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Applied Sciences
, Volume 8 (8) – Jul 26, 2018

/lp/multidisciplinary-digital-publishing-institute/study-of-energy-scattering-relation-and-rcs-reduction-characteristic-F3azdINElD

- Publisher
- Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
- Copyright
- © 1996-2019 MDPI (Basel, Switzerland) unless otherwise stated
- ISSN
- 2076-3417
- DOI
- 10.3390/app8081231
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- See Article on Publisher Site

applied sciences Article Study of Energy Scattering Relation and RCS Reduction Characteristic of Matrix-Type Coding Metasurface 1 2 , ID 1 1 , Jia Ji Yang , Yong Zhi Cheng * , Dong Qi and Rong Zhou Gong * School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China; yangjiajialnow@163.com (J.J.Y.); qidong@hust.edu.cn (D.Q.) Engineering Research Center for Metallurgical Automation and Detecting Technology, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081, China * Correspondence: chengyz@wust.edu.cn (Y.Z.C.); rzhgong@hust.edu.cn (R.Z.G.) Received: 8 July 2018; Accepted: 19 July 2018; Published: 26 July 2018 Abstract: In this paper, we present a design of the linear polarization conversion metasurface (MS) for the broadband radar cross section (RCS) reduction based on split-ring resonator (SRR) structure in microwave region. The corresponding phase gradient can be obtained through the stable phase difference of basic units of polarization conversion MS. The designed polarization conversion MS is applied in coded electromagnetic (EM) matrix by deﬁning two basic units “0” and “1”, respectively. Based on the principle of planar array theory, a new random coding method named by matrix-type coding is proposed. Correlative RCS reduction mechanism is discussed and veriﬁed, which can be used to explore the RCS reduction characteristic. The simulated linear polarization conversion rate of the designed structure is up to 90% in the frequency range of 6–15 GHz, and the RCS reduction results verify the theoretical assumptions. Two kinds of matrix-type coding MS samples are prepared and measured. The experimental results indicate that the reﬂectance of MS is less than –10 dB on average under normal incidence in frequency range of 5.8–15.5 GHz. The average RCS reduction is essentially more than 10 dB in frequency range of 5.5–15 GHz and the corresponding relative bandwidth is 92.7%, which reasonably agrees with simulation. In addition, excellent RCS reduction characteristic of the designed MS can also be achieved over a wide incident angle. Keywords: polarization conversion; matrix-type coding; energy scattering; RCS reduction 1. Introduction As a two-dimensional artiﬁcial material, metasurface (MS) is composed of sub-wavelength element array [1–4], which has been widely applied in optoelectronics devices [5–10], such as sensor, detector, etc. Because of its ability to effective manipulation of electromagnetic (EM) waves, MS can be especially applied in radar stealth ﬁeld [11–14]. In radar stealth ﬁeld, the radar echo feature signal can be changed to reduce the detection probability of objects [15–17]. The radar cross section (RCS) is an important physical quantity to measure the echo capability of target radar, which attracts much attention in stealth platforms of military applications [18–20]. By designing MS with different sizes and arrangements, effective RCS reduction can be achieved [21–24]. In recent years, as an important branch of MS, phase gradient metasurface (GMS) with low RCS has been paid great interest due to its tremendous potential in military practice [25–28]. This kind of MS merely reﬂects the incident waves into the backward space rather than transforming EM energy into heat, which lowers the probability of MS being detected by infrared devices [29–32]. GMS can introduce the artiﬁcial wave vector at in-plane direction to control the propagation direction Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1231; doi:10.3390/app8081231 www.mdpi.com/journal/applsci Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1231 2 of 12 of transmitted and reﬂected wave beams [33–36]. The polarization conversion characteristic is used to achieve stable phase difference in a broadband frequency range, which can be applied in the design of GMS. By randomly arranging the basic units in GMS, the incident wave is irregularly reﬂected back to free space, the scattering energy at each directional beam is small. This designed GMS can be used to achieve the RCS reduction characteristic [37–42]. More recently, a GMS based on cruciform structure is proposed [33], which can be applied to the RCS reduction characteristic at low frequency ranges, but the relative bandwidth of designed GMS is narrow. Then, a checkerboard MS based on ﬁshbone-shaped is proposed [41], which can achieve a broadband RCS reduction from 6 to 18 GHz. However, the magnitude of the RCS reduction is about 5 dB, and the design scheme is relatively complex. After this, a new concept of checkboard MS is proposed [42], which can achieve a 10 dB RCS reduction in the frequency range of 9.9–19.4 GHz, but the relative bandwidth is not enough. Further, the polarization-independent MS structure is proposed for RCS reduction [22], which can achieve an ultra-broadband 10 dB RCS reduction characteristic in the range of 17–42 GHz, but the RCS cannot be reduced at the lower frequency, which is still a challenge for practical application. Therefore, it is meaningful to explore the new coding ways of MS, which can manipulate transmitted and reﬂected EM waves at will to achieve a high relative bandwidth at the lower frequency. In this paper, the matrix-type random coding theory and the RCS reduction analysis were presented, which revealed a simple and effective method to achieve wideband RCS reduction. Then, six kinds of MSs based on split-ring resonator (SRR) structure were designed to explore the RCS reduction characteristic. Compared with previous works [21–24,33–42], our design has some advantages: Firstly, new random coding method with novel mechanism; Secondly, the structure of basic unit is simple, which can achieve the characteristics of 180 cross-polarization phase differences by simply rotating the metal cut-wire structure; Thirdly, our design presents the RCS reduction at lower frequency with high relative bandwidth compared with the works published before. Such a simple and effective design may provide some potential applications in the ﬁeld of stealth. 