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X-ray Free-Electron Laser

X-ray Free-Electron Laser applied sciences Editorial Kiyoshi Ueda Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577, Japan; kiyoshi.ueda.a2@tohoku.ac.jp Received: 22 May 2018; Accepted: 24 May 2018; Published: 28 May 2018 During the last decades, the advent of the short-wavelength Free Electron Lasers (FELs) in the range from extreme ultraviolet (XUV) to hard X-rays has opened a new research avenue for the investigations of ultrafast electronic and structural dynamics in any form of matter. FELs deliver 20 2 coherent laser pulses, combining unprecedented power densities up to 10 W/cm and extremely short pulse durations down to a few femtoseconds. Thus, they offer important advantages over conventional short-wavelength light sources for many applications. Time-resolved spectroscopic and structural studies on the timescale of femtoseconds allow us to probe electrons and atoms in action. Indeed, FELs have been applied to study ultrafast charge transfer in a molecule and a molecular complex; chemical bond breaking and formation; and non-thermal phase transitions in solids. The intense, coherent and focused FEL pulses allows for the realization of single-shot diffraction imaging of non-crystalized biomolecules and nanometer-size objects. On the other hand, since the FEL pulses are entering a new regime of intensities, they are opening a new research field that involves studying the interactions between intense short wavelength laser pulses and various forms of matter. The extremely intense FEL pulse strips a certain number of electrons from an isolated atom, which leads to a violent Coulomb explosion of an isolated molecule. This instantaneously transforms a nanometer-size object into a dense nano-plasma and a single crystal into completely new disordered matter. Furthermore, rapidly developing FEL technologies allow fully coherent FEL pulses to be available routinely and permit the realization of pulse-shaping and phase-controlling of multi-color harmonic pulses. Thus, this has opened up other novel research areas of short-wavelength non-linear four-wave mixing spectroscopy and attosecond coherent control. The aim of the present special issue is to provide an overview of the recent developments of XFELs and science at XFELs as well as to predict future opportunities. For this purpose, this issue features the reports on the current status and future plans of all eight XFEL facilities in the world. Namely, Faatz et al. describe the FLASH (the Free Electron LASer in Hamburg) in Germany, focusing on the advanced options for FLASH2 and future perspectives [1]; Schoenlein et al. describe the recent developments and future plans of LCLS (the Linac Coherent Light Source) in the United States [2]; and Yabashi et al. describe the status and future plans of SACLA (the Spring-8 Angstrom Compact free electron Laser) in Japan [3]. Giannessi and Masciovecchio discuss the present and future challenges at FERMI (the Free Electron laser Radiation for Multidisciplinary Investigations) in Italy, focusing on the phase-coherent multicolor pulse generations as a unique feature of FERMI [4]. Apart from these four facilities that have been in operation for the last decade, three new facilities started operations in the last couple years. This issue includes the first reports of these three facilities. Ko et al. describe the construction and commissioning of PAL-XFEL (the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free Electron Laser) in Korea [5]; Tschentscher et al. describe the photon beam transport and scientific instruments at the European XFEL (European X-ray Free Electron Laser) [6]; and Milne et al. describe SwissFEL (Swiss X-ray Free Electron Laser) [7]. In addition, Zhao et al. report the status of the Shanghai SXFEL (Soft X-ray Free Electron Laser) project in China [8]. The present issue also includes XFEL-pulse characterizations and instrumentations. Helml et al. review the progress on ultrashort pulse characterization of XEFLs [9], while Inbushi et al. