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Apple, Pest and Natural Enemy Effects Under Tabm Control Tactics, 1996

Apple, Pest and Natural Enemy Effects Under Tabm Control Tactics, 1996 Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article-abstract/22/1/13/4639720 by DeepDyve user on 21 July 2020 A: POME FRUITS Arthropod Management Tests, Vol. 22 13 Total no. (%) internal larvae/sampled fruit Rate/acre Treatment (lbs Al) Total CM OF M Unknown 1.TD-2344-02 0.83EC 160.0 ml (0.035) 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2. CGA-59205 35WP 162.0 g (0.125) Confirm 70WP + 201.0 g (0.31) Latron B-1956 473.0 ml (0.125%) Guthion 50WP 680.0 g (0.75) 5 2 (40.0) 3 (60.0) 0 (0.0) 3. CGA-59205 35WP 244.0 g (0.188) Confirm 70WP + 201.0 g (0.31) Latron B-1956 473.0 ml (0.125%) Guthion 50WP 680.0 g (0.75%) 4. Comply 40WP 107.0 g (0.094) Confirm 70WP + 201.0 g (0.31) Latron B-1956 473.0 ml (0.125%) Guthion 50WP 680.0 g (0.75) 11 0 (0.0) 1(9.1 ) 10(90.9) 5. CM-002X + 858.0 ml (0.0095) 6 (40.0) 9 (60.0) 0 (0.0) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 946.0 ml (0.25%) 15 6. Larvin 3.2SC + 946.0 ml (0.8) Provado 1.6F 118.0 ml (0.05) Larvin 3.2SC 946.0 ml (0.8) 8 0 (0.0) 1 (12.5) 7 (87.5) 7. Guthion 50WP + 680.0 g (0.75) Provado 1.6F 80.0 ml (0.0382) Guthion 50WP 680.0 g (0.75) Guthion 50WP + 680.0 g (0.75) Lannate2.4LV 710.0 ml (0.45) 1 0(0.0 ) 1(100.0) 0(0.0) 8. Untreated check — 105 17(16.2) 83(79.1) 5(4.8) Means in a column followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (Fisher's Protected LSD, P <0.05). APPLE: Malus domestica Borkhauser 'Yorking' and 'Golden Delicious' Larry A. Hull (10A) Larry A. Hull Codling moth (CM); Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) Penn State Fruit Res. & Ext. Center European red mite (ERM); Panonychus ulmi (Koch) Biglerville, PA 17307-0309 Mite predator (AF); Amblyseius fallacis (Garman) (717)677-611 6 Mite predator (ZM); Zetzellia mali (Ewing) Mite predator; Stethorus punctum (LeConte) Obliquebanded leafroller (OBL); Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) Oriental fruit moth (OFM); Grapholitha molesta (Busck) Redbanded leafroller (RBL); Argyrotaenia velutinana (Walker) Spotted tentiform leafminer (STLM); Phyllonorycter blancardella (F.) Tufted apple bud moth (TABM); Platynota idaeusalis Walker White apple leafhopper (WALH); Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee APPLE, PES T AN D NATURA L ENEMY EFFECTS UNDER TAB M CONTROL TACTICS, 1996: Effects of various insecticides timed for TABM control were assessed for their activity against some other apple pests and their natural enemies. The experimental and registered materials were applied to replicated 12-15 tree plots in a randomized block design. Each plot consisted of alternating trees of 'Yorking' and 'Golden Delicious'. These trees were spaced at 18 X 25 ft and were 17 years old. Experimental sprays were applied with a Friend Airmaster '309' calibrated to deliver 100 gpa at 2.4 mph. Application timings were based on the accumulation of degree days from first adult moth capture in a sex pheromone trap (18 May) in order to predict various percentages of egg hatch for each TABM brood. Degree day calculations were based on minimum and maximum developmental thresh­ olds of 45°F and 91°F, respectively. All applications were complete sprays. A routine schedule of fungicides (Benlate 50DF, Penncozeb 75DF, Rubigan 1EC, and Ziram 76WP) was maintained throughout the experiment. The effect of the sprays on WALH was evaluated by counting the number of nymphs/25 injured leaves/tree (cv. Yorking). Effectiveness of the test chemicals on the ERM , TSSM and A F was evaluated by counting the mites several times during the season on samples of 25 random leaves/tree (cv. York­ ing), 100 leaves/treatment. The effect of sprays on the predator S. punctum was evaluated by 3-min counts of adults and larvae around the periphery of the same trees. STLM was evaluated by a 5-min count of tissue-feeding mines around the periphery of the trees at the end of each generation. On 6 Jun, only spur leaves were examined, and on 24 Jul and 12 Sep only shoot leaves were examined for tissue-feeding mines. Shelters of various leafrollers were counted in a 5-min examination of each plot tree on 10 and 30 Jul. All larvae were collected and returned to the laboratory for identification. Pest pressure was high throughout the season. Effectiveness of the treatments on fruit feeders on 'Golden Delicious' was assessed by scoring for injury a harvest sample of 200 fruit per tree from each of 2 center trees per replicate starting on 24 Sep and up to 25 dropped fruit per tree. For 'Yorking', injury was assessed on 200 picked fruit per tree from the 2 center trees in each replicate and up to 25 dropped apples per tree starting on 11 Oct. If the center trees had less than 200 fruit, then additional fruit were picked from trees on the outside rows of the three-row plot, but from the portion of the tree facing the center row. A pink application of endosulfan controlled WALH populations at petal fall. The petal fall applications of endosulfan, Agri-Mek with and without SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil, and Provado reduced populations of WALH. Initially, Agri-Mek alone was not as effective as Agri-Mek plus SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil on WALH, but by 11 DAT , a similar control was achieved, WALH populations on the trees treated with Agri-Mek alone increased slightly 15 DAT, but they were not statistically different from Agri-Mek plus oil. STLM populations were most effectively controlled during the season by Spinosad and Spinosad plus SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil treatments. Two applications of RH-2485, each applied during egg hatch for each brood of TABM, was also very effective in providing a good control of STLM. Agri-Mek plus oil was more active than Agri-Mek alone in controlling STLM, especially the 3rd brood of STLM. Agri-Mek with and without oil at petal fall was more effective than Savey applied at the pink stage in providing seasonal control of ERM Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article-abstract/22/1/13/4639720 by DeepDyve user on 21 July 2020 14 Arthropod Management Tests, Vol. 22 A: POME FRUITS and Agri-Mek