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The Severity of Environmental Pollution in the Developing Countries and Its Remedial Measures

The Severity of Environmental Pollution in the Developing Countries and Its Remedial Measures Article The Severity of Environmental Pollution in the Developing Countries and Its Remedial Measures 1 , 2 , 1 2 Najmun Nahar * , Sanjia Mahiuddin and Zakaria Hossain Life and Earth Science, Jagannath University, Dhaka 1100, Bangladesh; sanjia3366@gmail.com Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu 514-8507, Japan; zakaria@bio.mie-u.ac.jp * Correspondence: 519d2s3@m.mie-u.ac.jp; Tel.: +81-90-9196-8981 Abstract: Environmental pollution has a great impact on human health, ecosystems, and financial development. This paper depicts the recent studies on the severity of environmental pollution in developing countries. Its remedial measures were based on a questionnaire survey in the polluted sites, which collected data and information on the types, causes, effects, sources, and duration of environmental pollution, obtained from available publications and newspaper information reported in recent years. A total of 400 respondents from 10 zones of Dhaka City Corporation, Bangladesh, were interviewed as a case study via a semi-structured questionnaire survey. The results revealed that only 39.0% of respondents had explicit knowledge about environmental pollution. Air pollution was identified by 73.8%, noise pollution by 63.0%, water pollution by 55.2%, and soil pollution by only 6.5% of respondents in their surroundings. Automobiles, domestic activities, municipal garbage, and vehicle horns are significant sources of environmental pollutions. Around 49.0% of the respondents did not understand the effectiveness of currently conducted environmental programs. A discussion regarding the urgency of forming a local level environmental committee, the mass media’s active role, and monitoring the development activities was presented. Citation: Nahar, N.; Mahiuddin, S.; Keywords: urban environmental management; environmental information; statistical analysis; Hossain, Z. The Severity of Environmental Pollution in the environmental policy; environmental awareness Developing Countries and Its Remedial Measures. Earth 2021, 2, 124–139. https://doi.org/10.3390/ earth2010008 1. Introduction Environmental pollution is a burning issue for most developing nations in the world [1]. Academic Editor: Charles Jones Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan, which are developing countries, have the highest expo- sures to fine particulate matter in the air among the 10 most populous countries globally [2]. Received: 11 January 2021 The environmental degradation, such as air, water, land, and noise pollution, is a danger Accepted: 23 February 2021 to human health, ecosystems, and financial development [3]. Rapid industrialization in Published: 28 February 2021 developing countries has led to the emission of a range of toxic effluents directly into the soil, air, and water [4]. Pollution badly affects the GDP growth of developing countries Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral such as Argentina, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, China, Colombia, India, Laos, Morocco, with regard to jurisdictional claims in Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, and Zambia, at national and local levels [5]. These nations suffer published maps and institutional affil- from severe contamination annually, causing ill health, death, and disabilities in millions iations. of people, as their economies largely depend on natural resources [6]. More than half of the global premature deaths occur due to high air pollution in South Asian countries, especially in India, China, Bangladesh, Nepal, etc. [7]. Being situated in a developing country, Dhaka, the capital and primate city of Bangladesh, is one of the most contami- Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. nated cities in this nation and the third most contaminated city in the world [8,9]. Rapid Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. urbanization and uncontrolled population growth create mismanagement of urban services This article is an open access article and general environmental quality deterioration [10]. More than 7 million people live in distributed under the terms and Dhaka, with a density of 49,182 people per sq. km. in a total area of 143 sq. km. [11]. conditions of the Creative Commons The rapid growth of urbanization and the enormous demands on urban utility services, Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// waste disposal, transports, social services, etc., generates tremendous pressure on the creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ geo-environment [12–16]. The unplanned construction of the road, railways, flyover, and 4.0/). Earth 2021, 2, 124–139. https://doi.org/10.3390/earth2010008 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/earth Earth 2021, 2 125 buildings causes air pollution by mixing road dust and soil dust in the atmosphere [17]. Highly polluted air reduces the city’s economic growth and poses severe health issues [18]. An index was prepared by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, which ranked Dhaka as the fourth most polluted city with one of the lowest quality air globally and an index value of 195 [19]. According to the 2019 World Air Quality Report, Dhaka has the second-highest average annual PM concentrations (g/m ) in the air [20]. The city’s 2.5 rivers are getting polluted due to industrial and domestic activities, sewerage, medical waste, municipal waste, discharge of toxic chemicals, etc. [21]. The soil pollution issue is not recognized correctly and ignored in various policy documents. Moreover, noise pollution is adversely affecting the urban environment and is causing a severe health hazard for the city dwellers [22]. Peoples do not have adequate knowledge about the causes and consequences of en- vironmental problems. However, some educational institutions have been undertaken to enhance the environmental management system of Bangladesh [23]. People’s environmen- tal perception and their actions against environmental pollution, and the possible health risks associated with pollutants, are rarely given attention in the country [24]. It is essential to know people’s perception on the environmental pollution to understand the actions they take with regards to the environment [25]. Additionally, we need to understand the envi- ronmental psychology to create effective environmental policies. Moreover, local people can highlight their daily experiences on the severity of environmental pollution [26]. Peo- ple’s knowledge and past experiences about environmental issues significantly influence their perceptions, attitudes, and awareness-building [27]. In that case, local knowledge can be useful in creating pressure on environmental planners to find new ways to improve environmental conditions to help policymakers in decision-making via coordinating with professional practitioners and scientists [26]. Practical and encouraging public responses to environmental pollution issues can reduce environmental problems [28]. Therefore, in light of the above discussion, Dhaka City, Bangladesh, was selected as the study area in a developing country to represent residents’ observations and views on the types, causes, effects, sources, and timing of environmental pollution and provide recommendations for pollution reduction. This research is highly significant for policy-making and appli- cation to the environment. Many researchers have already investigated the physical and chemical properties of the contaminated air, water, and soil for measuring the level of environmental pollution. The researchers also identified the varioustypes, causes, effects, and duration of environmental pollution. To date, very few or no studies reported the residents’ knowledge, observation, and opinion about the overall environmental pollution. In this research, the primary information about environmental pollution was collected through a semi-structured questionnaire survey in the study area. A total of 400 respon- dents were selected by a simple random sampling technique, considering gender, age group, religion, marital status, education level, occupation, economic class, and living duration. Demographic characteristics, causes of environmental pollution, and the effect of pollution sources, such as sources of water pollution, air pollution, soil pollution, and noise pollution, are presented, and possible remedial measures are discussed. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. The Study Area Dhaka is one of the oldest and most prominent cities in the South Asian region [29], and is Bangladesh’s capital city, covering an area of 1528 km [12,30]. It is located in the central part of Bangladesh and lies in the lower parts of the Ganges Delta, between the 0  0  0  0 latitudes 23 35 N–23 54 N and the longitudes 90 19 E–90 30 E (Figure 1). The city’s expansion is bounded by the Buriganga River in the south, the Turag River in the west, and the Balu River in the east [13,31]. The city’s land area is mostly flat with slight undulations, and is close to the mean sea level [12,32]. The study area enjoys distinct primacy for its large population in the national urban hi- erarchy. This city contains 37% of the total national urban population, which is higher than Earth 2021, 2 126 the combined total of the next three largest cities of Chittagong, Khulna, and Rajshahi [33]. The urban population is growing massively at an estimated 4.2% annually through rural– urban migration [34], as the city is an attractive place for employment opportunities to millions of rural poor people in Bangladesh [32,33,35]. Every year, millions of poor people (who are too unskilled to get a job in the formal urban sector) migrate from rural areas to Dhaka City to find a job [36]. This city’s economy is mainly based on the informal sector [37], which provides jobs for many people, and contributes to 36% of the national GDP and creates 31.8% of the country’s total employment [38]. Moreover, Bangladesh earns the highest foreign exchange from the Ready-Made Garments (RMGs) sector, as 80% of the RMGs factories are located in this city, providing jobs for thousands of especially women workers who migrate from different parts of this country [33,38,39]. The rapid growth of RMGs with other pull factors is the main reason for the city’s population increase. The city plays an important role in the country in terms of its share of the total population and the concentration of civil administration, economy, trade, and commerce. It is well connected with railways, roads, and waterways to all topmost towns and cities, as it is centrally located in the country [40]. Thus, people can come quickly to this city for better healthcare services, educational facilities, and better employment opportunities that caused the town to become overcrowded [32,33]. The study area is now suffering severe environmental difficulties due to rapid population growth, unplanned urbanization, improper solid waste management, and unsatisfactory environmental behavior. Thus, Dhaka City was selected as the study area for understanding the inhabitants’ thoughts and views on what they observe in their surrounding environment. Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) is now divided into two city corporations, the Dhaka North City Corporation (DNCC) and the Dhaka Earth 2021, 2, FOR PEER REVIEW 4 South City Corporation (DSCC), and each city corporation is divided into five zones for administrative convenience (Figure 1). Figure 1. Location and extent of the study area (source: modified from [41]). Note: DNCC = Dhaka Figure 1. Location and extent of the study area (source: modified from [41]). Note: DNCC = Dhaka North City Corporation and DSCC = Dhaka South City Corporation. North City Corporation and DSCC = Dhaka South City Corporation. 2.2. Model Used in This Study The Behavioral Change Model by Hungerford and Volk [42] was used in this study. The model expresses the link between environmental knowledge, attitude or awareness, and responsible environmental action (Figure 2). The environmental perception of human beings inspires the environmentally friendly attitude or understanding that also stimu- lates human psychology to grow environmental acting. Again, environmental knowledge and behavior depend on the demographic characteristics [43–45]. Thus, the respondents’ status of experience and observation about environmental pollution assumes their envi- ronmental behavior and actions in the study area, indicating the severity of environmental pollution in developing countries. Environmental Environmental Environmental Awareness or Knowledge Action Attiutude Figure 2. The Behavioral Change Model of Hungerford and Volk [42]. 2.3. Data and Information Collection In this study, mainly primary data, along with secondary data, were used. For show- ing the state of people’s observation about environmental pollution, a questionnaire sur- vey was conducted as part of the primary data collection in both city corporations (DNCC and DSCC). Direct field observation was also conducted for the study. The field survey was carried out by a research team comprising 10 surveyors from 2 March to 16 March in Earth 2021, 2, FOR PEER REVIEW 4 Earth 2021, 2 127 Figure 1. Location and extent of the study area (source: modified from [41]). Note: DNCC = Dhaka North City Corporation and DSCC = Dhaka South City Corporation. 