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A review on the consumption of vended fruits: microbial assessment, risk, and its control

A review on the consumption of vended fruits: microbial assessment, risk, and its control Fruits are very beneficial to health and their consumption has been recommended in daily diets. However, when fresh fruits are harvested and processed into sliced ready-to-eat or vended forms for sale, hygienic procedures are neglected. Thus, they are easily infested by pathogens. In addition, uneducated vendors who sell these fruits often display or hawk them on the streets in contaminated containers, utensils, or dirty environments. This poses a great threat to the health of consumers. In the light of this realization, some microbial assessments have been carried out to ascertain the safety of these vended fruits, thus making it a necessity to exploit the outcomes of some of these microbial assessments on vended fruits in order to sensitize the consumers on the effect of their consumption and mitigate risk by improving their quality. This will assist to lower certain health concerns, an outbreak of diseases, and death. Key words: vended fruits; microbial assessment; risk; control and consumption. soil, dust, and handling. Consequentially, they harbour a lot of Introduction microorganisms including pathogens (Ogofure et  al., 2017). Also, Fruits have been greatly recommended in foods due to their health- harvested fruits are commonly sold as cut or sliced fruits to entice promoting attributes. They are very essential in dietary guidance the consumers. These types of fruit are referred to as vended fruits since they contain high levels of minerals particularly electrolytes, or ready-to-eat fruits, some of which include watermelons, pineap- vitamins such as vitamin C, and phytochemicals which act as anti- ples, cucumbers, mangoes, oranges, pawpaws, etc. They are usually oxidants and fibres (Slavin and Lloyd, 2012). Therefore, the con- displayed at strategic places or carried around by hawkers to be sold sumption of fresh fruits or their juices is crucial to healthy living to buyers for immediate consumption without necessarily rinsing or (Bhat et  al., 2011). In addition, it is expected that a rich balanced washing them because they have already been prepared and pack- diet should consist of fruits due to their numerous functions. Some aged in small polythene bags as illustrated in Figure  1 (Kalia and of which include the ability to develop a blood lipid profile, de- Gupta, 2006). toxify the human body, and prevent vitamin deficiencies (Minich The consumption of these vended ready-to-eat fruits has become and Bland, 2007; Slavin and Lloyd, 2012). Also, the consumption of a global trend. This is due to their accessibility, convenience, and sufficient amounts of fruits lowers blood cholesterol levels, controls relatively cheaper prices than the whole fruits (Nwachukwu et  al., blood pressure, reduces the risk of some heart diseases, and prevents 2008). Thus, they have gradually become staples due to the recent some kinds of cancer (Hung et al., 2004). When fruits are harvested modernization, industrialization, economic downturn, materialism, or during post-harvest processing, they come in contact with water, and unavailability of ample time to prepare a proper meal in some © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Zhejiang University Press. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by- nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/fqs/article/4/2/77/5823020 by DeepDyve user on 27 August 2020 78 OO. Igiehon et al., 2020, Vol. 4, No. 2 microbial assessment of vended ready-to-eat fruits to consumer health, some experiments have been carried out to ascertain the safety in consumption of these vended fruits. In Table 1, a summary of the microbial assessment on vended fruits is highlighted. For ex- ample, Orji et al. (2016) evaluated the microbial contamination of ready-to-eat vended fruits in the Abakpa main market, Abakaliki, the southeastern part of Nigeria. The assessment was carried out using standard microbiological methods. A total of 17 vended fruit samples that consisted of tiger nuts, sliced pineapple, carrot, water- melon, and cucumber were collected from fruit vendors. They were screened for the total bacterial and fungal counts. The analysis indi- cated that total aerobic plate count ranged from 3.5 × 10 to 1.03 × 10 CFU/ml with tiger nuts having the highest count and cucumber having the lowest count. The total fungal count ranged from 1.1 × Figure 1. Processing of fresh fruits to vended fruits for consumption and 5 6 10 to 1.42 × 10 CFU/ml with carrot having the highest count and infestation by pathogens. sliced pineapple having the lowest count while tiger nuts had no homes (Nielsen, 2006). The increase in consumption of vended fruits significant growth. The isolated organisms in all studies as well as has been reported to signal a great risk to consumer health because their infections are illustrated in Table 2. The isolated organisms in it is difficult to ascertain the hygienic processes the fruits are sub- this study were E.  coli, Shigella sp., Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas jected to after harvesting, during processing, and before packaging sp., Staphylococcus aureus, and one fungal isolate, Mucor sp. from (Nielsen, 2006). In addition, pathogens could invade the fruits the tested vended fruits. The contamination could have occurred as during