plus oil gave longer residual control in Aug than Agri-Mek alone. None of the treatments that maintained high populations of ERM ap­ peared to negatively effect S. punctum populations. A single application of RH-2485 was the most effective material in controlling TABM larvae inhab­ iting leaf shelters during July. Confirm at 2 different rates was also very effective in controlling TABM larvae inhabiting leaf shelters. RH-2485 again was the best treatment in terms of preventing fruit injury by either brood of TABM. Confirm at both rates was also very effective in preventing fruit injury by TABM, there being no difference between the 2 rates. Also, addition of Latron B-1956 to Confirm at 0.31 lb Al/acre did not significantly reduce further TABM fruit injury over an equivalent rate of Confirm alone. Two applications of Confirm at 0.22 lb Al/acre during the second brood egg hatch were not any more effective than a single application of Confirm in preventing TABM fruit injury. Other treatments showing very good TABM control included all those involving Spinosad and Dipel 2X. A single application of Penncap-M at 0.75 lb Al/acre during the first brood egg hatch was not effective in pre­ venting first brood TABM fruit injury. For the Penncap-M plus Lannate treatments, an increase in the rate of Lannate from 0.3375 to 0.45 lb Al/acre did not improve the control of TABM. Dipel 2X was somewhat weak against the CM/OFM complex. Rate/acre Treatment (lbs Al) Application dates and (degree day accumulations) 1. Endosulfan 50WP + 1362.0 g (1.5) Savey 50WP 85.0 g (0.09375) 28 Apr Endosulfan 50WP + 1361.0 g (1.5) 1361.0 g (2.1) 18 May Imidan 70WP 1021.0. g ( 1.575) 5 Jun (353), 23 Jul (1627) Imidan 70WP 201.0 g (0.31) 20 Jun (766), 22 Aug (2389) Confirm 70WP 142.0 ml (0.075) 2. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 20 Jun (766), 27 Jun (948), 19 Aug (2305), 28 Aug (2551), 9 Sep (2868) 3. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC + 142.0 ml (0.075) + 946.0 ml (0.25%) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 20 Jun (766), 27 Jun (948), 19 Aug (2305), 28 Aug (2551), 9 Sep (2868) 4. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 213.0 ml (0.1124) 20 Jun (766), 27 Jun (948), 19 Aug (2305), 28 Aug (2551), 9 Sep (2868) 296.0 ml (0.0117) + 5. Agri-Mek 0.15EC + 3785.0 ml (1.0%) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 18 May 142.6 g (0.22) Confirm 70WP + 473.0 ml (0.125%) Latron B-1956 24 Jun (876), 22 Aug (2389) 201.0 g (0.31) 6. Confirm 70WP + 473.0 ml (0.125%) Latron B-1956 24 Jun (876), 22 Aug (2389) 118.0 ml (0.05) 7. Provado 1.6F 18 May 142.6 g (0.22) Confirm 70WP + 473.0 ml (0.125%) Latron B-1956 24 Jun (876), 22 Aug (2389), 3 Sep (2705) 85.0 g (0.15) 8. RH-2485 80WP + 473.0 ml (0.125%) Latron B-1956 24 Jun (876), 22 Aug (2389) 454.0 g 9. Dipel 2X 20 Jun (766), 27 Jun (948), 19 Aug (2305), 28 Aug (2551), 9 Sep (2868) 10. Penncap-M 2F + 946.0 ml (0.5) + Lannate 90SP 170.0 g (0.3375) 20 Jun (766), 27 Jun (948), 19 Aug (2305), 3 Sep (2705) 11. Agri-Mek 0.15EC 296.0 ml (0.0117) 18 May 1420.0 ml (0.75) Penncap-M 2FM 24 Jun (876) 946.0 ml (0.5) Penncap-M 2FM + 227.0 g (0.45) Lannate 90SP 19 Aug (2305), 3 Sep (2705) 12. Untreated check Degree days are accumulated from 1st trap of TABM on May 18. Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article-abstract/22/1/13/4639720 by DeepDyve user on 21 July 2020 A: POME FRUITS Arthropod Management Tests, Vol. 22 15 Mean no. WALH/injured leaf Rate/acre (lbs Al) 17 May 20 May 29 May 3 Jun 15 Aug 1 reatment Endosulfan 50WP + 1361.0 g (1.5) Savey 50WP 85.0 g (0.09375) Endosulfan 50WP + 1361.0 g (1.5) Imidan 70WP 1361.0 g (2.1) Imidan 70WP 1021.0 g (1.575) Confirm 70WP 201.0 g (0.31) 0.005a 0.00a 0.00a 0.02a 0.24ab Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 142.0 ml (0.075) - Spinosad NAF-295 2SC + 142.0 ml (0.075) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 946.0 ml (0.25%) — Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 213.0 ml (0.1124) — Agri-Mek0.15EC + 296.0 ml (0.0117) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 3785.0 ml (1.0%) Confirm 70WP 142.6 g (0.22) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 0.140ab 0.03a 0.02a 0.03a 0.17a Confirm 70WP + 201.0 g (0.31) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) Provado 1.6F 118.0 ml (0.05) Confirm 70WP + 142.6 g (0.22) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 0.335bc 0.03a 0.01a 0.00a 0.11a RH-2485 80WP + 85.0 g (0.15) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) — Dipel 2X 454.0 g — Penncap-M 2F + 946.0 ml (0.5) Lannate 90SP 170.0 g (0.3375) - Agri-Mek0.15EC 296.0 ml (0.0117) Penncap-M 2FM 1420.0 ml (0.75) Penncap-M 2FM + 946.0 ml (0.5) Lannate 90SP 227.0 g (0.45) 0.640c 0.15b 0.10a 0.24a 0.26ab Untreated check 0.22b 0.68b 0.54b 0.36b Means in a column followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (Fisher's Protected LSD, P < 0.05). Mean no. STLM/5 min Rate/acre (lbs Al) 6 Jun 24 Jul 12 Sep I reatment 1361.0 g (1.5) 1. Endosulfan 50WP + 85.0 g (0.09375) Savey 50WP 1361.0 g (1.5) Endosulfan 50WP + 1361.0 g (2.1) Imidan 70WP 1021.0g (1.575) Imidan 70 WP Confirm 70WP 201.0 g (0.31) 9.0bcd 75.3de 1.3a 142.0 ml (0.075) 6.0abc 2. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 18.0b 142.0 ml (0.075) 1. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC + SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 946.0 ml (0.25%) 2.8a 1.9a 213.0 ml (0.1124) 1. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 3.0ab 17.3b 296.0 ml (0.0117) 5. Agri-Mek0.15EC + 3785.0 ml (1.0%) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 142.6 g (0.22) Confirm 70WP + 473.0 ml (0.125%) Latron B-1956 3.3abc 50.5cd 0.3a 201.0 g (0.31) 6. Confirm 70WP + 473.0 ml (0.125%) LatronB-195 6 •l.Odef 97.5ef 118.0 ml (0.05) 1. Provado 1.6F 142.6 g (0.22) Confirm 70WP + 473.0 ml (0.125%) LatronB-1956 0.5a 10.9c-f 83.5de 85.0 g (0.15) 1. RH-248 5 80WP + 473.0 ml (0.125%) Latron B-1956 6.0abc 39.5c 454.0 g 9. Dipel 2X 18.8f 121.5efg 946.0 ml (0.5) 10. Penncap-M 2F + 170.0 g (0.3375) Lannate 90SP 16.6def 156.5fg 296.0 ml (0.0117) 1 I. Agri-Mek0.15EC 1420.0 ml (0.75) Penncap-M 2FM 946.0 ml (0.5) Penncap-M 2FM + 227.0 g (0.45) Lannate 90SP 0.0a 6.8cde 99.0e 1.'. Untreated check 4.8b 19.3ef 174.8g Means in a column followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (Fisher's Protected LSD, P <0.05). Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article-abstract/22/1/13/4639720 by DeepDyve user on 21 July 2020 16 Arthropod Management Tests, Vol. 22 A: POME FRUITS Mean no. mites/leaf Accumulated ERM AF no. mite days Rate/acre Treatment 2 Jul 11 Jul 25 Jul 1 Aug 8 Aug 15 Aug (lbs Al) 15 Aug 2 Jul-1 5 Aug 1361.0 g (1.5) l.Endosulfan50W P + Savey 50WP 85.0 g (0.09375) Endosulfan 50WP + 1361.0 g (1.5) Imidan 70WP 1361.0 g (2.1) Imidan 70WP 1021.0 g (1.575) Confirm 70WP 201.0 g (0.31) 0.0a 0.3a 0.9a 3.la b 7.1b 23.9c 167c 0.3a l.Obc 6.3c 16.8cd 2. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 142.0 ml (0.075) 29.2bc 457d — — — 3. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC + 142.0 ml (0.075) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 946.0 ml (0.25%) 1.2bc 4.7bc 17.9bcd 31.7cd 469d — — — 4. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 213.0 ml (0.1124) 0.5ab 2.2b 12.2bcd 31.7cd 376d — — — 5. Agri-Mek0.15EC + 296.0 ml (0.0117) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 3785.0 ml (1.0%) Confirm 70WP + 142.6 g (0.22) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 0.0a 0.1a 0.2a 0.7a 1.5a 2.2a 25a 1.1a 6. Confirm 70WP + 201.0 g (0.31) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 0.7ab 3.1b 9.9bc 42.4cde 439d — — — 7. Provado 1.6F 118.0 ml (0.05) Confirm 70WP + 142.6 g (0.22) + LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 1.3bc 3.1b 14.5cd 56.7de 590de — — — 8. RH-2485 80WP + 85.0 g (0.15) + LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 0.8b 2.8b 11.6bcd 42.8cde 457d — — — 9. Dipel 2X 454.0 g l.lb c 3.0b 7.8b 25.3abc 47.3c 82.5d 916ef 0.6a 10. Penncap M 2F + 946.0 ml (0.5) + Lannate 90SP 170.0 g (0.3375) 1.2bc 3.6bc 21.2d 67.0e 73.7c 129.1d 1705g 0.6a 11. Agri-Mek0.15EC 296.0 ml (0.0117) Penncap-M 2FM 1420.0 ml (0.75) Penncap-M 2FM + 946.0 ml (0.5) + Lannate 90SP 227.0 g (0.45) 0.1a 0.1a 0.5a 0.6a 2.9a 7.4b 56b 0.6a 12. Untreated check 1.9c 3.6bc 18.2cd 31.3cde 57.5c 107.6d 1329fg 0.1a Means in a column followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (Fisher's Protected LSD, P £ 0.05). Mean no. S. punctum/3 min Rate/acre Ad Lar Ad Lar Ad Lar Ad Lar Ad Lar Treatment (lbs Al) 11 Jul 11 Jul 25 Jul 25 Jul 1 Aug 1 Aug 8 Aug 8 Aug 15 Aug 15 Aug 1. Endosulfan 50WP + 1361.0 g (1.5) Savey 50WP 85.0g (0.09375) Endosulfan 50WP + 1361.0 g (1.5) Imidan 70WP 1361.0 g (2.1) Imidan 70WP 1021.0 g (1.575) Confirm 70WP 201.0 g (0.31) 0.0c 0.0a O.Of 0.0a 0.3d O.Od 3.Ode 0.0c 4.0c 1.0b 2. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 142.0 ml (0.075) 1.0a 0.8a 6.3bcd 2.5a 5.5ab 16.3a 11.5abc 26.8ab — — 3. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC + 142.0 ml (0.075) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 946.0 ml (0.25%) 0.5ab 0.3a 7.8b 2.8a 3.5abc 21.5a ll.Oabc 47.5a — — 4. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 213.0 ml (0.1124) 0.0c 0.0a 2.8def 2.8a 1.8cd 5.0bcd 10.5abc 34.5ab — — 5. Agri-Mek0.15EC + 296.0 ml (0.0117) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 3785.0 ml (1.0%) Confirm 70WP + 142.6 g (0.22) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 0.3bc 0.3a O.Odef 0.0a O.Od O.Obcd 0.3e 0.0c O.Od 0.0c 6. Confirm 70WP + 201.0 g (0.31) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 0.0c 0.0a 6.5bc 0.5a 3.5bcd 11.5bc 8.3bc 32.8ab — — 7. Provado 1.6F 118.0 ml (0.05) Confirm 70WP + 142.6 g (0.22) Latron B-1956 473.0 ml (0.125%) 0.0c 0.5a 12.3a 1.5a 6.0a 1 l.Obc 14.5ab 48.0a — — 8. RH-2485 80WP + 85.0 g (0.15) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 0.0c 0.0a 5.3cde 1.3a 2.5cd 13.3bcd 13.5ab 32.8a — — 0.0c 0.3a 3.8cde 0.3a 3.8cd 4.8bcd 6.5ab 24.3b 13.5bc 31.5a 9. Dipel 2X 454.0 g 10. Penncap M 2F + 946.0 ml (0.5) Lannate 90SP 170.0 g (0.3375) 0.0c 0.0a 9.0a 2.3a 5.8a 27.3a 16.8a 34.3a 42.5a 48.0a Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article-abstract/22/1/13/4639720 by DeepDyve user on 21 July 2020 A: POME FRUITS Arthropod Management Tests, Vol. 22 17 11. Agri-Mek0.15EC 296.0 ml (0.0117) Penncap-M 2FM 1420.0 ml (0.75) Penncap-M 2FM + 946.0 ml (0.5) Lannate 90SP 227.0 g (0.45) 0.0c 0.0a O.Oef 0.0a O.Od O.Ocd 0.3e 0.0c 0.5d 0.0c 12. Untreated check 0.3bc 0.3a 7.8a 1.0a 2.8cd 19.0b 14.3ab 38.0ab 38.3ab 45.5a Means in a column followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (Fisher's Protected LSD, P s, 0.05). Ad = adults; Lar = larvae Mean no. shelters/5 min Rate/acre Total w/TABM Empty Total w/TABM w/RBL w/OBL Empty Treatment (lbs Al) 10 Jul 10 Jul 10 Jul 30 Jul 30 Jul 30 Jul 30 Jul 30 Jul 1. Endosulfan 50WP + 1361.0 g (1.5) Savey 50WP 85.0 g (0.09375) Endosulfan 50WP + 1361.0 g (1.5) Imidan 70WP 1361.0 g (2.1) Imidan 70WP 1021.0 g (1.575) Confirm 70WP 201.0 g (0.31) 0.3a 0.3a 0.0a 3.8bcd 2.9bcd 0.0a 0.0a 0.9abc 2. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 0.8a 5.4def 0.0a 142.0 ml (0.075) 1.5a-d 0.8a- d 8.3de 0.0a 2.5cde 3. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC + 142.0 ml (0.075) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 946.0 ml (0.25%) 0.5ab 0.3a 0.3ab 8.4e 5.4efg 0.0a 0.0a 2.9de 4. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 213.0 ml (0.1124) 0.5ab 0.0a 0.5abc 3.8cd 2.9cde 0.0a 0.0a 0.9ab 5. Agri-Mek0.15EC + 296.0 ml (0.0117) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 3785.0 ml (1.0%) Confirm 70WP + 142.6 g (0.22) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 1.8bcd 0.3a 1.5d 2.1abc l.Oabc 0.1a 0.0a l.Oabc 6. Confirm 70WP + 201.0 g (0.31) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 0.8abc 0.3a 0.5abc 3.1bc 1.6abc 0.0a 0.0a 1.6bcd 7. Provado 1.6F 118.0 ml (0.05) Confirm 70WP + 142.6 g (0.22) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 0.3a 0.3a 0.0a 1.4ab 0.9ab 0.0a 0.0a 0.5a 8. RH-2485 80WP + 85g(0.15 ) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 0.8a-d 0.0a 0.8a-d 0.6a 0.6a 0.0a 0.0a 0.0a 9. Dipel 2X 454.0 g 0.8a- d 0.3a 0.5abc ll.le f 9.4ghi 0.0a 0.0a 1.8bcd 10. Penncap M 2F + 946.0 ml (0.5) Lannate 90SP 170.0 g (0.3375) 0.3a 0.3a 0.0a 11.6ef 8.0fgh 0.0a 0.0a 3.4ef 11. Agri-Mek0.15EC 296.0 ml (0.0117) Penncap-M 2FM 1420.0 ml (0.75) Penncap-M 2FM + 946.0 ml (0.5) Lannate 90SP 227.0 g (0.45) 3.3d 2.3a l.Obcd 19.9fg 14.3hi 0.0a 0.0a 5.6f 12. Untreated check 2.5cd 1.0a 1.5cd 21.5g 16.5i 0.0a 0.1a 4.6f Means in a column followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (Fisher's Protected LSD, P < 0.05). Mean no. injuries/100 apples CM/OFM TAB M Total no. RBLR/ Rate/acre % Treatment (lbs Al) apples Stings OBLR Brood Clean Entries Brood Total 1. Endosulfan 50WP + 1361.0 g (1.5) Savey 50WP 85.0 g (0.09375) Endosulfan 50WP + 1361.0 g (1.5) Imidan 70WP 1361.0 g (2.1) Imidan 70WP 1021.0 g (1.575) Confirm 70WP 201.0 g (0.31) 3365 0.00a 0.23abc 0.17ab 2.33b 1.82abc 4.14bc 95.48bc 2. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 142.0 ml (0.075) 2999 0.14a 0.29abc 0.37bc 3.14b 3.39cd 6.53cd 92.93cd 3. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC + 142.0 ml (0.075) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 946.0 ml (0.25%) 3208 0.14a 0.35bc 0.5 lb c 2.36b 3.26cd 5.62bcd 93.50cd 4. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 213.0 ml (0.1124) 3476 0.03a 0.12abc 0.55c 2.16ab 2.47bc 4.63bcd 94.74bcd 5. Agri-Mek0.15EC + 296.0 ml (0.0117) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 3785.0 ml (1.0%) Confirm 70WP + 142.6 g (0.22) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 3217 0.20a 0.41abc 0.33bc 1.70ab 3.24abc 95.94abc 1.5<*ab 6. Confirm 70WP + 201.0 g (0.31) LatronB-1956 473.0 ml (0.125%) 3420 0.09a 0.15ab 0.03a 1.72ab 1.37ab 3.08ab 96.73ab 7. Provado 1.6F 118.0 ml (0.05) Confirm 70WP + 142.6 g (0.22) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 3254 0.12a 0.30abc 0.18ab 1.91ab 1.49ab 3.40abc 96.03abc Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article-abstract/22/1/13/4639720 by DeepDyve user on 21 July 2020 18 Arthropod Management Tests, Vol. 22 A: POME FRUITS 8. RH-2485 80WP + 85.0 g (0.15) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 3233 0.00a 0.09ab 0.06a 0.79a 0.93a 1.72a 98.14a 9. Dipel 2X 454.0 g 3461 0.24a 0.52cd 0.46bc 2.98b 2.38bc 5.36bcd 93.54bcd 10. Penncap M 2 F + 946.0 ml (0.5) + Lannate 90SP 170.0 g (0.3375) 3114 0.00a 0.06a 0.45bc 2.88b 5.19d 8.07de 91.65de 11. Agri-Mek0.15EC 296.0 ml (0.0117) Penncap-M 2FM 1420.0 ml (0.75) Penncap-M 2FM + 946.0 ml (0.5) + Lannate 90SP 227.0 g (0.45) 3314 0.14a 0.12abc 1.34d 6.15c 4.51d 10.66e 88.14e 12. Untreated check 3494 0.21a 1.15d 2.46e 10.34d 16.38e 26.7 If 70.79f Means in a column followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (Fisher's Protected LSD, P <0.05). APPLE: Malus domestica Borkhauser 'Delicious' Larry A. Hull (11A) European red mite (ERM); Panonychus ulmi (Koch) Penn State Univ. Fruit Res. & Ext. Center Mite predator (AF); Amblyseius fallacis (Garman) Biglerville, PA 17307-0309 Mite predator (ZM); Zetzellia mali (Ewing) (717)677-611 6 Spotted tentiform leafminer (STLM); Phyllonorycter blancardella (Fabr.) Twospotted spider mite (TSSM); Tetranychus urticae Koch White apple leafhopper (WALH); Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee APPLE, EARLY SEASON MITE AND INSECT CONTROL, 1996: Various acaricide and insecticide treatments were applied to single-tree plots in a randomized block design consisting of 4 replicates of spur-type 'Delicious' trees. The trees were planted at a spacing of 20 x 30 ft and were 12 years old. All treatments were applied with a Myers Mity Mist sprayer calibrated to deliver 100 gpa driven at 2 mph. All plots received a regular mainte­ nance schedule of fungicides (Nova 40WP, Penncozeb 80WP, Topsin 85DF and Ziram 76WP) and nutrients (CaCl). Post-bloom insecticides (Imidan 70WP) were applied as needed at 1- to 2-week intervals beginning at petal fall in early May. The effect of the sprays on WALH was evaluated by count­ ing the number of nymphs/25 injured leaves/tree. Effects of the treatments on ERM, TSSM, A F and ZM was evaluated by counting the mites at approxi­ mately weekly intervals during the season on samples of 25 leaves/tree, 100 leaves/treatment. STLM were evaluated by a 5-min count of tissue-feeding mines around the periphery of the trees at the end of each generation but before peak emergence of the next generation adults. Only mines on spur leaves were counted on 7 Jun, while only mines in shoot leaves were counted on 17 Jul and 12 Sep. Pest pressure was moderate. Both treatments containing Provado and the Agri-Mek plus SunSpray Ultra Find Oil treatment provided excellent initial knockdown of WALH 5 DAT. Although there was a large amount of variability in STLM populations between treatments, the Agri-Mek treatment gave the best control of both 2nd and 3rd broods of STLM with a single application at 10 days after petal fall. Agri-Mek plus oil also provided the longest residual control of ERM. ERM populations started to increase at approximately the same time in July on the 2 prebloom treatments, Apollo and Savey. The Agri-Mek treatment al­ lowed the fewest number of mite days to accumulate. Rate/100 gals Application (lbs AI) dates 15 May 22 May 28 May 16 Aug Treatment 118.0 ml (0.125) 22 Apr 1. Apollo SC Provado 1.6F 118.0 ml (0.05) 23 May 1.4a 1.7ab 0.1a 0.1a 2. Savey 50WP 85.0 g (0.09375) 25 Apr Provado 1.6F 118.0 ml (0.05) 23 Apr 1.6a 2.7c 0.2a 0.7a 3. Agri-Mek 0.15EC + 295.0 ml (0.0117) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 3785.0 ml (1.0%) 23 May 1.5a 1.4a 0.2a 0.3b 4. Untreated check 1.2a 2.7bc 1.9b 0.4b Means in a column followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (Fisher's Protected LSD, P £ 0.05). Mean no. mites/leaf ER M Rate/100 gals Treatment (lbs AI) 15 May 22 May 3 Jun 17 Jun 28 Jun 5 Jul 11 Jul 1. Apollo SC 118.0 ml (0.125) Provado 1.6F 118.0 ml (0.05) 0.08a 0.00a 0.20a 1.35bc 0.10a 1.95bc 1.30b 2. Savey 50WP 85.0 g (0.09375) Provado 1.6F 118.0 ml (0.05) 0.08a 0.15a 0.00a 0.20ab 0.85ab 0.95ab 0.95ab 3. Agri-Mek 0.15EC + 295.0 ml (0.0117) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 3785.0 ml (1.0%) 0.42a 0.15a 0.15a 0.00a 0.10a 0.15a 0.05a 4. Untreated check 0.42a 0.10a 0.75a 1.25c 2.15b 3.15c 1.85b Means in a column followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (Fisher's Protected LSD, P s 0.05). http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Arthropod Management Tests Oxford University Press

Apple, Pest and Natural Enemy Effects Under Tabm Control Tactics, 1996

Arthropod Management Tests , Volume 22 (1) – Jan 1, 1997

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Oxford University Press
Copyright
© 1997 Entomological Society of America.