2. Design of Matrix-Type Coding Metasurface 2.1. Matrix-Type Random Coding Theory and RCS Reduction Analysis Based on the principle of reﬂective antenna array, a series of random coding MSs with different combinations are designed. The incident wave can be diffusely reﬂected through the design of the array MS [43–45]. According to “energy conservation law”, an effective RCS reduction under normal incidence can be achieved by enhancing the EM energy scattering at other direction. Assuming the surface is composed of A B array elements, each array element consists of two basic elements: “0” and “1”. The concept of RCS reduction can be explained by the principle of planar array theory [46]. Under normal incidence, the array factor of MS can be expressed as: A B j[(a1/2)(kd sin q cos j)+(b1/2)(kd sin q sin j)+f(a,b)] AF = e (1) å å a=1 b=1 where q and j are the angles of elevation and azimuth, k = 2p/l, d is the distance between the basic elements, and f(a, b) is the initial phase of the lattice. In our design, the characteristic of cross-polarization reﬂection phase difference of 180 can be achieved by rotating the basic unit simply, which avoids the complex design of structure size and arranges the MS in a simple and effective way. A matrix-type random coding way is proposed to design 2-bit coding MS, and the coding ﬂowchart is shown in Figure 1. The basic units of “0” and “1” are placed in the matrix with a ﬁxed ratio. In the case of “0” and “1” with same number, the co-polarization reﬂection phase difference is 0 and the cross-polarization reﬂection phase difference is 180 . Therefore, the cross-polarization component of the scattered ﬁeld can be effectively canceled; leading to a better RCS reduction effect than the traditional random coding MS (the probability of “0” or “1” is 50% in each matrix unit). If the number of units “0” and “1” is not consistent, the cross-polarization component of the scattered ﬁeld Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1231 3 of 12 Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, x FOR PEER REVIEW 3 of 12 cannot be effectively canceled, leading to a suppression of RCS reduction. A simulation is presented to field cannot be effectively canceled, leading to a suppression of RCS reduction. A simulation is verify this assumption. presented to verify this assumption. Figure Figure 1. 1. Matrix-type random Matrix-type random coding flowch coding ﬂowchart. art. Matrix-type random coding mode Mrandom for Matlab calculation can be expressed as the Matrix-type random coding mode M for Matlab calculation can be expressed as the following random following functional form: functional form: ( " # ) iN −i M = round mod kron rand 2 ,ones 2 ,1 () ()i ( N) i (2) random M = round mod kron rand(2 ), ones(2 ) , 1 (2) random å i =1 i=1 i N−i i i where rand(2 ) and ones(2 ) represent the numbers of block matrix 2 × 2 , each block matrix i Ni i i where rand(2 ) and ones(2 ) represent the numbers of block matrix 2 2 , each block matrix N−i N−i composed of 2 × 2 is the same random number. The “kron” is matrix multiplication, where the Ni Ni composed of 2 2 is the same random number. The “kron” is matrix multiplication, where Kronecker product A, B represents the larger matrix formed by the product of all the elements of the Kronecker product A, B represents the larger matrix formed by the product of all the elements of matrix A and B. The open interval range of random number is (0, 1). The step to obtain the random matrix A and B. The open interval range of random number is (0, 1). The step to obtain the random coding pattern of the MS is as follows: Firstly, the number of different random matrices in the range coding pattern of the MS is as follows: Firstly, the number of different random matrices in the range of of (1, N) is counted. Secondly, the number of patterns is calculated. Finally, the random numbers (0 (1, N) is counted. Secondly, the number of patterns is calculated. Finally, the random numbers (0 and and 1) are added to the discrete binary codes “0” and “1”, and a random coding matrix is obtained 1) are added to the discrete binary codes “0” and “1”, and a random coding matrix is obtained through through the operation flow chart. Based on the results of simulation and optimization, we choose i = the operation ﬂow chart. Based on the results of simulation and optimization, we choose i = 6 and 6 and N − i = 5 to satisfy the preparation and measurement of sample. Therefore, the designed MS N i = 5 to satisfy the preparation and measurement of sample. Therefore, the designed MS consists consists of a 6 × 6 supercell, with each supercell consisting of 5 × 5 basic units. of a 6 6 supercell, with each supercell consisting of 5 5 basic units. The general RCS expression of the scattering surface can be expressed by [46]: The general RCS expression of the scattering surface can be expressed by [46]: 2 2 SE H 22 2 s ss S E H s s s σπ== lim 42rr lim 4π 2 = lim 4πr 2 (3) s = lim 4pr = lim 4pr = lim 4pr (3) rr →∝ →∝ r →∝ SE H r!µ ii r!µ r!