2.2. Model Used in This Study 2.2. Model Used in This Study The Behavioral Change Model by Hungerford and Volk [42] was used in this study. The Behavioral Change Model by Hungerford and Volk [42] was used in this study. The model expresses the link between environmental knowledge, attitude or awareness, The model expresses the link between environmental knowledge, attitude or awareness, and responsible environmental action (Figure 2). The environmental perception of human and responsible environmental action (Figure 2). The environmental perception of human beings inspires the environmentally friendly attitude or understanding that also stimulates beings inspires the environmentally friendly attitude or understanding that also stimu- human psychology to grow environmental acting. Again, environmental knowledge and lates human psychology to grow environmental acting. Again, environmental knowledge behavior depend on the demographic characteristics [43–45]. Thus, the respondents’ status and behavior depend on the demographic characteristics [43–45]. Thus, the respondents’ of experience and observation about environmental pollution assumes their environmental status of experience and observation about environmental pollution assumes their envi- behavior and actions in the study area, indicating the severity of environmental pollution ronmental behavior and actions in the study area, indicating the severity of environmental in developing countries. pollution in developing countries. Environmental Environmental Environmental Awareness or Knowledge Action Attiutude Figure 2. The Behavioral Change Model of Hungerford and Volk [42]. Figure 2. The Behavioral Change Model of Hungerford and Volk [42]. 2.3. Data and Information Collection 2.3. Data and Information Collection In this study, mainly primary data, along with secondary data, were used. For show- In this study, mainly primary data, along with secondary data, were used. For showing ing the state of people’s observation about environmental pollution, a questionnaire sur- the state of people’s observation about environmental pollution, a questionnaire survey vey was conducted as part of the primary data collection in both city corporations (DNCC was conducted as part of the primary data collection in both city corporations (DNCC and DSCC). and DSCC). Direct Direct field o field observation bservation w was as also also cond conducted ucted for for the the study. The study. The field survey field survey was c was carried arried o out ut by a resear by a resear ch team com ch team comprising prising 10 su 10 surveyors rveyors from 2 from March 2 March to t16 March in o 16 March in 2018. The secondary data were used as supplementary to the primary data. Various published and unpublished documents, such as books, journals, reports, dissertations, theses, national and international newspapers, online newspapers, etc., were used as secondary data sources. ArcGIS software was used to prepare the map for showing the location of the study area. 2.4. Structure of the Questionnaire A semi-structured questionnaire was prepared for primary data collection to un- derstand peoples’ environmental knowledge level, designed by reviewing the relevant studies [24,46–50]. The study’s finalized questionnaire was on the causes, types, sources, effects and timing of environmental pollution, and environmental program and media effec- tiveness. The questions were arranged as open-ended and close-ended. The questionnaire’s response to each close-ended question was categorized into options, and respondents were requested to choose the appropriate options. The structure of the questionnaire is exhibited in Table 1. Table 1. Structure of the questionnaire and questions asked to the respondents. No. Major Sections Questions Gender Age Religion Marital status 1 Demographic profile of the respondents Occupation Monthly income in Bangladeshi Taka (BDT) Living duration Earth 2021, 2 128 Table 1. Cont. No. Major Sections Questions Knowing the level of causes and types of environmental pollution: clearly/moderately/fairly/partially/unknown Identification of the major types of environmental pollution in the study area Primary knowledge about significant types, Identification of the causes of environmental pollution in the 2 causes, effects, and sources of environmental study area pollution Identification of the major effects of environmental pollution Identification of the sources of different types of environmental pollution in the study area Daily: daytime/nighttime Weekly: Numbers of days in a week 3 Observation of pollution timing and duration Seasonally: wet season/dry season Effectiveness of conducted environmental programs: very Effectiveness of current environmental effective/average/poor/unknown 4 programs and media preference for Types of media: environmental information Television/newspaper/online/radio/book/others 2.5. Sampling Technique and Sample Size Determination For the questionnaire survey, a total of 400 households (one respondent from one family) were randomly selected with a 95% confidence level and 5 precision level [51] from a total of 1,576,746 households of the Dhaka City Corporation [52]. The following simplified formula, detailed by Yamane in [51], was used: n = 1 + N(e) where n is the sample size, N refers to the population size, and e is the level of precision. The questionnaire survey was completed by the residents of 10 zones of both city corporations (DNCC and DSCC), taking 40 respondents from each zone using a simple random sampling technique. 2.6. Data Processing and Analysis Collected data were processed and analyzed separately using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 20 by IBM corporation, New York, NY, USA and MS Excel. The analyzed data were incorporated into the text, tables, and graphs. To understand the respondents’ opinion towards the causes, types, sources, effects and timing of different environmental pollutions, normal frequency (n) and percentage (%) distribution and multiple response analysis were used. For measuring percentage, the following formula was used: % =  100 where % is the percentage, f is the frequency, and N is the number of cases [53]. 3. Results 3.1. Demographic Information of Respondents of the Study Area For the study purpose, a total of 400 respondents were interviewed; among them, about 66.3% of respondents were male, and around 33.8% of respondents were female. In terms of age, below 18 years old was not taken into account for the study. Approximately 44.8% of total respondents belonged to the age group of 31–40 years, followed by nearly 27.8% of respondents in the age group of 21–30 years and 26% in the age group of above Earth 2021, 2 129 40 years. The rest of the respondents (1.5%) were in the age group of 18–20. Most of the respondents (74.8%) were married, and Muslim respondents were dominants (91.3%). With regards to educational status, around 46.3% of respondents completed tertiary educa- tion, and 37.8% had completed secondary education. Only 12% had completed primary education, while 4% received no education (Table 2). Table 2. Demographic information of the respondents of the study area. Frequency Chi-Square Demographic Characteristics Percentage Mean Std. Dev. p-Value (n = 400) ( ) Male 265 66.3 Gender 1.34 0.473 42.250 0.000 Female 135 33.8 18–20 years 6 1.5 21–30 years 111 27.8 Age Group 2.95 0.772 152.140 0.000 31–40 years 179 44.8 >40 years 104 26.0 Hindu 33 8.3 Religion Muslim 365 91.3 1.92 0.286 607.385 0.000 Christian 2 0.5 Unmarried 90 22.5 Married 299 74.8 Marital Status 1.81 0.489 575.740 0.000 Widow/Widower 8 2.0 Divorced 3 0.8 Illiterate 16 4.0 Primary 48 12.0 Education 3.26 0.822 195.860 0.000 Secondary 151 37.8 Level Tertiary 185 46.3 Unemployed 27 6.8 Business 112 28.0 Occupation Service 134 33.5 3.04 1.126 93.925 0.000 Home manager 74 18.5 Student 53 13.3 <10,000 BDT 133 33.3 11,000–15,000 BDT 26 6.5 Monthly 16,000–20,000 BDT 45 11.3 2.98 1.952 98.575 0.000 Income 21,000–30,000 BDT 110 27.5 >30,000 BDT 86 21.5 <1 year 6 1.5 1–3 years 31 7.8 Living 3–5 years 76 19.0 4.07 1.044 238.475 0.000 Duration 5–10 years 104 26.0 >10 years 183 45.8 Regarding the occupation, approximately 34% of respondents were service holders and 28% are businessmen. Around 19% of respondents were female home managers. Only 13.3% were students and 6.8% were unemployed respondents. The income of the respondents was categorized according to their earning information. The highest portion of respondents (approximately 33.3%) had monthly earnings of below 10,000 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT), whereas about 28% of respondents had an income between 21,000–30,000 BDT and about 22% had an income of above 30,000 BDT. The survey result demonstrates that 45.8% of people had lived in the study area for more than 10 years, followed by 26% of respondents from 5 to 10 years and 19% from 3 to 5 years (Table 2). 3.2. Residents’ Opinion about the Causes and Types of Environmental Pollution In the study area, respondents were asked whether they knew about the types, causes, and effects of environmental pollution. According to their replies, around 39% of respon- Earth 2021, 2, FOR PEER REVIEW 8 respondents knew about these clearly, 34.7% moderately, 14.0% fairly, and 11.0% par- tially. Only 0.8% of people did not understand the causes of environmental pollution (Fig- Earth 2021, 2, FOR PEER REVIEW 8 Earth 2021, 2 130 ure 3). Respondents in the study area were also questioned about environmental pollution types that they could identify through daily observation. Their answers revealed that air respondents knew about these clearly, 34.7% moderately, 14.0% fairly, and 11.0% par- pollution was recognized by 73.8% of respondents, noise pollution by 63.0%, water pollu- dents knew about these clearly, 34.7% moderately, 14.0% fairly, and 11.0% partially. Only tially. Only 0.8% of people did not understand the causes of environmental pollution (Fig- tion by 55.2%, soil pollution by 6.5%, and other pollution by 2.0% of people (Figure 4). 0.8% of people did not understand the causes of environmental pollution (Figure 3). ure 3). Respondents in the study area were also questioned about environmental pollution types that they could identify through daily observation. Their answers revealed that air 39.0% pollution was recognized by 73.8% of respondents, noise pollution by 63.0%, water pollu- 34.7% tion by 55.2%, soil pollution by 6.5%, and other pollution by 2.0% of people (Figure 4). 14.0% 11.5% 39.0% 34.7% 0.8% 14.0% 11.5% Knowing level 0.8% Figure 3. Knowing the respondents’ level about the types, causes, and effects of environmental Figure 3. Knowing the respondents’ level about the types, causes, and effects of environmental pollution in the study area. pollution in the study area. RespondentsOthers, in the study area were also questioned about environmental pollution Knowing level 2.0% types that they could identify through daily observation. Their answers revealed that Figure 3. air pollution Knowing the respo was recognized ndents’ leve by l a 73.8% bout the ty of respondents, pes, causes, and noise effects of env pollution ironmental by 63.0%, water pollupollution tion in the stu by d 55.2%, y area.soil pollution by 6.5%, and other pollution by 2.0% of people (Figure 4). Noise Air pollution, pollution, Others, 63.0% 73.8% 2.0% Water Soil Noise pollution, Air pollution, pollution, 55.2% pollution, 6.5% 63.0% 73.8% Water Figure 4. Types of environmental pollution identified by the respondents (multiple responses). Soil pollution, pollution, 55.2% People who know the causes of pollution also mentioned the significant causes of 6.5% environmental pollution in their surrounding area (Table 3). About 88.3% of people Figure 4. Types of environmental pollution identified by the respondents (multiple responses). claimed that unplanned urbanization responsible for contamination in the city. Moreover, Figure 4. 