, ASC damaged seed or green seed compared to the untreated check. None of the seed samples showed chewing insect damage or water damaged seed. There were no symptoms of phytotoxicity following any of the insecticide treatments. This research was supported by funding from the California Alfalfa seed Production Research Board and industry gifts. Table 1. Small LB nymphs per ten sweeps Treatment rate/acre 29 May 7 Jun 12 Jun 18 Jun 21 Jun 25 Jun 28 Jun 2 Jul 5 Jul PTA MBI-203 DF2 2.0 lb 1.25 3.00 3.00b-d 4.75 0.50 0.75 1.25a 0.00 0.50 1.72b MBI-203 DF2 4.0 lb 1.25 6.25 2.25cd 2.25 0.50 0.50 0.00b 0.00 0.00 1.47b Beleaf 50 SG f/b 2.8 oz MBI-203 DF2 f/b 2.0 lb 0.25 2.75 6.00ab 3.75 1.75 0.25 0.00b 0.00 0.00 1.81b MBI-206 2.0 gal MBI-203 DF2 f/b 2.0 lb 1.75 6.00 5.25bc 2.00 0.50 0.00 0.25b 0.00 0.00 1.75b Beleaf 50 SG 2.8 oz Beleaf 50 SG 2.8 oz 1.00 2.50 1.50d 1.75 0.50 0.50 0.00b 0.00 0.00 0.84b Untreated Check --- 1.50 8.75 8.75a 6.00 1.00 0.25 0.00b 0.00 0.75 3.19a Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different; P>0.05, LSD. Table 2. Large LB nymphs per ten sweeps Treatment rate/acre 29 May 7 Jun 12 Jun 18 Jun 21 Jun 25 Jun 28 Jun 2 Jul 5 Jul PTA MBI-203 DF2 2.0 lb 0.75 7.50 7.50bc 11.50ab 0.75 0.75 1.00 0.00 0.25 3.66b MBI-203 DF2 4.0 lb 1.50 6.50 7.25bc 10.50a-c 1.25 1.00 0.75 0.50 0.00 3.47b Beleaf 50 SG f/b 2.8 oz MBI-203 DF2 f/b 2.0 lb 2.75 1.75 6.25bc 7.00bc 0.00 0.50 0.25 0.00 0.25 2.00c MBI-206 2.0 gal MBI-203 DF 2 f/b 2.0 lb 1.75 7.00 10.75ab 4.00c 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.72bc Beleaf 50 SG 2.8 oz Beleaf 50 SG 2.8 oz 0.75 4.50 3.25c 4.25c 0.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.53c Untreated Check --- 1.75 11.50 14.75a 16.25a 0.50 3.00 0.00 0.25 0.00 5.78a Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different; P>0.05, LSD. Table 3. LB adults per ten sweeps Treatment rate/acre 29 May 7 Jun 12 Jun 18 Jun 21 Jun 25 Jun 28 Jun 2 Jul 5 Jul PTA MBI-203 DF2 2.0 lb 28.25 5.25 17.75 3.50b 1.25 8.75 11.75 2.75 2.00 6.63b MBI-203 DF2 4.0 lb 20.25 9.00 13.75 5.25b 2.00 9.00 10.00 2.75 3.00 6.84b Beleaf 50 SG f/b 2.8 oz MBI-203 DF2 f/b 2.0 lb 26.25 9.50 16.00 5.50b 0.75 9.75 7.25 2.50 1.00 6.53b MBI-206 2.0 gal MBI-203 DF2 f/b 2.0 lb Beleaf 50 SG 2.8 oz 23.75 13.75 13.75 4.25b 1.25 7.00 16.75 2.00 2.00 7.59b Beleaf 50 SG 2.8 oz 15.25 10.50 14.00 3.75b 2.50 6.50 8.00 4.50 2.25 6.50b Untreated Check --- 21.00 12.75 25.50 12.75a 3.50 14.25 13.50 5.75 4.00 11.50a Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different; P>0.05, LSD. Table 4. All LB per ten sweeps Treatment rate/acre 29 May 7 Jun 12 Jun 18 Jun 21 Jun 25 Jun 28 Jun 2 Jul 5 Jul PTA MBI-203 DF2 2.0 lb 30.25 15.75b 28.25b 19.75b 2.50 10.25 14.00 2.75 2.75ab 12.00b MBI-203 DF2 4.0 lb 23.00 21.75ab 23.25b 18.00b 3.75 10.75 10.75 3.25 3.00ab 11.81b Beleaf 50 SG f/b 2.8 oz MBI-203 