washing, peeling, dicing, trimming, packaging, handling, a result of poor hygiene, faecal contamination, and environmental and marketing (Barro et  al., 2006). This is aggravated by the fact factors such as contaminated air (Orji et  al., 2016). Thus, it was that the preparation of vended fruits is done without proper storage recommended that adequate awareness on sanitary practices by indi- conditions, thereby exposing them to heat, flies, cockroaches, ro- viduals to the environment should be encouraged by health officials dents, dust, pathogens, dirt, and other environmental contaminants to reduce the level of contamination in vended fruits. Another ex- (Barro et  al., 2006). Furthermore, these fruits are sold by unedu- periment on the bacteriological assessment of ready-to-eat pawpaw cated vendors or local hawkers who have little or no knowledge (Carica papaya) sold in the selected locations in Benin City, Nigeria about food hygiene, nutrition, and pathogens (Muinde and Kuria, was carried out by Ogofure et  al. (2017). In the study, 31 vended 2005). Generally, fruits are known to carry a natural non-pathogenic pawpaw samples were purchased and analysed. Standard bacterio- microflora, and they possess an epidermal layer of cells that resist logical techniques using selective media were employed for the iso- the penetration of microorganisms (Ogofure et  al., 2017). Cutting lation, purification, and putative identification of selected bacterial and slicing can eliminate the protection and microbes could invade isolates present in the vended pawpaw fruits. The susceptibility and the internal tissues (Barro et  al., 2006). This allows bacteria such resistance of these bacterial isolates to common antibiotics were also as Campylobacter sp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., and Shigella assessed. It was observed that total staphylococcal counts were be- 2 4 sp. to easily contaminate vended fruits through contact with sewage tween 8.2 × 10 and 8.21 × 10 CFU/g while coliform counts ranged 3 4 and contaminated utensils and water. Thus, increasing the risk of from 0.8  × 10 to 1.68  × 10 CFU/g. Salmonella counts obtained food poisoning caused by pathogens such as fungi, parasites, viruses, from the pawpaw samples were in the range of 2.03 × 10 –1.86  × and bacteria in consumers (Mensah et al., 2002). To eliminate this 10 CFU/g while Pseudomonas counts were within the range of 4.2 × 3 3 problem, several assessments have been carried out to study the mi- 10 –6.7  × 10 CFU/g. The observed bacterial isolates from vended crobial contaminants of some of these vended fruits. Nevertheless, it pawpaw fruit were E. coli, Salmonella enterica, Klebsiella oxytoca, is necessary to further evaluate and explore the microbial qualities of Enterococcus faecalis, S.  aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In some of these vended fruits in order to create awareness of the risk fact, the isolates were found to be resistant to some antibiotics such associated with their consumption. To a great extent, this will assist as Erythromycin, Cefixime, Ampicillin, and Amoxicillin with a mul- to lower the outbreak of diseases, severe health crises, and death. tiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index greater than 0.2. MAR index To this end, this review seeks to explore some of the microbial as- is a tool used for health risk assessment to identify if the isolates sessments of some vended fruits sold in Nigeria and some developing are from a region of high or low antibiotic usage. A MAR index of countries so as to create awareness of its effect on public health, 0.2 and above is indicative of ‘high-risk’ source of contamination sensitize the concerned government health stakeholders and officers, (Davis and Brown, 2016). In the study, the MAR index of isolated medical practitioners, and consumers to promulgate and enforce bacterial pathogens ranged between 0.25 and 0.60 which indicated laws that will stimulate the control of microbial contamination in that the vended pawpaw posed a serious threat to public health. these vended fruits. Another investigation on the microbial quality of ready-to-eat fruits sold in different markets of the Enugu metropolis, the southeastern part of Nigeria, was carried out by Ugwu and Edeh (2019). A total Microbial Assessment of Some Vended Fruits of 40 ready-to-eat fruit samples that consisted of pineapple, water- Microbial risk assessment is a systematic approach to aid the melon, pawpaw, and cucumber were collected from a fruit vendor understanding of complex food systems and to convert the poten- and screened to ascertain the microbial counts. The results indicated tial presence of pathogens in the preparation environments, food that mean bacterial load of the samples ranged from 6.0  × 10 to processing, and production into reports of the likelihood and de- 8.2 × 10 CFU/g with pineapple and watermelon showing the highest gree of a food safety risk defined in terms of adverse public health counts while the mean fungal load ranged from 1.3 × 10 to 1.7 × outcomes (Havelaar et  al., 2010). Considering the importance of 10 CFU/g with pawpaw showing the highest count. Five bacterial Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/fqs/article/4/2/77/5823020 by DeepDyve user on 27 August 2020 A review on the consumption of vended fruits, 2020, Vol. 4, No. 2 79 Table 1. A summary of the microbial assessment and identified organisms of some vended fruits. Vended fruits tested Microbial assessment Identified