eISSN
2155-9856
DOI
10.1093/amt/22.1.13
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Abstract

Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article-abstract/22/1/13/4639720 by DeepDyve user on 21 July 2020 A: POME FRUITS Arthropod Management Tests, Vol. 22 13 Total no. (%) internal larvae/sampled fruit Rate/acre Treatment (lbs Al) Total CM OF M Unknown 1.TD-2344-02 0.83EC 160.0 ml (0.035) 0 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2. CGA-59205 35WP 162.0 g (0.125) Confirm 70WP + 201.0 g (0.31) Latron B-1956 473.0 ml (0.125%) Guthion 50WP 680.0 g (0.75) 5 2 (40.0) 3 (60.0) 0 (0.0) 3. CGA-59205 35WP 244.0 g (0.188) Confirm 70WP + 201.0 g (0.31) Latron B-1956 473.0 ml (0.125%) Guthion 50WP 680.0 g (0.75%) 4. Comply 40WP 107.0 g (0.094) Confirm 70WP + 201.0 g (0.31) Latron B-1956 473.0 ml (0.125%) Guthion 50WP 680.0 g (0.75) 11 0 (0.0) 1(9.1 ) 10(90.9) 5. CM-002X + 858.0 ml (0.0095) 6 (40.0) 9 (60.0) 0 (0.0) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 946.0 ml (0.25%) 15 6. Larvin 3.2SC + 946.0 ml (0.8) Provado 1.6F 118.0 ml (0.05) Larvin 3.2SC 946.0 ml (0.8) 8 0 (0.0) 1 (12.5) 7 (87.5) 7. Guthion 50WP + 680.0 g (0.75) Provado 1.6F 80.0 ml (0.0382) Guthion 50WP 680.0 g (0.75) Guthion 50WP + 680.0 g (0.75) Lannate2.4LV 710.0 ml (0.45) 1 0(0.0 ) 1(100.0) 0(0.0) 8. Untreated check — 105 17(16.2) 83(79.1) 5(4.8) Means in a column followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (Fisher's Protected LSD, P <0.05). APPLE: Malus domestica Borkhauser 'Yorking' and 'Golden Delicious' Larry A. Hull (10A) Larry A. Hull Codling moth (CM); Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) Penn State Fruit Res. & Ext. Center European red mite (ERM); Panonychus ulmi (Koch) Biglerville, PA 17307-0309 Mite predator (AF); Amblyseius fallacis (Garman) (717)677-611 6 Mite predator (ZM); Zetzellia mali (Ewing) Mite predator; Stethorus punctum (LeConte) Obliquebanded leafroller (OBL); Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) Oriental fruit moth (OFM); Grapholitha molesta (Busck) Redbanded leafroller (RBL); Argyrotaenia velutinana (Walker) Spotted tentiform leafminer (STLM); Phyllonorycter blancardella (F.) Tufted apple bud moth (TABM); Platynota idaeusalis Walker White apple leafhopper (WALH); Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee APPLE, PES T AN D NATURA L ENEMY EFFECTS UNDER TAB M CONTROL TACTICS, 1996: Effects of various insecticides timed for TABM control were assessed for their activity against some other apple pests and their natural enemies. The experimental and registered materials were applied to replicated 12-15 tree plots in a randomized block design. Each plot consisted of alternating trees of 'Yorking' and 'Golden Delicious'. These trees were spaced at 18 X 25 ft and were 17 years old. Experimental sprays were applied with a Friend Airmaster '309' calibrated to deliver 100 gpa at 2.4 mph. Application timings were based on the accumulation of degree days from first adult moth capture in a sex pheromone trap (18 May) in order to predict various percentages of egg hatch for each TABM brood. Degree day calculations were based on minimum and maximum developmental thresh­ olds of 45°F and 91°F, respectively. All applications were complete sprays. A routine schedule of fungicides (Benlate 50DF, Penncozeb 75DF, Rubigan 1EC, and Ziram 76WP) was maintained throughout the experiment. The effect of the sprays on WALH was evaluated by counting the number of nymphs/25 injured leaves/tree (cv. Yorking). Effectiveness of the test chemicals on the ERM , TSSM and A F was evaluated by counting the mites several times during the season on samples of 25 random leaves/tree (cv. York­ ing), 100 leaves/treatment. The effect of sprays on the predator S. punctum was evaluated by 3-min counts of adults and larvae around the periphery of the same trees. STLM was evaluated by a 5-min count of tissue-feeding mines around the periphery of the trees at the end of each generation. On 6 Jun, only spur leaves were examined, and on 24 Jul and 12 Sep only shoot leaves were examined for tissue-feeding mines. Shelters of various leafrollers were counted in a 5-min examination of each plot tree on 10 and 30 Jul. All larvae were collected and returned to the laboratory for identification. Pest pressure was high throughout the season. Effectiveness of the treatments on fruit feeders on 'Golden Delicious' was assessed by scoring for injury a harvest sample of 200 fruit per tree from each of 2 center trees per replicate starting on 24 Sep and up to 25 dropped fruit per tree. For 'Yorking', injury was assessed on 200 picked fruit per tree from the 2 center trees in each replicate and up to 25 dropped apples per tree starting on 11 Oct. If the center trees had less than 200 fruit, then additional fruit were picked from trees on the outside rows of the three-row plot, but from the portion of the tree facing the center row. A pink application of endosulfan controlled WALH populations at petal fall. The petal fall applications of endosulfan, Agri-Mek with and without SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil, and Provado reduced populations of WALH. Initially, Agri-Mek alone was not as effective as Agri-Mek plus SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil on WALH, but by 11 DAT , a similar control was achieved, WALH populations on the trees treated with Agri-Mek alone increased slightly 15 DAT, but they were not statistically different from Agri-Mek plus oil. STLM populations were most effectively controlled during the season by Spinosad and Spinosad plus SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil treatments. Two applications of RH-2485, each applied during egg hatch for each brood of TABM, was also very effective in providing a good control of STLM. Agri-Mek plus oil was more active than Agri-Mek alone in controlling STLM, especially the 3rd brood of STLM. Agri-Mek with and without oil at petal fall was more effective than Savey applied at the pink stage in providing seasonal control of ERM Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article-abstract/22/1/13/4639720 by DeepDyve user on 21 July 2020 14 Arthropod Management Tests, Vol. 22 A: POME FRUITS and