85.0% Types of of peo environmental pollution ple reported that improper identifie wast d by e di thspos e respondents al continu (m ally ultiple respo contamin nat ses). es t he soil, People who know the causes of pollution also mentioned the significant causes of air, and water of the town, and 87.6% of them remarked that land fill-up by waste caused environmental pollution in their surrounding area (Table 3). About 88.3% of people People who know the causes of pollution also mentioned the significant causes of land pollution, around 88.3% stated that chemicals and wastes created water contamina- claimed that unplanned urbanization responsible for contamination in the city. Moreover, environmental pollution in their surrounding area (Table 3). About 88.3% of people tion. Approximately 76.5% of people mentioned construction works, and 74.8% of people 85.0% of people reported that improper waste disposal continually contaminates the claimed that unplanned urbanization responsible for contamination in the city. Moreover, identified automobiles and industries as causing air and noise pollution. Lastly, soil, air, and water of the town, and 87.6% of them remarked that land fill-up by waste 85.0% of people reported that improper waste disposal continually contaminates the soil, 69.5%claimed environmental pollution is increasing rapidly due to less vegetation cover caused land pollution, around 88.3% stated that chemicals and wastes created water air, and water of the town, and 87.6% of them remarked that land fill-up by waste caused in the city. contamination. Approximately 76.5% of people mentioned construction works, and 74.8% land pollution, around 88.3% stated that chemicals and wastes created water contamina- of people identified automobiles and industries as causing air and noise pollution. Lastly, tion. Approximately 76.5% of people mentioned construction works, and 74.8% of people 69.5%claimed environmental pollution is increasing rapidly due to less vegetation cover in identified automobiles and industries as causing air and noise pollution. Lastly, the city. 69.5%claimed environmental pollution is increasing rapidly due to less vegetation cover in the city. Percentage Percentage Earth 2021, 2 131 Table 3. Major causes of environmental pollution identified by the respondents. Causes of Environmental Pollution Percentage Rapid population growth 40.3 Unplanned and ill-planned urbanization 88.3 Deforestation 69.5 Improper waste disposal and management 85.0 Emissions from industries and automobiles 74.8 Emissions of fossil fuels 48.8 Chemical effluents from industries 88.3 Landfills by wastes 87.6 Construction works 76.5 Indiscriminate use of loudspeakers 59.0 Source: Field survey, 2018 (Multiple responses). The respondents of the study area also mentioned the effects of environmental pol- lution (Table 4). About 91.6% of interviewees thought waterborne and airborne diseases are increasing gradually due to environmental pollution, injurious to health. Pollution eradicates the living and non-living components of environments and leads to the imbal- ance of ecosystems by impeding the ecosystems’ natural recovery, stated by about 77.4% of respondents. About 86.7% of respondents reported that smoke, smog, and suspended particles in the air and landfilling by non-biodegradable wastes destroy the city’s prettiness. Noise pollution interrupts the personal and working life of about 92.0% of respondents. About 75.3% of respondents reported that greenhouse gas emissions from industries and vehicles in the atmosphere increase the global temperature. Due to air pollution, the in- clining temperature trend affects the other elements of weather and climate, and the final consequence is climate change. Table 4. Major effects of environmental pollution identified by the respondents. Effects of Environmental Pollution Percentage Impacts on human health 91.6 Imbalances of ecosystems 77.4 Destroying the beauty of the city 86.7 Affecting the personal and working life 92.0 Global warming and climate change 75.3 Source: Field survey, 2018 (Multiple responses). 3.3. Residents’ Remarks about Sources of Significant Environmental Pollution in the Study Area Based on the dwellers’ responses in the study area, in the case of air pollution, around 92.5% of respondents stated that automobiles are the most important source of air pollution in the city. About 63.5% of respondents stated municipal solid waste to be a source of air pollution, 47.2% domestic activities, 46.0% construction activities, 39.7% the discharge of industrial effluents, 36.2% industrial activities, 29.2% medical waste, 14.5% deforestation, and 2.2% agricultural activities (Figure 5a). Earth 2021, 2 132 Earth 2021, 2, FOR PEER REVIEW 10 (b) (a) Deforestation 14.5% Urban runoffs 24.2% Construction activities 46.0% Oil spill 7.2% Sewage treatment plants 48.7% Medical waste 29.2% Medical waste 24.2% Industrial effluents 39.7% Industrial effluents 36.2% Municipal solid waste 63.5% Municipal solid waste 58.8% Agricultural activities 2.2% Agricultural activities 12.5% Automobiles 92.5% Transportation 10.6% Domestic activities 47.2% Domestic activities 66% Industrial activities 43.7% Industrial activities 36.2% (c) (d) Other sources 6.3% Urban runoffs 43% Mike and sound box 94.5% Deforestation 51.4% Construction activities 26.8% Vehicles horn 99.0% Sewage treatment plants 19.0% Over population crowd 69.4% Medical waste 17.9% Construction activities 69.0% Industrial effluents 33.0% Automobiles 63.0% Municipal solid waste 52.0% Agricultural activities Domestic activities 37.4% 6.6% Industrial activities 40.8% Industrial activities 10.9% Figure 5. Sources of (a) air pollution; (b) water pollution; (c) soil pollution; (d) noise pollution recognized by the respondents Figure 5. Sources of (a) air pollution; (b) water pollution; (c) soil pollution; (d) noise pollution recognized by the respond- in the study area (multiple responses). ents in the study area (multiple responses). Respondents mentioned the principal sources of water pollutionin the study area, Respondents mentioned the principal sources of water pollutionin the study area, of of which domestic activities were identified by 66.0% of respondents, municipal solid which domestic activities were identified by 66.0% of respondents, municipal solid waste waste by 58.8%, municipal sewage treatment plants by 49%, industrial activities by 44%, by 58.8%, municipal sewage treatment plants by 49%, industrial activities by 44%, dis- discharge of industrial effluents by 36.2%, medical waste by 24.2%, urban runoff from charge of industrial effluents by 36.2%, medical waste by 24.2%, urban runoff from roads, roads, landfill areas, commercial and residential sites, etc. by 24.2%, agricultural activities landfill areas, commercial and residential sites, etc. by 24.2%, agricultural activities by by 12.5%, transportation by 10.6%, and oil spill by 7.2% (Figure 5b). 12.5%, transportation by 10.6%, and oil spill by 7.2% (Figure 5b). Respondents pointed out several sources to consider soil pollution in the field survey. Respondents pointed out several sources to consider soil pollution in the field survey. Municipal solid waste (52.0%) and deforestation (51.4%) were considered to be mainly Municipal solid waste (52.0%) and deforestation (51.4%) were considered to be mainly responsible for soil pollution in the city, followed by urban runoff (43.0%), industrial responsible for soil pollution in the city, followed by urban runoff (43.0%), industrial ac- activities (40.8%), agricultural activities (37.4%), discharge of industrial effluents (33.0%), tivities (40.8%), agricultural activities (37.4%), discharge of industrial effluents (33.0%), construction activities (26.8%), municipal sewage treatment plant (19.0%), and medical construction activities (26.8%), municipal sewage treatment plant (19.0%), and medical waste (17.9%) in both city corporations (Figure 5c). waste (17.9%) in both city corporations (Figure 5c). There are many sources of noise pollution found in the study area (Figure 5d). The There are many sources of noise pollution found in the study area (Figure 5d). The most common sources identified by the respondents included vehicle horns (99.0%), use most common sources identified by the respondents included vehicle horns (99.0%), use of mikes and soundboxes (94.5%), overpopulation (69.4%), construction sites (69.0%), of mikes and soundboxes (94.5%), overpopulation (69.4%), construction sites (69.0%), au- automobiles (63.0%), industrial pollutants (10.9%), domestic activities (6.6%), and other tomobiles (63.0%), industrial pollutants (10.9%), domestic activities (6.6%), and other sources (6.3%). sources (6.3%). 3.4. Observation of the Duration and Times of Major Environmental Pollutions in the Study Area 3.4. Observation of the Duration and Times of Major Environmental Pollutions in the Study During the survey, the respondents were questioned when they have especially faced Area major environmental contamination types, mostly during the day, week, and main seasons. All respondents stated that they regularly face air pollution in the daytime, but 29% also Sources of air pollution Sources of soil pollution Sources of noise pollution Sources of water pollution Earth 2021, 2, FOR PEER REVIEW 11 Earth 2021, 2 133 During the survey, the respondents were questioned when they have especially faced major environmental contamination types, mostly during the day, week, and main sea- sons. All respondents stated that they regularly face air pollution in the daytime, but 29% a noticed lso notiit ced during it duri the ng the ni night. About ght. About 72 72.8% of .8% of people peop claimed le claimed that they observe a that they observe air pollut ir pol ion - lution every ever day of y day the of the week; we mor ek; moreover, around eover, around 40.6% of 40.6% of people experienced people experienced it in the itwet in the wet season compared to 94.9% of people in the dry season (Figure 6). season compared to 94.9% of people in the dry season (Figure 6). Air pollution Water pollution Soil pollution Noise pollution Day time Night time Every day Wet season Dry season Duration of major envionmental pollutions Figure 6. Duration of major types of environmental pollutions noticed by respondents (multiple Figure 6. Duration of major types of environmental pollutions noticed by respondents (multiple re- responses). sponses). Water pollution is a regular phenomenon in the daytime in the study area, but about Water pollution is a regular phenomenon in the daytime in the study area, but about 43% of respondents also think it happens during the night. Approximately 76.6% of peo- 43% of respondents also think it happens during the night. Approximately 76.6% of people ple observed observed water water po pollution llution every every day d ofa the y of th week, e week and about , and ab 98.4% out 98 of .people 4% of p experienced eople experit i- enced it in the wet season; only 44.8% of people noticed this pollution in the dry season. in the wet season; only 44.8% of people noticed this pollution in the dry season. Generally, Generally the degree, th of e degr water ee o pollution f water pollut is higher ion in is high the dryer season. in the dry However season , water . However bodies , w ar ae ter bod- almost ies dried areup almos in this t dried season, up in soth water is season pollution , so wat iser po not vi llu sible tion is to not the vi study sible t ar oea threespondents. study area respondents. About 100% About 100% of respondents of encounter responde ednts encountered soil pollution in the soil pollution in the daytime, whereas only daytime 12.3%, also thought it happens during the night. About 70% of people observed soil pollution whereas only 12.3% also thought it happens during the night. About 70% of people ob- every day of the week, and around 70.1% of people experienced it in the wet season; 81.7% served soil pollution every day of the week, and around 70.1% of people experienced it in of people found this pollution in the dry season. Each and all respondents mentioned the wet season; 81.7% of people found this pollution in the dry season. Each and all re- experiencing noise pollution in the daytime, but 34.9% also experienced it during the night. spondents mentioned experiencing noise pollution in the daytime, but 34.9% also experi- Around 80.1% of people experienced noise pollution every day of the week, and about enced it during the night. Around 80.1% of people experienced noise pollution every day 81.7% of people experience it in the wet season; 98.0% of people observe it in the dry season of the week, and about 81.7% of people experience it in the wet season; 98.0% of people (Figure 5). observe it in the dry season (Figure 5). 3.5. Effectiveness of Current Environmental Programs and Respondents’ Media Preference in 3.5. Effectiveness of Current Environmental Programs and Respondents’ Media Preference in Environmental Information Environmental Information Respondents were asked whether current environmental programs are effective or Respondents were asked whether current environmental programs are effective or not for environmental awareness. Around 51.0% of respondents knew about the ac- not for environmental awareness. Around 51.0% of respondents knew about the activities tivities that can decrease pollution in their surroundings. They also mentioned those that can decrease pollution in their surroundings. They also mentioned those activi- activities/programs: public awareness program, social engagement on cleaning and tree ties/programs: public awareness program, social engagement on cleaning and tree plan- plantation, law enforcement activity, etc., arranged by the government as well as non- tation, law enforcement activity, etc., arranged by the government as well as non-govern- governmental organizations. About 28.5% of respondents claimed that these environmental mental organizations. About 28.5% of respondents claimed that these environmental pro- programs could effectively reduce environmental pollutions in the city. Around 22.3% of grams could effectively reduce environmental pollutions in the city. Around 22.3% of re- respondents gave an average response to the effectiveness of environmental programs. On spondents gave an average response to the effectiveness of environmental programs. On the contrary, 49.0% did not know about environmental programs (Table 5). the contrary, 49.0% did not know about environmental programs (Table 5). Percentage Earth 2021, 2, FOR PEER REVIEW 12 Earth 2021, 2 134 Table 5. Effectiveness of environmental programs/activities. Table 5. Effectiveness of environmental programs/activities. Effectiveness of Environmental Programs/Activities Percentage Effectiveness of Environmental Programs/Activities Percentage Very effective 28.5 Very effective 28.5 Average 22.3 Average 22.3 Poor 0.3 Poor 0.3 Unknown 49.0 Unknown 49.0 Source: Field survey, 2018. Source: Field survey, 2018. In the survey, people were also asked whether they participated in any environmen- In the survey, people were also asked whether they participated in any environmental tal education program or not. Only 9.0% of respondents remarked that they had taken education program or not. Only 9.0% of respondents remarked that they had taken part in part in programs arranged by DSCC, DNCC, and other agencies in the last few years to programs arranged by DSCC, DNCC, and other agencies in the last few years to protect protect the city’s environment and reveal the programs’ details. In 2014, a pilot project the city’s environment and reveal the programs’ details. In 2014, a pilot project named named ‘Clean ‘Clean Streets for Streets for D Dhaka haka City’ City’ was cond was conducted ucted bby y DNCC DNCC and and DSCC to wor DSCC to work k for for the the Better Better Ba Bangladesh ngladesh Tr Tust rust to deve to develop lop a a be better tter wa waste ste mana management gement system system [5 [54].4] In . In 2017, 2017 an , a awar n eness program was conducted by Reckitt Benckiser (Bangladesh) Limited to create awareness awareness program was conducted by Reckitt Benckiser (Bangladesh) Limited to create awarenes on s on the th well-be e well-bein ing and g and hygiene hygien among e among five five million million peopl people, of e, of wh which ich t thehname e name is “Dettol- is “Dettol-C Channel hannel i Porich i Porichonno onno Bang Bangladesh ladesh ,” which ,” which w will be ill be complet completed in ed in 2020 20 [55 20]. [5 Several 5]. Sever universities al of Dhaka organize rallies and awareness-raising programs on ‘World Environment Day’ universities of Dhaka organize rallies and awareness-raising programs on ‘World Envi- every year. ronment Day’ every year. Respondents were also asked what types of media they liked to use to acquire en- Respondents were also asked what types of media they liked to use to acquire envi- vironmental information. Most people thought that television programs (91.7%) and ronmental information. Most people thought that television programs (91.7%) and news- newspapers (84.4%) were effective at creating awareness about environmental pollution’s papers (84.4%) were effective at creating awareness about environmental pollution’s harmful impact, followed by radio (62.9%), books (69.6%), and online sources (57.7%) harmful impact, followed by radio (62.9%), books (69.6%), and online sources (57.7%) (Fig- (Figure 7). ure 7). Online, 57.7% Television, 91.7 Newspapers, 84.4% Radio, 62.9 Books, 69.6 Figure 7. Types of media chosen by the respondents (Multiple Responses). Figure 7. Types of media chosen by the respondents (Multiple Responses). 4. Discussio 4. Discussion n and Polic and y Im Policy plicatImplications ions The study rev The study eals that city reveals that dwellers perc city dwellers eive different perceive dif aspects o ferent aspects f environmental of environmental pol- pol- lution from their surrounding environment. About 61% of respondents do not know lution from their surrounding environment. About 61% of respondents do not know dis- distinctly about the types, causes, and effects of environmental pollution, which indicates tinctly about the types, causes, and effects of environmental pollution, which indicates that their daily activities contaminate their surrounding environment. Unfortunately, they that their daily activities contaminate their surrounding environment. Unfortunately, they are not well informed about this matter. More than 50% of respondents were able to identify are not well informed about this matter. More than 50% of respondents were able to iden- the air, water, and noise pollution, but only a few respondents identified soil pollution. tify the air, water, and noise pollution, but only a few respondents identified soil pollu- Moreover, many respondents could not recognize the significant sources of air, water, soil, tion. Moreover, many respondents could not recognize the significant sources of air, wa- and noise pollutants, showing their unawareness about the environment. Many people ter, soil, and noise pollutants, showing their unawareness about the environment. Many Earth 2021, 2 135 come to Dhaka City to get better public facilities every day, and many unskilled poor people come to search a job, engaging in different informal sectors. This rural–urban migration of people creates a force on the urban environment, and the responsible organizations of this city have failed to control this migratory force. Another important aspect is that people ignore the existing environmental laws of this country. The Government of Bangladesh (GoB) has enacted and amended several environmental acts, rules, and laws to improve the environmental condition. The major legislations are the Environment Policy, 1992; Bangladesh Environment Protection Act, 1995; Environmental Conservation Rules, 1997; Ozone Depleting Substances (Control) Rules, 2004; Bangladesh Environment Court Act (ECA), 2010 (formed in 2000); National Environmental Policy, 2018, etc. [56–59]. The Na- tional Environment Management Action Plan (NEMAP) from 1995 to 2005 was developed by the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) to ensure environmentally friendly development via a policy framework that has a guideline for promoting proper resources management, raising awareness among the people, and improvement of environmental degradation [60]. The Department of Environment (DoE) in Bangladesh is working to reduce air pollution under the CASE (Clean Air and Sustainable Environment) project, with an emphasis on raising awareness among the general population to understand the ne- cessity of clean air for the city [61]. Though the country has many environmental laws, and the responsible authorities have taken several initiatives to implement them, enforcement has been unsuccessful due to the population’s common tendency to ignore the existing regulations [56,62]. The findings of the current study show the resemblance with other research. The sur- vey of residents in Al-Suwaiq Wilayat, Sultanate of Oman, showed 77% of the respondents had a high degree of interest and concern about environmental issues, but still needed en- vironmental education and awareness programs [27]. People’s understanding, awareness, and participation towards environmental issues are significantly low in Bangladesh [24]. People’s knowledge level and behavior in Dhaka towards air pollution were low among different age groups, income groups, and occupation groups [63]. Similar findings were found in another study [64]. The overall situation explains many causes of the illiter- acy of dwellers to environmental pollution in the study area. Moreover, the numbers of awareness-raising programs are not enough to make people proactive in decreasing pollution in the study area. These facts are also common for developing countries, where environmental pollution is increasing severely day by day due to public environmental ignorance and intention of acting. The study’s outcomes and the discussion mentioned earlier leads us to recommended some strategies and policies at the local, institutional, and national levels: Discouraging rural–urban migration at the national level: It is essential to decentralize all public amenities by displacing the garment industries from Dhaka City, growing employment opportunities in rural areas, using modern technology in agriculture, and establishing better healthcare centers and educational institutions all over the country. Forming an environmental committee at the local level: Every city ward authority (the lowest administrative unit) can create an environmental committee that directly dis- cusses environmental information with the local people through leaflets, workshops, seminars, cleaning programs, etc. Improving solid waste management at the community level: A waste management committee can be formed at the community level that regulates waste disposal for overall environmental management. The committee can inspire the people to keep their domestic waste separately and properly dispose of it. Starting an environmental education subject at the institutional level: A mandatory environmental awareness-related subject can be introduced in primary schools, where children will practice how to use resources and to clean their surrounding environ- ments. Making films, documentaries, and drama for environmental awareness: Environmen- tal information based on documentaries, movies, advertisements, and drama can be Earth 2021, 2 136 made and shown on television and shared on social media, including YouTube, for mass awareness. Encouraging environmentally friendly transportation: Eco-friendly vehicles can re- duce air pollution by replacing fossil fuels to clean energy such as solar and wind energy. Regulating the dust from roads and construction sites: Building or construction sites must have a solid fence during construction. Road pavement, regular washing, cleaning, and water spraying, particularly in the dry season, can reduce the road’s dust. Reducing the price of environmentally friendly products: Lessening the value of eco-friendly products can attract consumers to purchase them. Increasing the tree plantation for noise pollution reduction: A huge number of trees inside and surrounding schools, parks, hospitals, markets, and recreational places can control noise pollution. The three Rs (reuse, reduce, and recycle) of resources: Reusing resources can diminish waste from the environment and save money. Reducing the emission of greenhouse gases and debris can help to build a sustainable environment for future generations. People should be encouraged to mend and maintain their daily essential products and recycle them. Evaluating environmental impacts: Before starting any development works, the proper authority must assess the environmental effects. A skilled workforce should be recruited in the Department of Environment, Dhaka, Bangladesh, for its early evaluation process and surveillance. 5. Conclusions The paper analyzes the extent and severity of environmental pollution in developing countries. The remedial measures were suggested based on the questionnaire survey in the polluted sites, collected data, and information on the types, causes, effects, sources, and duration of environmental pollutions obtained from available publications and newspaper information. The demographic characteristics, causes of environmental pollution, and the impact of the sources of water pollution, air pollution, soil pollution, and noise pollution were presented in tabular and graphical form for better understanding. The results showed that 39.0% of the respondents had explicit knowledge about environmental pollution, while 73.8% had explicit knowledge about air pollution, 63.0% about noise pollution, 55.2% about water pollution, and 6.5% about soil pollution. It is interesting to note that about 49.0% of the respondents did not understand the currently conducted environmental programs’ effectiveness. The outcomes of the study are also similar to the pollution status of China, India, and Pakistan. A comprehensive discussion on the urgency of forming a local-level environmental committee, an active role of the mass media, and monitoring the development activities are presented, along with the countermeasures taken by the government of the country. Author Contributions: N.N.: Conceptualization, methodology, formal analysis, investigation, re- sources, data curation, writing—original draft preparation, writing—review and editing, visualiza- tion, supervision, project administration, and funding acquisition. S.M.: Formal analysis, methodol- ogy, investigation, data curation, and writing—original draft preparation. Z.H.: Conceptualization, Formal analysis, visualization, writing—original draft preparation, and writing—review and editing. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Funding: This research was funded by the University Grants Commission and Jagannath University (UGC-JnU Project, 2017-18) of Bangladesh (Grant No. 131/2011/1540) for the research paper. The funding authorities have no involvement in the study. Institutional Review Board Statement: No ethical issue or concern related to human subjects and environment was reported in this study. Informed Consent Statement: Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study. Earth 2021, 2 137 Data Availability Statement: All data of this manuscripts are available if it is necessary. The data are not publicly available due to ethical restrictions on the use of the data. Acknowledgments: The authors wish to gratefully acknowledge the University Grants Commission and Jagannath University (UGC-JnU Project, 2017-18) of Bangladesh for financial assistance of the paper ’s research. The authors also show gratitude to the respondents for their voluntary participation during the questionnaire survey. Finally, we express our thanks to the anonymous reviewers who reviewed the paper. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. Rahman, K.M.; Rummana, R.; Aziz, S.; Nishat, B. Urban pollution in Dhaka City: A tri-partite qualitative model for alleviation and prevention. 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Adolescents perception on environmental change and health risk in two divisions of Bangladesh. Open J. Soc. Sci. 2015, 3, 71–79. [CrossRef] http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Earth Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