µ i S E H i i i where S and S are the energy density of incidence and scattering, respectively; jE j and jE j are the s i s where Si and Ss are the energy density of incidence and scattering, respectively; and are E E i s amplitudes of incident and scattered electric ﬁelds, respectively; and jH j and jH j are the amplitudes i s the amplitudes of incident and scattered electric fields, respectively; and and are the H H i s amplitudes of the incident and scattered magnetic fields, respectively. The general RCS can also be expressed in the form of dBsm: Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1231 4 of 12 of the incident and scattered magnetic ﬁelds, respectively. The general RCS can also be expressed in the form of dBsm: " # 2 2 s(dBsm) = 10lg s(m ) = 10lg lim 4pr (4) r!µ E In practical military applications, the incident wave can be equivalent to the plane wave because of the transmitting and receiving sources are far from the target. Thus, s and r are independent of one another. The RCS reduction compared to perfect electric conductor is represented by: 2 3 " # 2 E lim 4pr 6 i 7 r!µ s s(dBsm) = 10lg = 10lg (5) 4 5 lim 4pr (1) i r!µ For a matrix-type random coding MS, each kind of basic unit occupy the half area of total surface in the case of “0” and “1” with same number. The total reﬂection coefﬁcient can be approximated as the average reﬂection coefﬁcient of both elements. The RCS reduction can be approximately expressed as [46]: jJ jJ 0 1 A e + A e 0 1 s(dBsm) = 10lg (6) r(1) where A and A are the reﬂection coefﬁcient amplitudes of basic units “0” and “1”, respectively. 0 1 J and J are the reﬂection phases of two basic units. The ratio of “0” and “1” basic units is introduced, 0 1 which is deﬁned as a = m /m , where m and m are the number of “0” and “1” units, respectively. 0 1 0 1 Further, we introduce a into the formula to express the RCS reduction characteristic with different ratio. However, it can only be used as a qualitative comparison, not a quantitative representation of RCS value. The RCS reduction of 1-bit coding MS under normal incidence can be approximated as: jJ jJ 0 1 aA e + A e 0 1 s(dBsm) = 10lg (7) r(a) As shown in Equation (7), once basic units of “0” and “1” are selected, the reflection coefficient magnitude and phase can be determined. Therefore, if the ratio a is defined as a constant, the RCS reduction of MS will be fixed. In other words, for fixed a, the magnitudes of RCS reduction with different coding sequences are basically consistent under normal incidence. The ratio, scattered magnitude and phase play important roles in RCS reduction. This assumption is verified by furthering simulation and experiment. 2.2. Matrix-Type Random Coding Metasurface Arrangement As shown in Figure 2a, the basic unit based on SRR structure is designed, which is set as “0” unit. The SRR structure is rotated counterclockwise by 90 along the wave propagation direction (shown in Figure 2b), which is set as “1” unit. The whole basic unit is divided into three functional layers, where the period is p = 10 mm. The upper layer is copper ﬁlm with SRR structure, which possesses a symmetric axis along 45 with respect to x or y direction. The length of outer radius is r = 4.1 mm, the ring width is s = 0.2 mm, and the split width of ring structure is w = 1 mm. The thickness of the FR4 substrate is 3.5 mm, with the dielectric constant of 4.3 and the loss tangent angle of 0.025. The back layer copper ﬁlm and the upper layer copper ﬁlm have the same thickness of 0.035 mm. Figure 2c presents the co-polarization (r and r ) and cross-polarization (r and r ) reﬂection xx yy yx xy coefﬁcients; the high efﬁcient and broadband polarization conversion features can be achieved in a broadband frequency range. The cross-polarization reﬂection coefﬁcients (r and r ) are greater yx xy than 0.8, while the co-polarization reﬂection coefﬁcients (r and r ) are substantially less than xx yy 0.35 in the frequency range of 6–15 GHz. The polarization conversion capability is deﬁned as 2 2 2 2 2 2 follows [47]: PCR = |r | /(|r | + |r | ) and PCR = |r | /(|r | + |r | ). As shown in x yx yx xx y xy xy yy Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1231 5 of 12 Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, x FOR PEER REVIEW 5 of 12 Figure 2d, the linear polarization conversion ratio of the x- and y-polarized waves is as high as 85% polarization conversion ratio of the x- and y-polarized waves is as high as 85% and reached 99% at and resonanc reached e frequenc 99% at ries. esonance frequencies. Figure 2e,f shows the cross-polarization phase and phase difference of “0” and “1” basic units, Figure 2e,f shows the cross-polarization phase and phase difference of “0” and “1” basic units, respectively respectively. . ItIt can be obse can be observed rved that the that the phase phase o of the f the “0 “0” ” and and “1” “1” basic basic unit uniis t is dif di fer ffeent, rentalthough , although the the magnitude of the reﬂection coefﬁcients of co- and cross-polarization is the same. In addition, the phase magnitude of the reflection coefficients of co- and cross-polarization is the same. In addition, the gradient phase gr ofadi designed ent of des MSigne is 180 d M in S the is 1fr 8equency 0° in the range frequenc of 5–16 y raGHz. nge of Ther 5–16 efor GHz e, we . The userthe eforcharacteristic e, we use the of char cross-p acterist olarization ic of cross-p phase ola dif riz fer atience on p has 180 e dito ffedesign rence ±180° to the matrix-type design the matrix random coding -type ran MS,dwhich om coding can be MS, which can be a applied to achieve pplied to a the broadband chieve the RCS r broa eduction. dband RCS reduction. (a) (b) 1.0 1.0 (d) (c) 0.8 0.8 rxx rxy PCRx 0.6 0.6 ryx PCRy 0.4 ryy 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 