DF2 f/b 2.0 lb 29.25 14.00b 28.25b 16.25b 2.50 10.50 7.50 2.50 1.25b 10.34b MBI-206 2.0 gal MBI-203 DF2 f/b 2.0 lb Beleaf 50 SG 2.8 oz 27.25 26.75ab 29.75b 10.25b 1.75 7.25 17.00 2.00 2.00b 12.09b Beleaf 50 SG 2.8 oz 17.00 17.50b 18.75b 9.75b 3.25 7.00 8.00 4.50 2.25b 8.88b Untreated Check --- 24.25 33.00a 49.00a 35.00a 5.00 17.50 13.50 6.00 4.75a 20.47a Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different; P>0.05, LSD. 2 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.F3 Table 5. SB per ten sweeps Treatment rate/acre 7 Jun 12 Jun 18 Jun 21 Jun 25 Jun 28 Jun 2 Jul 5 Jul PTA MBI-203 DF2 2.0 lb 0.25 0.00 0.00 1.75 2.00 1.25 1.50 1.00 0.97 MBI-203 DF2 4.0 lb 0.00 0.25 0.25 1.50 0.75 0.25 1.50 0.50 0.63 Beleaf 50 SG f/b 2.8 oz MBI-203 DF2 f/b 2.0 lb 0.00 0.00 0.75 0.75 0.75 1.00 1.50 0.75 0.69 MBI-206 2.0 gal MBI-203 DF2 f/b 2.0 lb 0.25 0.00 0.25 3.50 1.25 0.50 0.50 0.75 0.88 Beleaf 50 SG 2.8 oz Beleaf 50 SG 2.8 oz 0.00 0.00 0.50 3.75 0.75 1.00 4.75 1.00 1.47 Untreated Check --- 0.00 0.25 1.00 1.00 0.75 0.75 2.00 0.25 0.75 Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different; P>0.05, LSD. Table 6. Percentage of seed damaged from LB, SB, ASC and percentages of green seed and healthy seed Treatment rate/acre Lygus Bug Stink Bug Seed Chalcid Green Seed Good Seed MBI-203 DF2 2.0 lb 6.25 3.25 5.00 0.00 85.50a MBI-203 DF2 4.0 lb 7.25 2.75 3.00 0.25 86.75a Beleaf 50 SG f/b 2.8 oz MBI-203 DF2 f/b 2.0 lb 5.75 4.25 3.75 0.50 85.75a MBI-206 2.0 gal MBI-203 DF2 f/b 2.0 lb 7.00 3.75 3.00 0.50 85.75a Beleaf 50 SG 2.8 oz Beleaf 50 SG 2.8 oz 3.00 4.50 7.75 0.25 84.50a Untreated Check --- 11.00 5.25 8.00 1.50 74.25b Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different; P>0.05, LSD. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Arthropod Management Tests Oxford University Press

BIOLOGICAL INSECTICIDE EFFICACY IN ALFALFA SEED PRODUCTION, 2012

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Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.F3 (F3) ALFALFA: Medicago sativa L. ‘CUF-101’ Eric T. Natwick University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Desert Research and Extension Center 1050 E. Holton Rd. Holtville, CA 92250 Phone: (760) 352-9474 Fax: (760) 352-0846 E-mail: etnatwick@ucdavis.edu Martin I. Lopez E-mail: marlopez@ucdavis.edu Lygus bug (LB): Lygus spp. Say stink bug (SB): Chlorochroa sayi Say Alfalfa seed chalcid (ASC): Bruchophagus roddi Guss. The objective of the study was to evaluate two new biological insecticides for their efficacy against adults and nymphs of LB and SB on alfalfa grown for seed production under desert growing conditions. The trial was conducted at the UC Desert Research and Extension Center on a stand of CUF-101 alfalfa on beds of 40 inch centers; the stand was clipped-back on 13 Apr 2012 to initiate seed production. The