The Severity of Environmental Pollution in the Developing Countries and Its Remedial Measures

Earth , Volume 2 (1) – Feb 28, 2021

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Article The Severity of Environmental Pollution in the Developing Countries and Its Remedial Measures 1 , 2 , 1 2 Najmun Nahar * , Sanjia Mahiuddin and Zakaria Hossain Life and Earth Science, Jagannath University, Dhaka 1100, Bangladesh; sanjia3366@gmail.com Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu 514-8507, Japan; zakaria@bio.mie-u.ac.jp * Correspondence: 519d2s3@m.mie-u.ac.jp; Tel.: +81-90-9196-8981 Abstract: Environmental pollution has a great impact on human health, ecosystems, and financial development. This paper depicts the recent studies on the severity of environmental pollution in developing countries. Its remedial measures were based on a questionnaire survey in the polluted sites, which collected data and information on the types, causes, effects, sources, and duration of environmental pollution, obtained from available publications and newspaper information reported in recent years. A total of 400 respondents from 10 zones of Dhaka City Corporation, Bangladesh, were interviewed as a case study via a semi-structured questionnaire survey. The results revealed that only 39.0% of respondents had explicit knowledge about environmental pollution. Air pollution was identified by 73.8%, noise pollution by 63.0%, water pollution by 55.2%, and soil pollution by only 6.5% of respondents in their surroundings. Automobiles, domestic activities, municipal garbage, and vehicle horns are significant sources of environmental pollutions. Around 49.0% of the respondents did not understand the effectiveness of currently conducted environmental programs. A discussion regarding the urgency of forming a local level environmental committee, the mass media’s active role, and monitoring the development activities was presented. Citation: Nahar, N.; Mahiuddin, S.; Keywords: urban environmental management; environmental information; statistical analysis; Hossain, Z. The Severity of Environmental Pollution in the environmental policy; environmental awareness Developing Countries and Its Remedial Measures. Earth 2021, 2, 124–139. https://doi.org/10.3390/ earth2010008 1. Introduction Environmental pollution is a burning issue for most developing nations in the world [1]. Academic Editor: Charles Jones Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan, which are developing countries, have the highest expo- sures to fine particulate matter in the air among the 10 most populous countries globally [2]. Received: 11 January 2021 The environmental degradation, such as air, water, land, and noise pollution, is a danger Accepted: 23 February 2021 to human health, ecosystems, and financial development [3]. Rapid industrialization in Published: 28 February 2021 developing countries has led to the emission of a range of toxic effluents directly into the soil, air, and water [4]. Pollution badly affects the GDP growth of developing countries Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral such as Argentina, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, China, Colombia, India, Laos, Morocco, with regard to jurisdictional claims in Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, and Zambia, at national and local levels [5]. These nations suffer published maps and institutional affil- from severe contamination annually, causing ill health, death, and disabilities in millions iations. of people, as their economies largely depend on natural resources [6]. More than half of the global premature deaths occur due to high air pollution in South Asian countries, especially in India, China, Bangladesh, Nepal, etc. [7]. Being situated in a developing country, Dhaka, the capital and primate city of Bangladesh, is one of the most contami- Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. nated cities in this nation and the third most contaminated city in the world [8,9]. Rapid Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. urbanization and uncontrolled population growth create mismanagement of urban services This article is an open access article and general environmental quality deterioration [10]. More than 7 million people live in distributed under the terms and Dhaka, with a density of 49,182 people per sq. km. in a total area of 143 sq. km. [11]. conditions of the Creative Commons The rapid growth of urbanization and the enormous demands on urban utility services, Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// waste disposal, transports, social services, etc., generates tremendous pressure on the creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ geo-environment [12–16]. The unplanned construction of the road, railways, flyover, and 4.0/). Earth 2021, 2, 124–139. https://doi.org/10.3390/earth2010008 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/earth Earth 2021, 2 125 buildings causes air pollution by mixing road dust and soil dust in the atmosphere [17]. Highly polluted air reduces the city’s economic growth and poses severe health issues [18]. An index was prepared by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, which ranked Dhaka as the fourth most polluted city with one of the lowest quality air globally and an index value of 195 [19]. According to the 2019 World Air Quality Report, Dhaka has the second-highest average annual PM concentrations (g/m ) in the air [20]. The city’s 2.5 rivers are getting polluted due to industrial and domestic activities, sewerage, medical waste, municipal waste, discharge of toxic chemicals, etc. [21]. The soil pollution issue is not recognized correctly and ignored in various policy documents. Moreover, noise pollution is adversely affecting the urban environment and is causing a severe health hazard for the city dwellers [22]. Peoples do not have adequate knowledge about the causes and consequences of en- vironmental problems. However, some educational institutions have been undertaken to enhance the environmental management system of Bangladesh [23]. People’s environmen- tal perception and their actions against environmental pollution, and the possible health risks associated with pollutants, are rarely given attention in the country [24]. It is essential to know people’s perception on the environmental pollution to understand the actions they take with regards to the environment [25]. Additionally, we need to understand the envi- ronmental psychology to create effective environmental policies. Moreover, local people can highlight their daily experiences on the severity of environmental pollution [26]. Peo- ple’s knowledge and past experiences about environmental issues significantly influence their perceptions, attitudes, and awareness-building [27]. In that case, local knowledge can be useful in creating pressure on environmental planners to find new ways to improve environmental conditions to help policymakers in decision-making via coordinating with professional practitioners and scientists [26]. Practical and encouraging public responses to environmental pollution issues can reduce environmental problems [28]. Therefore, in light of the above discussion, Dhaka City, Bangladesh, was selected as the study area in a developing country to represent residents’ observations and views on the types, causes, effects, sources, and timing of environmental pollution and provide recommendations for pollution reduction. This research is highly significant for policy-making and appli- cation to the environment. Many researchers have already investigated the physical and chemical properties of the contaminated air, water, and soil for measuring the level of environmental pollution. The researchers also identified the varioustypes, causes, effects, and duration of environmental pollution. To date, very few or no studies reported the residents’ knowledge, observation, and opinion about the overall environmental pollution. In this research, the primary information about environmental pollution was collected through a semi-structured questionnaire survey in the study area. A total of 400 respon- dents were selected by a simple random sampling technique, considering gender, age group, religion, marital status, education level, occupation, economic class, and living duration. Demographic characteristics, causes of environmental pollution, and the effect of pollution sources, such as sources of water pollution, air pollution, soil pollution, and noise pollution, are presented, and possible remedial measures are discussed. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. The Study Area Dhaka is one of the oldest and most prominent cities in the South Asian region [29], and is Bangladesh’s capital city, covering an area of 1528 km [12,30]. It is located in the central part of Bangladesh and lies in the lower parts of the Ganges Delta, between the 0  0  0  0 latitudes 23 35 N–23 54 N and the longitudes 90 19 E–90 30 E (Figure 1). The city’s expansion is bounded by the Buriganga River in the south, the Turag River in the west, and the Balu River in the east [13,31]. The city’s land area is mostly flat with slight undulations, and is close to the mean sea level [12,32]. The study area enjoys distinct primacy for its large population in the national urban hi- erarchy. This city contains 37% of the total national urban population, which is higher than Earth 2021, 2 126 the combined total of the next three largest cities of Chittagong, Khulna, and Rajshahi [33]. The urban population is growing massively at an estimated 4.2% annually through rural– urban migration [34], as the city is an attractive place for employment opportunities to millions of rural poor people in Bangladesh [32,33,35]. Every year, millions of poor people (who are too unskilled to get a job in the formal urban sector) migrate from rural areas to Dhaka City to find a job [36]. This city’s economy is mainly based on the informal sector [37], which provides jobs for many people, and contributes to 36% of the national GDP and creates 31.8% of the country’s total employment [38]. Moreover, Bangladesh earns the highest foreign exchange from the Ready-Made Garments (RMGs) sector, as 80% of the RMGs factories are located in this city, providing jobs for thousands of especially women workers who migrate from different parts of this country [33,38,39]. The rapid growth of RMGs with other pull factors is the main reason for the city’s population increase. The city plays an important role in the country in terms of its share of the total population and the concentration of civil administration, economy, trade, and commerce. It is well connected with railways, roads, and waterways to all topmost towns and cities, as it is centrally located in the country [40]. Thus, people can come quickly to this city for better healthcare services, educational facilities, and better employment opportunities that caused the town to become overcrowded [32,33]. The study area is now suffering severe environmental difficulties due to rapid population growth, unplanned urbanization, improper solid waste management, and unsatisfactory environmental behavior. Thus, Dhaka City was selected as the study area for understanding the inhabitants’ thoughts and views on what they observe in their surrounding environment. Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) is now divided into two city corporations, the Dhaka North City Corporation (DNCC) and the Dhaka Earth 2021, 2, FOR PEER REVIEW 4 South City Corporation (DSCC), and each city corporation is divided into five zones for administrative convenience (Figure 1). Figure 1. Location and extent of the study area (source: modified from [41]). Note: DNCC = Dhaka Figure 1. Location and extent of the study area (source: modified from [41]). Note: DNCC = Dhaka North City Corporation and DSCC = Dhaka South City Corporation. North City Corporation and DSCC = Dhaka South City Corporation. 2.2. Model Used in This Study The Behavioral Change Model by Hungerford and Volk [42] was used in this study. The model expresses the link between environmental knowledge, attitude or awareness, and responsible environmental action (Figure 2). The environmental perception of human beings inspires the environmentally friendly attitude or understanding that also stimu- lates human psychology to grow environmental acting. Again, environmental knowledge and behavior depend on the demographic characteristics [43–45]. Thus, the respondents’ status of experience and observation about environmental pollution assumes their envi- ronmental behavior and actions in the study area, indicating the severity of environmental pollution in developing countries. Environmental Environmental Environmental Awareness or Knowledge Action Attiutude Figure 2. The Behavioral Change Model of Hungerford and Volk [42]. 2.3. Data and Information Collection In this study, mainly primary data, along with secondary data, were used. For show- ing the state of people’s observation about environmental pollution, a questionnaire sur- vey was conducted as part of the primary data collection in both city corporations (DNCC and DSCC). Direct field observation was also conducted for the study. The field survey was carried out by a research team comprising 10 surveyors from 2 March to 16 March in Earth 2021, 2, FOR PEER REVIEW 4 Earth 2021, 2 127 Figure 1. Location and extent of the study area (source: modified from [41]). Note: DNCC = Dhaka North City Corporation and DSCC = Dhaka South City Corporation. 