6 8 10 12 14 16 6 8 10 12 14 16 Frequency/GHz Frequency/GHz (f ) (e) 0 0 -90 -90 "0"element -180 -180 "1"element 6 8 10 12 14 16 6 8 10 12 14 16 Frequency/GHz Frequency/GHz Figure 2. (a) Basic unit “0”; (b) basic unit “1”; (c) the reﬂection coefﬁcients of “0” and “1”; (d) the linear Figure 2. (a) Basic unit “0”; (b) basic unit “1”; (c) the reflection coefficients of “0” and “1”; (d) the polarization conversion ratio for the normal incident x- and y-polarized wave; (e) the cross-polarization linear polarization conversion ratio for the normal incident x- and y-polarized wave; (e) the phase of “0” and “1”; and (f) the cross-polarization phase difference of “0” and “1”. cross-polarization phase of “0” and “1”; and (f) the cross-polarization phase difference of “0” and “1”. To verify the proposed hypothesis and explore the RCS reduction characteristic of matrix-type To verify the proposed hypothesis and explore the RCS reduction characteristic of matrix-type random coding MSs, six kinds of arrangements with different ratio of “0” and “1” are designed, in random coding MSs, six kinds of arrangements with different ratio of “0” and “1” are designed, which m0 and m1 are the number of “0” and “1” basic units. As for the two basic units, the reflection in which m and m are the number of “0” and “1” basic units. As for the two basic units, the reﬂection 0 1 coefficients and polarization conversion rates are consistent, the units “0” and “1” can be coefﬁcients and polarization conversion rates are consistent, the units “0” and “1” can be interchanged, interchanged, and the meaning of the expression is the same. Figure 3a,b presents the schematics of and the meaning of the expression is the same. Figure 3a,b presents the schematics of coding a and coding a and b with the ratio α = m0/m1 = 1/1. Figure 3c,d presents the schematics of coding c and d b with the ratio a = m /m = 1/1. Figure 3c,d presents the schematics of coding c and d with the 0 1 with the ratio α = m0/m1 = 5/4. Meanwhile, the coding e and f with the ratio α = m0/m1 = 2/1 are shown ratio a = m /m = 5/4. Meanwhile, the coding e and f with the ratio a = m /m = 2/1 are shown 0 1 0 1 in Figure 3e,f. By applying the matrix-type random coding, the direction of energy scattering can be in Figure 3e,f. By applying the matrix-type random coding, the direction of energy scattering can changed to form a diffuse reflection for the incident EM waves; it is possible to achieve the high be changed to form a diffuse reﬂection for the incident EM waves; it is possible to achieve the high efficient RCS reduction characteristic under normal incidence. efﬁcient RCS reduction characteristic under normal incidence. Reflection phase/degree Reflection coefficients Phase differenc Δφxy/degree Polarization conversion ratio Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 12 Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1231 6 of 12 Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 12 Figure 3. Arrangements of six matrix-type random coding MS: (a,b) coding a and b with the ratio α = m0/m1 = 1/1; (c,d) coding c and d with the ratio α = m0/m1 = 5/4; and (e,f) coding e and f with the ratio Figure 3. Arrangements of six matrix-type random coding MS: (a,b) coding a and b with the ratio Figure 3. Arrangements of six matrix-type random coding MS: (a,b) coding a and b with the ratio α = m0/m1 = 2/1. a = m /m = 1/1; (c,d) coding c and d with the ratio a = m /m = 5/4; and (e,f) coding e and f with the 0 1 0 1 α = m0/m1 = 1/1; (c,d) coding c and d with the ratio α = m0/m1 = 5/4; and (e,f) coding e and f with the ratio ratio a = m /m = 2/1. 0 1 α = m0/m1 = 2/1. To meet the periodic boundary conditions required of simulation, the 5 × 5 basic units are set as a supercell, and a series of coding arrangements are designed to explore the RCS reduction To meet the periodic boundary conditions required of simulation, the 5 5 basic units are set as a To meet the periodic boundary conditions required of simulation, the 5 × 5 basic units are set characteristic of MS. Figure 4a–h presents the far-field scattering characteristic diagram of different supercell, and a series of coding arrangements are designed to explore the RCS reduction characteristic as a supercell, and a series of coding arrangements are designed to explore the RCS reduction coding MSs at 9.5 GHz with the area of 300 × 300 mm . Figure 4a presents the scattering of MS. Figure 4a–h presents the far-ﬁeld scattering characteristic diagram of different coding MSs characteristic of MS. Figure 4a–h presents the far-field scattering characteristic diagram of different characteristic of metal plate with a strong normal scattering capability, which can be used as a at 9.5 GHz with the area of 300 300 mm . Figure 4a presents the scattering characteristic of metal coding MSs at 9.5 GHz with the area of 300 × 300 mm . Figure 4a presents the scattering reference. Figure 4b shows the upright energy scattering direction of coding 0 or 1, which is the plate with a strong normal scattering capability, which can be used as a reference. Figure 4b shows the characteristic of metal plate with a strong normal scattering capability, which can be used as a same as the energy scattering of metal plate. Figure 4c–h shows the scattering characteristic of upright energy scattering direction of coding 0 or 1, which is the same as the energy scattering of metal reference. Figure 4b shows the upright energy scattering direction of coding 0 or 1, which is the coding a to f, the incident EM wave energy scattering is diverged to all around, and the scattering plate. Figure 4c–h shows the scattering characteristic of coding a to f, the incident EM wave energy same as the energy scattering of metal plate. Figure 4c–h shows the scattering characteristic