organisms References Tiger nuts, sliced pineapple, Total bacterial and fungal Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Sal- Orji et al. (2016) carrot, watermelon, and counts monella sp., Shigella sp., Pseudomonas sp., and cucumber Mucor sp. Pawpaw (Carica papaya) Total staphylococcal counts, E. coli, Salmonella enterica, Klebsiella oxytoca, Ogofure et al. coliform counts, Salmonella Enterococcus faecalis, S. aureus, and Pseudo- (2017) counts, and Pseudomonas monas aeruginosa counts Pineapple, watermelon, Bacterial load and fungal load Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp., E. coli, Ugwu and Edeh pawpaw, and cucumber Shigella sp., Salmonella sp., Candida sp., and (2019) Aspergillus sp. Sliced watermelon, sliced Total aerobic plate E. coli, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Oranusi and pineapple, apple, sliced Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Penicillium Olorunfemi pawpaw, and packaged fruit sp., Mucor sp., Aspergillus niger, P. aeruginosa, (2011) salad Proteus, Micrococcus, and Lactobacillus sp. Fresh-squeezed juices of Total viable counts Faecal coliforms, Vibrio, and Staphylococcal Mahale et al. lime, carrot, and sugarcane counts (2008) Green mangoes, carrot, and Bacterial load Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Salmonella paratyphi Ali et al. (2011) cucumber A, Hafnia, E. coli, Alcaligenes, and Proteus Hog plum, guava, plum, Total bacterial count, total E. coli, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Mahfuza et al. and pineapple coliform count, and total and Proteus (2016) Salmonella–Shigella counts Table 2. Identified microorganisms in vended fruits, infections, and diseases. Identified organisms in vended fruit Infections and diseases References Escherichia coli Diarrheoa, pneumonia, and intestinal lining damage Wendorf et al. (2015) Staphylococcus aureus Skin and respiratory infections, food poisoning Halablab et al. (2010) Salmonella sp. Paratyphoid fever Vieira-Pinto et al. (2011) Shigella sp. Indigestion and dysentery Rooney et al. (2004) Pseudomonas sp. Necrotizing inflammation Ouzari et al. (2008) Mucor sp. Nasal or sinus congestion Thiyam and Sharma (2013) Klebsiella sp. Pneumonia, urinary tract infection, sepsis, and meningitis Turton et al. (2008) Candida sp. Damage of the immune system Hirota et al. (2017) Aspergillus sp. Pulmonary infection, asthma, cystic fibrosis Panackal et al. (2003) Penicillium sp. Allergic pulmonary disease Barcus et al. (2005) Proteus Wound infections, urinary and septic infection Cao et al. (2014) Micrococcus Skin contaminant Jayaprakash et al. (2005) Lactobacillus Urinary tract infection Matsumoto et al. (2005) Vibro sp. Foodborne infection such as cholera Sweet et al. (2013) Hafnia Intestinal infection Abbott et al. (2011) Alcaligenes sp. Immune infection Tan et al. (2002) and two fungal species were isolated: S.  aureus, Klebsiella sp., 2.7 × 10 CFU/g on apple and fruit salads from the cafeteria of the E. coli, Shigella sp., Salmonella sp., Candida sp., and Aspergillus sp. University. The samples were all contaminated with coliform and fungi 5 6 1 Staphylococcus aureus (70%) had the highest occurrence followed by with counts ranging from 2.2 × 10 to 4.2 × 10 CFU/g and 2.0 × 10 3 5 E. coli (62.5%), Salmonella sp. (50%), Klebsiella sp. (40%), Shigella to 1.0  × 10 CFU/g in the samples from the cafeteria and 2.0  × 10 6 2 3 sp. (37.5%), Candida sp. (37.5%), and Aspergillus sp. (17.5%) to 3.5 × 10 CFU/g and 2.0 × 10 to 1.1 × 10 CFU/g in the samples which had the lowest occurrence. Ugwu and Edeh (2019) claimed from the local market. Organisms identified were E. coli, Enterobacter, that the presence of these organisms in the screened fruits was an Salmonella, Klebsiella, Bacillus sp., S.  aureus, Penicillium sp., Mucor indication of poor sanitary practices during the processing of the sp., Aspergillus niger, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus, Micrococcus, vended fruits. In Ota, the southwestern part of Nigeria, a study was and Lactobacillus sp. The study concluded that the coliforms present carried out by Oranusi and Olorunfemi (2011) on microbiological with a count of at least 10 in most of the samples reflected the sani- safety evaluation of street sliced ready-to-eat fruits that were sold. tary quality of the processing of the produce. Thus, the consumption of Sixty samples of vended fruits such as sliced watermelon, sliced pine- ready-to-eat fruits was declared unsafe. apple, apple, sliced pawpaw, and packaged fruit salad were obtained Apart from case studies in Nigeria, various experiments on the from vendors in a university cafeteria and a local market. Thereafter, quality of vended fruits have been carried out in some other countries. they were subjected to microbial count. The mean total aerobic plate For instance, Mahale et al. (2008) reported the microbiological ana- 6 8 count ranges from 2.0 × 10 to 8.2 × 10 CFU/g on pineapple and lysis of street vended fruit juices from Mumbai city, India. Thirty sam- watermelon obtained from the local market and from 6.0 × 10 to ples of fresh-squeezed juices of lime, carrot, and sugarcane obtained Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/fqs/article/4/2/77/5823020 by DeepDyve user on 27 August 2020 80 OO. Igiehon et al., 2020, Vol. 4, No. 2 Conflict of interest statement. The authors declare that there are no con- from vendors in Mumbai city were subjected to microbial count. flicts of interest. The total viable counts of the samples were approximately log 6.5 CFU/100 ml with a major load of coliforms, faecal coliforms, Vibrio, and staphylococcal counts. Qualitative counts indicated the avail- Author’s Contributions ability of coagulase-positive S. aureus in five samples of sugarcane and OOI conceptualized the research idea and designed how the manuscript two samples of carrot juice. Almost 70% of the ice samples collected should be written. AEA provided details tailored to enhance the quality of from the vendors indicated high microbial load that ranged from log the manuscript. ATI wrote the manuscript and provided the overall guidance. 