experimental design was RCB using 4 replicates with 5 insecticide treatments and an untreated check. Plots were eight beds 50 ft wide by 75 ft long, with 5 ft buffers between replicate blocks. The insecticide treatments were applied on the dates at the specified rate equivalencies listed in the tables. All insecticide treatments were applied on 4 and 14 Jun except the treatment of MBI-206 applied on 21 Jun. The insecticide treatments were broadcast sprays applied with a Lee Spider Spray Trac, tractor mounted spray boom, equipped with 15 nozzles (TJ-60 11003VS), operated at 20 psi and delivering 30.1 gpa in a 25 ft wide spray swath. Hasten, a modified vegetable oil surfactant (Wilber-Ellis Company) was applied at 0.25% vol/vol in tank mixtures with each insecticide treatment. The pretreatment (PT) insect population data were collected on 29 May. Post treatment data were collected on 7, 12, 18, 21, 25, and 28 Jun, and 2 and 5 Jul. During each evaluation, ten 180° sweeps per plot were collected with a standard 15-inch st diameter sweep net. Sweep net samples were bagged, labeled, and frozen for later counting of small LB nymphs (1 rd th th through 3 instars), large LB nymphs (4 and 5 instars) and LB adults, in the laboratory. On 9 Jul 2012, mature seed pods were stripped from a few plants at random in each plot, pods were hand-threshed to prevent loss of damaged seed, and 100 random seeds from each plot were examined under a binocular microscope for LB damage, SB damage, ASC damage, chewing insect damage, water damage, green seed and good seed. Treatment means were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA and means separated by a protected LSD (P≤0.05). Pre-treatment numbers of small LB nymphs, large LB nymphs and adult LB were similar among treatments and the untreated check (Table 1-3). There were no differences among the means for small LB on 7, 18, 21 and 25 Jun, 2 and 5 Jul. All of the insecticide treatments had fewer small LB nymphs than the untreated check on 12 Jun and 28 Jun and for the post treatment average (PTA), with the exception on 12 Jun of the Beleaf 50 SG treatment that was to be followed by MBI-203 DF2. There were no differences among the means for large LB on 7, 21, 25 and 28 Jun, 2 and 5 Jul. All of the insecticide treatments had fewer large LB nymphs than the untreated check on 12 Jun, with the exception of MBI-203 DF2 to be followed by Beleaf 50 SG. Only MBI-203 DF2 treatments at 2 lb and 4 lb per acre did not have fewer large LB nymphs than the check on 18 Jun. The check had more LB large nymphs than any of the insecticide treatments for the PTA. There were no differences among the treatments for LB adults on any of the sampling dates except 18 Jun when all of the insecticide treatments had fewer LB adults than the untreated check. The check had more LB adults than any of