of capability is relatively weak at single direction. Thus, these results indicate that the matrix-type scattering is diverged to all around, and the scattering capability is relatively weak at single direction. coding a to f, the incident EM wave energy scattering is diverged to all around, and the scattering random coding MSs have good scattering performance. Thus, these results indicate that the matrix-type random coding MSs have good scattering performance. capability is relatively weak at single direction. Thus, these results indicate that the matrix-type random coding MSs have good scattering performance. (a ) (c) (e) (g ) (a ) (c) (e) (g ) (b ) (d ) (f ) (h ) (b ) (d ) (f ) Figure 4. Far-ﬁeld scattering results of: (a) metal plate; (b) coding 0 or 1, and (h ) matrix-type random Figure 4. Far-field scattering results of: (a) metal plate; (b) coding 0 or 1, and matrix-type random coding MS; (c) coding a; (d) coding b; (e) coding c; (f) coding d; (g) coding e; and (h) coding f at 9.5 GHz. coding MS; (c) coding a; (d) coding b; (e) coding c; (f) coding d; (g) coding e; and (h) coding f at 9.5 GHz. Figure 4. Far-field scattering results of: (a) metal plate; (b) coding 0 or 1, and matrix-type random 3. Simulation and Experiment coding MS; (c) coding a; (d) coding b; (e) coding c; (f) coding d; (g) coding e; and (h) coding f at 9.5 GHz. 3. Simulation and Experiment 3.1. Simulation and Analysis of Matrix-Type Coding Metasurfaces 3. Simulation and Experiment 3.1. Simulation and Analysis of Matrix-Type Coding Metasurfaces The frequency domain solver in EM simulation software of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO is used The frequency domain solver in EM simulation software of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO is 3.1. Simulation and Analysis of Matrix-Type Coding Metasurfaces to perform the numerical simulation. As shown in Figure 5a, the numerical results of coding a to f are used to perform the numerical simulation. As shown in Figure 5a, the numerical results of coding a depicted to explore the RCS reduction characteristics of different ratio combinations. The coding 0 The frequency domain solver in EM simulation software of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO is to f are depicted to explore the RCS reduction characteristics of different ratio combinations. The presents the RCS reduction of coding 0 or 1, the numerical value is essentially zero in the frequency used to perform the numerical simulation. As shown in Figure 5a, the numerical results of coding a to f are depicted to explore the RCS reduction characteristics of different ratio combinations. The Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, x FOR PEER REVIEW 7 of 12 coding 0 presents the RCS reduction of coding 0 or 1, the numerical value is essentially zero in the Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1231 7 of 12 frequency range of 5–16 GHz, which means the single coding MS cannot reduce the RCS. The coding a and b are the MSs with the ratio α = m0/m1 = 1/1; the coding c and d present the ratio α = m0/m1 = 5/4; and the coding e and f present the ratio α = m0/m1 = 2/1. It can be seen clearly that the RCS reduction range of 5–16 GHz, which means the single coding MS cannot reduce the RCS. The coding a and b are curves of different coding sequences with fixed ratio α are basically consistent. The RCS reduction the MSs with the ratio a = m /m = 1/1; the coding c and d present the ratio a = m /m = 5/4; and the 0 1 0 1 will increase with decrease of the numerical value of α in the whole interested frequency range. The coding e and f present the ratio a = m /m = 2/1. It can be seen clearly that the RCS reduction curves of 0 1 optimal RCS reduction result is presented at α = m0/m1 = 1/1; these results verify the above theoretical different coding sequences with ﬁxed ratio a are basically consistent. The RCS reduction will increase assumptions. with decrease of the numerical value of a in the whole interested frequency range. The optimal RCS As shown in Figure 5b, the RCS reduction curves of coding a are basically consistent at x- and reduction result is presented at a = m /m = 1/1; these results verify the above theoretical assumptions. 0 1 y-polarized wave incidence, which indicates a polarization-insensitive property of the proposed As shown in Figure 5b, the RCS reduction curves of coding a are basically consistent at x- and MSs. In addition, the RCS reduction of coding a is greater than 8 dB in the whole frequency range of y-polarized wave incidence, which indicates a polarization-insensitive property of the proposed MSs. 5.5–15 GHz, and the RCS reduction reaches a maximum of 21 dB at 9.5 GHz. In addition, the RCS reduction of coding a is greater than 8 dB in the whole frequency range of 5.5–15 GHz, and the RCS reduction reaches a maximum of 21 dB at 9.5 GHz. coding a (b) (a) coding a (x-polarized incidence) coding b 25 25 coding c coding a (y-polarized incidence) coding d 20 20 coding e coding f coding 0 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 6 8 10 12 14 16 6 8 10 12 14 16 Frequency/GHz Frequency/GHz Figure 5. (a) RCS reduction of matrix-type random coding MS with different ratio combinations of “0” Figure 5. (a) RCS reduction of matrix-type random coding MS with different ratio combinations of and “1” units; and (b) RCS reduction of coding a at x- and y-polarized wave incidence. “0” and “1” units; and (b) RCS reduction of coding a at x- and y-polarized wave incidence. To further discuss the energy scattering characteristic of matrix-type random coding MS, To further discuss the energy scattering characteristic of matrix-type random coding MS, the the scattering patterns of coding a under normal incidence are studied, as shown in Figure 6a–f. scattering