5 to 8.5 indicating the non-hygienic quality of the vended fruits. In another study, Ali et  al. (2011) examined the bacterial isolate from References vended fruits in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Vended fruits like green mangoes, carrot, and cucumber and washing water for the fruits were Abbott, S. L., Moler, S., Green, N., Tran, R. K., Wainwright, K., Janda, J. M. collected from vendors and analysed for microbial quality. Lactose (2011). Clinical and laboratory diagnostic characteristics and cytotoxigenic fermenter bacterial load of cucumber, carrot, mangoes, and washing potential of Hafnia alvei and Hafnia paralvei strains. Journal of Clinical 3 5 3 Microbiology, 49: 3122–3126. water were found to be 4.3 × 10 to 9.45 × 10 CFU/g, 9.3 × 10 to 6 2 7 Ali, M., Khan, M. Saha, M. L. (2011). Antibiotic resistant patterns of bacterial 7.2 × 10 CFU/g, 28–305 CFU/g, and 8.5 × 10 to 1.57 × 10 CFU/ml, isolates from ready-to-eat (RTE) street vended fresh vegetables and fruits respectively. Several enteric bacteria such as Klebsiella, Enterobacter, in Dhaka City. Bangladesh Journal of Science Resources, 24: 127–134. Salmonella paratyphi A, Hafnia, E. coli, Alcaligenes, and Proteus were Barcus, A. L., Burdette, S. D., Herchline, T. E. (2005). Intestinal invasion and observed. Thus, consumption of the vended fruits was reported to be disseminated disease associated with Penicillium chrysogenum. Annals of hazardous to health. Another study by Mahfuza et al. (2016) reported Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, 4: 21. the microbial status of vended fruits such as hog plum, guava, plum, Barro,  N., Bello,  A.  R., Savadogo,  A., Ouattara,  C.  A.  T., Iiboudo,  A. and pineapple. The fruits were obtained from vendors in Dhaka city in Traore, A. S. (2006). Hygienic status assessment of dish washing waters, Bangladesh. Total bacterial count (TBC), total coliform count (TCC), utensils, hands and pieces of money from street food processing sites in and total Salmonella–Shigella (TSS) count in fresh-cut hog plum Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). African Journal of Biotechnology, 5: 1107– 3 2 (Spondias mombin L.) were 3.5 × 10 CFU/g, 4.8 × 10 CFU/g, and Bhat, R., Ameran, S. B., Voon, H. C., Karim, A. A., Tze, L. M. (2011). Quality 3.6 × 10 CFU/g, respectively. In guava (Psidium guajava), TBC, TCC, 4 2 2 attributes of starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) juice treated with ultra- and TSS count were 1.5 × 10 CFU/g, 4.9 × 10 CFU/g, and 2.3 × 10 violet radiation. Food Chemistry, 127: 641–644. CFU/g, respectively. TBC and TCC were 4.6 × 10 CFU/g and 3.9 × Cao,  H., He,  S., Lu,  L., Yang,  X., Chen,  B. (2014). Identification of a Pro- 10 CFU/g, respectively, in plum (Ziziphus mauritiana L.). The results teus penneri isolate as the causal agent of red body disease of the cul- indicated that hog plum had the least while plum possessed the highest tured white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and its control with Bdellovibrio microbial load among all the fruit samples. Organisms identified from bacteriovorus. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 105: 423–430. the tested samples were E. coli (36%), Bacillus (25%), Staphylococcus Davis, R., Brown, P. D. (2016). Multiple antibiotic resistance index, fitness and (24%), Klebsiella (9%), and Proteus (6%). Hence, the vended fruits virulence potential in respiratory Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Jamaica. were declared risky consumption. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 65: 261–271. Halablab,  M.  A., Hijazi,  S.  M., Fawzi,  M.  A., Araj,  G.  F. (2010). Staphylo- coccus aureus nasal carriage rate and associated risk factors in individuals Improving the Quality of Vended Fruits in the community. Epidemiology and Infection, 138: 702–706. Havelaar,  A.  H., Brul,  S., de  Jong,  A., de  Jonge,  R., Zwietering,  M.  H., To tackle the menace of microbial contamination of vended fruits, en- Ter Kuile, B. H. (2010). Future challenges to microbial food safety. Inter- forcement of intense training on good manufacturing practices before, national Journal of Food Microbiology, 139(Suppl 1): S79–S94. during, and after processing of ready-to-eat fruits and foods for fruit Hirota,  K., Yumoto,  H., Sapaar,  B., Matsuo,  T., Ichikawa,  T., Miyake,  Y. and food vendors should be done to maintain a high standard of per- (2017). Pathogenic factors in Candida biofilm-related infectious diseases. sonal and environmental hygiene. Thorough washing of fruits with clean Journal of Applied Microbiology, 122: 321–330. water before consumption, routine washing of hands, and accurate ap- Hung, H. C. et al. (2004). Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of major chronic disease. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 96: 1577–1584. plication of hazard analysis critical control point should be implemented Jayaprakash,  N.  