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 879; doi:10.3390/app8060879 www.mdpi.com/journal/applsci Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 879 2 of 3 provide the measurements of the X-ray spectra of XFEL (SACLA) with a wide-range high-resolution single-shot spectrometer, which aims to measure the temporal pulse duration [10]. Szlchetko et al. describe a dispersive inelastic X-ray scattering spectrometer for XFELs [11], while Usenko et al. describe a split-and-delay unit for FEL interferometry in the XUV spectral range [12]. Kumar et al. discuss a plan for terawatt-isolated attosecond X-ray pulse generation using a tapered XFEL (PAL-XFEL) [13]. Science at XFELs is also included in this issue. Kukk et al. review the molecular dynamics of XFEL-induced photo-dissociation, placing emphasis on data analysis based on ion–ion coincidence measurements [14]; Wolf et al. discuss the observations from femtosecond fragmentation of the thymine molecule using ultrashort X-ray-induced Auger spectra [15]; and Fang et al. describe the X-ray pump-probe investigation of charge and dissociation dynamics in the methyl iodine molecule [16]. Callegari et al. describe the application of matched-filter concepts to the unbiased selection of data in pump-probe experiments with FELs [17]. Yamamoto and Matsuda review the measurements of the resonant magneto-optical Kerr effect using FEL [18]; Sun et al. review the current status of single particle imaging with XFELs [19]; and Mukharanova et al. discuss the methodology and analysis for probing dynamics in colloidal crystals with pump-probe experiments at LCLS [20]. Inada et al. review how to probe physics in a vacuum using XFEL, a high-power laser and a high-field magnet [21]. The theoretical developments related to the science of XFELs are also included in this issue. + 8+ Hanks et al. report the two- and three-photon photoionization cross-sections of Li , Ne and 16+ Ar under XUV radiation [22], Tyrała et al. discuss the state-population narrowing effect on two-photon absorption for intense XFEL pulses [23], while Hatada and Di Cicco describe the modeling of non-equilibrium dynamics and saturable absorption induced by XFEL radiation [24]. Kirrander and Weber discuss the fundamental limits on spatial resolution in ultrafast diffraction with XFELs [25], while Kim et al. describe the algorithm for reconstruction of three-dimensional images of rice nanoparticles from the diffraction pattern of two particles in independent random orientations using XFEL [26]. Last but not least, this issue includes the meeting report by Larsson on a historic Nobel Symposium on Free Electron Laser Research, which was held in Stigtuna outside Stockholm in June 2015 [27]. During this symposium, the inventor of FEL, John Madey, delivered the keynote address. He passed away about one year later on 5 July 2016. I believe this special issue will be helpful in providing an overview of the current status of XFELs and science at XFELs as well as future directions of this research field. Conflicts of Interest: The author declares no conflict of interest. References 1. Faatz, B.; Braune, M.; Hensler, O.; Honkavaara, K.; Kammering, R.; Kuhlmann, M.; Ploenjes, E.; Roensch-Schulenburg, J.; Schneidmiller, E.; Schreiber, S.; et al. The FLASH Fcacility: Advanced Options for FLASH2 and Future Perspectives. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 1114. [CrossRef] 2. Schoenlein, R.W.; Boutet, S.; Minitti, M.P.; Dunne, A.M. The Linac Coherent Light Source: Recent Developments and Future plans. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 850. [CrossRef] 3. Yabashi, M.; Tanaka, H.; Tono, K.; Ishikawa, T. Status of the SACLA Facility. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 604. [CrossRef] 4. Giannessi, L.; Masciovecchio, C. FERMI: Present and Future Challenges. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 640. [CrossRef] 5. Ko, S.; Kang, H.-S.; Heo, H.; Kim, C.; Kim, G.; Min, C.-K.; Yang, H.; Baek, S.Y.; Choi, H.-J.; Mun, G. Construction and Commissioning of PAL-XFEL Facility. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 479. [CrossRef] 6. Tschenscher, T.; Bressler, C.; Grünert, J.; Madsen, A.; Mancuso, A.; Meyer, M.; Scherz, A.; Sinn, H.; Zastrau, U. Photon Beam Transport and Scientific Instruments at the European XFEL. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 592. [CrossRef] 7. Milne, C.J.; Schietinger, T.; Aiba, M.; Alarcon, A.; Alex, J.; Anghel, A.; Arsov, V.; Beard, C.; Bettoni, S.; Bopp, M.; et al. SwissFEL: The Swiss X-ray Free Electron Laser. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 720. [CrossRef] 8. Zhao, Z.; Wang, D.; Gu, Q.; Yin, L.; Gu, M.; Leng, Y.; Liu, B. Status of the SXFEL Facility. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 607. [CrossRef] Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 879 3 of 3 9. Helml, W.; Grguraš, I.; Juranic ´, P.N.; Düsterer, S.; Mazza, T.; Maier, A.R.; Hartmann, N.; Ilchen, M.; Hartmann, G.; Patthey, L.; et al. Ultrashort Free-Electron Laser X-ray pulses. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 915. [CrossRef] 10. Inubushi, Y.; Inoue, I.; Kim, J.; Nishihara, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Yumoto, H.; Koyama, T.; Tono, K.; Ohashi, H.; Yamauchi, K.; et al. Measurement of the X-ray Spectrum of a Free Electron Laser with a Wide-Range High-Resolution Single-Shot Spectrometer. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 584. [CrossRef] 11. Szlachetko, J.; Nachtegaal, M.; Grolimund, D.; Knopp, G.; Peredkov, S.; Czapla–Masztafiak, J.; Milne, C.J. A Dispersive Inelastic X-ray Scattering Spectrometer for Use at X-ray Free Electron Lasers. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 899. [CrossRef] 12. Usenko, S.; Przystawik, A.; Lazzarino, L.L.; Jakob, M.A.; Jacobs, F.; Becker, C.; Haunhorst, C.; Kip, D.; Laarmann, T. Split-And-Delay Unit for FEL Interferometry in the XUV Spectral Range. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 544. [CrossRef] 13. Kumar, S.; Landsman, A.S.; Kim, D.E. Terawatt-Isolated Attosecond X-ray Pulse Using a Tapered X-ray Free Electron Laser. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 614. [CrossRef] 14. Kukk, E.; Motomura, K.; Fukuzawa, H.; Nagaya, K.; Ueda, K. Molecular Dynamics of XFEL-Induced Photo-Dissociation, Revealed by Ion-Ion Coincidence Measurements. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 531. [CrossRef] 15. Wolf, T.J.A.; Holzmeier, F.; Wagner, I.; Berrah, N.; Bostedt, C.; Bozek, J.; Bucksbaum, P.; Coffee, R.; Cryan, J.; Farrell, J.; et al. Observing Femtosecond Fragmentation Using Ultrafast X-ray-Induced Auger Spectra. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 681. [CrossRef] 16. Fang, L.; Xiong, H.; Kukk, E.; Berrah, N. X-ray Pump-Probe Investigation of Charge and Dissociation Dynamics in Methyl Iodine Molecule. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 529. [CrossRef] 17. Callegari, C.; Takanashi, T.; Fukuzawa, H.; Sansone, G. Application of Matched-Filter Concepts to Unbiased Selection of Data in Pump-Probe Experiments with Free Electron Lasers. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 621. [CrossRef] 18. Yamamoto, S.; Matsuda, I. Measurement of the Resonant Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect Using a Free Electron Laser. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 662. [CrossRef] 19. Sun, Z.; Fan, J.; Li, H.; Jiang, H. Current Status of Single Particle Imaging with X-ray Lasers. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 132. [CrossRef] 20. Mukharamova, N.; Lazarev, S.; Meijer, J.-M.; Chollet, M.; Singer, A.; Kurta, R.P.; Dzhigaev, D.; Gorobtsov, O.Y.; Williams, G.; Zhu, D. Probing Dynamics in Colloidal Crystals with Pump-Probe Experiments at LCLS: Methodology and Analysis. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 519. [CrossRef] 21. Inada, T.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamaji, T.; Seino, Y.; Fan, X.; Kamioka, S.; Namba, T.; Asai, S. Probing Physics in Vacuum Using an X-ray Free-Electron Laser, a High-Power Laser, and a High Field Magnet. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 671. [CrossRef] 22. Hanks, W.; Costello, J.T.; Nikolopoulos, L.A.A. Two- and Three-Photon Partial Photoionization Cross Sections + 8+ 16+ of Li , Ne and Ar under XUV Radiation. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 294. [CrossRef] 23. Tyrała, K.; Wojtaszek, K.; Pajek, M.; Kayser, Y.; Milne, C.; Sá, J.; Szlachetko, J. State-Population Narrowing Effect in Two-Photon Absorption for Intense Hard X-ray Pulses. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 653. [CrossRef] 24. Hatada, K.; Di Cicco, A. Modeling Non-Equilibrium Dynamics and Saturable Absorption Induced by Free Electron Laser Radiation. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 814. [CrossRef] 25. Kirrander, A.; Weber, P.M. Fundamental Limits on Spatial Resolution in Ultrafast X-ray Diffraction. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 534. [CrossRef] 26. Kim, S.S.; Wibowo, S.; Saldin, D.K. Algorithm for Reconstruction of 3D Images of Nanorice Particles from Diffraction Patterns of Two Particles in Independent Random Orientations with an X-ray Laser. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 646. [CrossRef] 27. Larsson, M. Nobel Symposium on Free Electron Laser Research. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 408. [CrossRef] © 2018 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Applied Sciences Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

X-ray Free-Electron Laser

Applied Sciences , Volume 8 (6) – May 28, 2018