patterns of coding a under normal incidence are studied, as shown in Figure 6a–f. Here is Here is a comparison of coding a and metal plate with the same size 300 300 mm at 5, 8, 9.5, 10, a comparison of coding a and metal plate with the same size 300 × 300 mm at 5, 8, 9.5, 10, 13, and 16 13, and 16 GHz. According to “energy conservation law”, the main lobe energy can be suppressed GHz. According to “energy conservation law”, the main lobe energy can be suppressed by by enhancing the scattering EM energy of side lobe, so an effective RCS reduction can be achieved enhancing the scattering EM energy of side lobe, so an effective RCS reduction can be achieved under normal incidence. The metal plate has a strong main lobe in whole interested frequency range. under normal incidence. The metal plate has a strong main lobe in whole interested frequency range. As shown in Figure 6a,f, the MS has almost no inhibitory effect on main lobe at 5 and 16 GHz. As shown in Figure 6a,f, the MS has almost no inhibitory effect on main lobe at 5 and 16 GHz. Figure Figure 6b,e shows that the main lobe energy of MS has a certain suppression compared with the metal 6b,e shows that the main lobe energy of MS has a certain suppression compared with the metal plate plate at 8 and 13 GHz. The scattering EM energy is scattered to all around, as shown in Figure 6c,d, at 8 and 13 GHz. The scattering EM energy is scattered to all around, as shown in Figure 6c,d, which which indicates the MS has a signiﬁcant inhibitory effect on main lobe at 9.5 GHz and 10 GHz, indicates the MS has a significant inhibitory effect on main lobe at 9.5 GHz and 10 GHz, respectively. respectively. Generally, the closer it is to the center frequency of the basic unit, the better the effect Generally, the closer it is to the center frequency of the basic unit, the better the effect of reducing of reducing RCS can be achieved. Thus, the matrix-type random coding MS allows a wideband and RCS can be achieved. Thus, the matrix-type random coding MS allows a wideband and high efficient high efﬁcient RCS reduction by adjusting the scattered ﬁeld simply compared with works proposed RCS reduction by adjusting the scattered field simply compared with works proposed before [15,16]. before [15,16]. RCS reduction/dB RCS reduction/dB Appl. Appl. Sci. Sci. 2018 2018,, 8 8,, x FO 1231 R PEER REVIEW 8 8 of of 12 12 Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, x FOR PEER REVIEW 8 of 12 0 0 0 0 Metal plate Metal plate (a) -30 30 -30 30 Metal plate (b) Metal plate MS (coding a) MS (coding a) (a) -30 30 -30 30 (b) MS (coding a) MS (coding a) 5GHz 8GHz 8GHz 5GHz -60 60 -60 60 -60 60 -60 60 -90 90 -90 90 -90 90 -90 20 90 −20 0 20 −20 0 20 −20 0 20 −20 0 0 0 0 Metal plate Metal plate -30 30 -30 30 Metal plate Metal plate (c) (d) MS (coding a) MS(coding a) -30 30 -30 30 (c) (d) MS (coding a) MS(coding a) 9.5GHz 10GHz 9.5GHz 10GHz -60 60 60 -60 -60 60 -60 60 -90 90 -90 90 -90 90 20 -90 90 −20 0 −20 0 20 −20 0 −20 0 0 Metal plate Metal plate -30 30 (f ) Metal plate (e) -30 30 MS (coding a) Metal plate -30 30 MS (coding a) (f ) (e) -30 30 MS (coding a) MS (coding a) 16GHz 13GHz 16GHz 13GHz -60 60 -60 60 -60 60 -60 60 -90 90 -90 90 -90 90 −20 0 -90 90 −20 0 −20 0 20 −20 0 Figure 6. 2D scattering patterns of the coding a and metal plate in the xoz-plane at: (a) 5 GHz; (b) 8 Figure 6. 2D scattering patterns of the coding a and metal plate in the xoz-plane at: (a) 5 GHz; (b) 8 GHz; Figure 6. 2D scattering patterns of the coding a and metal plate in the xoz-plane at: (a) 5 GHz; (b) 8 GHz; (c) 9.5 GHz; (d) 10 GHz; (e) 13 GHz; and (f) 16 GHz. (c) 9.5 GHz; (d) 10 GHz; (e) 13 GHz; and (f) 16 GHz. GHz; (c) 9.5 GHz; (d) 10 GHz; (e) 13 GHz; and (f) 16 GHz. 3.2. Measurement and Analysis of Matrix-Type Coding Metasurface 3.2. Measurement and Analysis of Matrix-Type Coding Metasurface 3.2. Measurement and Analysis of Matrix-Type Coding Metasurface To further verify the theoretical assumptions and numerical simulation, as shown in Figure To further verify the theoretical assumptions and numerical simulation, as shown in Figure 7a,b, To further verify the theoretical assumptions and numerical simulation, as shown in Figure 7a,b, two MS samples of coding a and b were fabricated and measured. The area of MS is 300 × 302 0 two MS samples of coding a and b were fabricated and measured. The area of MS is 300 300 mm , 7a,b, two MS samples of coding a and b were fabricated and measured. The area of MS is 300 × 300 mm , and the thickness of overall design is 3.57 mm. Each sample consists of 6 × 6 supercells and and the thickness of overall design is 3.57 mm. Each sample consists of 6 6 supercells and each mm , and the thickness of overall design is 3.57 mm. Each sample consists of 6 × 6 supercells and each supercell consists of 5 × 5 basic units of “0” or “1”. As shown in Figure 7c, the two samples were supercell consists of 5 5 basic units of “0” or “1”. As shown in Figure 7c, the two samples were each supercell consists of 5 × 5 basic units of “0” or “1”. As shown in Figure 7c, the two samples were measured in the EM anechoic chamber, the transmitting and receiving horns were fixed on the same measured in the EM anechoic chamber, the transmitting and receiving horns were ﬁxed on the same measured in the EM anechoic chamber, the transmitting and receiving horns were fixed on the same height level in front of the foam tower. The horn antenna connected to Agilent Technologies N5244A height level in front of the foam tower. The horn antenna connected to Agilent Technologies N5244A height level in front of the foam tower. The horn antenna connected to Agilent Technologies N5244A Vector Analyzer was used to measure the RCS of samples. Firstly, the empty darkroom was Vector Analyzer was used to measure