S., Pai,  S.  S., Anas,  A., Preetha,  R., Philip,  R., Singh,  I.  S. to control contamination of fresh fruit produce and its vended form. (2005). A marine bacterium, Micrococcus MCCB 104, antagonistic to Vibrios in prawn larval rearing systems. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 68: 39–45. Conclusions Kalia,  A., Gupta,  R.  P. (2006). Fruit microbiology. In: Hui, Y. H., Barta, J., The microbial assessment showed that vended ready-to-eat fruits pose Cano, M. P., Gusek, T., Sidhu, J. S., Sinha, N. K., eds. Handbook of Fruits great risks to consumer health. Thus, urgent steps including awareness and Fruit Processing. Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 3–28. are needed to enhance personal hygiene and environmental hygiene Mahale, D. P., Khade, R. G.and Vaidya, V. K. (2008). Microbiological analysis of the vendors and processing. 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A review on the consumption of vended fruits: microbial assessment, risk, and its control

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Abstract

Fruits are very beneficial to health and their consumption has been recommended in daily diets. However, when fresh fruits are harvested and processed into sliced ready-to-eat or vended forms for sale, hygienic procedures are neglected. Thus, they are easily infested by pathogens. In addition, uneducated vendors who sell these fruits often display or hawk them on the streets in contaminated containers, utensils, or dirty environments. This poses a great threat to the health of consumers. In the light of this realization, some microbial assessments have been carried out to ascertain the safety of these vended fruits, thus making it a necessity to exploit the outcomes of some of these microbial assessments on vended fruits in order to sensitize the consumers on the effect of their consumption and mitigate risk by improving their quality. This will assist to lower certain health concerns, an outbreak of diseases, and death. Key words: vended fruits; microbial assessment; risk; control and consumption. soil, dust, and handling. Consequentially, they harbour a lot of Introduction microorganisms including pathogens (Ogofure et  al., 2017). Also, Fruits have been greatly recommended in foods due to their health- harvested fruits are commonly sold as cut or sliced fruits to entice promoting attributes. They are very essential in dietary guidance the consumers. These types of fruit are referred to as vended fruits since they contain high levels of minerals particularly electrolytes, or ready-to-eat fruits, some of which include watermelons, pineap- vitamins such as vitamin C, and phytochemicals which act as anti- ples, cucumbers, mangoes, oranges, pawpaws, etc. They are usually oxidants and fibres (Slavin and Lloyd, 2012). Therefore, the con- displayed at strategic places or carried around by hawkers to be sold sumption of fresh fruits or their juices is crucial to healthy living to buyers for immediate consumption without necessarily rinsing or (Bhat et  al., 2011). In addition, it is expected that a rich balanced washing them because they have already been prepared and pack- diet should consist of fruits due to their numerous functions. Some aged in small polythene bags as illustrated in Figure  1 (Kalia and of which include the ability to develop a blood lipid profile, de- Gupta, 2006). toxify the human body, and prevent vitamin deficiencies (Minich The consumption of these vended ready-to-eat fruits has become and Bland, 2007; Slavin and Lloyd, 2012). Also, the consumption of a global trend. This is due to their accessibility, convenience, and sufficient amounts of fruits lowers blood cholesterol levels, controls relatively cheaper prices than the whole fruits (Nwachukwu et  al., blood pressure, reduces the risk of some heart diseases, and prevents 2008). Thus, they have gradually become staples due to the recent some kinds of cancer (Hung et al., 2004). When fruits are harvested modernization, industrialization, economic downturn, materialism, or during post-harvest processing, they come in contact with water, and unavailability of ample time to prepare a proper meal in some © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Zhejiang University Press. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by- nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/fqs/article/4/2/77/5823020 by DeepDyve user on 27 August 2020 78 OO. Igiehon et al., 2020, Vol. 4, No. 2 microbial assessment of vended ready-to-eat fruits to consumer health, some experiments have been carried out to ascertain the safety in consumption of these vended fruits. In Table 1, a summary of the microbial assessment on vended fruits is highlighted. For ex- ample, Orji et al. (2016) evaluated the microbial contamination of ready-to-eat vended fruits in the Abakpa main market, Abakaliki, the southeastern part of Nigeria. The assessment was carried out using standard microbiological methods. A total of 17 vended fruit samples that consisted of tiger nuts, sliced pineapple, carrot, water- melon, and cucumber were collected from fruit vendors. They were screened for the total bacterial and fungal counts. The analysis indi- cated that total aerobic plate count ranged from 3.5 × 10 to 1.03 × 10 CFU/ml with tiger nuts having the highest count and cucumber having the lowest count. The total fungal count ranged from 1.1 × Figure 1. Processing of fresh fruits to vended fruits for consumption