the insecticide treatments for the PTA. There were no differences among the treatment means for all LB for the 29 May PT samples, nor for the post-treatment samples collected on 12, 25, 28 Jun, and 2 Jul (Table 4). All of the insecticide treatments had means for all LB on 12 Jun, 18 Jun and for the PTA. Only the MBI-203 DF2 at 2 lb per acre and the Beleaf treatments had lower means for all LB on 7 Jun. Only the insecticide treatments that included Beleaf 50 SG had means for all LB that were lower than the check on 5 Jul. There were no differences among treatments means for SB on any of the sampling dates (Table 5). All of the insecticide treatments had significantly higher percentages of good seed compared to 1 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.F3 the untreated check (Table 6). None of the insecticide treatments had lower percentages of LB damaged seed, SB damaged seed, ASC damaged seed or green seed compared to the untreated check. None of the seed samples showed chewing insect damage or water damaged seed. There were no symptoms of phytotoxicity following any of the insecticide treatments. This research was supported by funding from the California Alfalfa seed Production Research Board and industry gifts. Table 1. Small LB nymphs per ten sweeps Treatment rate/acre 29 May 7 Jun 12 Jun 18 Jun 21 Jun 25 Jun 28 Jun 2 Jul 5 Jul PTA MBI-203 DF2 2.0 lb 1.25 3.00 3.00b-d 4.75 0.50 0.75 1.25a 0.00 0.50 1.72b MBI-203 DF2 4.0 lb 1.25 6.25 2.25cd 2.25 0.50 0.50 0.00b 0.00 0.00 1.47b Beleaf 50 SG f/b 2.8 oz MBI-203 DF2 f/b 2.0 lb 0.25 2.75 6.00ab 3.75 1.75 0.25 0.00b 0.00 0.00 1.81b MBI-206 2.0 gal MBI-203 DF2 f/b 2.0 lb 1.75 6.00 5.25bc 2.00 0.50 0.00 0.25b 0.00 0.00 1.75b Beleaf 50 SG 2.8 oz Beleaf 50 SG 2.8 oz 1.00 2.50 1.50d 1.75 0.50 0.50 0.00b 0.00 0.00 0.84b Untreated Check --- 1.50 8.75 8.75a 6.00 1.00 0.25 0.00b 0.00 0.75 3.19a Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different; P>0.05, LSD. Table 2. Large LB nymphs per ten sweeps Treatment rate/acre 29 May 7 Jun 12 Jun 18 Jun 21 Jun 25 Jun 28 Jun 2 Jul 5 Jul PTA MBI-203 DF2 2.0 lb 0.75 7.50 7.50bc 11.50ab 0.75 0.75 1.00 0.00 0.25 3.66b MBI-203 DF2 4.0 lb 1.50 6.50 7.25bc 10.50a-c 1.25 1.00 0.75 0.50 0.00 3.47b Beleaf 50 SG f/b 2.8 oz MBI-203 DF2 f/b 2.0 lb 2.75 1.75 6.25bc 7.00bc 0.00 0.50 0.25 0.00 0.25 2.00c MBI-206 2.0 gal MBI-203 DF 2 f/b 2.0 lb 1.75 7.00 10.75ab 4.00c 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.72bc Beleaf 50 SG 2.8 oz Beleaf 50 SG 2.8 oz 0.75 4.50 3.25c 4.25c 0.