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Abstract

applied sciences Editorial Kiyoshi Ueda Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577, Japan; kiyoshi.ueda.a2@tohoku.ac.jp Received: 22 May 2018; Accepted: 24 May 2018; Published: 28 May 2018 During the last decades, the advent of the short-wavelength Free Electron Lasers (FELs) in the range from extreme ultraviolet (XUV) to hard X-rays has opened a new research avenue for the investigations of ultrafast electronic and structural dynamics in any form of matter. FELs deliver 20 2 coherent laser pulses, combining unprecedented power densities up to 10 W/cm and extremely short pulse durations down to a few femtoseconds. Thus, they offer important advantages over conventional short-wavelength light sources for many applications. Time-resolved spectroscopic and structural studies on the timescale of femtoseconds allow us to probe electrons and atoms in action. Indeed, FELs have been applied to study ultrafast charge transfer in a molecule and a molecular complex; chemical bond breaking and formation; and non-thermal phase transitions in solids. The intense, coherent and focused FEL pulses allows for the realization of single-shot diffraction imaging of non-crystalized biomolecules and nanometer-size objects. On the other hand, since the FEL pulses are entering a new regime of intensities, they are opening a new research field that involves studying the interactions between intense short wavelength laser pulses and various forms of matter. The extremely intense FEL pulse strips a certain number of electrons from an isolated atom, which leads to a violent Coulomb explosion of an isolated molecule. This instantaneously transforms a nanometer-size object into a dense nano-plasma and a single crystal into completely new disordered matter. Furthermore, rapidly developing FEL technologies allow fully coherent FEL pulses to be available routinely and permit the realization of pulse-shaping and phase-controlling of multi-color harmonic pulses. Thus, this has opened up other novel research areas of short-wavelength non-linear four-wave mixing spectroscopy and attosecond coherent control. The aim of the present special issue is to provide an overview of the recent developments of XFELs and science at XFELs as well as to predict future opportunities. For this purpose, this issue features the reports on the current status and future plans of all eight XFEL facilities in the world. Namely, Faatz et al. describe the FLASH (the Free Electron LASer in Hamburg) in Germany, focusing on the advanced options for FLASH2 and future perspectives [1]; Schoenlein et al. describe the recent developments and future plans of LCLS (the Linac Coherent Light Source) in the United States [2]; and Yabashi et al. describe the status and future plans of SACLA (the Spring-8 Angstrom Compact free electron Laser) in Japan [3]. Giannessi and Masciovecchio discuss the present and future challenges at FERMI (the Free Electron laser Radiation for Multidisciplinary Investigations) in Italy, focusing on the phase-coherent multicolor pulse generations as a unique feature of FERMI [4]. Apart from these four facilities that have been in operation for the last decade, three new facilities started operations in the last couple years. This issue includes the first reports of these three facilities. Ko et al. describe the construction and commissioning of PAL-XFEL (the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free Electron Laser) in Korea [5]; Tschentscher et al. describe the photon beam transport and scientific instruments at the European XFEL (European X-ray Free Electron Laser) [6]; and Milne et al. describe SwissFEL (Swiss X-ray Free Electron Laser) [7]. In addition, Zhao et al. report the status of the Shanghai SXFEL (Soft X-ray Free Electron Laser) project in China [8]. The present issue also includes XFEL-pulse characterizations and instrumentations. Helml et al. review the progress on ultrashort pulse characterization of XEFLs [9], while Inbushi et al. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 879; doi:10.3390/app8060879 www.mdpi.com/journal/applsci Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 879 2 of 3 provide the measurements of the X-ray spectra of XFEL (SACLA) with a wide-range high-resolution single-shot spectrometer, which aims to measure the temporal pulse duration [10]. Szlchetko et al. describe a dispersive inelastic X-ray scattering spectrometer for XFELs [11], while Usenko et al. describe a split-and-delay unit for FEL interferometry in the XUV spectral range [12]. Kumar et al. discuss a plan for terawatt-isolated attosecond X-ray pulse generation using a tapered XFEL (PAL-XFEL) [13]. Science at XFELs is also included in this issue. Kukk et al. review the molecular dynamics of XFEL-induced photo-dissociation, placing emphasis on data analysis based on ion–ion coincidence measurements [14]; Wolf et al. discuss the observations from femtosecond fragmentation of the thymine molecule using ultrashort X-ray-induced Auger spectra [15]; and Fang et al. describe the X-ray pump-probe investigation of charge and dissociation dynamics in the methyl iodine molecule [16]. Callegari et al. describe the application of matched-filter concepts to the unbiased selection of data in pump-probe experiments with FELs [17]. Yamamoto and Matsuda review the measurements of the resonant magneto-optical Kerr effect using FEL [18]; Sun et al. review the current status of single particle imaging with XFELs [19]; and Mukharanova et al. discuss the methodology and analysis for probing dynamics in colloidal crystals with pump-probe experiments at LCLS [20]. Inada et al. review how to probe physics in a vacuum using XFEL, a high-power laser and a high-field magnet [21]. The theoretical developments related to the science of XFELs are also included in this issue. + 8+ Hanks et al. report the two- and three-photon photoionization cross-sections of Li , Ne and 16+ Ar under XUV radiation [22], Tyrała et al. discuss the state-population narrowing effect on two-photon absorption for intense XFEL pulses [23], while Hatada and Di Cicco describe the modeling of non-equilibrium dynamics and saturable absorption induced by XFEL radiation [24]. Kirrander and Weber discuss the fundamental limits on spatial resolution in ultrafast diffraction with XFELs [25], while Kim et al. describe the algorithm for reconstruction of three-dimensional images of rice nanoparticles from the diffraction pattern of two particles in independent random orientations using XFEL [26]. Last but not least, this issue includes the meeting report by Larsson on a historic Nobel Symposium on Free Electron Laser Research, which was held in Stigtuna outside Stockholm in June 2015 [27]. During this symposium, the inventor of FEL, John Madey, delivered the keynote address. He passed away about one year later on 5 July 2016. I believe this special issue will be helpful in providing an overview of the current status of XFELs and science at XFELs as well as future directions of this research field. Conflicts of Interest: The author declares no conflict of interest. References 1. Faatz, B.; Braune, M.; Hensler, O.; Honkavaara, K.; Kammering, R.; Kuhlmann, M.; Ploenjes, E.; Roensch-Schulenburg, J.; Schneidmiller, E.; Schreiber, S.; et al. The FLASH Fcacility: Advanced Options for FLASH2 and Future Perspectives. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 1114. [CrossRef] 2. Schoenlein, R.W.; Boutet, S.; Minitti, M.P.; Dunne, A.M. The Linac Coherent Light Source: Recent Developments and Future plans. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 850. [CrossRef] 3. Yabashi, M.; Tanaka, H.; Tono, K.; Ishikawa, T. Status of the SACLA Facility. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 604. [CrossRef] 4. Giannessi, L.; Masciovecchio, C. FERMI: Present and Future Challenges. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 640. [CrossRef] 5. Ko, S.; Kang, H.-S.; Heo, H.; Kim, C.; Kim, G.; Min, C.-K.; Yang, H.; Baek, S.Y.; Choi, H.-J.; Mun, G. Construction and Commissioning of PAL-XFEL Facility. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 479. [CrossRef] 6. Tschenscher, T.; Bressler, C.; Grünert, J.; Madsen, A.; Mancuso, A.; Meyer, M.; Scherz, A.; Sinn, H.; Zastrau, U. Photon Beam Transport and Scientific Instruments at the European XFEL. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 592. [CrossRef] 7. Milne, C.J.; Schietinger, T.; Aiba, M.; Alarcon, A.; Alex, J.; Anghel, A.; Arsov, V.; Beard, C.; Bettoni, S.; Bopp, M.; et al. SwissFEL: The Swiss X-ray Free Electron Laser. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 720. [CrossRef] 8. Zhao, Z.; Wang, D.; Gu, Q.; Yin, L.; Gu, M.; Leng, Y.; Liu, B. Status of the SXFEL Facility. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 607. [CrossRef] Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 879 3 of 3 9. Helml, W.; Grguraš, I.; Juranic ´, P.N.; Düsterer, S.; Mazza, T.; Maier, A.R.; Hartmann, N.; Ilchen, M.; Hartmann, G.; Patthey, L.; et al. Ultrashort Free-Electron Laser X-ray pulses. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 915. [CrossRef] 10. Inubushi, Y.; Inoue, I.; Kim, J.; Nishihara, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Yumoto, H.; Koyama, T.; Tono, K.; Ohashi, H.; Yamauchi, K.; et al. Measurement of the X-ray Spectrum of a Free Electron Laser with a Wide-Range High-Resolution Single-Shot Spectrometer. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 584. [CrossRef] 11. Szlachetko, J.; Nachtegaal, M.; Grolimund, D.; Knopp, G.; Peredkov, S.; Czapla–Masztafiak, J.; Milne, C.J. A Dispersive Inelastic X-ray Scattering Spectrometer for Use at X-ray Free Electron Lasers. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 899. [CrossRef] 12. Usenko, S.; Przystawik, A.; Lazzarino, L.L.; Jakob, M.A.; Jacobs, F.; Becker, C.; Haunhorst, C.; Kip, D.; Laarmann, T. Split-And-Delay Unit for FEL Interferometry in the XUV Spectral Range. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 544. [CrossRef] 13. Kumar, S.; Landsman, A.S.; Kim, D.E. Terawatt-Isolated Attosecond X-ray Pulse Using a Tapered X-ray Free Electron Laser. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 614. [CrossRef] 14. Kukk, E.; Motomura, K.; Fukuzawa, H.; Nagaya, K.; Ueda, K. Molecular Dynamics of XFEL-Induced Photo-Dissociation, Revealed by Ion-Ion Coincidence Measurements. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 531. [CrossRef] 15. Wolf, T.J.A.; Holzmeier, F.; Wagner, I.; Berrah, N.; Bostedt, C.; Bozek, J.; Bucksbaum, P.; Coffee, R.; Cryan, J.; Farrell, J.; et al. Observing Femtosecond Fragmentation Using Ultrafast X-ray-Induced Auger Spectra. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 681. [CrossRef] 16. Fang, L.; Xiong, H.; Kukk, E.; Berrah, N. X-ray Pump-Probe Investigation of Charge and Dissociation Dynamics in Methyl Iodine Molecule. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 529. [CrossRef] 17. Callegari, C.; Takanashi, T.; Fukuzawa, H.; Sansone, G. Application of Matched-Filter Concepts to Unbiased Selection of Data in Pump-Probe Experiments with Free Electron Lasers. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 621. [CrossRef] 18. Yamamoto, S.; Matsuda, I. Measurement of the Resonant Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect Using a Free Electron Laser. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 662. [CrossRef] 19. Sun, Z.; Fan, J.; Li, H.; Jiang, H. Current Status of Single Particle Imaging with X-ray Lasers. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 132. [CrossRef] 20. Mukharamova, N.; Lazarev, S.; Meijer, J.-M.; Chollet, M.; Singer, A.; Kurta, R.P.; Dzhigaev, D.; Gorobtsov, O.Y.; Williams, G.; Zhu, D. Probing Dynamics in Colloidal Crystals with Pump-Probe Experiments at LCLS: Methodology and Analysis. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 519. [CrossRef] 21. Inada, T.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamaji, T.; Seino, Y.; Fan, X.; Kamioka, S.; Namba, T.; Asai, S. Probing Physics in Vacuum Using an X-ray Free-Electron Laser, a High-Power Laser, and a High Field Magnet. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 671. [CrossRef] 22. Hanks, W.; Costello, J.T.; Nikolopoulos, L.A.A. Two- and Three-Photon Partial Photoionization Cross Sections + 8+ 16+ of Li , Ne and Ar under XUV Radiation. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 294. [CrossRef] 23. Tyrała, K.; Wojtaszek, K.; Pajek, M.; Kayser, Y.; Milne, C.; Sá, J.; Szlachetko, J. State-Population Narrowing Effect in Two-Photon Absorption for Intense Hard X-ray Pulses. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 653. [CrossRef] 24. Hatada, K.; Di Cicco, A. Modeling Non-Equilibrium Dynamics and Saturable Absorption Induced by Free Electron Laser Radiation. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 814. [CrossRef] 25. Kirrander, A.; Weber, P.M. Fundamental Limits on Spatial Resolution in Ultrafast X-ray Diffraction. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 534. [CrossRef] 26. Kim, S.S.; Wibowo, S.; Saldin, D.K. Algorithm for Reconstruction of 3D Images of Nanorice Particles from Diffraction Patterns of Two Particles in Independent Random Orientations with an X-ray Laser. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 646. [CrossRef] 27. Larsson, M. Nobel Symposium on Free Electron Laser Research. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 408. [CrossRef] © 2018 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Journal

Applied SciencesMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

Published: May 28, 2018

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