and 5 6 10 to 1.42 × 10 CFU/ml with carrot having the highest count and infestation by pathogens. sliced pineapple having the lowest count while tiger nuts had no homes (Nielsen, 2006). The increase in consumption of vended fruits significant growth. The isolated organisms in all studies as well as has been reported to signal a great risk to consumer health because their infections are illustrated in Table 2. The isolated organisms in it is difficult to ascertain the hygienic processes the fruits are sub- this study were E.  coli, Shigella sp., Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas jected to after harvesting, during processing, and before packaging sp., Staphylococcus aureus, and one fungal isolate, Mucor sp. from (Nielsen, 2006). In addition, pathogens could invade the fruits the tested vended fruits. The contamination could have occurred as during washing, peeling, dicing, trimming, packaging, handling, a result of poor hygiene, faecal contamination, and environmental and marketing (Barro et  al., 2006). This is aggravated by the fact factors such as contaminated air (Orji et  al., 2016). Thus, it was that the preparation of vended fruits is done without proper storage recommended that adequate awareness on sanitary practices by indi- conditions, thereby exposing them to heat, flies, cockroaches, ro- viduals to the environment should be encouraged by health officials dents, dust, pathogens, dirt, and other environmental contaminants to reduce the level of contamination in vended fruits. Another ex- (Barro et  al., 2006). Furthermore, these fruits are sold by unedu- periment on the bacteriological assessment of ready-to-eat pawpaw cated vendors or local hawkers who have little or no knowledge (Carica papaya) sold in the selected locations in Benin City, Nigeria about food hygiene, nutrition, and pathogens (Muinde and Kuria, was carried out by Ogofure et  al. (2017). In the study, 31 vended 2005). Generally, fruits are known to carry a natural non-pathogenic pawpaw samples were purchased and analysed. Standard bacterio- microflora, and they possess an epidermal layer of cells that resist logical techniques using selective media were employed for the iso- the penetration of microorganisms (Ogofure et  al., 2017). Cutting lation, purification, and putative identification of selected bacterial and slicing can eliminate the protection and microbes could invade isolates present in the vended pawpaw fruits. The susceptibility and the internal tissues (Barro et  al., 2006). This allows bacteria such resistance of these bacterial isolates to common antibiotics were also as Campylobacter sp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., and Shigella assessed. It was observed that total staphylococcal counts were be- 2 4 sp. to easily contaminate vended fruits through contact with sewage tween 8.2 × 10 and 8.21 × 10 CFU/g while coliform counts ranged 3 4 and contaminated utensils and water. Thus, increasing the risk of from 0.8  × 10 to 1.68  × 10 CFU/g. Salmonella counts obtained food poisoning caused by pathogens such as fungi, parasites, viruses, from the pawpaw samples were in the range of 2.03 × 10 –1.86  × and bacteria in consumers (Mensah et al., 2002). To eliminate this 10 CFU/g while Pseudomonas counts were within the range of 4.2 × 3 3 problem, several assessments have been carried out to study the mi- 10 –6.7  × 10 CFU/g. The observed bacterial isolates from vended crobial contaminants of some of these vended fruits. Nevertheless, it pawpaw fruit were E. coli, Salmonella enterica, Klebsiella oxytoca, is necessary to further evaluate and explore the microbial qualities of Enterococcus faecalis, S.  aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In some of these vended fruits in order to create awareness of the risk fact, the isolates were found to be resistant to some antibiotics such associated with their consumption. To a great extent, this will assist as Erythromycin, Cefixime, Ampicillin, and Amoxicillin with a mul- to lower the outbreak of diseases, severe health crises, and death. tiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index greater than 0.2. MAR index To this end, this review seeks to explore some of the microbial as- is a tool used for health risk assessment to identify if the isolates sessments of some vended fruits sold in Nigeria and some developing are from a region of high or low antibiotic usage. A MAR index of countries so as to create awareness of its effect on public health, 0.2 and above is indicative of ‘high-risk’ source of contamination sensitize the concerned government health stakeholders and officers, (Davis and Brown, 2016). In the study, the MAR index of isolated medical practitioners, and consumers to promulgate and enforce bacterial pathogens ranged between 0.25 and 0.60 which indicated laws that will stimulate the control of microbial contamination in that the vended pawpaw posed a serious threat to public health. these vended fruits. Another investigation on the microbial quality of ready-to-eat fruits sold in different markets of the Enugu metropolis, the southeastern part of Nigeria, was carried out by Ugwu and Edeh (2019). A total Microbial Assessment of Some Vended Fruits of 40 ready-to-eat fruit samples that consisted of pineapple, water- Microbial risk assessment is a systematic approach to aid the melon, pawpaw, and cucumber were collected from a fruit vendor understanding of complex food systems and to convert the poten- and screened to ascertain the microbial