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.53c Untreated Check --- 1.75 11.50 14.75a 16.25a 0.50 3.00 0.00 0.25 0.00 5.78a Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different; P>0.05, LSD. Table 3. LB adults per ten sweeps Treatment rate/acre 29 May 7 Jun 12 Jun 18 Jun 21 Jun 25 Jun 28 Jun 2 Jul 5 Jul PTA MBI-203 DF2 2.0 lb 28.25 5.25 17.75 3.50b 1.25 8.75 11.75 2.75 2.00 6.63b MBI-203 DF2 4.0 lb 20.25 9.00 13.75 5.25b 2.00 9.00 10.00 2.75 3.00 6.84b Beleaf 50 SG f/b 2.8 oz MBI-203 DF2 f/b 2.0 lb 26.25 9.50 16.00 5.50b 0.75 9.75 7.25 2.50 1.00 6.53b MBI-206 2.0 gal MBI-203 DF2 f/b 2.0 lb Beleaf 50 SG 2.8 oz 23.75 13.75 13.75 4.25b 1.25 7.00 16.75 2.00 2.00 7.59b Beleaf 50 SG 2.8 oz 15.25 10.50 14.00 3.75b 2.50 6.50 8.00 4.50 2.25 6.50b Untreated Check --- 21.00 12.75 25.50 12.75a 3.50 14.25 13.50 5.75 4.00 11.50a Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different; P>0.05, LSD. Table 4. All LB per ten sweeps Treatment rate/acre 29 May 7 Jun 12 Jun 18 Jun 21 Jun 25 Jun 28 Jun 2 Jul 5 Jul PTA MBI-203 DF2 2.0 lb 30.25 15.75b 28.25b 19.75b 2.50 10.25 14.00 2.75 2.75ab 12.00b MBI-203 DF2 4.0 lb 23.00 21.75ab 23.25b 18.00b 3.75 10.75 10.75 3.25 3.00ab 11.81b Beleaf 50 SG f/b 2.8 oz MBI-203 DF2 f/b 2.0 lb 29.25 14.00b 28.25b 16.25b 2.50 10.50 7.50 2.50 1.25b 10.34b MBI-206 2.0 gal MBI-203 DF2 f/b 2.0 lb Beleaf 50 SG 2.8 oz 27.25 26.75ab 29.75b 10.25b 1.75 7.25 17.00 2.00 2.00b 12.09b Beleaf 50 SG 2.8 oz 17.00 17.50b 18.75b 9.75b 3.25 7.00 8.00 4.50 2.25b 8.88b Untreated Check --- 24.25 33.00a 49.00a 35.00a 5.00 17.50 13.50 6.00 4.75a 20.47a Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different; P>0.05, LSD. 2 Arthropod Management Tests 2013, Vol. 38 doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.F3 Table 5. SB per ten sweeps Treatment rate/acre 7 Jun 12 Jun 18 Jun 21 Jun 25 Jun 28 Jun 2 Jul 5 Jul PTA MBI-203 DF2 2.0 lb 0.25 0.00 0.00 1.75 2.00 1.25 1.50 1.00 0.97 MBI-203 DF2 4.0 lb 0.00 0.25 0.25 1.50 0.75 0.25 1.50 0.50 0.63 Beleaf 50 SG f/b 2.8 oz MBI-203 DF2 f/b 2.0 lb 0.00 0.00 0.75 0.75 0.75 1.00 1.50 0.75 0.69 MBI-206 2.0 gal MBI-203 DF2 f/b 2.0 lb 0.25 0.00 0.25 3.50 1.25 0.50 0.50 0.75 0.88 Beleaf 50 SG 2.8 oz Beleaf 50 SG 2.8 oz 0.00 0.00 0.50 3.75 0.75 1.00 4.75 1.00 1.47 Untreated Check --- 0.00 0.25 1.00 1.00 0.75 0.75 2.00 0.25 0.75 Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different; P>0.05, LSD. Table 6. Percentage of seed damaged from LB, SB, ASC and percentages of green seed and healthy seed Treatment rate/acre Lygus Bug Stink Bug Seed Chalcid Green Seed Good Seed MBI-203 DF2 2.0 lb 6.25 3.25 5.00 0.00 85.50a MBI-203 DF2 4.0 lb 7.25 2.75 3.00 0.25 86.75a Beleaf 50 SG f/b 2.8 oz MBI-203 DF2 f/b 2.0 lb 5.75 4.25 3.75 0.50 85.75a MBI-206 2.0 gal MBI-203 DF2 f/b 2.0 lb 7.00 3.75 3.00 0.50 85.75a Beleaf 50 SG 2.8 oz Beleaf 50 SG 2.8 oz 3.00 4.50 7.75 0.25 84.50a Untreated Check --- 11.00 5.25 8.00 1.50 74.25b Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different; P>0.05, LSD.

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Arthropod Management TestsOxford University Press

Published: Jan 1, 2013

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