the RCS of samples. Firstly, the empty darkroom was calibrated Vector Analyzer was used to measure the RCS of samples. Firstly, the empty darkroom was calibrated before measuring the MS sample. Secondly, the metal ball was placed on the foam tower before measuring the MS sample. Secondly, the metal ball was placed on the foam tower for calibration calibrated before measuring the MS sample. Secondly, the metal ball was placed on the foam tower for calibration as a reference. Thirdly, the MS sample and metal plate were placed on the foam tower as a reference. Thirdly, the MS sample and metal plate were placed on the foam tower for testing for calibration as a reference. Thirdly, the MS sample and metal plate were placed on the foam tower for testing to get the RCS value. In measurement, the area of the MS sample was the same as the to get the RCS value. In measurement, the area of the MS sample was the same as the metal plate. for testing to get the RCS value. In measurement, the area of the MS sample was the same as the metal plate. Finally, the RCS reduction of MS sample plate could be obtained by comparing the RCS met Finally al pl,at the e. F RCS inally reduction , the RCS red of MS uct sample ion of M plate S sacmple ould plat be obtained e could b by e obt comparing ained by the com RCS parin value g the of RC the S value of the MS with the metal plate. MS with the metal plate. value of the MS with the metal plate. Figure 7. The matrix-type random coding MS templates: (a) coding a; (b) coding b; and (c) the Figure 7. The matrix-type random coding MS templates: (a) coding a; (b) coding b; and (c) the Figure 7. The matrix-type random coding MS templates: (a) coding a; (b) coding b; and (c) the measurement setup at microwave anechoic chamber. measurement setup at microwave anechoic chamber. measurement setup at microwave anechoic chamber. The reflectance of simulation and experiment at x- and y-polarized wave incidence are shown in The reﬂectance of simulation and experiment at x- and y-polarized wave incidence are shown The reflectance of simulation and experiment at x- and y-polarized wave incidence are shown in Figure 8a,b. The simulated results are slightly different from the measured ones, which is mainly in Figure 8a,b. The simulated results are slightly different from the measured ones, which is mainly Figure 8a,b. The simulated results are slightly different from the measured ones, which is mainly due to the error occurring in preparation, such as the flatness and the thickness of samples. On the due to the error occurring in preparation, such as the ﬂatness and the thickness of samples. On due to the error occurring in preparation, such as the flatness and the thickness of samples. On the whole, the simulated and measured curves of coding a and b are consistent well in the entire the whole, the simulated and measured curves of coding a and b are consistent well in the entire whole, the simulated and measured curves of coding a and b are consistent well in the entire frequency range of 2–18 GHz, which reveals the polarization-insensitivity of matrix-type random frequency range of 2–18 GHz, which reveals the polarization-insensitivity of matrix-type random Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, x FOR PEER REVIEW 9 of 12 Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1231 9 of 12 Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, x FOR PEER REVIEW 9 of 12 coding MS. The reflectance of coding a and b are less than -10 dB on average in the frequency range of 5.8–15.5 GHz under normal incidence, which presents an excellent broadband RCS reduction coding MS. The reflectance of coding a and b are less than -10 dB on average in the frequency range frequency range of 2–18 GHz, which reveals the polarization-insensitivity of matrix-type random characteristic compared with other works [6–8]. of 5.8–15.5 GHz under normal incidence, which presents an excellent broadband RCS reduction coding MS. The reﬂectance of coding a and b are less than 10 dB on average in the frequency range characteristic compared with other works [6–8]. of 5.8–15.5 GHz under normal incidence, which presents an excellent broadband RCS reduction characteristic compared with other works [6–8]. 0 0 (a) (b) 0 0 -10 -10 (a) (b) -10 -10 -20 -20 -20 -20 -30 -30 coding a(Sim x-polarized) coding b(Sim x-polarized) coding a(Sim y-polarized) coding b(Sim y-polarized) -30 -30 -40 -40 coding a(Exp x-polarized) coding b(Exp x-polarized) coding a(Sim x-polarized) coding b(Sim x-polarized) coding a(Exp y-polarized) coding b(Exp y-polarized) coding a(Sim y-polarized) coding b(Sim y-polarized) -40 -50 -40 -50 2468 coding a(Exp x-p1 o0 larized12 ) 14 16 18 2468 coding b(Exp x-polarized 10 1)2 14 16 18 coding a(Exp y-polarized) coding b(Exp y-polarized) Frequency/GHz Frequency/GHz -50 -50 2468 10 12 14 16 18 2468 10 12 14 16 18 Frequency/GHz Frequency/GHz Figure 8. The simulated and measured reflectances of the MS samples at x- and y-polarized wave Figure 8. The simulated and measured reﬂectances of the MS samples at x- and y-polarized wave incidence: (a) coding a; and (b) coding b. Figure 8. The simulated and measured reflectances of the MS samples at x- and y-polarized wave incidence: (a) coding a; and (b) coding b. incidence: (a) coding a; and (b) coding b. Figure 9a,b shows the RCS reduction of the MS samples under oblique incidence. The RCS reducti Figur on is grea e 9a,b shows ter thathe n 10 dB RCSir neduction the frequency ra of the MS nge of 5.5–1 samples 5 GHz under under norm oblique incidence. al incidence. The RCS For a Figure 9a,b shows the RCS reduction of the MS samples under oblique incidence. The RCS small oblique incidence of 10°, the average magnitude of RCS reduction is basically consistent with reduction is