2.2. Model Used in This Study 2.2. Model Used in This Study The Behavioral Change Model by Hungerford and Volk [42] was used in this study. The Behavioral Change Model by Hungerford and Volk [42] was used in this study. The model expresses the link between environmental knowledge, attitude or awareness, The model expresses the link between environmental knowledge, attitude or awareness, and responsible environmental action (Figure 2). The environmental perception of human and responsible environmental action (Figure 2). The environmental perception of human beings inspires the environmentally friendly attitude or understanding that also stimulates beings inspires the environmentally friendly attitude or understanding that also stimu- human psychology to grow environmental acting. Again, environmental knowledge and lates human psychology to grow environmental acting. Again, environmental knowledge behavior depend on the demographic characteristics [43–45]. Thus, the respondents’ status and behavior depend on the demographic characteristics [43–45]. Thus, the respondents’ of experience and observation about environmental pollution assumes their environmental status of experience and observation about environmental pollution assumes their envi- behavior and actions in the study area, indicating the severity of environmental pollution ronmental behavior and actions in the study area, indicating the severity of environmental in developing countries. pollution in developing countries. Environmental Environmental Environmental Awareness or Knowledge Action Attiutude Figure 2. The Behavioral Change Model of Hungerford and Volk [42]. Figure 2. The Behavioral Change Model of Hungerford and Volk [42]. 2.3. Data and Information Collection 2.3. Data and Information Collection In this study, mainly primary data, along with secondary data, were used. For show- In this study, mainly primary data, along with secondary data, were used. For showing ing the state of people’s observation about environmental pollution, a questionnaire sur- the state of people’s observation about environmental pollution, a questionnaire survey vey was conducted as part of the primary data collection in both city corporations (DNCC was conducted as part of the primary data collection in both city corporations (DNCC and DSCC). and DSCC). Direct Direct field o field observation bservation w was as also also cond conducted ucted for for the the study. The study. The field survey field survey was c was carried arried o out ut by a resear by a resear ch team com ch team comprising prising 10 su 10 surveyors rveyors from 2 from March 2 March to t16 March in o 16 March in 2018. The secondary data were used as supplementary to the primary data. Various published and unpublished documents, such as books, journals, reports, dissertations, theses, national and international newspapers, online newspapers, etc., were used as secondary data sources. ArcGIS software was used to prepare the map for showing the location of the study area. 2.4. Structure of the Questionnaire A semi-structured questionnaire was prepared for primary data collection to un- derstand peoples’ environmental knowledge level, designed by reviewing the relevant studies [24,46–50]. The study’s finalized questionnaire was on the causes, types, sources, effects and timing of environmental pollution, and environmental program and media effec- tiveness. The questions were arranged as open-ended and close-ended. The questionnaire’s response to each close-ended question was categorized into options, and respondents were requested to choose the appropriate options. The structure of the questionnaire is exhibited in Table 1. Table 1. Structure of the questionnaire and questions asked to the respondents. No. Major Sections Questions Gender Age Religion Marital status 1 Demographic profile of the respondents Occupation Monthly income in Bangladeshi Taka (BDT) Living duration Earth 2021, 2 128 Table 1. Cont. No. Major Sections Questions Knowing the level of causes and types of environmental pollution: clearly/moderately/fairly/partially/unknown Identification of the major types of environmental pollution in the study area Primary knowledge about significant types, Identification of the causes of environmental pollution in the 2 causes, effects, and sources of environmental study area pollution Identification of the major effects of environmental pollution Identification of the sources of different types of environmental pollution in the study area Daily: daytime/nighttime Weekly: Numbers of days in a week 3 Observation of pollution timing and duration Seasonally: wet season/dry season Effectiveness of conducted environmental programs: very Effectiveness of current environmental effective/average/poor/unknown 4 programs and media preference for Types of media: environmental information Television/newspaper/online/radio/book/others 2.5. Sampling Technique and Sample Size Determination For the questionnaire survey, a total of 400 households (one respondent from one family) were randomly selected with a 95% confidence level and 5 precision level [51] from a total of 1,576,746 households of the Dhaka City Corporation [52]. The following simplified formula, detailed by Yamane in [51], was used: n = 1 + N(e) where n is the sample size, N refers to the population size, and e is the level of precision. The questionnaire survey was completed by the residents of 10 zones of both city corporations (DNCC and DSCC), taking 40 respondents from each zone using a simple random sampling technique. 2.6. Data Processing and Analysis Collected data were processed and analyzed separately using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 20 by IBM corporation, New York, NY, USA and MS Excel. The analyzed data were incorporated into the text, tables, and graphs. To understand the respondents’ opinion towards the causes, types, sources, effects and timing of different environmental pollutions, normal frequency (n) and percentage (%) distribution and multiple response analysis were used. For measuring percentage, the following formula was used: % =  100 where % is the percentage, f is the frequency, and N is the number of cases [53]. 3. Results 3.1. Demographic Information of Respondents of the Study Area For the study purpose, a total of 400 respondents were interviewed; among them, about 66.3% of respondents were male, and around 33.8% of respondents were female. In terms of age, below 18 years old was not taken into account for the study. Approximately 44.8% of total respondents belonged to the age group of 31–40 years, followed by nearly 27.8% of respondents in the age group of 21–30 years and 26% in the age group of above Earth 2021, 2 129 40 years. The rest of the respondents (1.5%) were in the age group of 18–20. Most of the respondents (74.8%) were married, and Muslim respondents were dominants (91.3%). With regards to educational status, around 46.3% of respondents completed tertiary educa- tion, and 37.8% had completed secondary education. Only 12% had completed primary education, while 4% received no education (Table 2). Table 2. Demographic information of the respondents of the study area. Frequency Chi-Square Demographic Characteristics Percentage Mean Std. Dev. p-Value (n = 400) ( ) Male 265 66.3 Gender 1.34 0.473 42.250 0.000 Female 135 33.8 18–20 years 6 1.5 21–30 years 111 27.8 Age Group 2.95 0.772 152.140 0.000 31–40 years 179 44.8 >40 years 104 26.0 Hindu 33 8.3 Religion Muslim 365 91.3 1.92 0.286 607.385 0.000 Christian 2 0.5 Unmarried 90 22.5 Married 299 74.8 Marital Status 1.81 0.489 575.740 0.000 Widow/Widower 8 2.0 Divorced 3 0.8 Illiterate 16 4.0 Primary 48 12.0 Education 3.26 0.822 195.860 0.000 Secondary 151 37.8 Level Tertiary 185 46.3 Unemployed 27 6.8 Business 112 28.0 Occupation Service 134 33.5 3.04 1.126 93.925 0.000 Home manager 74 18.5 Student 53 13.3 <10,000 BDT 133 33.3 11,000–15,000 BDT 26 6.5 Monthly 16,000–20,000 BDT 45 11.3 2.98 1.952 98.575 0.000 Income 21,000–30,000 BDT 110 27.5 >30,000 BDT 86 21.5 <1 year 6 1.5 1–3 years 31 7.8 Living 3–5 years 76 19.0 4.07 1.044 238.475 0.000 Duration 5–10 years 104 26.0 >10 years 183 45.8 Regarding the occupation, approximately 34% of respondents were service holders and 28% are businessmen. Around 19% of respondents were female home managers. Only 13.3% were students and 6.8% were unemployed respondents. The income of the respondents was categorized according to their earning information. The highest portion of respondents (approximately 33.3%) had monthly earnings of below 10,000 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT), whereas about 28% of respondents had an income between 21,000–30,000 BDT and about 22% had an income of above 30,000 BDT. The survey result demonstrates that 45.8% of people had lived in the study area for more than 10 years, followed by 26% of respondents from 5 to 10 years and 19% from 3 to 5 years (Table 2). 3.2. Residents’ Opinion about the Causes and Types of Environmental Pollution In the study area, respondents were asked whether they knew about the types, causes, and effects of environmental pollution. According to their replies, around 39% of respon- Earth 2021, 2, FOR PEER REVIEW 8 respondents knew about these clearly, 34.7% moderately, 14.0% fairly, and 11.0% par- tially. Only 0.8% of people did not understand the causes of environmental pollution (Fig- Earth 2021, 2, FOR PEER REVIEW 8 Earth 2021, 2 130 ure 3). Respondents in the study area were also questioned about environmental pollution types that they could identify through daily observation. Their answers revealed that air respondents knew about these clearly, 34.7% moderately, 14.0% fairly, and 11.0% par- pollution was recognized by 73.8% of respondents, noise pollution by 63.0%, water pollu- dents knew about these clearly, 34.7% moderately, 14.0% fairly, and 11.0% partially. Only tially. Only 0.8% of people did not understand the causes of environmental pollution (Fig- tion by 55.2%, soil pollution by 6.5%, and other pollution by 2.0% of people (Figure 4). 0.8% of people did not understand the causes of environmental pollution (Figure 3). ure 3). Respondents in the study area were also questioned about environmental pollution types that they could identify through daily observation. Their answers revealed that air 39.0% pollution was recognized by 73.8% of respondents, noise pollution by 63.0%, water pollu- 34.7% tion by 55.2%, soil pollution by 6.5%, and other pollution by 2.0% of people (Figure 4). 14.0% 11.5% 39.0% 34.7% 0.8% 14.0% 11.5% Knowing level 0.8% Figure 3. Knowing the respondents’ level about the types, causes, and effects of environmental Figure 3. Knowing the respondents’ level about the types, causes, and effects of environmental pollution in the study area. pollution in the study area. RespondentsOthers, in the study area were also questioned about environmental pollution Knowing level 2.0% types that they could identify through daily observation. Their answers revealed that Figure 3. air pollution Knowing the respo was recognized ndents’ leve by l a 73.8% bout the ty of respondents, pes, causes, and noise effects of env pollution ironmental by 63.0%, water pollupollution tion in the stu by d 55.2%, y area.soil pollution by 6.5%, and other pollution by 2.0% of people (Figure 4). Noise Air pollution, pollution, Others, 63.0% 73.8% 2.0% Water Soil Noise pollution, Air pollution, pollution, 55.2% pollution, 6.5% 63.0% 73.8% Water Figure 4. Types of environmental pollution identified by the respondents (multiple responses). Soil pollution, pollution, 55.2% People who know the causes of pollution also mentioned the significant causes of 6.5% environmental pollution in their surrounding area (Table 3). About 88.3% of people Figure 4. Types of environmental pollution identified by the respondents (multiple responses). claimed that unplanned urbanization responsible for contamination in the city. Moreover, Figure 4. 