counts. The results indicated tial presence of pathogens in the preparation environments, food that mean bacterial load of the samples ranged from 6.0  × 10 to processing, and production into reports of the likelihood and de- 8.2 × 10 CFU/g with pineapple and watermelon showing the highest gree of a food safety risk defined in terms of adverse public health counts while the mean fungal load ranged from 1.3 × 10 to 1.7 × outcomes (Havelaar et  al., 2010). Considering the importance of 10 CFU/g with pawpaw showing the highest count. Five bacterial Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/fqs/article/4/2/77/5823020 by DeepDyve user on 27 August 2020 A review on the consumption of vended fruits, 2020, Vol. 4, No. 2 79 Table 1. A summary of the microbial assessment and identified organisms of some vended fruits. Vended fruits tested Microbial assessment Identified organisms References Tiger nuts, sliced pineapple, Total bacterial and fungal Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Sal- Orji et al. (2016) carrot, watermelon, and counts monella sp., Shigella sp., Pseudomonas sp., and cucumber Mucor sp. Pawpaw (Carica papaya) Total staphylococcal counts, E. coli, Salmonella enterica, Klebsiella oxytoca, Ogofure et al. coliform counts, Salmonella Enterococcus faecalis, S. aureus, and Pseudo- (2017) counts, and Pseudomonas monas aeruginosa counts Pineapple, watermelon, Bacterial load and fungal load Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp., E. coli, Ugwu and Edeh pawpaw, and cucumber Shigella sp., Salmonella sp., Candida sp., and (2019) Aspergillus sp. Sliced watermelon, sliced Total aerobic plate E. coli, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Oranusi and pineapple, apple, sliced Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Penicillium Olorunfemi pawpaw, and packaged fruit sp., Mucor sp., Aspergillus niger, P. aeruginosa, (2011) salad Proteus, Micrococcus, and Lactobacillus sp. Fresh-squeezed juices of Total viable counts Faecal coliforms, Vibrio, and Staphylococcal Mahale et al. lime, carrot, and sugarcane counts (2008) Green mangoes, carrot, and Bacterial load Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Salmonella paratyphi Ali et al. (2011) cucumber A, Hafnia, E. coli, Alcaligenes, and Proteus Hog plum, guava, plum, Total bacterial count, total E. coli, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Mahfuza et al. and pineapple coliform count, and total and Proteus (2016) Salmonella–Shigella counts Table 2. Identified microorganisms in vended fruits, infections, and diseases. Identified organisms in vended fruit Infections and diseases References Escherichia coli Diarrheoa, pneumonia, and intestinal lining damage Wendorf et al. (2015) Staphylococcus aureus Skin and respiratory infections, food poisoning Halablab et al. (2010) Salmonella sp. Paratyphoid fever Vieira-Pinto et al. (2011) Shigella sp. Indigestion and dysentery Rooney et al. (2004) Pseudomonas sp. Necrotizing inflammation Ouzari et al. (2008) Mucor sp. Nasal or sinus congestion Thiyam and Sharma (2013) Klebsiella sp. Pneumonia, urinary tract infection, sepsis, and meningitis Turton et al. (2008) Candida sp. Damage of the immune system Hirota et al. (2017) Aspergillus sp. Pulmonary infection, asthma, cystic fibrosis Panackal et al. (2003) Penicillium sp. Allergic pulmonary disease Barcus et al. (2005) Proteus Wound infections, urinary and septic infection Cao et al. (2014) Micrococcus Skin contaminant Jayaprakash et al. (2005) Lactobacillus Urinary tract infection Matsumoto et al. (2005) Vibro sp. Foodborne infection such as cholera Sweet et al. (2013) Hafnia Intestinal infection Abbott et al. (2011) Alcaligenes sp. Immune infection Tan et al. (2002) and two fungal species were isolated: S.  aureus, Klebsiella sp., 2.7 × 10 CFU/g on apple and fruit salads from the cafeteria of the E. coli, Shigella sp., Salmonella sp., Candida sp., and Aspergillus sp. University. The samples were all contaminated with coliform and fungi 5 6 1 Staphylococcus aureus (70%) had the highest occurrence followed by with counts ranging from 2.2 × 10 to 4.2 × 10 CFU/g and 2.0 × 10 3 5 E. coli (62.5%), Salmonella sp. (50%), Klebsiella sp. (40%), Shigella to 1.0  × 10 CFU/g in the samples from the cafeteria and 2.0  × 10 6 2 3 sp. (37.5%), Candida sp. (37.5%), and Aspergillus sp. (17.5%) to 3.5 × 10 CFU/g and 2.0 × 10 to 1.1 × 10 CFU/g in the samples which had the lowest occurrence. Ugwu and Edeh (2019) claimed from the local market. Organisms identified were E. coli, Enterobacter, that the presence of these organisms in the screened fruits was an Salmonella, Klebsiella, Bacillus sp., S.  aureus, Penicillium sp., Mucor indication of poor sanitary practices during the processing of the sp., Aspergillus niger, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus, Micrococcus, vended fruits. In Ota, the southwestern part of Nigeria, a study was and Lactobacillus sp. The study concluded that the coliforms present carried out by Oranusi and Olorunfemi (2011) on microbiological with a count of at least 10 in most of the samples reflected the sani- safety evaluation of street sliced ready-to-eat fruits that were sold. tary quality of the processing of the produce. Thus, the consumption of Sixty samples of vended fruits such as sliced watermelon, sliced pine- ready-to-eat fruits was declared unsafe. apple, apple, sliced pawpaw, and packaged fruit salad were obtained Apart from case studies in Nigeria, various experiments on the from vendors in a university