Agri-Mek plus oil gave longer residual control in Aug than Agri-Mek alone. None of the treatments that maintained high populations of ERM ap­ peared to negatively effect S. punctum populations. A single application of RH-2485 was the most effective material in controlling TABM larvae inhab­ iting leaf shelters during July. Confirm at 2 different rates was also very effective in controlling TABM larvae inhabiting leaf shelters. RH-2485 again was the best treatment in terms of preventing fruit injury by either brood of TABM. Confirm at both rates was also very effective in preventing fruit injury by TABM, there being no difference between the 2 rates. Also, addition of Latron B-1956 to Confirm at 0.31 lb Al/acre did not significantly reduce further TABM fruit injury over an equivalent rate of Confirm alone. Two applications of Confirm at 0.22 lb Al/acre during the second brood egg hatch were not any more effective than a single application of Confirm in preventing TABM fruit injury. Other treatments showing very good TABM control included all those involving Spinosad and Dipel 2X. A single application of Penncap-M at 0.75 lb Al/acre during the first brood egg hatch was not effective in pre­ venting first brood TABM fruit injury. For the Penncap-M plus Lannate treatments, an increase in the rate of Lannate from 0.3375 to 0.45 lb Al/acre did not improve the control of TABM. Dipel 2X was somewhat weak against the CM/OFM complex. Rate/acre Treatment (lbs Al) Application dates and (degree day accumulations) 1. Endosulfan 50WP + 1362.0 g (1.5) Savey 50WP 85.0 g (0.09375) 28 Apr Endosulfan 50WP + 1361.0 g (1.5) 1361.0 g (2.1) 18 May Imidan 70WP 1021.0. g ( 1.575) 5 Jun (353), 23 Jul (1627) Imidan 70WP 201.0 g (0.31) 20 Jun (766), 22 Aug (2389) Confirm 70WP 142.0 ml (0.075) 2. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 20 Jun (766), 27 Jun (948), 19 Aug (2305), 28 Aug (2551), 9 Sep (2868) 3. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC + 142.0 ml (0.075) + 946.0 ml (0.25%) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 20 Jun (766), 27 Jun (948), 19 Aug (2305), 28 Aug (2551), 9 Sep (2868) 4. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 213.0 ml (0.1124) 20 Jun (766), 27 Jun (948), 19 Aug (2305), 28 Aug (2551), 9 Sep (2868) 296.0 ml (0.0117) + 5. Agri-Mek 0.15EC + 3785.0 ml (1.0%) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 18 May 142.6 g (0.22) Confirm 70WP + 473.0 ml (0.125%) Latron B-1956 24 Jun (876), 22 Aug (2389) 201.0 g (0.31) 6. Confirm 70WP + 473.0 ml (0.125%) Latron B-1956 24 Jun (876), 22 Aug (2389) 118.0 ml (0.05) 7. Provado 1.6F 18 May 142.6 g (0.22) Confirm 70WP + 473.0 ml (0.125%) Latron B-1956 24 Jun (876), 22 Aug (2389), 3 Sep (2705) 85.0 g (0.15) 8. RH-2485 80WP + 473.0 ml (0.125%) Latron B-1956 24 Jun (876), 22 Aug (2389) 454.0 g 9. Dipel 2X 20 Jun (766), 27 Jun (948), 19 Aug (2305), 28 Aug (2551), 9 Sep (2868) 10. Penncap-M 2F + 946.0 ml (0.5) + Lannate 90SP 170.0 g (0.3375) 20 Jun (766), 27 Jun (948), 19 Aug (2305), 3 Sep (2705) 11. Agri-Mek 0.15EC 296.0 ml (0.0117) 18 May 1420.0 ml (0.75) Penncap-M 2FM 24 Jun (876) 946.0 ml (0.5) Penncap-M 2FM + 227.0 g (0.45) Lannate 90SP 19 Aug (2305), 3 Sep (2705) 12. Untreated check Degree days are accumulated from 1st trap of TABM on May 18. Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article-abstract/22/1/13/4639720 by DeepDyve user on 21 July 2020 A: POME FRUITS Arthropod Management Tests, Vol. 22 15 Mean no. WALH/injured leaf Rate/acre (lbs Al) 17 May 20 May 29 May 3 Jun 15 Aug 1 reatment Endosulfan 50WP + 1361.0 g (1.5) Savey 50WP 85.0 g (0.09375) Endosulfan 50WP + 1361.0 g (1.5) Imidan 70WP 1361.0 g (2.1) Imidan 70WP 1021.0 g (1.575) Confirm 70WP 201.0 g (0.31) 0.005a 0.00a 0.00a 0.02a 0.24ab Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 142.0 ml (0.075) - Spinosad NAF-295 2SC + 142.0 ml (0.075) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 946.0 ml (0.25%) — Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 213.0 ml (0.1124) — Agri-Mek0.15EC + 296.0 ml (0.0117) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 3785.0 ml (1.0%) Confirm 70WP 142.6 g (0.22) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 0.140ab 0.03a 0.02a 0.03a 0.17a Confirm 70WP + 201.0 g (0.31) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) Provado 1.6F 118.0 ml (0.05) Confirm 70WP + 142.6 g (0.22) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 0.335bc 0.03a 0.01a 0.00a 0.11a RH-2485 80WP + 85.0 g (0.15) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) — Dipel 2X 454.0 g — Penncap-M 2F + 946.0 ml (0.5) Lannate 90SP 170.0 g (0.3375) - Agri-Mek0.15EC 296.0 ml (0.0117) Penncap-M 2FM 1420.0 ml (0.75) Penncap-M 2FM + 946.0 ml (0.5) Lannate 90SP 227.0 g (0.45) 0.640c 0.15b 0.10a 0.24a 0.26ab Untreated check 0.22b 0.68b 0.54b 0.36b Means in a column followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (Fisher's Protected LSD, P < 0.05). Mean no. STLM/5 min Rate/acre (lbs Al) 6 Jun 24 Jul 12 Sep I reatment 1361.0 g (1.5) 1. Endosulfan 50WP + 85.0 g (0.09375) Savey 50WP 1361.0 g (1.5) Endosulfan 50WP + 1361.0 g (2.1) Imidan 70WP 1021.0g (1.575) Imidan 70 WP Confirm 70WP 201.0 g (0.31) 9.0bcd 75.3de 1.3a 142.0 ml (0.075) 6.0abc 2. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 18.0b 142.0 ml (0.075) 1. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC + SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 946.0 ml (0.25%) 2.8a 1.9a 213.0 ml (0.1124) 1. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 3.0ab 17.3b 296.0 ml (0.0117) 5. Agri-Mek0.15EC + 3785.0 ml (1.0%) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 142.6 g (0.22) Confirm 70WP + 473.0 ml (0.125%) Latron B-1956 3.3abc 50.5cd 0.3a 201.0 g (0.31) 6. Confirm 70WP + 473.0 ml (0.125%) LatronB-195 6 •l.Odef 97.5ef 118.0 ml (0.05) 1. Provado 1.6F 142.6 g (0.22) Confirm 70WP + 473.0 ml (0.125%) LatronB-1956 0.5a 10.9c-f 83.5de 85.0 g (0.15) 1. RH-248 5 80WP + 473.0 ml (0.125%) Latron B-1956 6.0abc 39.5c 454.0 g 9. Dipel 2X 18.8f 121.5efg 946.0 ml (0.5) 10. Penncap-M 2F + 170.0 g (0.3375) Lannate 90SP 16.6def 156.5fg 296.0 ml (0.0117) 1 I. Agri-Mek0.15EC 1420.0 ml (0.75) Penncap-M 2FM 946.0 ml (0.5) Penncap-M 2FM + 227.0 g (0.45) Lannate 90SP 0.0a 6.8cde 99.0e 1.'