85.0% Types of of peo environmental pollution ple reported that improper identifie wast d by e di thspos e respondents al continu (m ally ultiple respo contamin nat ses). es t he soil, People who know the causes of pollution also mentioned the significant causes of air, and water of the town, and 87.6% of them remarked that land fill-up by waste caused environmental pollution in their surrounding area (Table 3). About 88.3% of people People who know the causes of pollution also mentioned the significant causes of land pollution, around 88.3% stated that chemicals and wastes created water contamina- claimed that unplanned urbanization responsible for contamination in the city. Moreover, environmental pollution in their surrounding area (Table 3). About 88.3% of people tion. Approximately 76.5% of people mentioned construction works, and 74.8% of people 85.0% of people reported that improper waste disposal continually contaminates the claimed that unplanned urbanization responsible for contamination in the city. Moreover, identified automobiles and industries as causing air and noise pollution. Lastly, soil, air, and water of the town, and 87.6% of them remarked that land fill-up by waste 85.0% of people reported that improper waste disposal continually contaminates the soil, 69.5%claimed environmental pollution is increasing rapidly due to less vegetation cover caused land pollution, around 88.3% stated that chemicals and wastes created water air, and water of the town, and 87.6% of them remarked that land fill-up by waste caused in the city. contamination. Approximately 76.5% of people mentioned construction works, and 74.8% land pollution, around 88.3% stated that chemicals and wastes created water contamina- of people identified automobiles and industries as causing air and noise pollution. Lastly, tion. Approximately 76.5% of people mentioned construction works, and 74.8% of people 69.5%claimed environmental pollution is increasing rapidly due to less vegetation cover in identified automobiles and industries as causing air and noise pollution. Lastly, the city. 69.5%claimed environmental pollution is increasing rapidly due to less vegetation cover in the city. Percentage Percentage Earth 2021, 2 131 Table 3. Major causes of environmental pollution identified by the respondents. Causes of Environmental Pollution Percentage Rapid population growth 40.3 Unplanned and ill-planned urbanization 88.3 Deforestation 69.5 Improper waste disposal and management 85.0 Emissions from industries and automobiles 74.8 Emissions of fossil fuels 48.8 Chemical effluents from industries 88.3 Landfills by wastes 87.6 Construction works 76.5 Indiscriminate use of loudspeakers 59.0 Source: Field survey, 2018 (Multiple responses). The respondents of the study area also mentioned the effects of environmental pol- lution (Table 4). About 91.6% of interviewees thought waterborne and airborne diseases are increasing gradually due to environmental pollution, injurious to health. Pollution eradicates the living and non-living components of environments and leads to the imbal- ance of ecosystems by impeding the ecosystems’ natural recovery, stated by about 77.4% of respondents. About 86.7% of respondents reported that smoke, smog, and suspended particles in the air and landfilling by non-biodegradable wastes destroy the city’s prettiness. Noise pollution interrupts the personal and working life of about 92.0% of respondents. About 75.3% of respondents reported that greenhouse gas emissions from industries and vehicles in the atmosphere increase the global temperature. Due to air pollution, the in- clining temperature trend affects the other elements of weather and climate, and the final consequence is climate change. Table 4. Major effects of environmental pollution identified by the respondents. Effects of Environmental Pollution Percentage Impacts on human health 91.6 Imbalances of ecosystems 77.4 Destroying the beauty of the city 86.7 Affecting the personal and working life 92.0 Global warming and climate change 75.3 Source: Field survey, 2018 (Multiple responses). 3.3. Residents’ Remarks about Sources of Significant Environmental Pollution in the Study Area Based on the dwellers’ responses in the study area, in the case of air pollution, around 92.5% of respondents stated that automobiles are the most important source of air pollution in the city. About 63.5% of respondents stated municipal solid waste to be a source of air pollution, 47.2% domestic activities, 46.0% construction activities, 39.7% the discharge of industrial effluents, 36.2% industrial activities, 29.2% medical waste, 14.5% deforestation, and 2.2% agricultural activities (Figure 5a). Earth 2021, 2 132 Earth 2021, 2, FOR PEER REVIEW 10 (b) (a) Deforestation 14.5% Urban runoffs 24.2% Construction activities 46.0% Oil spill 7.2% Sewage treatment plants 48.7% Medical waste 29.2% Medical waste 24.2% Industrial effluents 39.7% Industrial effluents 36.2% Municipal solid waste 63.5% Municipal solid waste 58.8% Agricultural activities 2.2% Agricultural activities 12.5% Automobiles 92.5% Transportation 10.6% Domestic activities 47.2% Domestic activities 66% Industrial activities 43.7% Industrial activities 36.2% (c) (d) Other sources 6.3% Urban runoffs 43% Mike and sound box 94.5% Deforestation 51.4% Construction activities 26.8% Vehicles horn 99.0% Sewage treatment plants 19.0% Over population crowd 69.4% Medical waste 17.9% Construction activities 69.0% Industrial effluents 33.0% Automobiles 63.0% Municipal solid waste 52.0% Agricultural activities Domestic activities 37.4% 6.6% Industrial activities 40.8% Industrial activities 10.9% Figure 5. Sources of (a) air pollution; (b) water pollution; (c) soil pollution; (d) noise pollution recognized by the respondents Figure 5. Sources of (a) air pollution; (b) water pollution; (c) soil pollution; (d) noise pollution recognized by the respond- in the study area (multiple responses). ents in the study area (multiple responses). Respondents mentioned the principal sources of water pollutionin the study area, Respondents mentioned the principal sources of water pollutionin the study area, of of which domestic activities were identified by 66.0% of respondents, municipal solid which domestic activities were identified by 66.0% of respondents, municipal solid waste waste by 58.8%, municipal sewage treatment plants by 49%, industrial activities by 44%, by 58.8%, municipal sewage treatment plants by 49%, industrial activities by 44%, dis- discharge of industrial effluents by 36.2%, medical waste by 24.2%, urban runoff from charge of industrial effluents by 36.2%, medical waste by 24.2%, urban runoff from roads, roads, landfill areas, commercial and residential sites, etc. by 24.2%, agricultural activities landfill areas, commercial and residential sites, etc. by 24.2%, agricultural activities by by 12.5%, transportation by 10.6%, and oil spill by 7.2% (Figure 5b). 12.5%, transportation by 10.6%, and oil spill by 7.2% (Figure 5b). Respondents pointed out several sources to consider soil pollution in the field survey. Respondents pointed out several sources to consider soil pollution in the field survey. Municipal solid waste (52.0%) and deforestation (51.4%) were considered to be mainly Municipal solid waste (52.0%) and deforestation (51.4%) were considered to be mainly responsible for soil pollution in the city, followed by urban runoff (43.0%), industrial responsible for soil pollution in the city, followed by urban runoff (43.0%), industrial ac- activities (40.8%), agricultural activities (37.4%), discharge of industrial effluents (33.0%), tivities (40.8%), agricultural activities (37.4%), discharge of industrial effluents (33.0%), construction activities (26.8%), municipal sewage treatment plant (19.0%), and medical construction activities (26.8%), municipal sewage treatment plant (19.0%), and medical waste (17.9%) in both city corporations (Figure 5c). waste (17.9%) in both city corporations (Figure 5c). There are many sources of noise pollution found in the study area (Figure 5d). The There are many sources of noise pollution found in the study area (Figure 5d). The most common sources identified by the respondents included vehicle horns (99.0%), use most common sources identified by the respondents included vehicle horns (99.0%), use of mikes and soundboxes (94.5%), overpopulation (69.4%), construction sites (69.0%), of mikes and soundboxes (94.5%), overpopulation (69.4%), construction sites (69.0%), au- automobiles (63.0%), industrial pollutants (10.9%), domestic activities (6.6%), and other tomobiles (63.0%), industrial pollutants (10.9%), domestic activities (6.6%), and other sources (6.3%). sources (6.3%). 3.4. Observation of the Duration and Times of Major Environmental Pollutions in the Study Area 3.4. Observation of the Duration and Times of Major Environmental Pollutions in the Study During the survey, the respondents were questioned when they have especially faced Area major environmental contamination types, mostly during the day, week, and main seasons. All respondents stated that they regularly face air pollution in the daytime, but 29% also Sources of air pollution Sources of soil pollution Sources of noise pollution Sources of water pollution Earth 2021, 2, FOR PEER REVIEW 11 Earth 2021, 2 133 During the survey, the respondents were questioned when they have especially faced major environmental contamination types, mostly during the day, week, and main sea- sons. All respondents stated that they regularly face air pollution in the daytime, but 29% a noticed lso notiit ced during it duri the ng the ni night. About ght. About 72 72.8% of .8% of people peop claimed le claimed that they observe a that they observe air pollut ir pol ion - lution every ever day of y day the of the week; we mor ek; moreover, around eover, around 40.6% of 40.6% of people experienced people experienced it in the itwet in the wet season compared to 94.9% of people in the dry season (Figure 6). season compared to 94.9% of people in the dry season (Figure 6). Air pollution Water pollution Soil pollution Noise pollution Day time Night time Every day Wet season Dry season Duration of major envionmental pollutions Figure 6. Duration of major types of environmental pollutions noticed by respondents (multiple Figure 6. Duration of major types of environmental pollutions noticed by respondents (multiple re- responses). sponses). Water pollution is a regular phenomenon in the daytime in the study area, but about Water pollution is a regular phenomenon in the daytime in the study area, but about 43% of respondents also think it happens during the night. Approximately 76.6% of peo- 43% of respondents also think it happens during the night. Approximately 76.6% of people ple observed observed water water po pollution llution every every day d ofa the y of th week, e week and about , and ab 98.4% out 98 of .people 4% of p experienced eople experit i- enced it in the wet season; only 44.8% of people noticed this pollution in the dry season. in the wet season; only 44.8% of people noticed this pollution in the dry season. Generally, Generally the degree, th of e degr water ee o pollution f water pollut is higher ion in is high the dryer season. in the dry However season , water . However bodies , w ar ae ter bod- almost ies dried areup almos in this t dried season, up in soth water is season pollution , so wat iser po not vi llu sible tion is to not the vi study sible t ar oea threespondents. study area respondents. About 100% About 100% of respondents of encounter responde ednts encountered soil pollution in the soil pollution in the daytime, whereas only daytime 12.3%, also thought it happens during the night. About 70% of people observed soil pollution whereas only 12.3% also thought it happens during the night. About 70% of people ob- every day of the week, and around 70.1% of people experienced it in the wet season; 81.7% served soil pollution every day of the week, and around 70.1% of people experienced it in of people found this pollution in the dry season. Each and all respondents mentioned the wet season; 81.7% of people found this pollution in the dry season. Each and all re- experiencing noise pollution in the daytime, but 34.9% also experienced it during the night. spondents mentioned experiencing noise pollution in the daytime, but 34.9% also experi- Around 80.1% of people experienced noise pollution every day of the week, and about enced it during the night. Around 80.1% of people experienced noise pollution every day 81.7% of people experience it in the wet season; 98.0% of people observe it in the dry season of the week, and about 81.7% of people experience it in the wet season; 98.0% of people (Figure 5). observe it in the dry season (Figure 5). 3.5. Effectiveness of Current Environmental Programs and Respondents’ Media Preference in 3.5. Effectiveness of Current Environmental Programs and Respondents’ Media Preference in Environmental Information Environmental Information Respondents were asked whether current environmental programs are effective or Respondents were asked whether current environmental programs are effective or not for environmental awareness. Around 51.0% of respondents knew about the ac- not for environmental awareness. Around 51.0% of respondents knew about the activities tivities that can decrease pollution in their surroundings. They also mentioned those that can decrease pollution in their surroundings. They also mentioned those activi- activities/programs: public awareness program, social engagement on cleaning and tree ties/programs: public awareness program, social engagement on cleaning and tree plan- plantation, law enforcement activity, etc., arranged by the government as well as non- tation, law enforcement activity, etc., arranged by the government as well as non-govern- governmental organizations. About 28.5% of respondents claimed that these environmental mental organizations. About 28.5% of respondents claimed that these environmental pro- programs could effectively reduce environmental pollutions in the city. Around 22.3% of grams could effectively reduce environmental pollutions in the city. Around 22.3% of re- respondents gave an average response to the effectiveness of environmental programs. On spondents gave an average response to the effectiveness of environmental programs. On the contrary, 49.0% did not know about environmental programs (Table 5). the contrary, 49.0% did not know about environmental programs (Table 5). Percentage Earth 2021, 2, FOR PEER REVIEW 12 Earth 2021, 2 134 Table 5. Effectiveness of environmental programs/activities. Table 5. Effectiveness of environmental programs/activities. Effectiveness of Environmental Programs/Activities Percentage Effectiveness of Environmental Programs/Activities Percentage Very effective 28.5 Very effective 28.5 Average 22.3 Average 22.3 Poor 0.3 Poor 0.3 Unknown 49.0 Unknown 49.0 Source: Field survey, 2018. Source: Field survey, 2018. In the survey, people were