cafeteria and a local market. Thereafter, quality of vended fruits have been carried out in some other countries. they were subjected to microbial count. The mean total aerobic plate For instance, Mahale et al. (2008) reported the microbiological ana- 6 8 count ranges from 2.0 × 10 to 8.2 × 10 CFU/g on pineapple and lysis of street vended fruit juices from Mumbai city, India. Thirty sam- watermelon obtained from the local market and from 6.0 × 10 to ples of fresh-squeezed juices of lime, carrot, and sugarcane obtained Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/fqs/article/4/2/77/5823020 by DeepDyve user on 27 August 2020 80 OO. Igiehon et al., 2020, Vol. 4, No. 2 Conflict of interest statement. The authors declare that there are no con- from vendors in Mumbai city were subjected to microbial count. flicts of interest. The total viable counts of the samples were approximately log 6.5 CFU/100 ml with a major load of coliforms, faecal coliforms, Vibrio, and staphylococcal counts. Qualitative counts indicated the avail- Author’s Contributions ability of coagulase-positive S. aureus in five samples of sugarcane and OOI conceptualized the research idea and designed how the manuscript two samples of carrot juice. Almost 70% of the ice samples collected should be written. AEA provided details tailored to enhance the quality of from the vendors indicated high microbial load that ranged from log the manuscript. ATI wrote the manuscript and provided the overall guidance. 5 to 8.5 indicating the non-hygienic quality of the vended fruits. In another study, Ali et  al. (2011) examined the bacterial isolate from References vended fruits in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Vended fruits like green mangoes, carrot, and cucumber and washing water for the fruits were Abbott, S. L., Moler, S., Green, N., Tran, R. K., Wainwright, K., Janda, J. M. collected from vendors and analysed for microbial quality. Lactose (2011). Clinical and laboratory diagnostic characteristics and cytotoxigenic fermenter bacterial load of cucumber, carrot, mangoes, and washing potential of Hafnia alvei and Hafnia paralvei strains. Journal of Clinical 3 5 3 Microbiology, 49: 3122–3126. water were found to be 4.3 × 10 to 9.45 × 10 CFU/g, 9.3 × 10 to 6 2 7 Ali, M., Khan, M. Saha, M. L. (2011). Antibiotic resistant patterns of bacterial 7.2 × 10 CFU/g, 28–305 CFU/g, and 8.5 × 10 to 1.57 × 10 CFU/ml, isolates from ready-to-eat (RTE) street vended fresh vegetables and fruits respectively. Several enteric bacteria such as Klebsiella, Enterobacter, in Dhaka City. Bangladesh Journal of Science Resources, 24: 127–134. Salmonella paratyphi A, Hafnia, E. coli, Alcaligenes, and Proteus were Barcus, A. L., Burdette, S. D., Herchline, T. E. (2005). Intestinal invasion and observed. Thus, consumption of the vended fruits was reported to be disseminated disease associated with Penicillium chrysogenum. Annals of hazardous to health. Another study by Mahfuza et al. (2016) reported Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, 4: 21. the microbial status of vended fruits such as hog plum, guava, plum, Barro,  N., Bello,  A.  R., Savadogo,  A., Ouattara,  C.  A.  T., Iiboudo,  A. and pineapple. The fruits were obtained from vendors in Dhaka city in Traore, A. S. (2006). Hygienic status assessment of dish washing waters, Bangladesh. Total bacterial count (TBC), total coliform count (TCC), utensils, hands and pieces of money from street food processing sites in and total Salmonella–Shigella (TSS) count in fresh-cut hog plum Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). African Journal of Biotechnology, 5: 1107– 3 2 (Spondias mombin L.) were 3.5 × 10 CFU/g, 4.8 × 10 CFU/g, and Bhat, R., Ameran, S. B., Voon, H. C., Karim, A. A., Tze, L. M. (2011). Quality 3.6 × 10 CFU/g, respectively. In guava (Psidium guajava), TBC, TCC, 4 2 2 attributes of starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) juice treated with ultra- and TSS count were 1.5 × 10 CFU/g, 4.9 × 10 CFU/g, and 2.3 × 10 violet radiation. Food Chemistry, 127: 641–644. CFU/g, respectively. TBC and TCC were 4.6 × 10 CFU/g and 3.9 × Cao,  H., He,  S., Lu,  L., Yang,  X., Chen,  B. (2014). Identification of a Pro- 10 CFU/g, respectively, in plum (Ziziphus mauritiana L.). The results teus penneri isolate as the causal agent of red body disease of the cul- indicated that hog plum had the least while plum possessed the highest tured white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and its control with Bdellovibrio microbial load among all the fruit samples. Organisms identified from bacteriovorus. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 105: 423–430. the tested samples were E. coli (36%), Bacillus (25%), Staphylococcus Davis, R., Brown, P. D. (2016). Multiple antibiotic resistance index, fitness and (24%), Klebsiella (9%), and Proteus (6%). Hence, the vended fruits virulence potential in respiratory Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Jamaica. were declared risky consumption. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 65: 261–271. Halablab,  M.  A., Hijazi,  S.  M., Fawzi,  M.  A., Araj,  G.  F. (2010). Staphylo- coccus aureus nasal carriage rate and associated risk factors in individuals Improving the Quality of Vended Fruits in the community. Epidemiology and Infection, 138: 702–706. 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Food Quality and SafetyOxford University Press

Published: Jul 17, 2020

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