greater than 10 dB in the frequency range of 5.5–15 GHz under normal incidence. For a reduction is greater than 10 dB in the frequency range of 5.5–15 GHz under normal incidence. For a small the one oblique of 0°. With incidence the incident ang of 10 , the average le inc magni reasin tude g to of 20 RCS ° arn eduction d 30°, the is basically RCS reducti consistent on effect i withs small oblique incidence of 10°, the average magnitude of RCS reduction is basically consistent with suppressed obviously. However, it still presents a more than 5 dB of RCS reduction in a broadband the one of 0 . With the incident angle increasing to 20 and 30 , the RCS reduction effect is suppressed the one of 0°. With the incident angle increasing to 20° and 30°, the RCS reduction effect is obviously frequenc.y However range. A comp , it stillarison o presentsf performance a more than 5(T dB able of RCS 1) show reduction s that o inuar d bre oadband sign has fra s equency uperior suppressed obviously. However, it still presents a more than 5 dB of RCS reduction in a broadband performance in bandwidth and magnitude of RCS reductions compared with the previous reported range. A comparison of performance (Table 1) shows that our design has a superior performance in frequency range. A comparison of performance (Table 1) shows that our design has a superior bandwidth works [22,33 and,4magnitude 1,42]. In other words, of RCS reductions a consi compar derable edRCS reductio with the previous n of matrix reported -type random works [22,33,41 coding ,42]. performance in bandwidth and magnitude of RCS reductions compared with the previous reported MS can be achieved in oblique incident case, which further verifies the excellent RCS reduction In other words, a considerable RCS reduction of matrix-type random coding MS can be achieved in works [22,33,41,42]. In other words, a considerable RCS reduction of matrix-type random coding characteristic within a wide range of incident angles compared with previous works [17,18]. oblique incident case, which further veriﬁes the excellent RCS reduction characteristic within a wide MS can be achieved in oblique incident case, which further verifies the excellent RCS reduction range of incident angles compared with previous works [17,18]. characteristic within a wide range of incident angles compared with previous works [17,18]. (a) coding a (0 ) coding b (0 ) (b) coding a (10 ) ° coding b (10 ) ° 25 coding a (20 ) 20 ° ° coding b (20 ) coding a (0 ) ° (a) coding b (0 ) ° (b) coding a (30 ) coding a (10 ) coding b (30 °) coding b (10 ) 15 coding a (20 ) 20 ° coding b (20 ) coding a (30 ) coding b (30 ) 10 10 0 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 6 8 10 12 14 16 Frequency/GHz Frequency/GHz 6 8 10 12 14 16 6 8 10 12 14 16 Frequency/GHz Frequency/GHz Figure Figure 9. 9. Measur Measued red RCS redu RCS reduction ction of of samples samples u under nder norm normalal inc incidence idence and and oblique oblique incidence incidence of 10° of 10 , , 20 , and 30 : (a) coding a; and (b) coding b. 20°, and 30°: (a) coding a; and (b) coding b. Figure 9. Measured RCS reduction of samples under normal incidence and oblique incidence of 10°, 20°, and 30°: (a) coding a; and (b) coding b. Table 1. Comparison of the designed metasurface with similar works presented in the literature. Table 1. Comparison of the designed metasurface with similar works presented in the literature. Table 1. Comparison of the designed metasurface with similar works presented in the literature. Ref. O. BW. (GHz) R. BW. (%) RCS R. (dB) Ref. O. BW. (GHz) R. BW. (%) RCS R. (dB) [33] 3.1–3.4 9.2 10 [33] 3.1–3.4 9.2 10 Ref. O. BW. (GHz) R. BW. (%) RCS R. (dB) [41] 6–18 100 5 [41] 6–18 100 5 [33] 3.1–3.4 9.2 10 [42] 9.9–19.4 64.8 10 [42] 9.9–19.4 64.8 10 [41] 6–18 100 5 [22] 17–42 84.7 10 [22] 17–42 84.7 10 [42] 9.9–19.4 64.8 10 This work 5.5–15 92.7 10 This work 5.5–15 92.7 10 [22] 17–42 84.7 10 O. BW.: Operation bandwidth; R. BW.: Relative bandwidth; RCS R.: RCS reduction. O. BW.: Operation bandwidth; R. BW.: Relative bandwidth; RCS R.: RCS reduction. This work 5.5–15 92.7 10 O. BW.: Operation bandwidth; R. BW.: Relative bandwidth; RCS R.: RCS reduction. RCS reduction/dB RCS reduction/dB Reflectance-S11/dB Reflectance-S11/dB Reflectance-S11/dB Reflectance-S11/dB RCS reduction/dB RCS reduction/dB Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1231 10 of 12 4. Conclusions In this study, a series of matrix-type random coding MSs is designed to explore the RCS reduction characteristic. The coding method of MS with different ratio of “0” and “1” units is proposed, and then, the RCS reduction mechanism of different arrangements is discussed theoretically. To analyze the energy scattering characteristic of random coding sequences, the designed MSs were simulated to get the RCS reduction curves and the scattering patterns under normal incidence. For MS samples of coding a and b, the reﬂectance was less than 10 dB on average under x- and y-polarized wave incidence in the frequency range of 5.8–15.5 GHz, the average RCS reduction is basically larger than 10 dB under normal incidence in the frequency range of 5.5–15 GHz. The matrix–type coding MS presents a broadband RCS reduction characteristic. At oblique incidence, an effective RCS reduction characteristic can also be achieved. Compared with previous works [21–24,33–42], our design of the matrix-type random coding MSs has better broadband RCS reduction and wide-angle incidence tolerance. The designed MS is expected to have potential applications in the ﬁeld of stealth. 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Applied Sciences – Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

**Published: ** Jul 26, 2018

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