also asked whether they participated in any environmen- In the survey, people were also asked whether they participated in any environmental tal education program or not. Only 9.0% of respondents remarked that they had taken education program or not. Only 9.0% of respondents remarked that they had taken part in part in programs arranged by DSCC, DNCC, and other agencies in the last few years to programs arranged by DSCC, DNCC, and other agencies in the last few years to protect protect the city’s environment and reveal the programs’ details. In 2014, a pilot project the city’s environment and reveal the programs’ details. In 2014, a pilot project named named ‘Clean ‘Clean Streets for Streets for D Dhaka haka City’ City’ was cond was conducted ucted bby y DNCC DNCC and and DSCC to wor DSCC to work k for for the the Better Better Ba Bangladesh ngladesh Tr Tust rust to deve to develop lop a a be better tter wa waste ste mana management gement system system [5 [54].4] In . In 2017, 2017 an , a awar n eness program was conducted by Reckitt Benckiser (Bangladesh) Limited to create awareness awareness program was conducted by Reckitt Benckiser (Bangladesh) Limited to create awarenes on s on the th well-be e well-bein ing and g and hygiene hygien among e among five five million million peopl people, of e, of wh which ich t thehname e name is “Dettol- is “Dettol-C Channel hannel i Porich i Porichonno onno Bang Bangladesh ladesh ,” which ,” which w will be ill be complet completed in ed in 2020 20 [55 20]. [5 Several 5]. Sever universities al of Dhaka organize rallies and awareness-raising programs on ‘World Environment Day’ universities of Dhaka organize rallies and awareness-raising programs on ‘World Envi- every year. ronment Day’ every year. Respondents were also asked what types of media they liked to use to acquire en- Respondents were also asked what types of media they liked to use to acquire envi- vironmental information. Most people thought that television programs (91.7%) and ronmental information. Most people thought that television programs (91.7%) and news- newspapers (84.4%) were effective at creating awareness about environmental pollution’s papers (84.4%) were effective at creating awareness about environmental pollution’s harmful impact, followed by radio (62.9%), books (69.6%), and online sources (57.7%) harmful impact, followed by radio (62.9%), books (69.6%), and online sources (57.7%) (Fig- (Figure 7). ure 7). Online, 57.7% Television, 91.7 Newspapers, 84.4% Radio, 62.9 Books, 69.6 Figure 7. Types of media chosen by the respondents (Multiple Responses). Figure 7. Types of media chosen by the respondents (Multiple Responses). 4. Discussio 4. Discussion n and Polic and y Im Policy plicatImplications ions The study rev The study eals that city reveals that dwellers perc city dwellers eive different perceive dif aspects o ferent aspects f environmental of environmental pol- pol- lution from their surrounding environment. About 61% of respondents do not know lution from their surrounding environment. About 61% of respondents do not know dis- distinctly about the types, causes, and effects of environmental pollution, which indicates tinctly about the types, causes, and effects of environmental pollution, which indicates that their daily activities contaminate their surrounding environment. Unfortunately, they that their daily activities contaminate their surrounding environment. Unfortunately, they are not well informed about this matter. More than 50% of respondents were able to identify are not well informed about this matter. More than 50% of respondents were able to iden- the air, water, and noise pollution, but only a few respondents identified soil pollution. tify the air, water, and noise pollution, but only a few respondents identified soil pollu- Moreover, many respondents could not recognize the significant sources of air, water, soil, tion. Moreover, many respondents could not recognize the significant sources of air, wa- and noise pollutants, showing their unawareness about the environment. Many people ter, soil, and noise pollutants, showing their unawareness about the environment. Many Earth 2021, 2 135 come to Dhaka City to get better public facilities every day, and many unskilled poor people come to search a job, engaging in different informal sectors. This rural–urban migration of people creates a force on the urban environment, and the responsible organizations of this city have failed to control this migratory force. Another important aspect is that people ignore the existing environmental laws of this country. The Government of Bangladesh (GoB) has enacted and amended several environmental acts, rules, and laws to improve the environmental condition. The major legislations are the Environment Policy, 1992; Bangladesh Environment Protection Act, 1995; Environmental Conservation Rules, 1997; Ozone Depleting Substances (Control) Rules, 2004; Bangladesh Environment Court Act (ECA), 2010 (formed in 2000); National Environmental Policy, 2018, etc. [56–59]. The Na- tional Environment Management Action Plan (NEMAP) from 1995 to 2005 was developed by the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) to ensure environmentally friendly development via a policy framework that has a guideline for promoting proper resources management, raising awareness among the people, and improvement of environmental degradation [60]. The Department of Environment (DoE) in Bangladesh is working to reduce air pollution under the CASE (Clean Air and Sustainable Environment) project, with an emphasis on raising awareness among the general population to understand the ne- cessity of clean air for the city [61]. Though the country has many environmental laws, and the responsible authorities have taken several initiatives to implement them, enforcement has been unsuccessful due to the population’s common tendency to ignore the existing regulations [56,62]. The findings of the current study show the resemblance with other research. The sur- vey of residents in Al-Suwaiq Wilayat, Sultanate of Oman, showed 77% of the respondents had a high degree of interest and concern about environmental issues, but still needed en- vironmental education and awareness programs [27]. People’s understanding, awareness, and participation towards environmental issues are significantly low in Bangladesh [24]. People’s knowledge level and behavior in Dhaka towards air pollution were low among different age groups, income groups, and occupation groups [63]. Similar findings were found in another study [64]. The overall situation explains many causes of the illiter- acy of dwellers to environmental pollution in the study area. Moreover, the numbers of awareness-raising programs are not enough to make people proactive in decreasing pollution in the study area. These facts are also common for developing countries, where environmental pollution is increasing severely day by day due to public environmental ignorance and intention of acting. The study’s outcomes and the discussion mentioned earlier leads us to recommended some strategies and policies at the local, institutional, and national levels: Discouraging rural–urban migration at the national level: It is essential to decentralize all public amenities by displacing the garment industries from Dhaka City, growing employment opportunities in rural areas, using modern technology in agriculture, and establishing better healthcare centers and educational institutions all over the country. Forming an environmental committee at the local level: Every city ward authority (the lowest administrative unit) can create an environmental committee that directly dis- cusses environmental information with the local people through leaflets, workshops, seminars, cleaning programs, etc. Improving solid waste management at the community level: A waste management committee can be formed at the community level that regulates waste disposal for overall environmental management. The committee can inspire the people to keep their domestic waste separately and properly dispose of it. Starting an environmental education subject at the institutional level: A mandatory environmental awareness-related subject can be introduced in primary schools, where children will practice how to use resources and to clean their surrounding environ- ments. Making films, documentaries, and drama for environmental awareness: Environmen- tal information based on documentaries, movies, advertisements, and drama can be Earth 2021, 2 136 made and shown on television and shared on social media, including YouTube, for mass awareness. Encouraging environmentally friendly transportation: Eco-friendly vehicles can re- duce air pollution by replacing fossil fuels to clean energy such as solar and wind energy. Regulating the dust from roads and construction sites: Building or construction sites must have a solid fence during construction. Road pavement, regular washing, cleaning, and water spraying, particularly in the dry season, can reduce the road’s dust. Reducing the price of environmentally friendly products: Lessening the value of eco-friendly products can attract consumers to purchase them. Increasing the tree plantation for noise pollution reduction: A huge number of trees inside and surrounding schools, parks, hospitals, markets, and recreational places can control noise pollution. The three Rs (reuse, reduce, and recycle) of resources: Reusing resources can diminish waste from the environment and save money. Reducing the emission of greenhouse gases and debris can help to build a sustainable environment for future generations. People should be encouraged to mend and maintain their daily essential products and recycle them. Evaluating environmental impacts: Before starting any development works, the proper authority must assess the environmental effects. A skilled workforce should be recruited in the Department of Environment, Dhaka, Bangladesh, for its early evaluation process and surveillance. 5. Conclusions The paper analyzes the extent and severity of environmental pollution in developing countries. The remedial measures were suggested based on the questionnaire survey in the polluted sites, collected data, and information on the types, causes, effects, sources, and duration of environmental pollutions obtained from available publications and newspaper information. The demographic characteristics, causes of environmental pollution, and the impact of the sources of water pollution, air pollution, soil pollution, and noise pollution were presented in tabular and graphical form for better understanding. The results showed that 39.0% of the respondents had explicit knowledge about environmental pollution, while 73.8% had explicit knowledge about air pollution, 63.0% about noise pollution, 55.2% about water pollution, and 6.5% about soil pollution. It is interesting to note that about 49.0% of the respondents did not understand the currently conducted environmental programs’ effectiveness. The outcomes of the study are also similar to the pollution status of China, India, and Pakistan. A comprehensive discussion on the urgency of forming a local-level environmental committee, an active role of the mass media, and monitoring the development activities are presented, along with the countermeasures taken by the government of the country. Author Contributions: N.N.: Conceptualization, methodology, formal analysis, investigation, re- sources, data curation, writing—original draft preparation, writing—review and editing, visualiza- tion, supervision, project administration, and funding acquisition. S.M.: Formal analysis, methodol- ogy, investigation, data curation, and writing—original draft preparation. Z.H.: Conceptualization, Formal analysis, visualization, writing—original draft preparation, and writing—review and editing. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Funding: This research was funded by the University Grants Commission and Jagannath University (UGC-JnU Project, 2017-18) of Bangladesh (Grant No. 131/2011/1540) for the research paper. The funding authorities have no involvement in the study. Institutional Review Board Statement: No ethical issue or concern related to human subjects and environment was reported in this study. Informed Consent Statement: Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study. Earth 2021, 2 137 Data Availability Statement: All data of this manuscripts are available if it is necessary. The data are not publicly available due to ethical restrictions on the use of the data. Acknowledgments: The authors wish to gratefully acknowledge the University Grants Commission and Jagannath University (UGC-JnU Project, 2017-18) of Bangladesh for financial assistance of the paper ’s research. The authors also show gratitude to the respondents for their voluntary participation during the questionnaire survey. Finally, we express our thanks to the anonymous reviewers who reviewed the paper. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. Rahman, K.M.; Rummana, R.; Aziz, S.; Nishat, B. Urban pollution in Dhaka City: A tri-partite qualitative model for alleviation and prevention. 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Journal

EarthMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

Published: Feb 28, 2021

Keywords: urban environmental management; environmental information; statistical analysis; environmental policy; environmental awareness

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