. Untreated check 4.8b 19.3ef 174.8g Means in a column followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (Fisher's Protected LSD, P <0.05). Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article-abstract/22/1/13/4639720 by DeepDyve user on 21 July 2020 16 Arthropod Management Tests, Vol. 22 A: POME FRUITS Mean no. mites/leaf Accumulated ERM AF no. mite days Rate/acre Treatment 2 Jul 11 Jul 25 Jul 1 Aug 8 Aug 15 Aug (lbs Al) 15 Aug 2 Jul-1 5 Aug 1361.0 g (1.5) l.Endosulfan50W P + Savey 50WP 85.0 g (0.09375) Endosulfan 50WP + 1361.0 g (1.5) Imidan 70WP 1361.0 g (2.1) Imidan 70WP 1021.0 g (1.575) Confirm 70WP 201.0 g (0.31) 0.0a 0.3a 0.9a 3.la b 7.1b 23.9c 167c 0.3a l.Obc 6.3c 16.8cd 2. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 142.0 ml (0.075) 29.2bc 457d — — — 3. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC + 142.0 ml (0.075) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 946.0 ml (0.25%) 1.2bc 4.7bc 17.9bcd 31.7cd 469d — — — 4. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 213.0 ml (0.1124) 0.5ab 2.2b 12.2bcd 31.7cd 376d — — — 5. Agri-Mek0.15EC + 296.0 ml (0.0117) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 3785.0 ml (1.0%) Confirm 70WP + 142.6 g (0.22) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 0.0a 0.1a 0.2a 0.7a 1.5a 2.2a 25a 1.1a 6. Confirm 70WP + 201.0 g (0.31) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 0.7ab 3.1b 9.9bc 42.4cde 439d — — — 7. Provado 1.6F 118.0 ml (0.05) Confirm 70WP + 142.6 g (0.22) + LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 1.3bc 3.1b 14.5cd 56.7de 590de — — — 8. RH-2485 80WP + 85.0 g (0.15) + LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 0.8b 2.8b 11.6bcd 42.8cde 457d — — — 9. Dipel 2X 454.0 g l.lb c 3.0b 7.8b 25.3abc 47.3c 82.5d 916ef 0.6a 10. Penncap M 2F + 946.0 ml (0.5) + Lannate 90SP 170.0 g (0.3375) 1.2bc 3.6bc 21.2d 67.0e 73.7c 129.1d 1705g 0.6a 11. Agri-Mek0.15EC 296.0 ml (0.0117) Penncap-M 2FM 1420.0 ml (0.75) Penncap-M 2FM + 946.0 ml (0.5) + Lannate 90SP 227.0 g (0.45) 0.1a 0.1a 0.5a 0.6a 2.9a 7.4b 56b 0.6a 12. Untreated check 1.9c 3.6bc 18.2cd 31.3cde 57.5c 107.6d 1329fg 0.1a Means in a column followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (Fisher's Protected LSD, P £ 0.05). Mean no. S. punctum/3 min Rate/acre Ad Lar Ad Lar Ad Lar Ad Lar Ad Lar Treatment (lbs Al) 11 Jul 11 Jul 25 Jul 25 Jul 1 Aug 1 Aug 8 Aug 8 Aug 15 Aug 15 Aug 1. Endosulfan 50WP + 1361.0 g (1.5) Savey 50WP 85.0g (0.09375) Endosulfan 50WP + 1361.0 g (1.5) Imidan 70WP 1361.0 g (2.1) Imidan 70WP 1021.0 g (1.575) Confirm 70WP 201.0 g (0.31) 0.0c 0.0a O.Of 0.0a 0.3d O.Od 3.Ode 0.0c 4.0c 1.0b 2. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 142.0 ml (0.075) 1.0a 0.8a 6.3bcd 2.5a 5.5ab 16.3a 11.5abc 26.8ab — — 3. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC + 142.0 ml (0.075) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 946.0 ml (0.25%) 0.5ab 0.3a 7.8b 2.8a 3.5abc 21.5a ll.Oabc 47.5a — — 4. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 213.0 ml (0.1124) 0.0c 0.0a 2.8def 2.8a 1.8cd 5.0bcd 10.5abc 34.5ab — — 5. Agri-Mek0.15EC + 296.0 ml (0.0117) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 3785.0 ml (1.0%) Confirm 70WP + 142.6 g (0.22) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 0.3bc 0.3a O.Odef 0.0a O.Od O.Obcd 0.3e 0.0c O.Od 0.0c 6. Confirm 70WP + 201.0 g (0.31) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 0.0c 0.0a 6.5bc 0.5a 3.5bcd 11.5bc 8.3bc 32.8ab — — 7. Provado 1.6F 118.0 ml (0.05) Confirm 70WP + 142.6 g (0.22) Latron B-1956 473.0 ml (0.125%) 0.0c 0.5a 12.3a 1.5a 6.0a 1 l.Obc 14.5ab 48.0a — — 8. RH-2485 80WP + 85.0 g (0.15) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 0.0c 0.0a 5.3cde 1.3a 2.5cd 13.3bcd 13.5ab 32.8a — — 0.0c 0.3a 3.8cde 0.3a 3.8cd 4.8bcd 6.5ab 24.3b 13.5bc 31.5a 9. Dipel 2X 454.0 g 10. Penncap M 2F + 946.0 ml (0.5) Lannate 90SP 170.0 g (0.3375) 0.0c 0.0a 9.0a 2.3a 5.8a 27.3a 16.8a 34.3a 42.5a 48.0a Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article-abstract/22/1/13/4639720 by DeepDyve user on 21 July 2020 A: POME FRUITS Arthropod Management Tests, Vol. 22 17 11. Agri-Mek0.15EC 296.0 ml (0.0117) Penncap-M 2FM 1420.0 ml (0.75) Penncap-M 2FM + 946.0 ml (0.5) Lannate 90SP 227.0 g (0.45) 0.0c 0.0a O.Oef 0.0a O.Od O.Ocd 0.3e 0.0c 0.5d 0.0c 12. Untreated check 0.3bc 0.3a 7.8a 1.0a 2.8cd 19.0b 14.3ab 38.0ab 38.3ab 45.5a Means in a column followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (Fisher's Protected LSD, P s, 0.05). Ad = adults; Lar = larvae Mean no. shelters/5 min Rate/acre Total w/TABM Empty Total w/TABM w/RBL w/OBL Empty Treatment (lbs Al) 10 Jul 10 Jul 10 Jul 30 Jul 30 Jul 30 Jul 30 Jul 30 Jul 1. Endosulfan 50WP + 1361.0 g (1.5) Savey 50WP 85.0 g (0.09375) Endosulfan 50WP + 1361.0 g (1.5) Imidan 70WP 1361.0 g (2.1) Imidan 70WP 1021.0 g (1.575) Confirm 70WP 201.0 g (0.31) 0.3a 0.3a 0.0a 3.8bcd 2.9bcd 0.0a 0.0a 0.9abc 2. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 0.8a 5.4def 0.0a 142.0 ml (0.075) 1.5a-d 0.8a- d 8.3de 0.0a 2.5cde 3. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC + 142.0 ml (0.075) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 946.0 ml (0.25%) 0.5ab 0.3a 0.3ab 8.4e 5.4efg 0.0a 0.0a 2.9de 4. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 213.0 ml (0.1124) 0.5ab 0.0a 0.5abc 3.8cd 2.9cde 0.0a 0.0a 0.9ab 5. Agri-Mek0.15EC + 296.0 ml (0.0117) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 3785.0 ml (1.0%) Confirm 70WP + 142.6 g (0.22) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 1.8bcd 0.3a 1.5d 2.1abc l.Oabc 0.1a 0.0a l.Oabc 6. Confirm 70WP + 201.0 g (0.31) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 0.8abc 0.3a 0.5abc 3.1bc 1.6abc 0.0a 0.0a 1.6bcd 7. Provado 1.6F 118.0 ml (0.05) Confirm 70WP + 142.6 g (0.22) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 0.3a 0.3a 0.0a 1.4ab 0.9ab 0.0a 0.0a 0.5a 8. RH-2485 80WP + 85g(0.15 ) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 0.8a-d 0.0a 0.8a-d 0.6a 0.6a 0.0a 0.0a 0.0a 9. Dipel 2X 454.0 g 0.8a- d 0.3a 0.5abc ll.le f 9.4ghi 0.0a 0.0a 1.8bcd 10. Penncap M 2F + 946.0 ml (0.5) Lannate 90SP 170.0 g (0.3375) 0.3a 0.3a 0.0a 11.6ef 8.0fgh 0.0a 0.0a 3.4ef 11. Agri-Mek0.15EC 296.0 ml (0.0117) Penncap-M 2FM 1420.0 ml (0.75) Penncap-M 2FM + 946.0 ml (0.5) Lannate 90SP 227.0 g (0.45) 3.3d 2.3a l.Obcd 19.9fg 14.3hi 0.0a 0.0a 5.6f 12. Untreated check 2.5cd 1.0a 1.5cd 21.5g 16.5i 0.0a 0.1a 4.6f Means in a column followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (Fisher's Protected LSD, P < 0.05). Mean no. injuries/100 apples CM/OFM TAB M Total no. RBLR/ Rate/acre % Treatment (lbs Al) apples Stings OBLR Brood Clean Entries Brood Total 1. Endosulfan 50WP + 1361.0 g (1.5) Savey 50WP 85.0 g (0.09375) Endosulfan 50WP + 1361.0 g (1.5) Imidan 70WP 1361.0 g (2.1) Imidan 70WP 1021.0 g (1.575) Confirm 70WP 201.0 g (0.31) 3365 0.00a 0.23abc 0.17ab 2.33b 1.82abc 4.14bc 95.48bc 2. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 142.0 ml (0.075) 2999 0.14a 0.29abc 0.37bc 3.14b 3.39cd 6.53cd 92.93cd 3. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC + 142.0 ml (0.075) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 946.0 ml (0.25%) 3208 0.14a 0.35bc 0.5 lb c 2.36b 3.26cd 5.62bcd 93.50cd 4. Spinosad NAF-295 2SC 213.0 ml (0.1124) 3476 0.03a 0.12abc 0.55c 2.16ab 2.47bc 4.63bcd 94.74bcd 5. Agri-Mek0.15EC + 296.0 ml (0.0117) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 3785.0 ml (1.0%) Confirm 70WP + 142.6 g (0.22) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 3217 0.20a 0.41abc 0.33bc 1.70ab 3.24abc 95.94abc 1.5<*ab 6. Confirm 70WP + 201.0 g (0.31) LatronB-1956 473.0 ml (0.125%) 3420 0.09a 0.15ab 0.03a 1.72ab 1.37ab 3.08ab 96.73ab 7. Provado 1.6F 118.0 ml (0.05) Confirm 70WP + 142.6 g (0.22) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 3254 0.12a 0.30abc 0.18ab 1.91ab 1.49ab 3.40abc 96.03abc Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/amt/article-abstract/22/1/13/4639720 by DeepDyve user on 21 July 2020 18 Arthropod Management Tests, Vol. 22 A: POME FRUITS 8. RH-2485 80WP + 85.0 g (0.15) LatronB-195 6 473.0 ml (0.125%) 3233 0.00a 0.09ab 0.06a 0.79a 0.93a 1.72a 98.14a 9. Dipel 2X 454.0 g 3461 0.24a 0.52cd 0.46bc 2.98b 2.38bc 5.36bcd 93.54bcd 10. Penncap M 2 F + 946.0 ml (0.5) + Lannate 90SP 170.0 g (0.3375) 3114 0.00a 0.06a 0.45bc 2.88b 5.19d 8.07de 91.65de 11. Agri-Mek0.15EC 296.0 ml (0.0117) Penncap-M 2FM 1420.0 ml (0.75) Penncap-M 2FM + 946.0 ml (0.5) + Lannate 90SP 227.0 g (0.45) 3314 0.14a 0.12abc 1.34d 6.15c 4.51d 10.66e 88.14e 12. Untreated check 3494 0.21a 1.15d 2.46e 10.34d 16.38e 26.7 If 70.79f Means in a column followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (Fisher's Protected LSD, P <0.05). APPLE: Malus domestica Borkhauser 'Delicious' Larry A. Hull (11A) European red mite (ERM); Panonychus ulmi (Koch) Penn State Univ. Fruit Res. & Ext. Center Mite predator (AF); Amblyseius fallacis (Garman) Biglerville, PA 17307-0309 Mite predator (ZM); Zetzellia mali (Ewing) (717)677-611 6 Spotted tentiform leafminer (STLM); Phyllonorycter blancardella (Fabr.) Twospotted spider mite (TSSM); Tetranychus urticae Koch White apple leafhopper (WALH); Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee APPLE, EARLY SEASON MITE AND INSECT CONTROL, 1996: Various acaricide and insecticide treatments were applied to single-tree plots in a randomized block design consisting of 4 replicates of spur-type 'Delicious' trees. The trees were planted at a spacing of 20 x 30 ft and were 12 years old. All treatments were applied with a Myers Mity Mist sprayer calibrated to deliver 100 gpa driven at 2 mph. All plots received a regular mainte­ nance schedule of fungicides (Nova 40WP, Penncozeb 80WP, Topsin 85DF and Ziram 76WP) and nutrients (CaCl). Post-bloom insecticides (Imidan 70WP) were applied as needed at 1- to 2-week intervals beginning at petal fall in early May. The effect of the sprays on WALH was evaluated by count­ ing the number of nymphs/25 injured leaves/tree. Effects of the treatments on ERM, TSSM, A F and ZM was evaluated by counting the mites at approxi­ mately weekly intervals during the season on samples of 25 leaves/tree, 100 leaves/treatment. STLM were evaluated by a 5-min count of tissue-feeding mines around the periphery of the trees at the end of each generation but before peak emergence of the next generation adults. Only mines on spur leaves were counted on 7 Jun, while only mines in shoot leaves were counted on 17 Jul and 12 Sep. Pest pressure was moderate. Both treatments containing Provado and the Agri-Mek plus SunSpray Ultra Find Oil treatment provided excellent initial knockdown of WALH 5 DAT. Although there was a large amount of variability in STLM populations between treatments, the Agri-Mek treatment gave the best control of both 2nd and 3rd broods of STLM with a single application at 10 days after petal fall. Agri-Mek plus oil also provided the longest residual control of ERM. ERM populations started to increase at approximately the same time in July on the 2 prebloom treatments, Apollo and Savey. The Agri-Mek treatment al­ lowed the fewest number of mite days to accumulate. Rate/100 gals Application (lbs AI) dates 15 May 22 May 28 May 16 Aug Treatment 118.0 ml (0.125) 22 Apr 1. Apollo SC Provado 1.6F 118.0 ml (0.05) 23 May 1.4a 1.7ab 0.1a 0.1a 2. Savey 50WP 85.0 g (0.09375) 25 Apr Provado 1.6F 118.0 ml (0.05) 23 Apr 1.6a 2.7c 0.2a 0.7a 3. Agri-Mek 0.15EC + 295.0 ml (0.0117) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 3785.0 ml (1.0%) 23 May 1.5a 1.4a 0.2a 0.3b 4. Untreated check 1.2a 2.7bc 1.9b 0.4b Means in a column followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (Fisher's Protected LSD, P £ 0.05). Mean no. mites/leaf ER M Rate/100 gals Treatment (lbs AI) 15 May 22 May 3 Jun 17 Jun 28 Jun 5 Jul 11 Jul 1. Apollo SC 118.0 ml (0.125) Provado 1.6F 118.0 ml (0.05) 0.08a 0.00a 0.20a 1.35bc 0.10a 1.95bc 1.30b 2. Savey 50WP 85.0 g (0.09375) Provado 1.6F 118.0 ml (0.05) 0.08a 0.15a 0.00a 0.20ab 0.85ab 0.95ab 0.95ab 3. Agri-Mek 0.15EC + 295.0 ml (0.0117) SunSpray Ultra Fine Oil 3785.0 ml (1.0%) 0.42a 0.15a 0.15a 0.00a 0.10a 0.15a 0.05a 4. Untreated check 0.42a 0.10a 0.75a 1.25c 2.15b 3.15c 1.85b Means in a column followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (Fisher's Protected LSD, P s 0.05).

Journal

Arthropod Management TestsOxford University Press

Published: Jan 1, 1997

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